CPT International 03/2018









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Casting has a future!

In meteorological terms, autumn has already started and the trade fair season

for foundrymen is resuming after the summer months. This year’s range is

more extensive than ever – from EUROGUSS Asia Pacific in Bangkok and the

World Foundry Congress in Poland, through ALUMINIUM in Germany and

Ankiros in Turkey, to China Cast in Suzhou near the Chinese metropolis Shanghai

– the marketplaces and discussion forums are again opening their gates for

casters all over the world. It is a good start for a trade fair season that reaches

its climax in the middle of next year with GIFA in Düsseldorf from 25. -

29.06.2019. This is where the latest trends in the sector will become apparent

and the most sophisticated foundry technologies will be presented. About

80,000 visiting professionals and 2,000 exhibitors are expected again.

When one reviews the time since the last GIFA, it is noticeable that the trends

of both Industry 4.0 and the additive manufacturing of metals or molds and

cores have arrived where they belong: in the toolboxes of casters as indispensable

instruments for securing the future. Although it is undoubtedly true that

few have actually made concrete investments yet, the awareness that these

technologies cannot be ignored when modernizing or expanding product

portfolios has grown considerably during the last four years, particularly in

the high-wage countries of Europe. Plants and machines are being networked

with one another and process data collected wherever possible, enabling the

avoidance of faults, the optimization of processes, and the conservation of

energy and raw materials. At the same time, 3-D printing opens up the possibility

of skipping pattern making and, sooner or later, accelerating the production

of single items and small batches while probably being able to further

reduce the prices of these products. Although the 3-D printing of metals was

still being underappreciated four years ago, here too there have been astonishing

developments regarding products and printers. We can only guess where

we will stand in 2019. We will know when GIFA starts.

There have, however, also been astonishing developments in the design of new

products in the foundry industry. The Bosch subsidiary Buderus Guss has come

up with its so-called iDisc by combining the knowledge it has gained from the

hard-metal coatings of tools and its expertise in the production of cast iron

brake discs. The iDisc is a brake disc that suffers almost no wear and emits almost

no fine particles into the environment – a small sensation in Germany,

where the discussion on fine particles keeps flaring up (more on this from

P. 36). One can see that casting has a future and that it pays to invest in ideas

for its further development!

Have a good read !

Robert Piterek

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018 3



Geisler, Stefan

“We have to open up to everything” 6


Mück, Felix; Appelt, Christian

Inorganic binder systems in iron casting – current state of development

and outlook 12


Ermert, Stefan; Wilding, Chris

Thermal sand reclamation for foundries 18


Heinrich Wagner Sinto

Maschinenfabrik GmbH

Bahnhofstr. 101

57334 Bad Laasphe




Vorrath, Martin

Structured liners from Bergmann Automotive 20


Podobed, Oleg; Eilhard, Maximilian; Böhnke, Sandra; Brune, Jens

Friability tester for molding materials 24

30 36

Efficient processes are decisive for the economic success

of die-casting foundries. Machine producers like Bühler

therefore constantly optimize their processes (Photo: Bühler)

Buderus Guss has won the German Innovation Award with

a corrosion-free cast iron brake disc that lowers fine particle

emission and wear enormeously (Photo: A. Bednareck)


3 | 2018




Fuchs, Marc

Process optimization of a die casting cell 30


Piterek, Robert

On the peak of inventiveness 36


Vollrath, Klaus

A modern new iron foundry for Kutes Metal 42



News in brief 48


Fairs and congresses / Ad Index 58

Preview / Imprint 59


Leading edge technology is crucial for Turkey when it selects suppliers of capital goods. Therefore German providers had good

chances when Çorlu-based Kutes Metal build a modern foundry to double the capacity and expand the portfolio

(Photo: Kutes Metal)


Dr. Stefan Geisler is Head of IP Management at KSM Castings’ Design & Engineering Department, where components are developed

in close collaboration with customers (Photo: KSM Castings)

“We have to open up

to everything”

Everybody in the sector is talking about e-mobility, e-fuels and light construction. Beyond the

visionary musings of experts, it is particularly interesting how these major trends are seen in the

development departments of large foundries. In an interview with CP+T International, Dr. Stefan

Geisler, Head of IP Management and Strategic Projects at the KSM Castings Group in

Hildesheim, Germany, revealed his opinion of the sector’s direction of development, the substitution

potentials he sees, and how his employer KSM Castings is reacting to the trends.

KSM is a light metal foundry for chassis,

gear, engine and steering components.

What is your strongest segment

in the area of e-mobility?

Chassis components – particularly

wheel control castings for e-mobility.

We also receive enquiries for e-motors,

however, with all the complexity they


You develop e-motor housings. Do

you observe any particular trend?

