SleepTech_January - February 2019

istmagmagazin

SleepTech_January - February 2019

January - February 2019

www.sleeptechmagazine.com

CIFM / interzum guangzhou

2019 international zone

meets with overwhelming

industry demand

Page 74


www.elektroteks.com.tr


P: +90.224 443 46 28 - 29 F: +90.224 441 99 90 Nilüfer Bursa TURKEY info@elektroteks.com.tr


4

14

Luxury mattress exhibitions on

smaller space

Cell Pocket System (CPS)

– the most contemporary

spring system used in

mattresses

30

INDEX ADS

42

New focus at interzum:

Adhesives

Boyteks.............................................Back cover

Boyçelik................................ Inside back cover

Elektroteks............................. Inside front cover

Elektroteks.......................................................... 1

Metal Matris....................................................... 3

Nova .................................................................. 5

Aydın Tekstil.....................................................6-7

Artilat........................................................... 10-11

Comfytex.................................................... 12-13

Şiteks................................................................. 17

Kırayteks........................................................... 19

Ferzan............................................................... 21

Nerteks............................................................. 23

Ersan Madeni.............................................24-25

Bedcovers...................................................28-29

Nano Yay......................................................... 31

Giz Grup......................................................36-37

Gemba............................................................ 41

Latexco............................................................45

İpeker...............................................................49

Histeks...............................................................53

Nobel................................................................55

Allbeco............................................................. 57

Allbemac.........................................................59

JakarTeks..........................................................65

Seral.................................................................. 67

Interzum........................................................... 73

Sleepwell Expo 2019....................................... 91

Flame retardant textiles,

essential for contract and

residence textiles

74

94

Furniture industry in

Turkey

50

CIFM / interzum guangzhou

2019 international zone

meets with overwhelming

industry demand

Sleep Well Expo Istanbul to

wake up the industry with its

sixth edition

Turkey offers challenging

opportunities for global

manufacturers

86

110


6

From The Editor

SLEEP

CIRCLE

on air!

I can proudly say that we have a big role and a great share

in forming the identity of the sleep products sector in Turkey.

I can specify the milestones we recorded in the last 8

years in this formation.

1- We first initiated a magazine titled SLEEP WELL in 2011.

2- To separate the supply industry and the finished products

we published SLEEP TECH magazine in the same year.

3- These two magazines gave birth to a respectful brand

new show event titled INTERNATIONAL SLEEP WELL EXPO

ISTANBUL.

w w w . s l e e p t e c h m a g a z i n e . c o m

Publisher

Managing Editor

Editor

Editorial Consultants

ISTMAG

Magazin Gazetecilik Yayıncılık

İç ve Dış Ticaret Ltd. Şti.

Adına sahibi

H.Ferruh IŞIK

Mehmet SÖZTUTAN

(mehmet.soztutan@img.com.tr)

Gizem YILDIZ

(gizem.yildiz@img.com.tr)

Ömer Faruk Görün

Chris France, Leggett & Platt

Prof. Dr. Ismail KAYA

Assoc. Prof. Mehmet Ali OZBUDUN

Recep SAHIN

Advertising Sales Marketing

Omer Faruk GORUN (omer.gorun@img.com.tr)

Advertising Coordinator

+90 224 211 44 50-51

Foreign Relations

Manager

Responsible

Editor

Ayça SARIOĞLU

(ayca.sarioglu@img.com.tr)

Cüneyt AKTURK

(cuneyt.akturk@ihlasfuar.com)

4- We have recently launched a fortnightly e-newsletter

titled SLEEP CIRCLE to cover the latest news in the industry.

Communications

Manager

Ebru PEKEL

(ebru.pekel@voli.com.tr)

All these major steps paved the way for a well-established

and well-defined identity for the sleep products industry in

Turkey. It has been very influential so much so that some

major show organizers dedicated special halls for the both

wings of the industry; to raw material, component, machinery

and technologies as well as to the finished products

depending on the nature of the fair.

In addition to our 28 other magazines we have other fairs

as well. We are a group organizing International SOLAREX

Fair, Hardware Istanbul and International Istanbul Tube-Wire

an Coil & Sheet fairs.

Our dynamic efforts will be accelerated more in 2019 to

generate better services. We wish a happy and prosperous

New Year for all!

Mehmet Soztutan

Art Director

Fınance Manager

Subscription

Accountıng Manager

HEAD OFFICE

Güneşli Evren Mah. Bahar Cad.

Polat İş Merkezi B Blok No:3

34197 ISTANBUL/TURKEY

Tel:+90. 212 604 51 00

Fax: +90. 212 604 51 35

Tolga ÇAKMAKLI

(tolga.cakmakli@img.com.tr)

Mustafa AKTAŞ

(mustafa.aktas@img.com.tr)

Zekeriya AYDOGAN

(zekeriya.aydogan@img.com.tr)

Zekayi TURASAN

(zturasan@img.com.tr)

LIAISON OFFICE: BURSA

Buttim Plaza A. Blok Kat:4 No:1038

Tel: +90. 224 211 44 50-51

Fax: +90. 224 211 44 81

PRINTED BY

IHLAS GAZETECILIK A.Ş.

Merkez Mahallesi 29 Ekim Caddesi İhlas Plaza No:11 A/41

Yenibosna-Bahçelievler/ISTANBUL

Tel: 0212 454 30 00


10

Pantone Announces the Color

of the Year 2019: PANTONE ®

16-1546 Living Coral

Life affirming coral

hue energizes and

enlivens with a softer

edge

CARLSTADT, N.J., December 6,

2018 – Pantone, provider of

professional color standards and

digital solutions for the design

industry, today announced PAN-

TONE 16-1546 Living Coral as the

Pantone Color of the Year 2019,

an animating and life-affirming

shade of orange with a golden

undertone. We get energy from

nature. Just as coral reefs are a

source of sustenance and shelter

to sea life, vibrant yet mellow

PANTONE 16-1546 Living Coral

embraces us with warmth and

nourishment to provide comfort

and buoyancy in our continually

shifting environment.

In reaction to the onslaught of digital

technology and social media

increasingly embedding into daily

life, we are seeking authentic and

immersive experiences that enable

connection and intimacy. Sociable

and spirited, the engaging

nature of PANTONE 16-1546 Living

Coral welcomes and encourages

lighthearted activity. Symbolizing

our innate need for optimism and

joyful pursuits, PANTONE 16-1546

Living Coral embodies our desire

for playful expression.

Representing the fusion of modern

life, PANTONE Living Coral is a

nurturing color that appears in our

natural surroundings and at the

same time, displays a lively presence

within social media. “Color

is an equalizing lens through

which we experience our natural

and digital realities and this is

particularly true for Living Coral,”

said Leatrice Eiseman, Executive

Director of the Pantone Color

Institute. “With consumers craving

human interaction and social

connection, the humanizing and

heartening qualities displayed by

the convivial Pantone Living Coral

hit a responsive chord.”

PANTONE 16-1546 Living Coral

emits the desired, familiar and

energizing aspects of color found

in nature. In its glorious, yet unfortunately

more elusive, display

beneath the sea, this vivifying

and effervescent color mesmerizes

the eye and mind. Lying at the

center of our naturally vivid and

chromatic ecosystem, PANTONE

Living Coral is evocative of how

coral reefs provide shelter to a

diverse kaleidoscope of color.

“Color enhances and influences

the way we experience life,” said

Laurie Pressman, Vice President of

the Pantone Color Institute. “As a

shade that affirms life through a

dual role of energizing and nourishing,

PANTONE 16-1546 Living

Coral reinforces how colors can

embody our collective experience

and reflect what is taking place in

our global culture at a moment in

time.”


11

In Social Media

An organic shade, Living Coral is

striking in digital mediums, evoking

the same inspirational feeling

ignited by our natural surroundings.

Living Coral’s vibrancy and

buoyancy captivates our attention

in social media and digital

design.

In Fashion and Accessories

Living Coral inspires experimentation

and playful expression in both

men’s and women’s street and

runway styles. The warm shade

suggests comfort and positivity in

simple color stories, but becomes

more explorative and effervescent

in patterns, textures and even

monochrome looks. An appealing

accent shade, PANTONE Living

Coral provides a striking contrast

across the color spectrum.

In Beauty

As a life-affirming hue that complements

all skin tones, PANTONE

Living Coral brings natural color to

beauty in blush, eye and lip. Uninhibited,

playful looks are also emboldened

by Living Coral, which,

as the center of a kaleidoscope of

color, encourages experimentation

in beauty with palettes, textures,

shimmers and sheens.

In Product Design

Living Coral is naturally suited for

product across all ages and genders.

Materials with texture and

convivial colors such as PANTONE

16-1546 Living Coral appeal to

our desire for products exhibiting

humanizing and heartening characteristics.

In Interior Décor and Furnishings

When used as a bold statement

in settings and décor, Living Coral

fosters immersive experiences

such as pop-up installations and

interactive spaces, tied to a

playful spirit. As a color linked to

tactility and human connection,

PANTONE Living Coral in shag

rugs, cozy blankets and lush upholsteries

create a warm, comforting

and nurturing feeling in the home.

With its ebullient nature, PAN-

TONE Living Coral adds a dramatic

pop of color to any room setting

whether in decorative accessories,

tabletop, or on the wall.

In Packaging Design

Living Coral is naturally ideal for

packaging applications. Warm

and welcoming, this life affirming

shade invites us to reach out and

touch.

Pantone Color of the year

The Color of the Year selection

process requires thoughtful

consideration and trend analysis.

To arrive at the selection each

year, Pantone’s color experts at

the Pantone Color Institute comb

the world looking for new color

influences. This can include the

entertainment industry and films

in production, traveling art collections

and new artists, fashion, all

areas of design, popular travel

destinations, as well as new lifestyles,

playstyles, and socio-economic

conditions. Influences may

also stem from new technologies,

materials, textures, and effects

that impact color, relevant social

media platforms and even up-coming

sporting events that capture

worldwide attention. For 20 years,

Pantone’s Color of the Year has influenced

product development and

purchasing decisions in multiple

industries, including fashion, home

furnishings, and industrial design,

as well as product, packaging and

graphic design.

The color selected as our Pantone

Color of the Year 2019 was taken

from the Pantone Fashion, Home

+ Interiors Color System, the most

widely used and recognized color

standards system for fashion, textile,

home, and interior design.


As a world leader in latex foams, Artilat helps you

build the perfect mattress, ensuring a good night’s

sleep. From cores over toppers to cooling and

other features, Artilat is the place to be. Thanks to

decades of knowledge in the bedding industry, we

are able to provide you with top quality products.

Artilat nv

Koningsbaan 79,

2560 Nijlen, Belgium

www.artilat.be

info@artilat.be

T +32 (0)3 410 13 00

FOLLOW US


DISCOVER

www.artilat.be


16

Luxury mattress exhibitions

on smaller space

Offering space

saving exhibition

systems reducing

rent costs, Ankamet

supports products

in terms of visuals.

As time goes by mattresses turn

into luxury items more than a

necessity so the need for better

forms of displaying mattresses

that emphasize on their major

characteristics and forms of the

products gains momentum. The

optimal way of exhibiting mattresses

both reduces the cost of

displaying space and supports

the design power of the shop.

From this point of view, special

systems for displaying mattresses

through modern solutions are

preferred with an aim to support

to corporate and brand identity.

Having ten years of experience in

display systems, chairman of the

board Ankamet, Mustafa Ciplak

has told us about the importance

of display systems and the most

preferred models in mattress

exhibitions.

First of all, may we know about

Ankamet briefly?

Ankamet Displey Systems is a tenyear-old

family business serving

with its educated and experienced

staff of 100 in the field of

the manufacturing of exhibition

systems and store decorations

in a factory of 15 thousand sqm

in the 1st organized industrial

zone in Ankara, Turkey’s capital.

Reinvesting all the earnings the

company has now an integrated


17

facility, with machinery for laser

cutting, CNC rolling machinery,

welding and eccentric presses,

roll-form machines, electrostatic

powder painting furnace, woodworking

shop, indoor and outdoor

pressing machinery, metal forming

lathes, side banding machinery,

router machinery and plexi forming

facilities. The company has been

focused on the manufacturing of

the exhibition systems for textile

and mattresses for two years.

What kind of facilities do you

provide with your services for

displaying mattresses?

Presently, more space is needed

in stores that sell sleep systems.

When the cost of display is

considered in terms of the area

needed, the figures go higher

than expected. With the systems

we developed we realized 80%

savings on spaces needed by

displaying more items in the same

room. Besides, we produce several

solutions for making the products

displayed more attractive

by using display tools, cross-sectional

stands, headstands, textile

shelves, tulle curtains, pillow

stands etc. We have been developing

new ways of display

solutions by getting their views

and proposals from both sellers

and from consumers.

How large is your annual

production capacity?

As I mentioned above, we have

an integrated production facility

and an experienced staff, we can

respond positively to all demands

and orders reaching to our company.

We set our price of our productions

not as like custom-made

products but at the prices of mass

productions.


18

What is the most demanded model

of your products in Turkey?

The most popular product of us

in Turkey is the systems we call

vertical pulling stand. Mattresses

displayed horizontally are stocked

vertically to save space. The product

is then brought to horizontal

position during user experience.

Which countries do you export

your products? What do you do to

increase share of markets in those

markets and to penetrate into new

markets?

Saudi Arabia, India, Australia and

Middle Eastern countries are our

major markets. The best way to

increase our market share is to

participate in fairs and get advertorials

in the sectoral publications

like yours. Our marketing team

carries out the necessary activities

in this field.

Is there any other topic do you

want to add?

For us manufacturing is the easiest

point of our business. To promote

our services is more important.

We work to become a firm that is

known and sought after in every

part of the world. In this regard,

we keep going further in the fairs,

publications and in the social

media with all our power to reach

our targets.


20

Exports of

chemical industry

for November

amounted 1 billion

509 million dollars

According to data of the Istanbul

Chemicals and Chemical Products

Exporters’ Association (İKMİB) exports

of the chemical industry was 1 billion

509 million dollars in November.

Eleven-month chemical exports of the

sector reached 15 billion 935 million

dollars. While Egypt, with an export

figure of 93 million 686 thousand

dollars, was at the top of the ranking list

of the countries with the highest figures

of exports in November, Iraq was

second with 91 million 724 thousand

dollars and Germany was third with 80

million 477 thousand dollars.

The November exports of the

chemical industry amounted 1

billion 509 million dollars with an

increase by 8,33 percent compared

to November of 2017 year. Egypt,

Iraq, Germany, USA, Netherlands,

Spain, Italy, UK, Iran and Greece

were among the top ten countries

in the ranking of the countries in

which chemical exports were carried

out in November.

In 2018, eleven-month exports of

chemical industry, which is one

of the leading sectors in Turkey,

reached 15 billion 935 million

dollars with an increase by 8,11

percent compared to same period

of 2017. In this period, countries

with the highest figures of exports

were Germany, Egypt, Iraq, Spain,

USA, Italy, UK, Greece, Netherlands

and Iran.


22

“We are aiming to

close this year with

export figures over $ 17

billion”

Adil Pelister, Chairman of the Board

of Directors of Istanbul Chemicals

and Chemical Products Exporters’

Association (IKMIB) said that

the chemical industry showed a

successful increase rate and approached

2018 target. Adil Pelister

stated that an export was carried

out in the amount of 1 billion 509

million dollars in November with an

increase by 8,33 percent compared

to November of 2017, and

added: “Exports of our industry

increased by 8 percent in the

eleven months compared to the

same period of the previous year.

We know that Turkey will overcome

the economic struggle by working

all together and we continue to

progress successfully on our target

in the light of this mission. We are

working to increase our exports. As

İKMİB, we support our companies

in every field that will increase

their exports. We aim to close this

year with an export over 17 billion

dollars with the great efforts of our

companies in the chemical industry.”