Carmakers and first-level suppliers

have the most varied of concepts, and

we look at all of them so that we can

assess whether we want to, and could,

produce them. There are, for example,

different types of cooling, such as

two-part components that are welded

at the end or single-part housings with

sand cores, and the like.

6 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

What cooling system do you use?

One new development, for example,

is to use CO 2

as a cooling medium

for such components. The advantage

would be that we can work with

a much smaller tube diameter. This

would also simplify the casting of such

components. Another approach is to

use separate components that are conically

inserted into one another. Then

the outer surface of the inner housing

and the inner surface of the outer

housing no longer actually need to

be machined because one can cast appropriate

structures for cooling, slide

the two halves together, and then weld

them. Making the whole thing considerably

cheaper to produce.

Battery housings also offer potentials

for casting. Do you also make these?

Currently only within the framework

of prototypes in a low-pressure

sand-casting process. It would undoubtedly

be an interesting market for

us if we had high enough unit numbers.

We are also thinking here about

a variety of cooling concepts. Cooling

for battery cases and e-motors is actually

the most important aspect. It is a

topic that has not yet been thought

through all the way. We naturally

think about how we can support the


KSM has developed a wheel hub motor.

What is its current status?

We developed a process in collaboration

with other companies (such as

Audi, AVL, and two Fraunhofer institutes)

that enables us to produce a

wheel hub motor in series. The project

“SeRiel” was supported by the German

Federal Ministry for Education and Research.

A wheel hub motor would, in itself,

be the optimum...

That’s what many people say. From the

point-of-view of the driving experience,

it is indeed pretty much the optimum

that one could imagine. Though

I fear that it will remain a niche product.

Because of the unsprung mass, at

least that’s what one always hears?

Machining of cast parts is largely automated at KSM Castings. In this production unit, a

portal robot drives along the red steel beam from one aluminum processing cell to another

(Photos: Andreas Bednareck)

More because of the difficult control. It

is not so easy to reliably accommodate

all the necessary components, the motor,

the power electronics and control

system in such a tight space.

What is the greatest challenge that

you have regarding e-mobility?

One does not have to bet on every

horse. It is very important to observe

the market accurately so that we

can evaluate for ourselves where it is

worthwhile for us to get involved, and

where we can best exploit our competences.

Is it the case that the OEMs or firstlevel

suppliers specify the concept

and you check whether you can produce

it or not?

It varies. Sometimes we are involved

right at the start of development,

which is, of course, the better case for

us and the optimum case for the customer.

We can contribute our ideas

straightaway if we are integrated into

development early on. But also the

things that are necessary to successfully

design the whole thing in casting

terms. If we get involved as early as

possible in the development phase of

the component we can develop an optimum

casting together with the customer.

Which is too rarely the case, isn’t it?

Should casters get together with the

OEMs and first-level suppliers earlier?

Ideally during the pre-development

stage. But customers find this difficult.

They do not want people to see what

they are up to, because they are then

tied to a specific supplier in a particular

field. But I think that, on the whole,

an optimally designed component is a

win-win situation for both parties. For

the casters and the customers.

How does collaboration between customer

and supplier work?

The responsibility for development

is increasingly being transferred to

the supplier. This is a task that we are

pleased to accept. That’s why we also

have our own development department.

We not only develop components,

but we test whether the casting

process that we are thinking about using

for it is the optimum one. It may be

that we have to change to a different

casting process, possibly even develop

a special casting process.

That’s why we have two development

departments: one is for Design &

Engineering, where I work and where

the component is developed in close

collaboration with the customer. And

the other is our R&D department that

handles development of the appropri-

Casting Plant & Technology 3/ 2018 7


casting processes, but can also handle

ramp-ups without burdening our

production departments. We can also

use this foundry for training our new


Industrial robots handle the comprehensive post-processing work at KSM Castings,

contributing towards achieving maximum value creation

ate process and materials. The two departments

work closely with one another

so that ultimately we provide

the customer with an optimized component

made using the optimum process.

In this way we not only ensure

an optimum design, but also optimize


One increasingly hears from the

OEMs that casters in the automotive

sector must change from pure component

producers to system suppliers,

and offer more than a cast component.

Does this apply to you?

Yes, we also offer complete concepts

and have been developing, for example

for Audi, complete pedal sets for more

than ten years. In the end, we only produce

the bearing block, which is made

of aluminum, but the development of

the entire systems – with all the pedals,

springs and sensors – comes from us. If,

ultimately, something does not function

properly we are, of course, the first

contact for the customer for correcting

the problem.

This ultimately means that you

must increasingly think about how

a component could be integrated

in multi-material construction, must

consider joining techniques, or temperature

management. In other

words, topics extending far beyond

the pure casting of a component? Do

you need different system competence

from that required by a ‘pure’

caster who simply delivers castings?

We concern ourselves with these topics,

though this does not mean that we

have everything in-house. We work

closely with engineering consultancies,

with university institutes, Fraunhofer

and other research institutes, as

well as with our suppliers. The depth

of production has played a more-andmore

important role in recent years.

In addition, customers increasingly

want the supplier to take over processing

of the casting. Simply delivering

raw castings is only a minor part of

our work. We have to build up expertise

with the help of full automation.

We cannot, of course, achieve this all

at once – so we have also leant very

heavily upon our suppliers who designed

and installed the corresponding

plants. On the other hand, we also

develop new casting processes with

our suppliers. For example, we have

developed the CPC process in collaboration

with Fill, Gurten, Austria, and

a tilt casting technique with another

supplier. To allow us to test all these

casting techniques and new materials

we are now building an experimental

foundry with the appropriate

machinery, in which we test different

materials and various ideas for new

Does this mean that you want to expand

your range of products in future?

Initially this means that we have to

constantly further develop our processes,

even well-known generally recognized

processes. We are one of the

market leaders in the production of

wheel control components made of

aluminum. Naturally, this will remain

a core business – whatever the e-vehicle,

or even the car of the future, looks

like it will still have four wheels that

will have to be attached to the chassis

somehow. In this regard it will remain

an important topic for us in the

future, and one we will have to develop


What role does material development


A relatively large one. We are always

trying to further develop our materials

in the direction of greater strength

and greater flexibility, depending on

what is currently needed. Some of this

we do ourselves, though some of it we

carry out with our customers or with

aluminum suppliers.

At KSM you not only speak of e-mobility,

but also of ‘future mobility’.

What do you do in concrete terms?

e-mobility is at least a clear trend that

all carmakers are following. Alternative

drive technologies, such as fuel

cells or e-fuels, are more like R&D topics

in Germany...

We must not only refer locally to Europe.

We have to look to where we will

be placed in future and what energies

will then be available. In Europe it will

definitely be the case (as Fraunhofer

ISE showed in a study) that we will be

able to produce all electrical energy regeneratively

by 2050. The prerequisites

are right here in Germany, also in geographical

terms. The situation is different

in other countries. If, for example,

one looks at Japan, then this possibility

does not exist there. The Japanese,

8 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

however, are now starting work on producing

hydrogen in Australia with regenerative

energies, and then transporting

it to Japan in tankers. There

the fuel cell would be a better option.

Does this affect your business?

We still have to wait to see the extent to

which this will affect our business. We

have to carefully observe developments

and then assess them for ourselves. In

my opinion, the development of e-fuels

has been totally underestimated. I

think that there will be a lot of action

here soon. e-mobility does not just involve

the development of electric cars.

One also has to consider the entire infrastructure.

It may be possible in an

industrial nation like Germany. But if I

look at, for example, the United States

(which often has problems with its energy

supply) I consider the development

of a suitable infrastructure relatively

difficult – not to mention in

the threshold nations. If one looks at

China, e-mobility works excellently in

Shanghai and Beijing but not further

out in the countryside. In contrast to

demands for greater e-mobility, the

funding for e-mobility there is currently

being scaled back.

Which funding programs do you think

require more support?

I would like to see politics not only

one-sidedly promoting e-mobility

but also considering what the alternatives

to it are. What about e-fuels?

We could solve many problems if

we made a breakthrough here. Then

we wouldn’t need to adapt our infrastructure.

Who is supposed to pay

for the infrastructure for e-mobility?

There are already differences of opinion

here. I do not think that the state

can afford to do it alone. And the energy

providers are still having trouble

with the whole subject. So this is

another of those things that we have

to keep an eye on, so that we can react

appropriately when there is some


Energy experts, like Prof. Martin Wietschel

from the Fraunhofer ISI, do not

think the production of e-fuels in Germany

is practical because the renewable

energy available here would be

insufficient in future…

Sure. I also do not think that it is sensible

to produce e-fuels in Germany. This

must be done where there is sufficient

regenerative energy for it. That could

well be with solar cells in the Sahara in

northern Africa.

Does the topic fundamentally need

more political attention?

It needs to be pushed. One also hears

voices from industry who demand that

one should come to a decision about

the direction one wants to take: not

just push e-mobility, but also re-evaluate

alternative possibilities. When I see

how many new institutes have sprung

up recently dealing with alternative fuels,

and the dynamism that research

on this topic currently has without receiving

any major funding from the

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Casting Plant & Technology 3/ 2018 9


price alone? Material-related competition?

Functional integration?

Ultimately always the price. Functional

integration and the mix of materials

also bring cost advantages. It will

be accepted as long as we can present

it all as reliable, economical and environmentally

friendly – and here,

again, we are back at democratic light

weight construction. But there are

also many developments, particularly

at the institutes, of which I think:

that’s a dead-end, it will never be affordable.