Adil Pelister,

Chairman of the Board of Directors

The countries which Turkey exported chemicals at most in November of 2018

R.

NO

Country NOV 2017

AMOUNT ($)

NOV 2018

AMOUNT ($)

EXCHANGE

VALUE (%)

1 EGYPT 96.243.499,59 93.686.011,97 -2,66%

2 IRAQ 75.604.327,55 91.724.739,27 21,32%

3 GERMANY 78.264.742,49 80.477.554,87 2,83%

4 USA 46.014.047,04 57.891.743,00 25,81%

5 NETHERLANDS 74.831.953,41 56.394.080,71 -24,64%

6 SPAIN 32.514.075,60 51.214.566,75 57,52%

7 ITALY 51.082.932,07 49.001.307,58 -4,07%

8 UK 42.344.422,60 48.484.870,70 14,50%

9 IRAN 40.425.818,96 47.574.883,25 17,68%

10 GREECE 33.158.416,45 45.561.740,00 37,41%


24

The country which we exported at

most in November was Egypt

Egypt was the country which we

exported at most in November.

Chemical export to Egypt in November

of 2018 was 93 million 686

thousand dollars. The products that

we exported to Egypt in November

were “mineral fuel, mineral oil

and products”, “sundry chemicals”,

“proprietary washing products”,

“inorganic chemicals”, “adhesives,

glues, enzymes” and “paint, varnish

composite and proprietaries”.

The export of chemicals to Egypt in

eleven-month period of this year

amounted 867 million 150 thousand

dollars. Following Egypt, the

other countries in the top ten ranking

list of November exports were

Iraq, Germany, USA, Netherlands,

Spain, Italy, UK, Iran and Greece.

“Plastics and finished goods” were

the most exported products in the

sub-sector of chemicals

Plastics and their finished goods

continue to be the driving force

of the chemicals export in the

sub-sectors. Plastics and their

finished goods, with the highest

export carried out in November,

ranked number one with an export

in the amount of 525 million 757

thousand 210 dollars. Mineral fuel,

mineral oil and products were in

the second place with 246 million

905 thousand 017 dollars, export

of inorganic chemicals was in the

third place with 154 million 740

thousand 903 dollars. Following

the inorganic chemicals, other products

in the top ten were; “rubber

and rubber goods”, “volatile oils,

cosmetics and soap”, “pharmacy

products”, “paint, varnish composite

and proprietaries”, “sundry

chemicals”, “manure” and “proprietary

washing products”.

Exports of Turkish Chemical Industry in November of 2018

KASIM 2017

KASIM

2018

2017

-2018

% FARK

PRODUCT GROUP DEĞER ($) DEĞER ($) DEĞER

PLASTICS AND FINISHED GOODS 488.065.337 525.757.210 7,72%

MINERAL FUEL, MINERAL OIL AND 233.290.460 246.905.017 5,84%

PRODUCTS

INORGANIC CHEMICALS 117.331.754 154.740.903 31,88%

RUBBER AND RUBBER GOODS 121.693.454 120.294.818 -1,15%

VOLATILE OILS, COSMETICS AND 104.669.823 108.113.199 3,29%

SOAP

PHARMACY PRODUCTS 86.161.019 90.492.994 5,03%

PAINT, VARNISH COMPOSITE AND 65.974.580 70.831.601 7,36%

PROPRIETARIES

SUNDRY CHEMICALS 41.531.579 49.906.089 20,16%

PROPRIETARY WASHING PROD- 14.536.046 47.660.601 227,88%

UCTS

MANURE 38.276.840 39.712.870 3,75%

ORGANIC CHEMICALS 62.942.162 38.013.759 -39,61%

ADHESIVES, GLUES, ENZYMES 16.859.605 15.451.876 -8,35%

POWDER, EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES 1.320.083 1.135.543 -13,98%

AND THEIR PRODUCTS

PRODUCTS USED IN PHOTOGRA- 889.663 645.057 -27,49%

PHY AND CINEMATOGRAPHY

GLYCERINE, VEGETABLE PROD- 47.597 50.966 7,08%

UCTS, DEGRA, OIL MATERIALS

PROCESSED AMIANT MIXS AND 39.686 29.929 -24,58%

THEIR FINISHED GOODS

TOTAL 1.393.629.687 1.509.742.434 8,33%

Exports of Turkish Chemical Industry in November of 2018

MONTH

2017

AMOUNT ($)

2018

AMOUNT ($)

DIFF

(%)

January 1.234.212.906,45 1.353.703.642,74 % 9,68

February 1.348.669.776,14 1.265.659.500,27 % -6,15

March 1.530.861.154,65 1.567.018.922,07 % 2,36

April 1.221.500.405,84 1.354.014.019,53 % 10,85

May 1.326.795.219,07 1.467.653.356,59 % 10,62

June 1.269.225.876,35 1.423.779.010,22 % 12,18

July 1.193.566.787,84 1.477.059.582,44 % 23,75

August 1.466.513.030,22 1.380.043.552,08 % -5,90

September 1.280.514.522,96 1.532.666.596,34 % 19,69

October 1.474.499.148,13 1.603.659.733,12 % 8,76

November 1.393.629.687,05 1.509.742.434,27 % 8,33

MANURE 38.276.840 39.712.870 3,75%

ORGANIC CHEMICALS 62.942.162 38.013.759 -39,61%

ADHESIVES, GLUES, ENZYMES 16.859.605 15.451.876 -8,35%


28

Quality yarn for

quality product!

“The quality of the thread determines the sewing quality, the look of

the sew, resistance to negative conditions while application and longer

lifespan of the final product.”

Supplying ideal products by

constantly widening its product

range since 1971 Durak Tekstil

is well preferred with its products

addressing to the mattress

industry. As one of the most

spearhead and deep-rooted

companies of the sector Durak

Tekstil is also preferred by many

countries in four continents. We

heard about their products and

market expectations from Yigit

Durak, Marketing and Business

Development Manager of Durak

Tekstil.

Can you detail yarn production

process?

The general procedures applied

for different types of raw material

for different uses in thread

manufacturing are twisting,

dying and lastly finishing.

What kinds of differences happen

in production processes of the

yarns you produce for the mattress

industry?

Considering the mattress sector,

it can be observed that the

thread use is mainly in raw color.

Certain procedures are applied

to improve the performance and

the tenacity of the thread.

What are the expectations of the

sector for yarn features?

The most important expectation

is to decrease the number of

machine stops related to thread

breakage and increase in productivity.

This can be achieved

by flawless sewing quality.


29

Is there anything that you would

like to underline?

As a high performance industrial

sewing and embroidery thread

manufacturer, we would like to

emphasize the importance of the

thread in both the quality of the

final product and the productivity

in production. It is possible to

observe big differences in unit

price of threads. However, it is

very important to keep in mind

the performance of the thread

on the machine, possible repairs

due to thread quality and most

importantly the increase in

productivity while calculating the

cost of thread.

What is the influence of yarn on

finished mattresses?

The quality of the thread determines

the sewing quality, the

look of the sew, resistance to

negative conditions while application

and longer lifespan of the

final product.

Can you give us information

about your capacity and your

technologies?

Our production capacity is 180

tons per month. In most of our

procedures we use automated

systems. Where automated systems

can not be applied, we use

various measurement methods

to sustain our standards.

Can you mention your raw material

supply sources?

We use mainly polyester, nylon

and cotton raw materials. These

raw materials are purchased

from the Middle East, Asia and

Europe.


32

Cell Pocket System (CPS)

– the most contemporary

spring system used in

mattresses

CPS springs making

multiple layers have

been developed for

using in products

aimed at providing

comfort and

support.

There are various spring systems

used in mattresses but the most

recent and innovative product at

this category is CPS springs. CPS

Spring type is forming multiple

layers to provide superior

comfort and support aimed at

improved products ideal for use

in a supportive and independent

spring system. When pressure is

imposed one point, other parts

of the mattress never get affected

thanks to its independent

system thereby offering uninterrupted

sleep to the partner

because of the moving person

sleeping next to him or her in

the same bed. Due to lower

production in the manufacturing

mattress height of the spring diameter

and height without much

affecting increasing the number

of springs provide excellent density

and elastic support.


34

“Compared

to other

stuffs its

comfort is

second to

none”

A new product

in Turkey tablet

pocket springs has

several advantages

both on cost and

ergonomy seems to

be the only choice in

the sector.

Nano Springs brand entered

in the tablet pocket springs

production fast enough to be a

leading company in the mattress

industry. We talked about the

advantages and details of the

production of this new product

with Serkan Kır, general manager

of the company. He underlined

that the added value of

the product on the mattresses is

far beyond the cost advantages

of the product.

Which machinery do you use

in production of tablet pocket

springs? What is your production

capacity?

We produce products of latest

technologies on the high quality

machinery. We produce 500

mattresses daily.

What advantages do the

mattresses made of tablet pocket

springs offer to buyers?

Tablet pocket spring systems are

used as stuffing and supporting

layer. When compared with other

materials comfort is unique,


35

since the number of springs

used is more it raises comfort

of mattress and facilitates the

moves on it. It provides higher

air circulation and is stretchable.

It is healthier because no glue is

used in the production.

This is a quite new product

in Turkish market. How good

is it welcomed by mattress

manufacturers?

Since it is a new product, producers

are just beginning to prefer

this in their newly developed

models. It will become widespread

more in the industry.

Can you evaluate the costs when

you compare with other spring

systems?

Though the costs are lower, the

value added to finished product

(mattress) is un-comparingly

higher over other spring systems.

Is there anything that you would

like to underline?

We are able to produce variety

of size springs from 26 diameters

to 45 diameters, between

2.5 – 4 centimeter height and 1

mm to 1.6 mm thickness.


36

Boyçelik excels in

CPS system

Boycelik made

CPS extends REM

sleep period with

maximum comfort.

Functioning as the leading

supplier of the biggest mattress

and furniture manufacturers of

Europe, Boyçelik is a respectful

brand in new generation springs

systems. We spoke with Feridun

Tosun, Export Manager of Boyçelik,

about their success story.

Which machinery do you use

in production of tablet pocket

springs? What is your production

capacity?

Boyçelik is an industrial leading

of tablet products in Turkey

and we called CPS (Cell Pocket

Systems). We have and high

capacity and efficient machine

park of our CPS products. Annual

production capacity for CPS unit

is approximately 100,000 m².

What advantages do the

mattresses made from tablet

pocket springs offer?

CPS is the ideal supportive

spring system that moves

independently of each other.

Allowing for an additional spring

layer, CPS springs have been

developed for use on products

promising greater comfort and


37

support. CPS springs are independent

and supportive.

CPS provide equal support to

every point of the body

The springs are manufactured to

maintain their flexibility within

the mattress.

CPS springs increase REM sleep

time by reducing the pressure

inside the mattress.

Boyçelik manufactures different

spring diameter and different

wire diameter for customer

demand.

Because of low height, CPS

springs provide perfect combination

of all springs.

This is a quite new product

in Turkish market. How good

is it welcomed by mattress

manufacturers?

Although using of pocket spring

date back to old times, most

of mattress producers prefer to

use newly. Boycelik produce CPS

products since 2018 and becoming

more and more preferred

by customers. We expect that

customers who have not included

the CPS products in their

mattress portfolio yet, will start

to use in their beds when they

meet the comfort of the CPS in

time.

Can you evaluate the costs when

you compare with other spring

systems?

There are many mattress producers

use our CPS products in domestic

and export market. These

mattresses can be provided and

tested as well.

Is there anything that you would

like to underline?

CPS springs not only use in

mattress, also can use many different

areas such as box spring

head, luxury furniture, bus, train

and airplane seats, sofa cushions,

industrial cushion system,

conference, cinema-theatre

seats etc.


40

Textile & Machinery themed

area sets new standards at

interzum ’19

The new conceptual

approach is supported by

strong, market-leading

companies such as Umit

Makina, Amelco, Dueffe,

Gruppo Grassi, Macau,

Matsushita, MPT Group,

Springform, and Zhejiag

Shaoxing Huajian.

In the Textile & Machinery section at interzum 2019,

the innovation drivers and quality leaders from all links

in the value chain will again be presenting their latest

developments. Innovative ideas, high-performance

materials – and top-quality workmanship using sophisticated

technologies and machines make this themed

area a hotspot for the industry. As a central connecting

hub for the Textile & Machinery segment, Hall 10.1 is

reinventing itself in terms of structure, and the entire


41

segment is thereby setting standards

for a successful future.

The subject of the production

of machinery and components

for mattress manufacturing is

expanding out of Hall 9 into Hall

10.1. This new conceptual approach

is supported by strong,

market-leading companies such

as Amelco, Dueffe, Gruppo

Grassi, Macau, Matsushita, MPT

Group, Springform, Umit Makina

and Zhejiag Shaoxing Huajian.

This further development of a

traditional segment at interzum

is complemented by the theme

of upholstery materials and

textiles for furniture and mattress

production, which is mainly

to be found in Hall 11, but also

extends into Hall 10.1. This underlines

the important, thematic

linking function played by Hall

10.1. The concept is topped off

by the cutting and sewing areas

in Hall 10.1.


42

With this new clustering, the

Textile & Machinery themed

area is growing even more

closely together. Visitors to the

trade fair can look forward to

an optimal structure, designed

to give a quick and compact

overview of the trends and new

developments in the Textile &

Machinery segment. In addition,

it improves the ability to exploit

synergies.

“Today, success is the result

of innovative ideas. With the

new concept, we’re boosting

the trade fair’s function to offer

orientation and transparency,”

says Matthias Pollmann, Koelnmesse’s

Vice President Trade

Fair Management. “Hall 10.1

now constitutes the perfect

link between high-performance

materials and sophisticated

technologies and machinery,”

Pollmann continues.

interzum is the world’s leading

trade fair for furniture production

and interior construction. This

is where the most important

business is conducted and momentum

for the global furniture

supply industry is created. Decision

makers, opinion leaders

and disseminators from all over

the world keep up with the

innovations in the industry, seek

out and establish new contacts –

those who want to do truly good

business in 2019 should not

pass up this opportunity.


44

New focus at interzum:

Adhesives

The most important industry players have

already signed up, including Sefa Kimya,

Robatech, Kimyapsan Kimya, Alfa Klebstoffe/

Simalfa, Collanti Concorde, Everad Adhesives,

Frabo Adesivi, GMC Costruzioni Meccaniche,

Jowat, Mastek, Quin Global, Saba Adhesives &

Sealants, Savaré, Wakol, Xchem International,

Zaklady Chemiczne Bochem and Zelu Chemie.

In May 2019, the world will

meet up in Cologne again for

interzum. interzum is a source of

inspiration for the design of the

living spaces of tomorrow and

presents the most innovative

products along with technical

and material innovations. The

diversity of products on show

makes it the world’s leading

trade fair for furniture production

and interiors. For the next


45

edition, the trade fair is dedicating

itself to innovative products,

which are usually not top of

mind in terms of communicative

perception. Adhesives are in this

category.

At interzum 2019, the area of

adhesives will be featured more

prominently within the Textile &

Machinery segment. The most

important industry players have

already signed up, including

Alfa Klebstoffe/Simalfa, Collanti

Concorde, Everad Adhesives,

Frabo Adesivi, GMC Costruzioni

Meccaniche, Jowat, Kimyapsan

Kimya, Mastek, Quin Global,

Robatech, Saba Adhesives &

Sealants, Savaré, Sefa Kimya,

Wakol, Xchem International,

Zaklady Chemiczne Bochem and

Zelu Chemie. “The sector is of

fundamental importance for the

development of the furniture

industry,” explains Maik Fischer,

Director of interzum. “We want

to reflect this at interzum 2019

by gathering this industry sector

together and offering all participants

even better opportunities

for exchange and presentation.”

High-performance adhesives

have always played an integral

role in the manufacture of premium

quality furniture. Due to the

wide range of surface and carrier

materials as well as the many

combinations of material and

the very different requirements

involved, careful consideration

by all bonding partners is of the

utmost importance in selecting a

reliable adhesive. At the same

time, the quality expectations

of furniture manufacturers and

customers are increasing, due in

no small part to current furnishing

trends: The growing movement

towards seamless living

spaces means that furniture is


46

no longer assigned to specific

rooms. High-quality upholstered

furniture can now be found in the

kitchen or bathroom and demand

for design and durability

is increasing. At the same time,

customers’ desire for sustainable

goods is driving the demand

for high-performance products

based on renewable raw materials

and low-emission adhesives.

The primary importance of adhesives

in the furniture industry

is also stressed by Ansgar van

Halteren, Managing Director of

the German Adhesives Association

(Industrieverband Klebstoffe

e.V.): “High-performance

adhesives support the furniture

industry along the entire process

chain. Without the various adhesive

technologies, the requirements

with regard to modern furniture

could hardly be met.” The

range supported by the industry

represented by his association

is broader than ever before,

including everything from solvents

and dispersion adhesives

to thermoplastic and reactive hot

melt adhesives. Innovations can

be found alongside classics, and

individual solutions for individual

fields of application right next to

mass products.

“With interzum, we want to provide

inspiration for the furniture

industry,” says Maik Fischer.

“The innovations in the supplier

industry can be seen directly in

the designs of the furniture manufacturers.

At the same time of

course, we also want the players

of the supplier industry to

engage with each other – in our

opinion, both aspects strengthen

the respective segments

and make our event in Cologne

unique worldwide.”


We support your dreams

Latexco envisions a world where people can dream and

enjoy a happy, active and healthy life. We believe that our

innovative bedding solutions can help bring this world one

step closer, as a good night’s sleep is essential to live that

happy, healthy life.

info@latexco.com | www.latexco.com


48

ISPA serves

the industry

with ISPA

EXPO and

ISPA Expo

Conference

The next event will be held in Earnest N. Moral

Convention Center in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA,

18-20 March 2020

Since 1915, the International Sleep Products Association (ISPA) has

provided valuable programs and services to mattress manufacturers and

industry suppliers around the world. Having many members in Turkey

also, one of the services of ISPA is ISPA EXPO which only comes once

every two years – the world’s largest trade show exclusively for the sleep

products industry. At ISPA EXPO, mattress producers, innovators, and

industry leaders come from around the globe to explore the show floor for

the equipment, components, and services they need – and to envision

what’s next.


49

ISPA EXPO is produced for business

to business. No other organization

can match ISPA’s experience and

expertise in bringing mattress

industry buyers and suppliers

together. And no other event works

harder to make it easy for you to

do business.

ISPA EXPO 2020 priority exhibit

selection opens in June 2019 and

ISPA EXPO 2020 general exhibit

selection opens in August 2019.

Visitor registration opens in October

2019.

By exhibiting in ISPA EXPO you can:

•get 25 hours of dedicated exhibit

time to engage clients and prospects.

•showcase products and services

that buyers can experience firsthand.


50

•launch new products in front of an

audience eager for innovations.

•build brand awareness and

increase your market share by creating

a lasting impression.

•maximize your sales and marketing

ROI with EXPO’s exceptionally

affordable exhibit booths that

reach your ideal demographics.

ISPA EXPO Conference, St. Petersburg,

FL, 13-14 March 2019

ISPA’s Industry Conference and

Exhibition, held in the spring of

odd-numbered years, offers education

seminars with a focus on key

industry issues as well as a focused

exhibit floor showcasing industry

products and services.

This exceptional event offers value

to all sectors of the mattress industry

including manufacturer, retailer,

and supplier executives and management.

ISPA’s Conference brings together

the best business minds to share

ideas, stimulate new thinking and

energize you! It’s also a great place

to make connections with a diverse

group of customers, partners and

peers.

The ISPA Industry Conference attracts

CEOs, CFOs, Presidents, Vice

Presidents, and all levels of management

from top mattress manufacturers,

retailers, and suppliers.

Receive unparalleled exposure

before, during, and after the event

by purchasing one of our cost-effective,

turn-key options that will allow

you to make memorable impressions

with all event attendees.

* Connect one-on-one with top

mattress industry executives

* Maintain relationships with business

partners and colleagues.

* Generate valuable new business

opportunities


52

Flame retardant textiles,

essential for contract and

residence textiles

Flame-retardant textile products go through many processing

steps that contribute to their overall chemical footprints and

sometimes the final chemical residues remaining in the finished

product.

Fire is one of the most destructive

forces on the planet. Fires are

hard to fight and often impossible

to control, and in many cases

they end up with loss of human

life, injury, and damage properties.

Many industries have been

working for a long time to develop

products, methods, and processes

to fight against fire and to limit

the hazards and threats from fire,

e.g., sprinkler systems, fire extinguishing

systems, and smoke and

fire detection devices.

The field of flame retardancy has

witnessed rigorous development

in the area of new technologies,

products and materials to meet

the challenge and needs of ever

changing safety regulations and

cope with the changing requirements

of everyday use.

What are flame-retardants (FRs)?

Flame-retardants are chemicals


53

that are added or applied to materials

in order to slow or prevent

the start or growth of fire. They

are chemical compounds added

to or otherwise incorporated into

plastic compounds to provide

varying degrees of flammability

protection. FRs give the victims of

fire more time to escape, limit the

loss of life and injury, and protect

property. World brands such as

Trevira, Lenzing, Clariant, Sateri

International, etc. have been constantly

innovating materials and

solutions to complement the best

textiles for fighting with fire.

Flame retardants (FR) are chemical

compounds added to or otherwise

incorporated into plastic

compounds to provide varying degrees

of flammability protection.

Where are flame-retardants used?

Flame-retardants have been used

in many consumer and industrial

products since the 1970s, to decrease

the ability of materials to

ignite. Flame retardants are often

added or applied to the following

products:

Furnishings, such as foam, upholstery,

mattresses, carpets,

curtains, and fabric blinds. Electronics

and electrical devices, such

as computers, laptops, phones,

televisions, household appliances,

and wires and cables. Building

and construction materials, including

electrical wires and cables,

and insulation materials, such as

polystyrene and polyurethane

insulation foams.

Transportation products, such as

seats, seat covers and fillings,

bumpers, overhead compartments,

and other parts of automobiles,

airplanes, and trains.

Many flame retardants have been


54

removed from the market or are

no longer produced. However,

because they do not easily break

down, they can remain persistent

in the environment for years.

Flame-retardant finishes provide

textiles with an important performance

characteristic. Protection

of consumers from unsafe fabric

is only one area where flame

retardancy is needed. Firefighters

and emergency personnel require

protection from flames as they go

about their duties. Floor coverings,

upholstery and drapery also need

protection, especially when used

in public buildings. The military

and the airline industry have

multiple needs for flame-retardant

textiles.

The requirements for a commercially

successful flame-retardant

textile product have been given

as meeting flammability requirements:

having little or no adverse

effect on the textile’s physical

properties; retaining the textile’s

aesthetics and physiological

properties; being produced by a

simple process with conventional

equipment and inexpensive

chemicals; and being durable

to repeated home launderings,

tumble dryings and dry cleaning. It

has been possible to meet these

requirements for many textile

products since before 1983 and

our society enjoys a safer environment

as a result.

Progress is continuing in this

field and recent reviews have

highlighted advances in the

understanding and chemistry of

flame-retardants, but progress

has been relatively slow and the

advances quite minor and specialized.

Two excellent reviews have

appeared and should be required

reading for those wishing to have

a comprehensive understanding

of treatment with flame-retardant

finishes. This chapter will cover

the same ground in a much more

general way.


56

How are people exposed to flameretardants?

People can be exposed to flame

retardants through a variety of

ways, including diet; consumer

products in the home, car, airplane,

and workplace; and house

dust.

These chemicals can get into the

air, water, and soil during manufacture.

Chemicals can leak from products

into dust and into the air.

Dust can get on hands and food

and then into the mouth when

food is eaten.

What are some of the potential

health effects associated with

flame-retardants?

Although flame retardants can offer

benefits when they are added

to some products, a growing body

of evidence shows that many of

these chemicals are associated

with adverse health effects in

animals and humans, including

endocrine and thyroid disruption,

impacts to the immune system,

reproductive toxicity, cancer, and

adverse effects on fetal and child

development and neurologic

function.2

Who is most vulnerable?

Children may be particularly

vulnerable to the toxic effects

of these chemicals, because

their brain and other organs are


58

still developing. Hand-to-mouth

behavior and proximity to the

floor increases the potential of

children to be exposed to flame

retardants. Researchers have

found that children have higher

concentrations of flame retardants

in their bodies than adults.

The Trevira CS case

Researches into the causes of fire

show that unsuitable textiles can

contribute considerably towards

a fire spreading. National and

international standards regulate

protection against fire. Flame

retardant Trevira CS textiles meet

the important international standards

on fire safety, because they

consist of fibers and yarns with

“built-in safety”.

Trevira checks all Trevira CS fabrics

for their flame retardancy. This

means that users can always be

sure they are dealing with fabrics

that conform to the important Regulations

on fire safety worldwide.

A comparative fire test shows

the speed at which a blaze can

spread in a room with conventional

textiles – and alternatively, that

it is possible to avoid the risk of

fire with flame retardant Trevira CS

textiles.

Today Trevira CS materials, however,

are not being used the world

over solely because of regulations

on preventative fire safety, but

also in contexts where it is only

the design of the textiles that

counts.

Constantly undergoing further

development, Trevira fiber and

filament technology enables fabric

manufacturers to continue introducing

innovative products onto

the market. The materials impress

with their fresh effects, special

structures and pleasant handle.

As a result, Trevira fibers and

yarns constitute not only the basis

for the functionality of the textiles,

they also ensure that the makers


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60

are in a position to establish

trends internationally.

How Trevira CS works

Comfort and safety, the two most

important requirements in home

textiles were first successfully combined

in 1980: with flame retardant

Trevira fibers and yarns.

Textiles made from these fibers

and yarns bear the trademark

Trevira CS and are permanently

flame retardant. Unlike fabrics

that receive a surface treatment

at a later stage, Trevira CS textiles

offer long-term security.

This small but decisive difference

results from the chemical structure

of the polyester fiber. In the shape

of a comonomer – a phosphor-organic

compound, where the flame

retardant properties are firmly

anchored in the fibre. It is not

possible for external influences to

affect them.

Fibers given an additional flame

protection finish (right) can lose

the protection as a result of wear,

age or frequent washing. Flame

retardant Trevira fibers (left) are

inherently flame retardant. For this

reason materials made from these

fibers and filament yarns are likewise

permanently flame retardant.

This is an important argument

from the ecological aspect as well.

Apart from their environmentally

friendly manufacture materials in

Trevira CS require no additional

fire protection treatment, such as

normally combustible materials

need. Treatments of this kind

are harmful to the environment.

Flame retardant Trevira fibers and

filaments are, furthermore, certified

to Oekotex 100 Standard. In

comparative terms only very slight

amounts of toxic fumes develop in

the event of a fire. This is particularly

important, since in a fire the

danger of suffocation from smoke

fumes is greater than the risk of

injury from flames.


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Türkiye

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+90 352 502 07 55

A

www.allbemac.com.tr


62

TDI, a problematic

but inevitable need of

foam manufacturers

TDI (Toluene

dilsocyanate)

is the vital raw

material for foam

manufacturers

but its availability

and market and

price stability are

headaches for the

manufacturers.

Processing the

item is also not

healthy…

TDI, or toluene diisocyanate, is a

key raw material used to produce

flexible polyurethane foam. The

TDI is consumed in the chemical

reaction that makes polyurethane

and is not released from the finished

polyurethane foam into the

air to make any harm.

Can TDI be handled and used

safely? Yes, when used in accordance

with current regulations

and industry practices, TDI can be

used safely. Engineering controls,

personal protective equipment,

and long-established workplace

practices are widely used throughout

the industry to protect workers

and the public.

Short supplies of this key ingredient

in polyurethane foam seem

not to be easing soon. There are

few manufacturers in the world

and when they have self-problems

they are reflected to users.

As the main input of foam, Toluene

Diisocyanate (TDI) is one of

the basic chemical ingredients

used in the manufacture of flexible

polyurethane foam. TDI is the

abbreviation for Toluene DiIsocyanate,

a mixture of toluene-2,4-di-


63

isocyanate and toluene-2,6-diisocyanate

with the 2,4- isomer

being the major component.

Polyurethane chemistry was first

studied and produced in Germany

in 1937. Polyurethanes represent

a family of polymers rather than a

single polymer. Urethane polymers

can be produced with a wide

variety of properties, ranging

from soft flexible foams and fibers

through to hard solids so that

they can be used in a diverse

range of applications. The TDI is

consumed in the chemical reaction

that makes polyurethane and is

not released from the finished

polyurethane foam into the air.

Flexible polyurethane foam is used

in mattresses, furniture cushions

and other common household

applications.

The development of elastic polyurethanes

began as a program

to find a replacement for rubber

during the days of World War II.

In 1940, the first polyurethane

elastomers were produced. These

compounds gave millable gums

that could be used as an adequate

alternative to rubber. When

scientists found that polyurethanes

could be made into fine

threads, they were combined with

nylon to make more lightweight


64

and stretchable garments. Polyurethanes

are linear polymers

that have a molecular backbone

containing carbamate groups

(-NHCO2). These groups, called

urethane, are produced through

a chemical reaction between a

diisocyanate and a polyol. Polyurethanes

are some of the most

versatile polymers. Despite these

differing properties, the polymers

have one common characteristic in

that they all incorporate the urethane

group (-NH-CO-O-) into their

structure. However, the polymers

differ from simple thermoplastic

polymers, such as the polyolefins,

in that they are not sold as readymade

polymers but as precursors

that are mixed at the conversion

stage. These precursors are commonly

polyols (compounds containing

multiple -OH groups) and

diisocyanates (compounds containing

-NCO groups). The primary

reaction during the production of

polyurethanes is of the form: -NCO

+ HO- → -NH-CO-O-

Polyurethane flexible foams can

be used for a diverse range of

applications including sofa, mattresses,

furniture cushions, carpet

underlay, padding for textile and

footwear, and automotive seats.

TDI is also used in the production

of coatings, sealants and elastomers.

Toluene Diisocyanate TDI

80-20 is an aromatic isocyanate

that is produced for reaction with

polyols to form polyurethanes. It

is widely used in the production

of polyester-based soft foam,

high-bearing sponges, semi-rigid

ester foam, and paint.

What does the presence of TDI

antibodies mean?

The presence of TDI antibodies

does not necessarily indicate an

adverse health effect, nor does it

necessarily mean you have been

exposed to TDI. The test for TDI


65

antibodies is neither simple nor

completely accurate. Some individuals

test positive regardless of

whether they have been exposed

to TDI or not. Additional testing

would be required to determine if

the positive reading was actually

the result of TDI exposure.

Environmental implications

TDI is a confirmed carcinogen. Its

emission is closely monitored by

the authorities. TDI tape detectors

are installed around the factories

it is produced. To minimize the

emission of TDI, most of the process

equipment is shielded.

Like many reactive chemicals, “TDI

products” can create hazards if

handled carelessly. When used

in accordance with current regulations

and industry practices, TDI

can be used safely. Engineering

controls, personal protective

equipment, and long-established

workplace practices are widely

used throughout the industry to

protect workers and the public.