That is why I say that we

should concentrate on technologies

that are also, ultimately, accepted by

the customers.

Camshaft carriers in a row on a conveyor system, like pearls in a necklace. The components

are destined to be sent to the Wolfsburg-based carmaker Volkswagen

state, it shows that e-fuels are an important

topic that one should not ignore.

KSM is a light metal foundry for aluminum

and magnesium so it does

light construction. Battery weight

might one day not play the role it

currently does, because there will be

greater power density and thus longer

e-vehicle ranges. What is the future

of light weight construction?

It is vitally important for light weight

construction that it remains reasonably

priced. It must be reliable, environmentally

friendly, and affordable.

Only then will it be accepted.

That is why I speak of democratic

light weight construction – the expression

is not mine – but this is exactly

the right expression. It is not a

matter of light weight construction

at any price. So in order to achieve it,

we have to ensure that we optimize

materials and processes so that we

get components at reasonable prices.

Whether they are die-cast components

made of pure aluminum or hybrid

components with steel, we have

to get rid of all the worries and restrictions

and also consider other processes.

We have to open up to everything:

the plastic producers, the forges, the

steel producers, but also the competition.

We have to find optimum solutions

together to continue to make

the industrial location of Germany


Does KSM do this?

I, at least, advocate that we collaborate

with competitors and not just with

suppliers and customers. We have already

carried out a few projects with

competitors and successfully completed

them. Ultimately, there were advantages

for all involved.

You mentioned hybrid solutions made

of aluminum with steel. BMW, for example,

is testing the practical applicability

of molded steel straps in order

to economically integrate aluminum

die-casting in the production chain of

sheet metal, and it is developing castings

with steel insets to make components

more compact. Are you doing

similar work?

I would be pleased if the OEMs got

us casters involved in such topics.

Of course, the OEMs have their own

foundries and can do this in-house.

But, ultimately, if it comes to mass production

with such inserts we are then

asked whether we can do this sort of

thing. We have already presented development

of hybrid components ourselves,

say for casting different materials.

We would be pleased to contribute

this experience to such projects.

What drives light metal casting? The

Can you give us an example?

Take the topic of salt cores. This technology

is not accepted by casters because

it is very difficult to implement,

causes corrosion in the machinery,

and involves a very high maintenance

level for foundry machines. I do not

think that the lost-foam process has a

future either. These are all topics that

are great when well thought-out and

scientific, but at the moment they do

not bring us any further. They do not

help the industry.

Conversely, do you see any processes

that are not yet economical but that

perhaps have a great future?

The central topic is light weight construction.

I think that a lot more is

possible than is currently being done

with hybrid components and hollow

cast components. We have to keep

working on them and succeed in producing

these hybrid components economically.

Here, too, the question is

will we succeed in developing processes

that can do this?

Does 3-D printing play a role in light

weight construction?

I see 3-D printing as a benchmark. As

a goal that is theoretically possible but

cannot be implemented practically using

the casting process. 3-D printing

will not be able to replace foundries,

though it will undoubtedly penetrate

more and more. But then only for premium

vehicles and for a limited number

of components.

10 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Castings can be added to with the laser

powder process or laser hot-wire

welding process...

That is possible, but here, too, one will

not be able to reach the unit numbers

that are necessary.

Not yet?

It is all-to-often forgotten that even

additive production cannot ignore

the rules of physics. Ultimately here,

too, it is only a process: melting and

cooling. This does not work at any

particular desired speed. I think that

the foundries will in future increasingly

have to get involved in additive

production. But this will then just be

a supplementary topic that one assesses

or works with.

Is it also something for you?

We ourselves have a machine for laser

melting at our Czech plant. We

produce complex cores there for our

die-casting processes with complex


Does the process make sense for


It really shortens the cycle time.

What does one have to do to increase

the use of casting parts in the volume


The price must be right, that is obvious.

Can cast parts compete with sheet

metal shell structures in mass production?

Will light metal castings also be

used in the VW Golf? If we succeed

in producing large unit numbers economically,

so that we approach the

steel price, then I think it will also

be possible to use aluminum in compact

cars. This requires the flexible automation

of processes: for example,

I can cast similar products to what are

currently produced in steel. In the

downstream interlinked processes, the

automatic systems recognize the component

involved and can then appropriately

process it. In this way I could

imagine that ultimately production

could be so cheap that aluminum components

could also be considered for

compact cars.

Are you working on this?

That is one project that we are working

on. I think it is possible that castings

could be so economically produced

that it becomes attractive for carmakers

to also use aluminum in smaller

vehicles. By the way, the Chinese are

much more open to this idea. They

also use a lot more aluminum in compact


Do you still see a lot of untapped potential

for light metal casting? What

is your summary?

Yes. I can see that.

The interview with Dr. Stefan Geisler was

conducted by Gerd Krause, Mediakonzept,



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Casting Plant & Technology 3/ 2018 11


Initial feasibility studies and customer

projects on real component geometries

underline the fundamental

potential of inorganic binder systems

like the Inotec technology in

iron casting applications

(Photo: Shutterstock)

Felix Mück and Christian Appelt, ASK Chemicals GmbH, Hilden

Inorganic binder systems in iron

casting – current state of development

and outlook

The Inotec technology from ASK Chemicals has previously been limited to large-scale applications

in light metal casting [1]. In heavy metal casting, inorganic binder systems also have huge

potential as an emission-free system alternative to organic core production processes. However,

a number of materials science and technological hurdles must be overcome first. For example,

the processes and sand systems are more complex and the requirements for the thermal resistance

of the binder are significantly higher [2]


Initially, the introduction of the Inotec

technology in light metal casting applications

was purely ecologically motivated.

The market launch resulted

in other valuable technological, economic,

and ecological advantages. Today,

ten years after the introduction

in large-scale processes of light metal

foundries, the Inotec technology from

ASK Chemicals, Hilden, Germany, has

become established as a productive

12 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

core manufacturing process. This technology is mainly used

in low-pressure die and die gravity casting to produce AI cylinder

heads and crankcases as well as chassis components.

Also in cast iron applications, inorganic binder systems

have a huge potential as an emission-free system alternative

to organic core sand binders. Due to political and legislative

measures, the provisions of TA Luft (Technical Instructions

on Air Quality Control) in Germany have already been

tightened and in the future will also be subjected to further

restrictions. The use of emission-reduced or emission-free

processes will be affected by this. However, there is still no

large-scale application for this technology, since the transfer

from light metal to cast iron is generally associated with

fundamental challenges. The sand systems and processes

are significantly more complex and the casting temperature

is about twice as high, which is inevitably associated with

higher mechanical and thermal strain of the binder system.

Nevertheless, inorganic binder systems offer significant

advantages. Primarily, no harmful and volatile compounds

are released during the core production, core storage, or

casting processes. As a result, no complex and cost-intensive

air treatment systems are necessary. In addition, the risk

of traditional casting errors, such as gas bubbles or veining,

is reduced through the use of inorganic binders, which eliminates

post-processing steps of castings and potentially reduces

scrap rates. The economic, ecological and technological

benefits are offset by an initial investment volume for the

core shooting machines and heatable core tools.

Special requirements for inorganic binding

systems in iron casting

Various feasibility studies on the use of inorganic binder

systems in cast iron applications have been carried out for

about a decade. One example is the study on the manufacture

of a ventilated GJL (flake-graphite cast iron) brake disc,

which describes the complexity of this project in detail [3].

The incompatibility of inorganic bound sand cores with water-based

coatings, insufficient thermal stability and poor

decoring properties are material-specific weaknesses of inorganic

binder systems that previously limited their use in

iron casting. In addition, there are process-related problems

that must be clarified prior to implementation in series production.

These include greensand compatibility, the handling

of alkaline used sand and ensuring a productivity that

is comparable to cold box technology.

Coating stability

Feasibility studies of inorganic binder systems in iron casting

have shown that the coating of inorganic bound cores

is one of the biggest challenges. Countless efforts to coat filigree

cores have failed, almost all of them resulted in core

breakage. The Inotec binder coating system was systematically

developed with the aim of coating even the most complex

and filigree core geometries, such as water jackets, in a

process-reliable manner.

In the coating-drying process, the sand core is exposed

to an aggressive climate with high humidity after the ap-

Giesserei_DE_EN_1_2_SeiteHoch.indd 1 20.08.2018 12:05:57



relative core strength in %





coating system




binder system

basic binder system optimized binder system optimized coating

cold strength


oven curing

cold strength


Figure 1: Development concept of the binder-coating system: Strength profile (coating stability of the binder system) in the drying

process (Graphics: ASK Chemicals)


binder system





Figure 2: Two-stage optimization step of the binder-coating system facilitates a process-reliable drying process without core breakage

of the delicate water jacket frame core

plication of a water-based coating

and with the heat of a drying oven,

which favors the back-reaction of

the network formation by splitting

the silicate framework. The sand

core thus increasingly loses strength

and is susceptible to deformation or

core breakage when passing through

a strength minimum. If it survives

these critical phases, the sand core

reaches a considerable strength level

again in the further course of the drying

process, but in particular in the

cold strengths.

The optimization of the binder-coating

system can be divided into two

main steps (Figure 1). In a first step,

the coating stability was improved

14 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

y chemically modifying the binder.