Traditionally CFC (chlorinated fluorocarbons)

based solvents were

used as blowing agents. In the

late 80’s, the ozone layer depletion

effect of CFC based chemical

was established. The use of CFC

was gradually banned. Methylene

chloride, which is inert to ozone, is

used as a substitute for CFC.

Lots of “offcuts” are generated in

the foam cutting process. They are


66

collected and sent to the associated

recycle plant to produce a

lower grade flexible foam. This

type of foam is widely used in the

production of carpet backings and

packing materials. By this way the

net amount of waste produced in

the process can be minimized.

TDI should only be handled by

knowledgeable, well-trained

personnel who thoroughly understand

the hazards associated with

the transportation, storage, and

use of the chemical. Contaminated

clothing must be washed before

reuse. Severely contaminated

clothing should be discarded.

Contaminated footwear or leather

gloves should never be reused.

Eating and drinking should not be

allowed where TDI is handled or

stored.

POLYOL in polymer chemistry used

in mattresses

The other reacting species required

to produce polyurethanes

are compounds that contain

multiple alcohol groups (OH),

called polyols. In polymer chemistry,

polyols are compounds with

multiple hydroxyl functional groups

available for organic reactions. A

molecule with two hydroxyl groups

is a diol, one with three is a triol,

one with four is a tetrol and so on.

The polyols used in polyurethane

production are predominantly

hydroxy- polyethers, rather than

hydroxy-polyesters. They are produced

by alkoxylation. Depending

on the degree of cross-linking

required, the starting alcohols

used for hydroxy-polyethers may

be divalent glycols (ethylene,

propylene and other glycols) or

multivalent alcohols (e.g. glycerol,

sucrose). The epoxides used are

generally propylene oxide and

ethylene oxide.

Monomeric polyols such as glycerin,

pentaerythritol, ethylene

glycol and sucrose often serve as

the starting point for polymeric

polyols. These materials are often

referred to as the “initiators” and

reacted with propylene oxide

or ethylene oxide to produce

polymeric polyols. However, they

should not be confused with

free radical “initiators” used to

promote other polymerization

reactions. The functional group

used as the starting point for a

polymeric polyol need not be a hydroxyl

group; there are a number

of important polyols which are

built up from amines. A primary

amino group (-NH2) often functions

as the starting point for two

polymeric chains, especially in the

case of polyether polyols.

Polymeric polyols are generally

used to produce other polymers.

They are reacted with isocyanates

to make polyurethanes used to

make mattresses, foam insulation

for appliances (refrigerators and

freezers), home and automotive

seats, elastomeric shoe soles,

fibers (e.g. Spandex), and adhesives.

Polymeric polyols are usually polyethers

or polyesters. Polyether

polyols are made by reacting

epoxides like ethylene oxide or

propylene oxide with the multifunctional

initiator in the presence

of a catalyst, often a strong base

such as potassium hydroxide or

a double metal cyanide catalyst

such as zinc hexacyanocobaltate-t-butanol

complex. Common

polyether diols are polyethylene

glycol, polypropylene glycol, and


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poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol.

The examples shown below are

fairly low molecular weight triols

based on glycerin (a triol) being

reacted with propylene oxide,

ethylene oxide or a combination

of the two. In reality, the chains

would not be of equal length in

any one molecule and there would

be a distribution of molecular

weight polyols within the material.

Polyether polyols account for

about 90% of the polymeric polyols

used industrially; the balance

is polyester polyols.

As is the case for all foam manufacturers

at almost all over the

world Turkish foam manufacturers

have also been suffering some

supply problems of this main input

of their manufacturing process.

Price hikes are also a big problem

for the industry. Depending on

this material for foam production

the industry is almost in a monopoly

of a main supplier. When it

suffers from any cause the entire

industry suffers because the producer

naturally reflects the loss on

prices, delivery and other factors.

Another class of polymeric polyols

is the polyesters. Polyesters are

formed by condensation or stepgrowth

polymerization of diols

and dicarboxylic acids (or their

derivatives), for example diethylene

glycol reacting with phthalic

acid. Alternatively, the hydroxyl

group and the carboxylic acid (or

their derivatives) may be within

the same molecule, as in the case

of caprolactone. The example

below is an idealized structure

that could be obtained by reacting

pentaerythritol (a tetrol) with

gamma-butyrolactone.


70

interzum

2019 - The

world meets

in Cologne

interzum is the world’s leading

trade fair for furniture production

and interior design. This is

where the most important business

is conducted and momentum for the

global furniture supply industry is

generated. Decision makers, opinion

leaders and disseminators from

all over the world keep up with the

innovations in the industry, seek

and establish new contacts – those

who want to do truly good business

in 2019 should not miss this

opportunity.

The trade fair of innovation

interzum provides key momentum

for the design of tomorrow’s living

environments. It is the industry’s

central communication platform and

the ideal setting for companies,

who want to present their ideas to

the whole sector in one go.

The most innovative products,

new technological developments

and innovations in materials are

presented at the largest industry

event worldwide. The whole sector

attends the trade fair to experience

product premieres first-hand and

to get a glimpse into the future:


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Topics such as the conservation of

resources, sustainability, upcycling

and the increased interest in

digitalized living environments are

all covered.

10 good reasons to come to

interzum

As the world’s largest trade fair

in the sector, interzum is a mustsee

event for everyone aiming for

success in the market for furniture

production and interiors. That’s because

interzum offers a comprehensive

overview of new technologies

and designs, encompassing an

extremely broad scope of products

as only a leading international

trade fair can.

As you can see, there are plenty

of reasons for visiting interzum.

They’re great reasons for coming to

a great trade fair. We’ve listed the

ten most important ones here.

1- Shape the future: interzum takes

place every two years and presents

the trends of the supplier sector,

which are the inspiration behind

our living spaces of the future.

2- Experience it all: Discover the

best innovations from all over the

world – clearly presented in three

areas.

3- See all the latest highlights:

World premieres, product innovations

and pioneering concepts:

interzum is the showcase for the

entire sector’s new developments.

4- Take a look into the future:

Formats such as »interzum award:

intelligent material & design« and


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»innovation of interior« will showcase

the key trends.

5- Gain an overview: interzum is

the world’s largest event serving

this sector, with over 1,500 exhibitors

from more than 60 countries.

6- A mix of the time-tested and

the new: Since 1959, interzum

has rightly enjoyed its worldwide

reputation as a state-of-the-art

trade fair.

7- Global benefits: More than 65 %

of the visitors and exhibitors come

from outside Germany. That makes

interzum the sector’s most international

trade fair.

8- Lots to learn: Appealing, informative

and pioneering: interzum

features an outstanding event

program.

9- Ideal location and infrastructure:

Centrally located and easily

accessible, Koelnmesse is one of

the most modern exhibition centers

in Europe and the ideal venue for

interzum.

10- A city with flair: Cologne is an

attractive metropolis at the heart

of Europe with a wide variety of

attractions for interzum participants

after a day at the fair.

Events and congresses 2019

interzum presents an impressive

event program with a huge variety

of conferences, workshops and special

exhibitions on current themes

within the industry. The events will

include opening ceremony, VDID

Newcomers Award 2019, Innovation

Workshops for Wood-Based

Materials, Speakers Corner, Piazza

“Surfaces & Wood Design”, Piazza

“Mobile Spaces”, Piazza “Disruptive

Materials”, Piazza “Digitalization”,

interzum award, “Digital Printing”,

“Tiny Spaces – Living in compact

homes”, “60 years interzum”, and

Forum 4.2.


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Trade fair segments at interzum

interzum gives the supplier industry

the opportunity to demonstrate

all of its innovative power. What

remains the same? What can we

expect in the future? At interzum

participants find a wealth of

answers to these key questions

affecting the market. interzum

is organized in three trade fair

segments. The structure brings the

players from the entire value chain

closer together – and generate a

new level of clarity for exhibitors

and visitors alike.

Materials & Nature

Resource conservation, sustainable

raw materials, innovative surface

design: These are just a few of

the trends in this area. At interzum

2019 the best new ingredients for

tomorrow’s sales success will be

presented for the first time.

This includes: Wood, veneers,

parquet flooring, interior works,

decorative surfaces, decor papers,

laminates, wood-based panels,

laminated plastic, mineral materials,

edges, surface treatments,

embossing cylinders, and press

plates.

Function & Components

Good design begins with the

product provided by the supplier.

At interzum 2019 the sector will

demonstrate how customers’ growing

demands in terms of technology,

energy efficiency, comfort and

convenience can be met.

This includes: Lamps and lighting

systems, semi-finished products for

cabinet, kitchen, office and modular

furniture fittings, locks, built-in

parts.

Textile & Machinery

Temperature-regulating cover

fabrics, material-optimized cutting

machines for foam materials and

leather that use little electricity,

weather-resistant outdoor fabrics:

Today, success is the result of

innovative ideas, high-performance

materials – and perfect processing

with advanced technologies and


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machines. This area is where the

quality leaders and drivers of innovation

from all levels of the value

chain present their newly developed

products.

This includes: Machinery for upholstery

and bedding, upholstery

materials, upholstery accessories,

cover fabrics, leather, and adhesives.

Inspiration for the design of future

environments

interzum takes place every two

years bringing trends from those

on the cutting edge of the supplier

industry to inspire the design of

future living environments, and

presents everything the industry

has to offer in the realm of furniture

manufacturing and interior design.

interzum serves as the stage for

industry-wide progress, for world

debuts and product innovation and

as an industry meeting point where

products are launched and ideas

become commercial successes.

The best place to launch new

products

The best ideas and industry trends

for the furniture industry, interior

fittings and mobile living spaces

made their premiere at interzum

2015. 1.732 exhibitors from over

60 countries were looking forward

to present you with their new products

and solutions.

From fittings, glass elements and

lighting to surfaces, wood-based

materials and natural materials to

leather and upholstery: interzum

represented the entire bandwidth

of the global market. This is where

the key players, trendsetters and

innovators met to obtain the industry

overview.


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CIFM / interzum guangzhou

2019 international zone

meets with overwhelming

industry demand

Strong demand of China and Asia’s consumer market has propelled

CIFM / interzum guangzhou to be recognized as the leading platform

for trade, showcase and debuting new products for the region’s

furniture manufacturing industry.

Once again, Asia’s largest and

most comprehensive trade

fair for the woodworking and

upholstery machinery, furniture

materials and interior decoration

industry is heavily oversubscribed.

Slated to take place

from March 28 to 31, 2019 at

the China Import and Export Fair

Complex (Pazhou Complex) in

its namesake city, CIFM / interzum

guangzhou will continue to

be held in conjunction with the

China International Furniture Fair

(CIFF) – the Asia’s prestigious

trade event of its kind.

The shift in furniture preferences

of the main consumer groups of

post-80s and 90s from premium

materials to comfort, aesthetics


77

and functionality has affirmed

the importance for furniture manufacturers

to master the latest

furniture production technology

and trends of raw and auxiliary

materials to occupy a lasting

position in the market.

This edition will span 17 halls

across Area B and C of the venue

occupying 150,000 square meters

and is expected to feature

the latest products and technologies

from over 1,500 exhibiting

companies from more than 38

countries and regions. Some

85,000 visitors are poised to

gather at the much-anticipated

event.

Aiming to make a strong comeback

after a short hiatus from

CIFM / interzum guangzhou is the

South Korea pavilion, boosting

the number of national pavilions

to eight. Four pavilions will

hail from German, Turkey, US/

Canada, Italy, while the other

three will be led by the American

Hardwood Export Council (AHEC),

Canada Wood and French

Timber. Among the exhibitors

are several brands that will be

making their debut in Asia.

Some key brands to be featured

includes:


78

Woodworking Machinery & Cutting

Tools

IMA, Leitz, Vollmer, GreCon,

LEUCO, Hans Weber (Germany),

Homag, Nanxing (China), SCM,

Biesse, Ferwood, Freud, Paolino

Bacci (Italy), Woodtron (Australia),

Felder (Austria)

Upholstery Machinery & Pneumatic

Components

Duerkopp, PFAFF, Adler, Mammut,

OKIN, Limoss (Germany),

Leggett & Platt (US), Lianrou,

Yuantian (China), Elektroteks

(Turkey), LINAK (Denmark),

TiMOTION (Taiwan), Lion Rock

(UK), ALFA (Switzerland)

Accessories for Upholstery

Furniture

Aydin, Boyteks Tekstil, Comfytex

(Turkey), Xinyada (China),

Bekaert Deslee, Artilat/Global

Textile Alliance (Belgium), Jacquard

Textile (Thailand)

Hardware & Components

Italiana Ferramenta, FGV, Sige,

SERVETTO, CINETTO (Italy),

Nan Juen / Repon, King Slide,

(Taiwan), Titus (UK), Cyber

Lock (Thailand), DTC (China),

Sugatsune (Japan), FREITAS

IRMÃOS (Portugal), Samet

(Turkey), LEHMANN, LS Lighting,

Suspa (Germany)

Wood Products & Adhesives

Urufor (Uruguay), Pollmeier,

Henkel, Kleiberit (Germany),

American Softwoods,

H. B. Fuller(US), French Timber

(France), KRAUSS (Latvia), Saveplac

(Italy)


79

Interior Decoration & Accessories

Impress, Schattdecor, RENOLIT,

Germantops, Klöckner Pentaplast

(Germany), Alvic, Lamigraf

(Spain), ICA (Italy), Fritz

Egger, TZ AUSTRIA (Austria),

Kastamonu, Lignadecor (Turkey)

Attendees can expect a series of

forums, seminars, product launches

and buyer salon activities,

and engage in discussions and

exchange with industry experts,

designers as well as brand

representatives from around the

world during the event.


80

Felt manufacturing

and its usage in

mattresses

It is no secret that almost all textiles

are woven, however, this is not

the case for felt. Felt is one of the

oldest fabrics known to man, and is

manufactured from fur and/or fibers

which are matted and compressed

through pressure heat and moisture.

Felt may be the oldest fabric known to man, and there

are many references to felt in ancient writings. Since

felt is not woven and does not require a loom for its

production, ancient people made it rather easily.

Some of the earliest felt remains were found in the

frozen tombs of nomadic horsemen in the Siberian

Tlai mountains dating back to around 700 B.C. These

tribes made clothing, saddles and tents from felt

because it was strong and resistant to wet and snowy

weather.


81

Felt is a textile that is produced

by matting, condensing and pressing

fibers together. The pressed

felt process is the original felt

manufacturing method. Felt can

be made of natural fibers such as

wool, or from synthetic fibers such

as acrylic. Due to the fact that

there are some felts which are

made up of more than one type

of fiber, they must be mixed and

then blended to get a consistent

composition before anything else

is done. The unprocessed fibers

are therefore placed into a large

enough opener which contains a

sizeable cylinder that is studded

with steel nails. This cylinder then

churns and mixes the fibers together

to form a uniformed mass.

Historically, felts were the only

material used for underlays but

today they represent only a little

part of the market while the urethane

foam accounts almost 80%

and sponge rubber, the reminder.

Turkey has some respectful felt

manufacturing brands such as

Milkay, Şiteks, Pinteks, Kayteks,

Felturc, Simfelt, Felteks, Kisbu,

Berfa, Punteks, etc.

Felt underlays provide firmer

support and, therefore, are often

used in high traffic areas in commercial

establishments. They are

also used in conjunction with area

rugs. In mattresses they are used

for reinforcement.

Today, the mattress industry

reinforcement felts offer technical

characteristics which ensure an incomparable

bed comfort. Available

in a wide range of thicknesses,

stiffness, colors, compositions,

dimensions or numbers of layers,

felts are commonly used in most

mattress kinds. Felts and fibers

are also used to keep foams in its

form and as a protection material.


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Felt may vary in width, length,

color, or thickness depending on

its intended application. This

matted material is particularly

useful for padding and lining as

it is dense and can be very thick.

Furthermore, since the fabric is

not woven the edges may be cut

without fear of threads becoming

loose and the fiber unraveling.

Felts include SAE, sheet, wiper,

sleeve, needled, filter, gasket,

high temperature, equestrian,

craft and percussion felts. Felt is

available in materials including

wool, rayon, and polypropylene.

High temperature felt materials

include Nomex, Kevlar, polyester

and carbon precursor felts. Felts

applications include dust shields,

wipers, grease retainer washers,

vibration mountings, polishing,

glue and wax applications, pressure

and cushioning rolls, lubricating,

padding, oil retention, seals,

spacers, harnesses and saddlery.

Capabilities include die cutting for

SAE grade wool and coated felts,

non-woven synthetic materials,

coated and impregnated felts,

corks, foams, and non-metallic materials.

Kiss cutting is available for

felt dots and anti-skid foam pads.

Capabilities also include stripping,

slitting, and applying pressure

sensitive adhesives to materials.

Natural materials without toxic

emissions are becoming increasingly

important, especially in the

mattress industry. Felts made of

virgin or recycled wool and cotton

are examples of such materials.

100% pure wool felt needled

punched felt is made out of 100%

pure washed wool and is also

made without any Pes additives.

It is a natural, warm and fire retardant

product. Needled punched

felt is made out of various cotton

recycled textile fibers. It is used

for the filling of the mattresses for

economical types.


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Felts can be produced from wool

and from some other animal fibers

such as goat, rabbit or camel

hair. The fibers are laid over each

other in layers until the desired

thickness, width and length are

achieved. This produces a webtype

structure which is then

beaten, pressed and squeezed

until the required level of felting is

reached. The felt can be strengthened

by stitching, melting or

dissolving small areas of fibers, or

by gluing with adhesives.

Another type of felt is called

needle felt. This can be produced

using almost any type of fiber.

Synthetic fibers are increasingly

used for this commercially. This

method uses felting needles

which are arranged together in a

needling machine. Fiber webs are

layered on top of each other and

are fed into the needling machine.

The needles are pushed through

the fiber webs in order to drag

a number of fibers to the bottom

layer of the webs. This makes

loops in the fibers which stitch the

webs together.


84

Properties of felt

All felts absorb water and are

good insulators. Felt can be

steamed and pressed and formed

into permanent shapes. This

means that felt can be used in

many different ways. Commercial

uses include hats, billiard table

coverings, insulation materials,

collar facings for coats and

jackets. Needle felts have additional

property of being elastic

and lightweight compared with

other nonwoven fabrics. Their

uses include interlinings, mattress

covers, upholstery materials and

wadding.

Products manufactured for the

bedding and upholstery industry

are in both out sizes and roll-form

with weight ranging from 750 gm2

to 1800 gr2. There is a range of

products from layered felt, heavy

needled felt through to bonded

felt, both unbacked and backed,

with a range of different backing

materials such as woven polypropylene

or Typar (DuPont).

Wool felts are a wonderful ‘felting’

between nature and humanity.

The felts provide a resilient yet

firm sleeping surface that we

can easily adjust by adding or

subtracting felts according to

our preferences. Wool felts feel

wonderfully supportive and firm,

yet yielding, and can easily be

adjusted by adding or subtracting

felts according to one’s needs.

For additional ‘give’, slats can be

padded with 2-inch latex strips

(these are glued to the slat using

non-toxic glue). The latex padded

slats reduce the number of felts

needed to provide sufficient ‘give’

while only a minimal amount of

latex is used. The latex can be

protected with cotton or wool

sleeves (wool is better because of

it’s resistance to molding.)


85

It is a gift of true comfort for

humans. Felts are available in

different colors. There are 100%

wool pads that are available in

several sizes and can be used as

a mattress topper, car seat pad,

rug, camping pad, massage pad

or anything else you can think of.

Wool felts work great as a top

layer on a your bed since they are

hand washable. Thick and cozy,

wool felts are the perfect addition

to every bed.

Each felt is mainly produced

by pouring hot soapy water on

batting and then stomping on

the wool. It means you can start

making felt with nothing more

than some bubble wrap, warm

water and soap but once you’ve

started you’re likely to get hooked

and you will want to experiment

further. This process causes the

fluffy wool batting to shrink into

a dense solid pad. The process is

completed by washing the felt in

a washing machine. The result, is

a beautiful, thick, hand washable

wool pad that can be used in so

many ways…

Specialty fibers can also make

wonderful felt or can be combined

with wool fiber to give a luxurious

feel and a different texture. Fibers

such as alpaca, angora, bamboo,

camel, cashmere and silk are all

available. For color blending,

hand carders are useful, or if you

are working on a larger project a

drum carder is a very handy tool.

This will produce blended batts

of wool that can be used in many

different ways.

Ahmet İlhan, export manager of

Siteks, explains: “Mainly there

are 3 separate felts in a mattress.

First is the product combined by

heat processes and used on the

springs directly which is called

hard felt. These lessen the hard

effect of the spring and spread

it on the surface. They spread

the weight of a person given to

the mattress and prevent it from

being concentrated on a certain

point. Our Company can produce

hard Felt from 300 grams to 3,000


86

grams. Now, we have 8 production

lines. Our monthly production

capacity is 3,500 tons.

Another sort of felt is filling felts.

These are medium-hard felts used

between top cloth and hard felt.

They can be produced in different

grams and with different thicknesses

and they may show variation

depending on the countries

and their mattress cultures.

For the mattress, on the top layer

foam rubber or fiber is used so

that the quilting seems beautiful.

Here, the third type of felts, felts

for quilting begin to function.

These are softer that the others.

And they make the quilting seem

more beautiful. And these are also

produced in different grams and

with different thicknesses with the

needling technique. In fact, we

can classify the Felts for quilting

used by us in this area into 3, as

well. These are: recycled cotton

Felts, original wool Felts and original

cotton felts.”

Ahmet İlhan details the way of

Siteks, “We are producing a kind

of flame retardant felt. Especially

in the countries like England

and America, non-flammability is

preferred very much. Preventing

burning of the completed mattress

is a priority there. Besides, flame

retardancy is desired in hotels,

in military, in hospitals and in

prisons. And for that purpose, we

are producing special non-woven

clothes. These products are

used right under the completed

clothes. Materials like foam rubber

or fiber are located thereunder.

Thus, non-flammability of the

mattresses or non-growth of the

fire, in case of a possible fire, is

ensured. In a sense, it functions

as a barrier. You can ensure that

flame retardancy in two ways.

First, you can produce the fiber

with non-flammable chemicals.

You use carbon and non-flammable

fibers therein. Second, you get

a non-woven cloth with a feature

of less non-flammability and you

may inject a non-flammability

liquid into it. By that way, we

produce firebreak products.”


87

How many felt layers are enough?

This depends on whether you use

latex padded slats or bare slats.

With latex padded slats, stacking

4 to 6 bed felt layers is recommended.

With bare slats, it would

be better with 8-10 bed felts.

More can be added if needed.

The top felt is the protection layer.

It requires more care, especially

when sleeping right on the felt

with no sheet. Little woolen pilings

begin to form wherever your

body is directly moving/rubbing

against the wool. The pilings can

easily be picked off while sitting

on them. It makes for good contemplation

time.

Multiple felts for layered mattress

To produce a layered felt mattress,

simply stack the felts on top

of each other. Side lacing helps

reduce possible slippage between

felts, but is not absolutely needed.

Some people prefer no lacing

because of the ease of removing

layers for travel, or for seasonal

sunning and airing.


88

Sleep Well Expo

Istanbul to wake

up the industry

with its sixth

edition

Hosting over 100 respectful brands from various

countries of the world in its last edition, the show has

already started to accept exhibitors for its 6th edition, 25-

28 September 2019

The “SLEEP” sector was, in fact,

found its own identity with

Sleep Well and Sleep Tech

magazines and Sleep Well

Expo show in Turkey. Before the

launch of these initiations the

sleep industry would be considered

as part of furniture industry

sometimes and part of home

textiles at other times.

In line with fast development

observed in the Turkish mattress

industry in last 15 years, SLEEP

WELL EXPO has also been growing

steadily. As the first and the

only trade fair dedicated to the

mattress supply industry and

technologies, the 6th International

Sleep Well Expo Istanbul

2019 is expected to be the biggest

ever edition thanks to the

growing industry and the event’s

becoming more familiarized and

recognized worldwide.


89

As the first and the only trade

fair dedicated to the mattress

supply industry and technologies,

the last edition of the

show, the 5th International

Sleep Well Expo Istanbul 2018,

had recorded a great edition

at Istanbul Expo Center, 26-

29 September 2018. A good

number of leading brands from

all segments of the industry

were at the fair to welcome over

4,500 domestic and international

visitors.

From machinery, technologies,

raw materials, up to components

and services the show

covered all of the sub-industry

fields and technologies of the

mattress manufacturing industry.


90

Pointing out that the forthcoming

2019 edition of the show

would be more successful than

ever, Omer Faruk Gorun, project

manager of Sleep Well Expo,

said, “The economy in Turkey

has been stagnant during last

two years but Turkey is a big

country with 80 million population

set aside the potential

surrounding the country. We

had the pleasure of welcoming

a lot of professional visitors

coming from foreign markets

in the last edition. We had a

powerful buyers’ delegation

from Oman in addition to

some other groups coming from

different countries. The history

of five years has made the fair

a well-known event around the

world and many buyers and

producers put the name Sleep

Well Expo on their annual

agenda well before the event’s

date. We are thankful to our


91

esteemed industrialists who

have contributed to the growth

of our event. We are shaping a

world fair here altogether.”

Turkey’s mattress industry has

been going through major

changes leaving many less-developed

stages behind. Almost

all kinds of modern mattresses

are either manufactured or

represented in Turkey.

Sleep Well Expo represents a

wide range of portfolio including

the latest products of

mattress manufacturers, pillow

manufacturers, comforter and

other sleep product manufacturers,

exporters and dealers.

They were mainly mattress

exporters and importers,

bedding manufacturers, home

textile manufacturers, coverlet

manufacturers, equipment

firms, distributors, agents,

chain store purchasing authorities,

local furniture stores,

professional import and export

firms, designers, hotel purchasing

managers, interior design

firms, experts of the private

sector, mattress industry buyers

and trade press portals…

In short, all members of the

industry come together at the

Sleep Well Expo – Mattress


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Supply Industry and Technologies

Fair. Running towards

its major targets of 2023 set

by the government; Turkey

continues to pursue its development

worldwide with its

rapidly increasing population,

advantageous geography, and

contribution of exports by its

advantageous geography. One

of the most important sectors

in Turkey, without any doubt, is

the mattress industry, mattress

machinery and components industry.

Developments, innovations

and example solidarity of

the sector which has been performed

in the mattress sector in

recent years, have become the

factors which affect the sleep

products sector positively. With

the same token, many positive

economic indications which

have been performed on behalf

of the country and the sector in

recent years, many regulations

and directives made for the

business volume and the mattress

sector which has grown

depending on the flow of foreign

investments, indicate the

importance of INTERNATIONAL

SLEEP WELL EXPO.


94

Right yarn,

excellent quality

“In order to produce high quality and long-life products, the sewing

threads must also be suitable for the equipment and fabrics used.

As one of the leading yarn manufacturers

of the world Özen İplik

(Özen Yarn) maintains its progress

at its competitive products

manufactured at international

standards. Pointing out that

the influence of yarn quality on

end products was very strong,

Adnan Türker, Marketing Manager

of Özen İplik, underlined the

importance of using right yarn in

production.

Can you detail yarn production

process?

The production process of the

sewing thread can be changed

depending on the type of the

raw material. During the shooting,

twisting, folding, painting,

winding and packaging, if the

non-standard feature is applied

(like waterproof, antistatic) a

perfect check must be applied

during their application due to

the effect on the final quality. It

must be suitable for the automation

machines which have very

fast development. The hygiene

must be at the forefront in order

to protect the environment and

human health.

What kinds of differences happen

in production processes of the

yarns you produce for the mattress

industry?

The twisting, folding and

avivage properties of our sewing

threads which are produced

according the mattress and

furniture standards are different

form standard production

process. In order to produce high

quality and long-life products,

the sewing threads must also be

suitable for the equipment and

fabrics used.


95

What are the expectations of the

sector for yarn features?

As in other business lines;

economic, right products and delivery

in time is the expectation

of our sector.

What is the influence of yarn on

finished mattresses?

The effects of sewing thread

quality on the final products is

quite high. The correct thickness

and type of sewing thread can

be changed according to the

product type; however, it is one

of the main factors of absolute

customer satisfaction. It should

not be considered as only the

efficiency of the thread that can

be used in machines at that moment

should be had a decision

by taking care of the problems

of the final customer.

Can you give us information

about your capacity and your

technologies?

We are one of the companies

with the highest capacity in our

geography within the kind of

threads we produce. We have a

very flexible manufacturing line

which can serve with minimum

stock by planning in accordance

the orders coming from our customers.

We appeal to different

sectors like footwear, leather,

industrial textile and many other

sectors except mattress and

furniture.

Can you mention your raw material

supply sources?

We have been supplying raw

material from the world’s leading

quality manufacturers for many

years. Therefore, we can serve

the same quality to our customers

even after a long time.

Is there anything that you would

like to underline?

The most important problem

of the sewing thread in our

country is that there are many

companies that do not have any

quality assurance certificates

and they are trying to make

sales only with price criterion.

Although there are some

companies that want certain

criteria, some manufacturers can

purchase like this. It should be

noted that raw material prices

are now very close to each other

in peer products and cheap sold

threads are out of standards either

as thickness or meters. The

samples from the market confirm

this. We request from the manufacturers,

they should not make

purchases with a single criterion.


96

Furniture

industry in

Turkey

Turkish Ministry of Economy

offers the most accurate information

about all industries and it is

naturally the best source of information

for the Turkish economy.

The following information about

Furniture production in Turkey

was provided from the Ministry’s

sources.

The industry in Turkey dates

back to the 19th century and

was done in small workshops as

artisan production. However, by

the rapid globalization and all

other aspects, present furniture

industry is becoming a fashion

sector.

In Turkey, furniture is produced

both in workshops and industrial-scale

manufacturing units.

Furniture production is highly

fragmented among a large

number of small workshops.

These small workshops play an

important role in producing hand

carved and handmade furniture.

Workshops are flexible establishments

in nature and have

enough capacity and labor force

to expand their production line


97

in order to supply large orders.

Large-scale furniture firms produce

standard models by using

automated mass-production

techniques and most of their

production is oriented towards

export.

In accordance to data from

Turkish Statistical Institute (Turk-

Stat), in 2012 furniture production

was realized as 10,3 billion

Turkish Liras. According to the

recent General Census of Industry

and Business Establishments

(2012), the furniture sector employs

151.904 people and the

industry has 33.924 companies

manufacturing various furniture.

Moreover, capacity data of The

Union of Chambers of Commerce

and Commodity Exchanges

of Turkey (TOBB) reports 40

companies who have over 250

employees and 155 companies

who have over 100 employees.

Besides, Istanbul Chamber of

Industry’s list of the top 500 industrial

establishments of Turkey

includes six furniture companies.

Furniture production in Turkey is

concentrated mainly in Istanbul,

Ankara, Bursa (İnegöl), Kayseri,

Izmir and Adana. The most

important furniture production

districts are Istanbul and the

region of Bolu-Düzce, which is famous

for its production of wood

products.

The well-known furniture-manufacturing

district in Turkey, called


98

“Siteler”, is located in Ankara.

The number of registered small

and medium sized enterprises

in “Siteler” is over 10,000. In

Ankara, there are many labor–intensive

small enterprises manufacturing

classical-handmade

furniture and there are about

10 major furniture manufacturers

who have mass-production

capabilities.