During the oven drying, significantly

higher core strength can then be

ensured throughout the entire drying

process. In a second development

step, a new coating was designed that

was specifically tailored to the characteristics

of inorganic cores. By an optimal

combination of both components,

an inorganic binder system and

a water-based coating, the core is only

slightly weakened during the drying


The coating formulation is basically

targeted to a certain application type,

such as dipping or flood application.

It is sought after to develop a coating

that does not unnecessarily stress the

binding system already during application.

In the case of an optimal coating-drying

process, the inorganic sand

core is only slightly stressed resulting

in a high mechanical stability with

a simultaneously low residual moisture.

The risk of casting errors (scabs,

gas bubbles, penetrations) can thus be

significantly reduced and a process-reliable

moisture level of the coated cores

can be ensured. The use of a compatible

binder-coating system first made it

possible to coat even filigree core geometries

such as a water jacket frame

core, in a process-reliable manner

without core breakage (Figure 2).

Thermal deformation

Complex components with low wall

thicknesses (e.g. water jacket) require

a high degree of thermal-mechanical

resistance of the binder system during

casting. [2] Due to the thermoplastic

properties of inorganic binder systems,

the sand core can deform under

the influence of temperature and pressure

from the iron smelt, which results

in a significant dimensional deviation

of the raw casting. Thereby, the thermal

stability of the binder system describes

its ability to withstand the thermal

strain for a certain period of time

without deforming. The thermal stability

is defined by the softening point

of the binder system, which is empirically

determined using the hot stage

microscope (Figure 3a).

Optimizing the binder system can

increase the thermal stability and ensure

the dimensional accuracy of the

castings (Figure 3b).

The use of special water-based coatings

offers another way to counteract

thermal deformation. In the coating

formulation, the specific thermal

conductivity can be specifically controlled

through a defined selection of

suitable refractory components and

through the rheological system. Protected

by the application of a coating

layer on the sand core, the binder system

withstands the thermal and mechanical

loads during casting, which

significantly reduces the degree of

thermal deformation and also improves

the surface quality of the unfinished


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Casting Plant & Technology 3/2018 15



optimized wall thickness


area in %



For example, the compatibility of

inorganic bound used sands with bentonite-bound

molding sand (greensand

compatibility) is a decisive criterion

for the series application of

inorganic binder systems in iron casting.

In every process cycle, inorganic

bound used sand gradually accumulates

in the bentonite-bound molding

sand. However, initial studies have

shown that a core sand concentration

of up to 25 % is considered non-critical.

However, this should be individubasic

binder system optimized binder system


400 600 800 1000 1200

temperature in °C

basic binder system optimized binder system

Figure 3: a) Hot stage microscope investigations of the thermal stability of inorganic binder systems. b) Increasing the dimensional

accuracy of the casting through the targeted adjustment of the thermoplastic properties of the Inotec binder system

Decoring in %






optimized binder system

basic binder system


1 2 3 4 5

6 7

Pressure in bar

Shake-out behavior and decoring


The occasional poorer shake-out behavior

of inorganic cores in iron casting

results from the chemical nature

of waterglas-based systems. Unlike

organic binder systems that pyrolyze

during the casting process, the inorganic

binder system softens and vitrifies

into the state of a supercooled glass

melt during slow cooling. Taking into

consideration additional sintering and

sand expansion effects, this results in

the poor shake-out behavior of the inorganic

bound sand core. This is particularly

pronounced in the filigree core

geometries with an unfavorable sandiron


While organic additives are used in

traditional waterglas-ester or CO 2


to optimize the shake-out (such

as by adding molasses), new inorganic

materials were identified in the course

of continued development, which significantly

increase the decoring behavior,

even with a low energy input

( Figure 4).

The application of coatings also

makes a significant contribution to

increasing the decoring capability.

When uncoated, the liquid iron penetrates

into the sand core, whereby additional

sintering processes negatively

affect the shake-out behavior. A coating

layer can prevent smelting and sintering

processes resulting in a smooth

casting surface, whereby the core can

be more easily removed from the raw


Process engineering challenges

A technological change to inorganic

binder systems also includes process

engineering challenges, as already indicated.

Greensand compatibility, economic

cycle times and the process engineering

handling of alkaline used

sands are examples.

Increase in energy input per decoring interval

Figure 4: Decoring Study of Inotec-bound sand cores after casting (GJL: 1420 °C) – Increasing

the decoring capability by inorganic core sand additives.

16 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

ally validated for the greensand system of each foundry.

When designing the core production processes, an

economic cycle time of the entire process is very relevant.

The chemical and physical curing mechanism results

in a significantly higher overall cycle time in the

core production in the case of very large core cross-sections

or high core weights.

In addition, “inorganic used sands” have a high pH

value, which drastically reduces the processing time of

sand mixtures when using cold box binder systems. Inorganic

used sands are therefore not compatible with

a cold box production, i.e. a separation of inorganic

sands from the cold box sand cycle is required.


The initial feasibility studies and customer projects on

real component geometries highlight the basic potential

of inorganic binder systems of the Inotec technology

in cast iron applications. Already today voluminous

cores and molds with moderate thermal strain

can be used as a partial replacement in a cold box

core package. A big challenge, however, remains the

technological transfer of the inorganic binder system

to the entire core package, whereby the first material-specific

hurdles were already overcome through the

gradual development of an optimized binder-coating


For a series-ready application of inorganic binder systems

in iron casting, the technological findings from

the laboratory must be transferred into practical operational

sequences in order to evaluate and estimate the

overall potential of the current developments. Strong

partnerships between industry and research facilities

are essential for this purpose. Increasing regulations

in the field of environment (market pull) as well as the

progressive development of inorganic binder systems

(market push) should be drivers of corresponding development



your profit

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Dr. Christian Appelt, Global Incubator Business Manager Inorganics,

ASK Chemicals Hilden, Germany




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ExOne.com • europe@exone.com

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2018 17


Model of a thermal sand-conditioning plant (Photos: Omega Foundry Machinery)

Stefan Ermert, Fesco Gießereimaschinen GmbH, Bad Laasphe, und

Chris Wilding, Omega Foundry Machinery, Peterborough

Thermal sand reclamation

for foundries

Today’s modern foundry using one of the many chemically

bonded sand systems available is under increasing pressure to

reduce costs, reduce its impact on the environment but at the

same time improve and maintain its casting quality. One of the

ways of meeting these requirements is to invest in sand reclamation.

Whilst most foundries now have mechanical reclamation,

many are looking to further reduce costs and invest in

thermal reclamation.

temperatures of between 670 °C and

720 °C depending on the type of binder

used. The sizes on offer from Omega

Foundry Machinery, Peterborough,

UK, range from 250 kg/h up to 12 t/h.

The patented “Dead Bed” system

from Omega ensures total heat insulation

and therefore lower running

costs but also a longer life for the ceramic

fibre insulation. This is due to

the “Dead Bed” providing protection

for the insulation from sand erosion

caused by the moving processed sand.

Low running costs are achieved

through a combination of the excellent

insulation of the furnace with the

“Dead Bed” system as well as a heat recovery

module after the furnace that

takes the heat from the hot sand as

it leaves the furnace and reintroduces

that heat as warm air into the fluid

bed section of the furnace. This

means that the fluidizing air is always

warm, leading to lower gas consumption

( Figure 1).

Safety is also of prime concern so

multiple safety systems are employed

to monitor fluid bed ignition, temperatures

for every component (including

dust collector) and level of

sand available for processing. Also, a

full touchscreen HMI with status and

fault finding indications is provided

(Figure 2).

Emissions from the thermal plant

(Figure 3) is guaranteed to be lower

than the local regulations permit as

Omega has sufficient temperature and

retention of gasses in the furnace hood

to ensure that the air leaving the furnace

is clean.

For the Alkaline Phenolic system, a

special inhibitor must be pre-mixed

with the sand to prevent the Alkaline

salts causing low temperature fusing of

sand grains.

Thermal reclamation

The ultimate in sand reclamation is of

course thermal, whereby 100 % of all

binder and other organic material are


Firstly, the sand from the mechanical

reclamation plant will pass through

a cleaning tower which basically removes

any metallic particles prior to

entry into the furnace. The furnace itself

is a fluidized bed design with a gas

and air mixture providing the fluidizing

medium and igniting on the sand

bed surface via pilot gas nozzles.

Typically a thermal unit will run

on natural gas or LPG and operate at

Thermal recovery for green


It is also now possible to thermally

reclaim Green Sand for re-use in the

core shop. A mechanical scrubbing

system is employed before and after

the furnace to ensure that all clay is

removed, but essentially the thermal

reclamation is the same as the nobake


18 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Figure 1: Functional diagram

of the system


Thermal reclamation has been around

for many years but it has now reached

a point where it is cost effective, economic,

reliable and therefore viable for

most foundries to consider.


Figure 2: Screen view for monitoring status and error displays

Figure 3: Overview of all components of

the sand-conditioning plant

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2018 19

The two-metre-long grey cast iron pipes are manufactured in a horizontal centrifugal casting process

Klaus Seeger and Martin Vorrath, Hüttenes-Albertus, Hannover

Structured liners from Bergmann


Usually, no foundry wants a casting with a rough surface. At Bergmann Automotive GmbH

however, this is precisely one of its specialities. The company manufactures structured cylinder

liners using the centrifugal casting process. The structured liners, which have been tried and

tested by many car engine manufacturers, form a strong bond with the surrounding casting

material when they are cast into the engine block. Precise process parameters are decisive for

the production of this product. And a special permanent mold coating from Hüttenes-Albertus

(HA) also plays an important role.