The wood industry is developing

rapidly in the Bursa-İnegöl area,

the third most important furniture

production region, which

is surrounded by forest areas.

The furniture industry of the

İnegöl area is small sized but

has great potential to improve

itself. Another important furniture

region is Kayseri, which has

large capacity for the production

of sofa beds, couch beds and

seven of the twenty two largest

manufacturers of Turkey are

established here. İzmir also has

a furniture production districts

called “Karabağlar and Kısıkköy”

which supply furniture to the

Aegean Region.

PRODUCTION

In Turkey, furniture production

can be classified in accordance

with materials used as

wooden furniture (massive and

veneered), metal furniture and

others. Wooden furniture has

a major share in total furniture

production. As it is known for

good quality furniture, the types

of wood used and plywood

inputs have to be taken into

consideration. The main types of


99

wood used in the manufacture

of massive furniture in Turkey are

ash, beech, oak, pine, linden

and mahogany. In veneered

furniture, oak, beech, walnut and

mahogany are used.

Turkish furniture factories use the

latest technologies in producing

furniture, which is always up to

world standards. Since 1990 the

application of advanced technology

and the use of CNC benches

in the Turkish furniture industry

have been increasing. Today, all

of the large enterprises in the

furniture sector use CNC benches.

Most companies are equipped

with modern machinery which

allows the production of good,

export-quality products. Quality

control starts from the stage

when the raw material is produced

and continues till the end

of the packaging process. Most

of the companies have already

obtained ISO 9000 certificates

and other required quality

certificates. The large scale firms

comply with world standards in

their packaging processes. In

packaging PE, PP, foam, polyurethane

and cardboard boxes are

used. Many of the large companies

have special packaging

sections.


100

As with many other consumer

products, furniture production is

sensitive to changes in fashion.

Since furniture design is an

important aspect of marketing,

Turkish designers are constantly

following consumer preferences

in foreign markets and introduce

new designs and make model

variations and improvements.

Furniture Exports of Turkey by Years

(Value: US$ 1.000)

Turkish furniture manufacturers

and exporters are aware of the

fact that market trends and consumer

behavior play an important

role in the development and

design of new products. Since

Turkey has a strong textile industry,

Turkish furniture manufacturers

have the advantage of being

able to use and to monitor a

wide range of colorful new fabric

collections as upholstery.

EXPORTS

Turkey’s furniture exports have

had an upward trend in recent

years. In the last ten years,

exports of Turkish furniture increased

from US $ 684,5 million

in 2005 to US $ 2,2 billion in

2015. This is mainly due to improvements

in capacity, quality

and design. The export figure for

2014 was US $ 2,4 billion, representing

an increase of 8% with

respect to the previous year.

On the other hand, the export

figure for 2015 was US $ 2,2

billion, representing a decrease

of 7% compared to the previous

year. Main export products were:

wooden furniture for bedrooms

(excl. seats) wooden furniture

(excl. for offices, kitchens and

bedrooms, and seats) and seats

for motor vehicles.

In 2015, Turkey exported furniture

to 201 countries throughout

the world. The main markets

for furniture exports were Iraq,


101

Major Export Markets in Furniture Industry

(Value: US$ 1.000)

Libya, Azerbaijan, Germany, and

France. In recent years, Turkish

furniture companies have been

establishing showrooms and

depots in increasing numbers

in most of these countries. The

Turkish contracting sector is one

of the major sectors exporting

services. Turkish contractor companies

who have undertaken

construction work abroad have

completed many housing complexes,

tourism projects, hospitals

and health center projects,

most of which were decorated

with Turkish furniture.

Turkish furniture is designed and

made from the highest quality

materials to ensure comfort,

performance and attractive

appearance for a very long life.

Different styles are produced

such as classical, traditional and

contemporary. With its designers

and architects combined with

its flexible production capacity,

the Turkish furniture industry is

able to satisfy the requirements

of all individual markets all over

the world.

Today, with all these aspects of

the furniture industry, Turkey is

among the most promising furniture

suppliers in the world.


102

The leaders of the world’s plastics

industry met in Istanbul in an

organization by PAGEV

The future of the plastics industry was on the table in the 13th

Turkish plastics industry congress

Industry 4.0 looms closer. The

plastics industry is among the

industries that are affected the

most by the transformation,

and prepares for the future with

innovative products. Turkey, being

Europe’s second and the world’s

sixth largest plastics producer,

aims for new leadership in the

industry through investments in

research and development. The

13th annual Turkish Plastics Industry

Congress, held by the Turkish

Plastics Foundation (PAGEV) to

encourage development in the industry,

took place under the main

theme of “Plastics of the Future”.

Industry and nongovernmental organization

leaders met in Istanbul

to shape the future of the plastics

industry.

The Turkish Plastics Foundation

(PAGEV) held its 13th “Turkish

Plastics Industry Congress” on

December 4, 2018 at the Hilton

Istanbul Bomonti Hotel. Subject

matter experts, industry representatives

and academics convened

around the theme of “Plastics of

the Future”. The meeting of the

executives and leaders of the

world’s plastics associations began

with introductory remarks by

EuPC - European Plastic Converters

Association Executive Officer Renato

Zelcher and PAGEV President

Yavuz Eroğlu.

The hallmark event of the industry

covered topics from high technology

and Industry 4.0-compliant

manufacturing to innovative

approaches to plastics, nanotechnology,

and sustainable solutions

to provide a glimpse of what

the future holds for the industry.

One of the key conclusions of the


103

congress was that the plastics

industry, being uniquely flexible

and adaptable, would change

along with emerging technologies

and continue to make all aspects

of life easier.

As part of the 13th Turkish Plastics

Industry Congress, a panel discussion

was held on “What the Future

Holds for the Plastics Industry”.

Moderated by PAGEV President

Yavuz Eroğlu, the panel featured

speakers European Plastics Converters

Association (EuPC) Board

of Directors Chair Renato Zelcher,

European Plastic Raw Materials

Manufacturers Association (PlasticsEurope)

Executive Director Karl

Foerster, American Chemical Council

(ACC) Director General Keith

A. Christman, and PlasticsEurope

Mediterranean Regional Director

Giuseppe Riva.

The Main Sponsor of the event

was PAGÇEV along with Sponsors

Huzur Plastik, Gür Plastik, SEM

Plastik ve TSP Plastik İşleme Teknolojileri,

and the sessions were

followed by a wide audience as in

previous years.

Delivering introductory remarks,

TOBB Plastics, Rubber and Composites

Industry Assembly and

PAGEV President Yavuz Eroğlu

said, “Our objective when committing

to the Turkish Plastics Industry

Congress was to help our plastic

manufacturers see and understand

new perspectives. The amazing

level of attendance makes it clear

that the event is very useful for

the industry. This is an indicator

that we are on the right path. I

would like to thank everyone who

supported our event. This year,

we chose to focus on the future

instead of discussing the past

and present. Speakers shared

their valuable insight regarding

the transformation in the plastics

industry. The key takeaway

was that advanced technologies,

innovation and sustainable solutions

will play a critical part in the

future of the industry.”

Saying that the plastics sector

was among the fastest-growing

industries in Turkey with 11,000

operators, 250,000 employees

and 34 billion dollars in revenue,

Yavuz Eroğlu continued: “Plastics

are key input items in a variety

of industries from food to

health, construction, automotive,

cosmetics and textile with their

practicality, benefits, quality and

variety. Although plastics grow

consistently, the leap will be

achieved through high value-added

products that are compatible

with changing technologies and

meet the expectations of consumers.

As the industry grows, so

do the preconceptions in society

against plastics due to plastic

litter in our environment. We have

been saying for years: plastics

don’t litter; people litter. Individuals

who know what plastics may

be recycled and why will have

both protected the environment

and dispelled myths about the

harms of plastics. As PAGEV, we

will continue to lead the field with

trainings and projects on establishing

a culture of recycling.”


104

Essence of sleep

with Essentia

“Perfecting the world’s only

natural memory foam took love,

science, testing and time. What

Essentia achieved in doing

was to take high quality natural

and organic ingredients,

turning them into a truly next

generation, latex-based foam

that sleeps cool, feels better,

and reacts faster than any other

foam you’ve ever experienced,”

the brand’s officials explain.

Essentia’s patented natural

memory foam starts with Hevea

milk that is mixed with other

essential natural and organic

ingredients that once combined

help to achieve the distinctive

feel and properties found only in

Essentia. Of utmost importance

to Essentia was sourcing the

right ingredients to make its

organic mattresses and natural

memory foam mattresses, but

also being transparent with

what ingredients are used. Here

you will find a breakdown of the

most used ingredients in Essentia’s

mattresses:


105

Hevea Milk

Milky white “sap” of the Rubber

tree, collected much like Maple

tree sap. The hevea milk used

at Essentia is sourced from

Indonesia, collected from rubber

plantations where acceptable

working conditions are maintained

and there is no practice

of child labor. This hevea milk is

processed to make Essentia’s

natural memory foam.

GOLS Certified Organic Latex

Essentia’s Lifestyle organic mattress

collection features GOLS

(Global Organic Latex Standard)

certified organic latex.

Dunlop Latex

A rubbery foam made from

Hevea Milk (rubber tree sap)

which is known for its durability,

support qualities, and purity.

The company uses natural

Dunlop latex foam, the finest

natural latex foam available as

the support core in many of its

mattress models.

Organic Essential Oils

A natural and healthy alternative

to man-made oils or petroleum.

Grapefruit seed, coneflower

essence and jasmine essence all

help us achieve proper consistency

in Essentia’s natural memory

foam while providing soothing

and rejuvenating properties

to the body and spirit.

Natural Plant Extracts

As a substitution to harsh toxic

chemicals used in conventional

memory foam, plant extracts

such as hydrolyzed corn help to

achieve the proper consistency

for Essentia’s natural memory

foam.


106

GOTS Certified Organic Cotton

Every Essentia mattress is covered

in an organic cotton cover

and the brand features only

the best organic cotton sheets.

Grown without chemicals, synthetic

fertilizers or pesticides,

organic cotton helps retain the

health of our planet and its

people by providing safe work

environments for cotton field

workers, eliminating the use of

damaging synthetic pesticides

ensuring soil fertility is maintained

and improved. 25% of

the world’s chemical pesticides

are used to grow cotton when

only 3% of the world’s farmland

grows cotton. Choosing organic

cotton makes a huge difference.

How Essentia makes the best

organic mattress

Perfecting Essentia’s natural

memory foam was just the

beginning; the next step was

taking it to production. To ensure

a consistent product, a very

specialized foaming machine

was sourced. After months of

re-engineering and modifications

including adding a programmable

control center, chiller system,

robotic arm and injection mix

head it was ready to start making

mattresses. Essentia uses

two different types of molds to

make mattresses:

Essentia Patented Mold

Technology

The specialized foaming machine

is mostly found working

with the mold to develop its

WholeBodyTM Recovery mattresses.

The process is simple,

a layer of natural Dunlop latex

and natural memory foam that

was sliced from the layer mold

are stacked into this mold. The

arm of the foaming machine then

pours Essentia’s high-density

natural memory foam over the

stack, covering the top and all

sides… much like icing a cake.

Layer Mold

Used to make a thick piece of

our natural memory foam. Once

baked and cured, it’s sliced into

1 inch, 2 inch, and 3-inch-thick

layers to be used on mattresses.

You’ll find these layers in all

models but featured predominantly

as comfort natural memory

foam layer of our Classic 8 and

Energie Opus models.


107

The mold is then fully baked and

the new mattress is ready to go

into curing.

As 1 of only 2 latex foaming

companies in North America,

Essentia not only has complete

control over every ingredient

and component used to make

the healthiest mattress possible,

the environmental benefits of

foaming are significant. Instead

of importing latex foam components,

the company simply

imports the rubber tree sap to

make its natural memory foam.

This takes close to 80% less

space than importing finished

latex foam. It also significantly

cuts down on fuel consumption

in transportation, which allows

for better prices.

Curing & Testing

As much care is taken into

crafting a new Essentia mattress

as you would expect from any

James Beard Award-winning

baker. Essentia’s goal is to ensure

that each mattress reflects

what Essentia owners are meant

to feel which is fully refreshed

after a deep, restorative, truly

therapeutic sleep experience on

Essentia. To ensure that, there

are 2 more steps before a new

mattress begins its trek to you:

Phase 1 - Curing Like all baked

goods, Essentia products need

some time to cool. When it

comes to foam, the cell structure

and consistency changes after

a few hours, even after a few

days. All products cure on racks

for 7 days to ensure you always

get the Essentia feel it is

famous for.

Phase 2 - Testing All Essentia

mattresses undergo inspection

and testing before being packed

up and shipped to you. Including

ILD (indentation load deflection)

testing which determines firmness,

stiffness or load-bearing

capacity.

Made with Care

When it comes to how Essentia

memory foam mattresses are

made, it’s not just a company,

it is family. Health, safety, and

happiness go hand in hand at

Essentia. Everything gets tested,

from worker safety to the

final product. No gloves or other

forms of protective equipment

are needed for its team in the

factory given the nature of its

natural products. VOC testing

has been performed on both

work environment in its factory

and the final product. Essentia’s

factory is both GOTS (Global

Organic Textile Standard) and

GOLS (Global Organic Latex

Standard) certified.


108

High strength,

high speed

Having over

60 years of

experience

in silk yarns

Pakipek keeps

its market

share in the

mattress

industry

Established as a family business

in 1956 to process cocoons in

Bursa, Pakipek has been producing

yarns for several industries

since then, including weaving

and home textiles industry.

Recently, the mattress industry

is the most active segment for

the company, besides its digital

printing services. Chairman of

the Pakipek group of companies,

Haluk Bukumcu told about their

special products they produce

for the mattress industry.

What is the history of your

company?

My grands had been in silk business

for decades. This firm was

founded in 1956, the same year

of my birth, by my father and his

father. Then my uncle became

their partners. Our house, where

I was born, had had a garden of

two thousand sqm., a workshop

where 70 to 80 people were

processing cocoons and producing

silk yarns. That time silk was

the only material for yarn; there

was no polyester. We had had


109

a store in Irfaniye Bazaar in Istanbul

for selling silk yarns. Then

we started to make fabrics from

silk. In 1969 we established a

silk fabric firm buying cocoons

from Sogut, Bilecik and Bursa.

There were only four factories in

Sogut. Our products would be

sold to Vakko brand in 1984.

What does your company do in

recent years?

Presently, we have been producing

400,000 meters of fabrics

for women clothing including

the jacquard types. Half of the

production is exported and the

other half is sold to apparel

producers whose products are

mostly sold in export markets.

Pakfiks is our brand that we use

for the products sold to mattress

manufacturers. They are industrial

stitching yarns. Our pillows

are sold with “be in comfort”

motto. 8% of people buy online.

We took measures to meet

growing demand in this channel

as well.


110

Would you mention about details of

yarn production process?

Texturing is a process to make

seamless synthetic filaments

that are formed tight and in parallel,

subject to several chemical,

mechanical and heat treatments

in order to produce an outlook

similar to natural fibers.

Yarns of variety of thickness are

produced from several fibers and

sold under Pakkoza trade name.

They are dyed with environmentally

friendly dyes to offer

several color choices for manufacturers.

All yarns are made as

having some basic specifications

including the fixed tension,

minimal waste, and high speed

processing.

What are the differences between

the yarns you produce for the

mattress industry and the others?

We have been in the mattress

segment for years ago. We were

watching the performance of our

brand and we saw that it has a

promising vision. Now, we want

to speed up the production and

promotional activities for this

line.

Our Pakfix 60 and 70 no yarns

are mostly preferred by the mattress

manufacturers. They have

higher strengths.

Polyester is the second most

preferred and used kind of synthetic

yarns after cotton yarns.

They provide higher resistance

against high-speed wear and

tear. Pakfiks yarns made of polyester

is utilized in certain sectors

that require high precision and

higher strength such as in furniture,

mattress, denim products,

leather and footwear industries.

Pakteks 90-40 no texture polyester

stitching yarns have a wider


111

range of utilization. They are

extremely soft and voluminous,

lower twisted, and high strength

quilt with luper. They have

higher ability for elongation

and covering specs and reduce

shrinkage problems in seams after

several washings. It is ideal

to be used in mattresses, bed

covers, mattress paddings and

quilt applications.

We have also other products,

such as Poly Cotton, Poly Poly

and Cut Fibers for the mattress

and quilt makers.


112

Turkey offers

challenging

opportunities for

global manufacturers

Tuğra Gönden

Cushman&Wakefield managing partner

According to Manufacturing Risk

Index 2018 research carried out

by the commercial real estate consulting

firm Cushman&Wakefield,

China has maintained the lead in

global manufacturing, while Turkey

with a cost advantage, infrastructure

investments and geographical

location, has entered the top

10 in the world.

With the research, which examines

a range of risks and cost factors, n

the framework of research including

political and economic risks as

well as labor cost, a comprehensive

assessment of the attractiveness

of 42 countries for global

manufacturing was carried out.

The report said the global economy

remains in good shape despite

the uncertainty surrounding

the future of U.S.’ trade policies,

the shape of Brexit in Europe and

heightened geopolitical risk in

the Middle East, parts of Asia and

Latin America.

“Global GDP [gross domestic

product] growth is forecast to

accelerate to 3.2 percent in 2018

from 2.9 percent last year. Multiple

factors support this outlook:

The robust economic fundamentals

of the U.S., Europe and China, a

cautious monetary policy by the

major global central banks and

strong trade growth. The global

exports of goods are expected

to grow by 5.5 percent in 2017


113

- their fastest pace in five years

- and by over 4 percent in 2018,”

the report read.

Industrial output in 2018 is projected

to increase by 3.8 percent

globally - its fastest rate since

2011 - and by 3.0 percent in

Europe, the report said.

It also suggested that economic

development and technological

trends will shape the type and

distribution of future manufacturing,

but the sector will remain an

engine of global growth. By 2020,

the report said, manufacturing’s

share of the GDP will exceed

20 percent in the top 60 largest

global economies. In China,

manufacturing will still account for

a massive 30 percent of the GDP

in 2025. In the eurozone, manufacturing

makes up 17 percent of the

GDP, led by Germany with over

23 percent.

The report revealed that wage

hikes and growing labor shortages

in Central Europe are pushing

more cost-sensitive industries

east to Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria

and Turkey.

“Emerging manufacturing locations

in Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria

are increasing in attractiveness

based primarily on cost,” it added.

With infrastructure investments

and the strength of its geographical

location, Turkey continues to

be the leading production base

in the world. Its cost advantage,

infrastructure investments and

geographical location has enabled

the country to enter among

top 10 in the world. In his assessment

regarding the report, Cushman&Wakefield

managing partner

Tuğra Gönden said economic, political

and technological developments

that have rapidly evolved

have affected countries’ positions

in the production market.

Gönden also indicated that it is

possible with long-term structural

trends and strategic positioning

to ensure growth and sustainability

in an increasingly competitive

global manufacturing arena.

“Located at the intersection of

Europe, Asia, Russia and Africa,

Turkey’s geographical location and

high-tech infrastructure investments

offer significant advantages

in terms of the global manufacturing

market. Despite the geopolitical

risks faced, our country continues

to be the production base of

Europe and the world. I believe

that by correctly evaluating the

location and potential of Turkey,

the country will be a shining star

in production in the long term,”

Gönden said.


114

Progressing

story of

adhesives used

in mattress

manufacturing

Would you prefer

water-based or

hot melt? Where

does the Turkish

market stand at this

industry? Pros and

cons…

Adhesives have always been

used to bond the various mattress

components together. However,

as a result of these changes,

adhesives’ role in the manufacturing

process has become even

more important. For example,

new materials, such as fibers and

foam types, are difficult to bond

together. This has meant that the

adhesives used must now possess

both increased bonding strengths

and increased application use.

As a matter of fact, the mattress

industry has been transferred

from simple spring construction

to more complex construction and

new materials in recent years. The

changes included more than fibers

and foam types. They have now

increased in roll-coating process

and all-foam units. The increased

use of foam comfort layers in

beds, the rising popularity of

all-foam models and the intense

competition within this just-intime

industry has heightened

the demand for fast-curing glues.

They help manufacturers move

product rapidly off the production

floor and into roll-pack or bagging

machines—and onto the delivery

truck, en route to customers. The

mattress story from the smallest

raw material to the full production

line is a combination of values to

end up with the best mattresses.


115

When it comes to putting a mattress

together, adhesives play an

essential role in making things

stick. Changes in mattress construction

have required adhesives

to change their tack. Mattress

components now are more varied

than ever and bed makers have

come to depend on two main

classes of glues: water-based and

hot melt to hold it all together.

Whether one-component or

two-component chemistries, roll-on

or spray applications, today’s

improved adhesives offer faster

drying times, better bonding

strength, cost efficiencies, improved

flexibility and increased

application ease, industry suppliers

say.

When it comes to speed, the latest

water-based formulations give

hot melts a run for their money

and are faster drying than ever.

But the two glues have their own

distinct uses in mattress and foundation

construction, suppliers say.

What’s in store for the future?

Ever faster, automated production

lines. Adhesives suppliers predict

that, whether manufactured on

an automated production line or

hand assembled and sprayed, the

demand for compressed and roll-


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packed mattresses will continue

to grow, and, with that, the need

for a high-tack, flexible bond with

quick drying times will continue.

Also, the industry is now using

faster and more automated production

lines in addition to more

practical and better quality auxiliary

materials in order to keep up

with rising demand.

Adhesives are among the important

auxiliaries that the sector use

during manufacturing and these

materials have always been used

to bond the various mattress components

together. However, as a

result of the construction changes,

adhesives’ role in the manufacturing

process has become even

more important.

For example, new materials, such

as fibers and foam types are

difficult to bond together. So, the

adhesives used must now possess

increased bonding strengths

and increased application use.

Furthermore, from the standpoint

of speed, adhesives need to offer

fast drying times, more flexibility


117

and cost efficiencies. Hot melts

are one type of adhesive in

particular that have been able to

keep up with mattress manufacturing

changes. For instance, hot

melt adhesives have fast holding

power and don’t need drying

time. These adhesives are popular

in bonding foams, pocket coil

assemblies and bonding fabrics

and fibers.

When you think of the process of

manufacturing a mattress, the use

of hot melt adhesives may not

immediately spring to mind, yet

these adhesives can be used in

many different aspects of mattress

production including:

•Laminating layers of foam

•Fixing insulation layers

•Joining blocks of foam

•Fixing fabrics

•Fixing pillow-tops

Choosing the right application

system can make a big difference

to the cost and they can be modified

to suit specific projects. Hot

melt adhesives make assembling

mattresses quicker and easier.

Suppliers also agree that these

adhesives and specific application


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systems can help reduce the cost

of the manufacturing process. The

experts have examined enough

mattress assembly lines to know

that slow production processes

means money wasted. So, when

applying these materials, quality

spray guns or automatic applicators

can save significant time and

money. Because they are easy to

handle, many manufacturers use

adhesives for joining foam around

mattress springs, attaching cushioning

foam and insulation to the

interior of the mattress body and

keeping pillow top cushioning and

upholstery fabrics in place.

That’s important with the more

complex mattresses being assembled

today. Customers want

features like additional comfort

layers of gels and foams, which

need to be carefully attached

to the interior mattress structure

using a fastening system that is

non-toxic.

Hot-melt adhesives have a number

of advantages for the mattress

manufacturing process including:

•Ability to handle high volume

applications

•Non-flammability

•Not requiring special ventilation

•Fast drying time

Meanwhile, water-based adhesive

suppliers promote recent product

innovations, which focus on faster

dry times and innovative application

methods that are faster and

more economical.

We have interviewed some

Turkish adhesive manufacturers

and suppliers to have an indebt

look over the industry so that the

importers and exporters may find

a better way for themselves in this

lucrative and very fast-developing

market.


119

Quality of mattress

fabrics directly affect

sleep quality

In line with growing mattress industry, fabric manufacturers fire up

their innovation efforts.

Due to chaos of daily lives, fast

consumption, haste to reach

somewhere and trying to focus

on several points concurrently

we cannot spare time to rest.

Night sleep is the most suitable

period to be refreshed, but most

of us awaken tired and exasperated.

At this point, the innovations

made by the mattress manufacturers

and their suppliers

who strive to improve the quality

of sleep, become a savior. In

2017 the most popular topic in

the mattress industry was based

on the choice of foam or latex. In

2018 we focused on spring and

fabric technologies. The following

is our assessment about the

most popular topics on mattresses

compiled from the interviews

we made with leading producers

of mattress fabrics in 2018.

Global warming affects seasons,

not the sleeps

In recent years, we started to

have hotter days in summer and

colder days in winter. There are

some other countries like ours

that were subject to unusual

climates during the year. Changing

climatic conditions may

cause some difficulties to enter

in sleep or shorten REM sleep

periods. It is possible to reduce


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the effects of changing climate

but not so valuable as the direct

impacts of the fabrics used on

the mattresses.

At the end of these, innovative

products aiming to stabilize

the body temperature both in

winter and in summer has got

their place in product portfolio of

major manufacturers.

Are you sure that you got rid of all

stresses of the day?

Technology covers all stages of

our lives. We had been encircled

by technologic devices all

day long and spending our time

in enclosed spaces. So, static

electric accumulated during

the day triggers stresses and

negative emotions. Uncontrolled

stress spoils the quality of life

and sleep. Getting away from

these all-negative conditions for

a comfortable sleep is possible

only with better fabrics for

mattresses.

The materials that are used in

the production of smart textiles

are begun to be used in the

production of mattress fabrics.

Thanks to carbon fibers used in

the production, more flexible,

waterproof and static-electric-free

fabrics are obtained.

Some natural materials, like

the seed of cherry, can produce


121

positive effects on brain and

imaginations.

New innovations to protect hygiene

in mattresses

Cleanliness of mattresses is hard

to manage. Mites are hazardous

for health; they are invisible,

fed with human skin cells are

also hard to get rid of. There

are several products that help to

fight with mites but people do

not have enough time to spare

for cleaning their mattresses.

Anti-bacterial mattress fabrics

come to our rescue at this point.

Hygiene maximizes in the

fabrics the contain bacteria that

supports immune systems of

the body. They protect people

against microorganisms such

as bacteria, mold, fungi and

against stains.

Skin repairing effect

Human skin is highly prone to

be irritated and deformed. So,

tissues that contact our skins are

important. The fabrics that prevent

fatting and celluloids by facilitating

the circulation of blood

in veins offer healthy outlook

on skins were among the best

innovations of the year. Those

fabrics that protect against

wrinkling on skin by keeping the

moistening balance of skin were

among the successful innovations

of the year in 2018.


122

Mattress Industry

Terms

Source: ISPA, International

Sleep Products Association

Adjustable base: An electro-mechanical

or manual bed frame construction

that permits the raising

and lowering of the head and/or

foot portions of the mattress.

Airbed: An air mattress with a core

that is an air-filled vinyl bladder.

Better airbeds are multichambered,

covered with cushioning, upholstered

with ticking and sold with a

foundation.

Anti-microbial fiber and foam:

Treatment that inhibits the growth

of microbial contaminates.

Backing: Any fabric or sheeting material

that is used during quilting to

anchor the stitches.

Batting: See Cotton Felt.

Bedding: Commonly used as a

generic term for a mattress and

foundation set, but may also apply

to accessory items such as blankets,

sheets, pillows, comforters,

mattress pads, etc.

Bedding ensemble: A complete

sleep support system, consisting of

a metal frame or a bed, a foundation

and a mattress set.

Bed frame: A metal or wood

frame with legs used to support a

mattress and foundation. Conventional

height is 7-1/4 inches and

the low-profile version is 5-3/4

inches when measured from the

floor to the bottom of the foundation.

Generally a headboard

can be attached. Metal frames

are sometimes known as a “Hollywood”

frame.

Bedsprings: Open-spring or wire

fabric box springs without upholstery

materials or cover.

Binding tape: Fabric tape used

to bind and close the mattress or

foundation where the vertical and

horizontal panels of outer ticking


123

come together, providing the edge

trimming for the mattress or foundation.

See Tape and Tape Edge.

Body impressions: Indentations occurring

on the surface of a mattress

over time, due to the compression

of materials by the human body.

Bonnell: A knotted, round-top,

hourglass-shaped steel wire coil.

When laced together with crosswire

helicals, these coils form the

simplest innerspring unit, also

referred to as a Bonnell.

Border: The vertical side or edge

of a mattress or foundation. Prebuilt

borders are constructed by

stitching together the ticking, foam

or other filling materials and a

backing material. Commonly quilted

or vertical-stitched.

Border rod: A heavy gauge wire

rod attached to the perimeter of

the innerspring unit (top and bottom)

by means of a helical wire or

metal clips.

Boric acid: A chemical additive

applied during the garnetting of

cotton and/or other fibers to provide

cigarette ignition resistance

characteristics.

Box spring: Also referred to as

a “foundation.” A base for an

innerspring mattress, consisting

of coils or other forms of springs

mounted on a wood or metal frame

and secured with a wire-interlaced

or welded-wire grid, topped with

upholstery and insulating materials

(felt, urethane or other resilient

materials), and covered on the

top and sides with ticking and on

the bottom with a dust cover. It

is an important part of a bed set

since it serves as a shock absorber,

distributes weight, and supports

and interacts with the innerspring

mattress to properly support the

body.

Box-top mattress: A mattress

featuring a raised surface finishing

treatment where a separate, sided

and rectangular encasement of

soft materials–usually with a tape

edge–is attached via a welt to the

entire surface on top of existing

cover and upholstery.

Bunk bed: A two-tiered wood or

metal frame designed to accommodate

two mattresses, typically

twin-size, one above the other.

Some models allow the upper and

lower units to be detached and

used as separate beds.

Bunkie: A mattress, usually twinsize,

and platform base used on

bunk beds.

Cal 117: Refers to California Technical

Bulletin 117, which specifies a

vertical flame testing procedure for

bedding and furniture component

materials. Foam referred to as “Cal

117 foam” has passed this test.

Carbon: The principal hardening

element in steel. The higher the

carbon content, the harder the metal

and the more temper it will take,

thus giving longer “memory.”

Cellulose acetate pad: Woody fiber

compacted into a pad and used

as an insulator. May be glued or

sandwiched between plastic netting

to help hold it together.

Coil count: The number of coils in

an innerspring unit. Though the

count can effect weight distribution,

it is not the determining factor

for firmness. The count is usually

based on the number of coils in a

full-size unit.

Coils: The individual wire springs

that form an innerspring unit. See


124

Hourglass, Continuous and Offset

Coils.

Coir pad: An insulator pad made

from coconut husk fiber, garnetted,

needled, bonded and pre-cut to

size.

Comfort system: Refers to the

upholstery layers of the mattress,

generally consisting of a combination

of materials (cover, cushioning,

topper pad, insulators, etc.).

Conjugate polyester fiber: Spirally

crimped fiber that is crimped chemically

rather than thermally. Is very

durable and resilient.

Continuous coils: An innerspring

configuration in which the rows of

coils are formed from a single piece

of wire.

Conventional bedding products:

Mattresses and foundations in the

conventional adult sizes of twin,

twin extra long, full, full extra long,

queen and king.

Convertible sofa: A sofa with a

bed folded beneath the seating

surface, generally consisting of a

mattress resting on a metal mechanism.

Also called “sleep sofa” or

“sofa sleeper.”

Convoluted foam: Better known as

“egg-crate” foam that is specially

cut to produce hills and valleys,

giving gentle softness and more

surface comfort. Foam surface

treatment is available in multiple

patterns.

Cornell test: Devised by Cornell

University School of Hotel/Motel

Administration. Designed to test

cosmetic performance of bedding

sets, such as body impression or

support firmness. Two round surfaces

are pounded into the finished

product 100,000 times and checked

periodically for failure or changes.

Corner guards: Molded plastic or

metal, (sometimes upholstered) fittings

secured to foundation corners

to prevent material damage from

the bed frame.

Cotton felt: Produced by a garnett

machine which combs cotton and

other fiber binders into a continuous

web or layer. Several such

layers combined are called cotton

“batt”. For compressed cotton felt,

thick layers of garnetted cotton

fiber are mechanically compressed

to reduce body impressions.

Cotton linters: The short fibers

adhering to the seed after the long

staple fiber has been removed in

the ginning process. Used in making

cotton felt.

Cotton pickers: “Fall out” from ginning

or garnetting. These shorter

staple cotton fibers are blended

with linters to produce cotton felt.

Crown: A convex surface on a mattress.

Mattresses with a half-inch

crown are a half-inch thicker at the

center than at the edges.

Cushioning: Materials that lie

above the insulator and below the

fabric covering in an innerspring

mattress. These materials are typically

combinations of polyurethane

foam, cotton felt, and/or mademade

fibers.

Damask: Woven ticking produced

on a loom that has yarns running

at 90-degree angles to each other,

the warp and the weft. The damask

design is woven into the fabric

rather than printed on the surface.

Density: A measure of weight per

cubic volume, usually expressed

in pounds per cubic foot. Often

referred to when discussing foam.

Double tempering: Heating of wire

components, usually in an oven, after

they have been given shape or

form and have been electronically

stress-relieved. Refers to tempering

coils as well as border rods and

helicals in a complete spring unit.

Dual-purpose: A broad term used

to include all sleep pieces, which

can be converted to other uses,

including: convertible sofas,

high-risers, daybeds, futons, etc.

See Convertible Sofa.

Dust cover: A woven or non-woven

fabric attached to the underside of

a foundation to prevent the collection

of dust inside. May also be

known as “sheeting” or “cambric.”

Edge guard: Generally an extra

component added to the edge of a

mattress and/or box spring to give

support on the sides.

Engineered edge support: A special

design where the coils on the

outer edge of an innerspring unit

are actually positioned under the

border rod. Most units have the

coils recessed from the edge, which

can contribute to a “roll out of bed”

feeling.

Euro-top mattress: A mattress featuring

a raised, squared-off surface

finishing treatment filled with soft

comfort layers and attached to the

mattress upholstery at the tapeedge.

Fabric cover: Cloth or textile material

woven, knitted or felted of

any fiber or mixture of fibers. Often

referred to as “ticking” or mattress

fabric.

Fales pad: Compressed cotton felt

that is stitched together to better

retain compression.

Fiber pad: Usually refers to manmade

or natural fibers (wool, silk,

etc.) that are garnetted, needled,

carded and/or bonded together.

Often used in quilting panels for

mattress tops.

Filler cloth: Refers to a plain fabric

used on the top of a foundation


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instead of ticking. Commonly offers

non-skid characteristics.

Flanging: The process whereby a

strip of fabric is sewn to the edge

of the mattress cover and, in the

assembly process, secured to the

perimeter of the innerspring unit to

prevent the cover and filling materials

from shifting.

Foam foundation: Consists of a

built-up wood slat frame covered

with a sheet of cardboard or similar

material, topped with at least 2” of

foam and covered with ticking.

Foundation: Any base or support

for a mattress, sometimes used as

a generic term for box spring. A

foundation may be made entirely

of wood or a combination of wood

and steel or steel springs. See Box

Spring and Foam Foundation.

Futon: A Japanese-style mattress

construction, consisting of a cover

and filling material, which is typically

cotton but can be innerspring

and/or foam.

Garnetting: A mechanical process

whereby short cotton fibers and/

or other fibers are combed into a

specific orientation and formed into

a thin web, which are then layered

to create a batting used as an upholstery

material. See Cotton Felt.

Gauge, coil: A measurement of the

diameter of the steel wire used in

coil construction. Wire gauge for

innerspring coils range from 12.5

to 17. The higher the gauge, the

thinner the wire.

Gel foam: Generally a visco-elastic

foam that is infused with beads or

swirls of gel during the foam pouring

process.

Hair pads: Horse tail or mane, cattle

tail or hog hair, which has been

processed and curled for use as a

mattress or upholstery filler.

Hammocking: An undesirable characteristic

sometimes associated

with worn out or low-end mattresses.

When weight is placed in the

center, the corners tend to rise and

bow in response to deep compression

much like a hammock. Terms

“dish” and “sagging” also used to

describe this phenomenon.

Hand: Term used to describe the

touch or feel of fabrics (e.g., soft,

smooth, etc.).

Hand-tied: The process of

hand-lacing the coils in a box

spring together with twine. Seldom

used, this process has been

replaced with modern technology

and new designs.

Headboard: An upright unit of

wood, metal, plastic, or upholstered

material, to be attached at

the head of a bed, usually with the

bed frame.

Helical: A tightly-coiled, elongated

wire used in the manufacture of

innerspring units to join individual

coils to each other and to the

border rod.

High-contour mattress: Measures

9” – 13” thick. A mattress under 9”


126

thick is considered “standard”; over

13” thick is considered “custom.”

High riser: Usually a frame or sofa

with two mattresses of equal size

without a backrest. The frame

slides out with the lower bed and

rises to form a full bed or two

single beds.

Hog ring: Metal ring used to

secure the insulator and flange material

to the innerspring unit. Takes

its name from its similarity to the

metal ring in a hog’s nose.

Hourglass coils: Coils that taper

inward from top to middle and outward

from middle to bottom, thus

resembling an hourglass in shape.

Employed in bonnell and offset coil

designs.

Hybrid: Commonly used industry

term for a mattress that combines

an innerspring unit with specialty

foams such as visco-elastic or latex.

Ideal weight distribution: Equalization

of support in such a way

as to eliminate pressure points

that cause discomfort resulting in

tossing and turning. Best achieved

with coil on coil construction and

properly designed insulation and

cushioning material.

Innerspring unit construction (for

mattresses): The spring construction

used as the main support system

inside an innerspring mattress.

Some common types are: pocketed

(see Marshall) and all metal (i.e.,

bonnell, offset and continuous

wire).

Insulator: Any material used on top

and bottom of an innerspring unit

to prevent the upholstery layers

from cupping down into the coils.

Some common types are: a fiber

pad, non-woven fabric, netting,

wire mesh or foam pad.

Knit: A basic polyester or nylon

ticking fabric produced through a

knitting process (tricot) rather than

weaving. Designs are printed onto

the surface.

Lacing wire: Finer gauges of wire

used to form helicals.

Latex: A flexible foam created from

a water dispersion of rubber, either

from the rubber tree (natural latex)

or a man-made, petroleum-based

product (synthetic latex). Most

latex used in mattresses today is a

combination of natural and synthetic

latex rubber.

LFK: An unknotted offset coil with a

cylindrical or columnar shape.

Link fabric: A wire foundation for

bedsprings, cots, studio couches,

sofabed mechanisms and gliders.

So called because the fabric is a

succession of metal links.

Marshall: A type of innerspring

construction in which thin gauge,

barrel-shaped, knotless coils are

encased in fabric pockets. Also

known as “pocketed coils.”

Mattress: A manufactured product

to sleep on, consisting of various

resilient materials covered with an

outer ticking. Comes from the Arabic

term “matrah” meaning to throw

down. Early Arabs traveled with

their bedding and threw it down on

the ground or floor at night.

Memory: The ability of tempered

steel, foam or some fabrics to

return to their original state after

being compressed or stretched.

Mesh: Plastic netting generally

stretched across the face of an

innerspring unit as an insulator.

Microcoils: A low-profile metal

spring unit, typically with individually

wrapped coils, used in the top

comfort layers of a mattress.

Molded foam core (for mattresses):

A core made of flexible foam

is made in molds and used as the

main support system in a foam

mattress.

Mounting: Attachment of a box

spring unit to a wood or metal

frame.

Needlepunched fabric: A manufacturing

process for which high

strength, lightweight, non-woven

construction fabrics are produced.

These fabrics are produced by

garnetting fibers, entangling or

inner-locking these fibers together

by a series of needles and then

mechanically bonding or fusing

them together via heat to produce

a fabric without glue or binders.

Needlepunched pad: A manufacturing

process used to produce

insulator pads and non-woven

fabrics whereby loose, garnetted

fibers are inner-locked by a series

of “needles.” This process usually

requires additional bonding to


127

keep the fibers in place.

Offset coils: An hourglass type coil

on which portions of the top and

bottom convolutions have been

flattened. In assembling the innerspring

unit, these flat segments

of wire are hinged together with

helicals.

Orthopedic: Generalized term to

imply set gives proper postural

alignment and support. Should not

necessarily mean hard or board

feeling. Proper support with a

degree of comfort to contour to the

body is best.

Panel: The part of the ticking that

constitutes the top sleep surface of

a mattress, as well as the bottom

of a mattress on a two-sided bed.

Pedestal-type metal or wood bed

frame: A low-profile bed frame

with a solid pedestal base underneath

each side of the frame,

instead of legs.

Pillow-top mattress: A mattress

featuring a surface finishing treatment

where a separate encasement

of soft materials is attached

to the entire surface on top of

existing cover and upholstery.

Plus 4 edge: Two border rods

engineered with one inside of the

other and designed so that they

make the edge 4% firmer than

the balance of the sleep surface

to eliminate that “roll out of bed”

feeling and edge sag.

Pocketed coil: See Marshall.

Polyurethane foam: See Urethane

Foam.

Print: A ticking fabric, which can be

a woven or non-woven sheeting,

commonly of synthetic fiber composition,

on which a design has been

printed.

Quilting: The surface treatment in

which the cover, foam and/or other

fibers are sewn together, using

various stitch patterns on quilting

machinery, including scroll or

panel quilters (single needle) and

multi-needle quilters.

Resilience: Surface liveliness and

spring-back ability.

Rollator test: An approximately

230 lb., six-sided roller is passed

across a sleep set to determine the

structural strengths or weaknesses

of the set and components (i.e.,

foam or quilt failure, breaking of

helicals and coils). The industry

standard to duplicate the life of a

mattress is 100,000 passes.

Rollaway bed/cot: A portable metal

bed/cot with a frame that folds

in half with the mattress when not

in use so it can be rolled away into

a closet (or elsewhere) for compact

storage.

Sheeting: a woven or non-woven

fabric other than knits that have a

degree of sizing and are somewhat

stiff.

Side rail: A metal or wood rail,

which hooks into the outside edges

of a headboard and footboard

to provide the support base for a

foundation and mattress.

Sisal: A product of the henequen

plant formed into a pad and used

as an insulator. Named after the.

small port of Sisal in Yucatan.

Slats: Narrow strips of wood used

to support the coils in the box

spring frame. Also used in a bedstead

to support the box spring.

Sleep Products Safety Council

hangtag: Used voluntarily by

bedding producers since 1987, the

safety hangtag program provides

critical consumer information about

the safe use of sleep products.

Manufacturers certify that they use

the tag only on mattresses that

meet the Federal Standard for the

Flammability of Mattresses and

Mattress Pads.The tag is available

in a hangtag or permanent label.

Smooth top: A plain surfaced

mattress, neither tufted nor quilted.

Also called button-free.

Spring wire: Wire made from high

carbon steel, characterized by

toughness, strength and ductility.

Typically furnished in 8 to 18 gauge

for bedding industry applications.

Steel unit construction (for box

springs): The spring construction

used as the main support system

inside a box spring.

Stitch bonded pad: See Fales Pad.

Straightline deflection: Pertains to

mattress innerspring construction

and refers to the constant ratio

between stress and strain, weight

and movement. The benefit is

that constant support is provided


egardless of the weight applied.

No bottoming out of soft spots.

Basically it means that two people

of unequal weight, sleeping on the

same mattress, receive the same

support.

Stretch knit: A heavy-weight mattress

ticking consisting of a top layer,

bottom layer and filling material

knitted together and intermittently

stitched to keep the filling yarns

stable.

Super zoned box spring frame: A

support, generally wood, attached

longitudinally to the underside of

a foundation for added support

where the main body weight rests.

Another important structural point

is that the vertical slats are turned

on edge for added strength. This

is extremely important on queen

sizes and for 4-poster beds where

typically no center support is

provided. Also known as a “center

rail.”

Tape: Fabric material that closes

over the rough-sewn edge where

the top and bottom panels are

joined to the border of a mattress

or box spring.

Tape edge: A specified type of

sewing machine designed to stitch

binding tape around the top and

bottom edges of the mattress,

joining the panels with the border

and closing the mattress.

Tempering: Heat treatment of

wire to reduce brittleness. Accomplished

by electric charge,

oven heat or both. Also known as

“stress relieved”.

Ticking: Fabrics for covering mattresses

and foundations. Common

types include: stretch knits, woven

damasks, knits and nonwovens.

Torsion bars: A type of spring system

used in box springs characterized

by square-shaped wire forms.

Trundle bed: A low bed that is

rolled under a larger bed. In

some constructions, the lower bed

springs up to form a full bed or two

single beds as in a high riser.

Tufting: Consists of passing twine,

cords or tape vertically through

the mattress from top to bottom,

knotting and securing the loops

thus formed with tufts, buttons, or

lacing. The purpose is to hold the

mattress filling in place.

Uniflex grid: A steel wire grid used

to bridge the “mouth” of the coils

on an innerspring unit to prevent

“pocketing” of insulation down into

the coil and to eliminate “coil feel.”

Also helps to distribute the body

weight of a person.

Urethane foam: Synthetic (chemically

foamed) flexible urethane

used for mattress cores and as a

cushioning material. As a core, it’s

the main support system. Generic

term covering both polyester and

polyether foams.

Ventilator: Metal or plastic screens

attached to the sides and sometimes

the ends of mattresses to

permit the passage of air. Unnecessary

with normal high quality

materials used today, except for

hospital type mattresses with wetproof

covers.

Visco-elastic foam: Also known

as “memory foam.” Slow recovery

urethane foams that are temperature

sensitive. They conform to

the body and distribute pressure

according to body heat and dynamics.

Waterbed: A sleep system

employing a water-filled vinyl

bladder as its primary support

system. Original models relied on

rigid framing to contain the vinyl

components and were known as a

“hardside”. Newer styles consist

of vinyl components (bladder and

liner) typically encased in foam and

made to look like a conventional

mattress, usually paired with a

regular upholstered foundation.

Also called a “softside” waterbed.

All versions are sometimes referred

to as “flotation beds.”

Welded grid top: Basic wire

welded into a lattice to which box

spring coils, formed wire or modules

are fastened. Offers even

weight distribution, yet allows

some flex and give.

Wood bed: A bed with a headboard

and footboard made of

wood, having side rails of wood or

metal that support the foundation

and mattress.

Wood frame (for box springs): The

wood frame in a box spring on

which the spring construction is

mounted.

Woven stripe: A once ubiquitous

woven ticking with colored stripes.

The style was referred to as “ACA”,

the traditional designation for

the 8 oz. blue- and white-striped

ticking that has mostly fallen out of

favor and is seldom produced.


P: +90.224 443 46 28 - 29 F: +90.224 441 99 90 Nilüfer Bursa TURKEY info@elektroteks.com.tr


08-11 / 01 / 2019

Hall:4.0 Booth: A50

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