Founded in 1956 by Alfred Tewes under

the name ATE on the site of a former

coal mine, Bergmann Automotive

has gone on to become the market

leader for cylinder liners in Europe.

The foundry located in Barsinghausen

near Hannover, Germany, uses stateof-the-art

production technology to

reliably meet customer specifications

and achieve high productivity.

Cylinder liners provide


Cylinder liners must be able to withstand

high loads. After all, they are exposed

to extreme temperatures, changing

pressures and permanent friction.

Cast into the thin-walled aluminium

engine block, they provide the required

stiffness. Extremely high demands

are placed on the mechanical

properties and wear resistance of this

component. Therefore, good dimensional

stability and excellent metal-

20 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018




160 °C.

Figure 1: Quality control: Measuring the topography of the surface structure

lurgical properties in terms of microstructure

formation and hardness are

crucial (Figure 1).

Technically sophisticated

casting process

The starting product for the cylinder

liners are two-metre-long grey cast

iron tubes, which are manufactured

in a horizontal centrifugal casting

process. The melt, which is precisely

adjusted according to customer specifications,

is filled into a metal mold

that rotates around its central axis

via a casting channel and pressed

against the mold wall by centrifugal

force. The liquid iron solidifies under

the effect of the centrifugal forces

and forms a very pure and highly

compressed structure. No cores are required

to create the cavity during centrifugal

casting. Under the influence

of centrifugal force, a cylindrical hollow

body is formed whose wall thickness

is determined by the quantity of

metal fed in. After solidification, the

blanks produced in this way are removed

from the die and transferred

for further machining.

Heavy duty bond

The structured liners, which many customers

have already come to appreciate

the benefits of, are a special feature

of Bergmann’s product portfolio.

The liner’s outer wall has a rough surface

structure, which is created during

the casting process and does not require

any further machining. The

structure features depths between 0.3

and 1.1 mm – with or without undercuts,

depending on customer specifications.

During the production of aluminium

engine blocks, structured

liners are cast in directly using the

die casting process. The molten metal

flows around the textured surface,

filling cavities and undercuts, so that

the materials of both components –

engine block and liner – form an extremely

strong and resilient bond. Another

advantage of the structured liner

is its larger surface area: It ensures better

heat conductivity from the combustion

chamber to the water jacket

in the engine (Figure 2).

Partners for joint


Obtaining the desired outer wall structure

during the casting process requires

very special expertise, which

Bergmann has accumulated over many

years of development work. “The formation

of the structure is adjusted via

the process parameters”, says Wolfgang

Jörns, Foundry Manager at Bergmann

Automotive. “In addition to

these process parameters, the right

mold coating is also important”.


Figure 2: This cross-section shows the

boundary line of the cast-in cylinder liner

made of grey cast iron and cast into the

engine block. Due to their structure, the

two materials are very firmly interlocked

Figure 3: Only the inner and end faces

are machined after casting the structured


Figure 4: The coating is applied with a

spray lance

When it comes to coating, the company

works closely with HA’s coating

specialists. For the centrifugal casting

process, Hüttenes-Albertus, Düsseldorf,

Germany, offers different

types of mold coatings under the Centrikoat

brand. As there was no off-theshelf

product for such a specialized application,

the solution was developed

step-by-step in cooperation with HA’s

experienced chemists and foundry specialists

– from the first trials through to

series production.

As the coating is applied in the rotating

die, the spray pattern remains invisible

in the “black box” and cannot

be analyzed immediately. That’s why

experiments were conducted with various

additives and viscosities until the

desired results were achieved. Combined

expertise and innovative ideas

finally led to the development of special

Centrikoat variants, which are used

in the production of the structured liners

that are now well established on the

market. Nevertheless, the development

is still ongoing, because with increasing

demands, the process window becomes

smaller and smaller (Figure 3).

Requirements for a centrifugal

casting coating

The requirements for centrifugal casting

coatings are described below:

Insulating effect

The insulating effect of the coating

is an important factor for the microstructure

and the hardness profile

– and thus for the later mechanical

load-bearing capacity of the liner.

It ensures a slower heat transfer from

the molten metal to the mold, thus

contributing to the control of solidification

and cooling. The insulation

effect is influenced by the layer thickness.

Solids content, viscosity and rheological

properties must be balanced

in such a way that, on the one hand,

the desired layer thickness is achieved,

while at the same time, the coating

can be sprayed well and applied evenly.

Since the coating is a dispersion

that can segregate during storage, appropriate

treatment is necessary before

application. By determining the

density by a baumé-stick or the efflux

time by a flow cup, the coating is adjusted

on-site to achieve the desired

processing viscosity (Figure 4).

Drying speed

The process parameters play an important

role when applying the coating

in the spraying process. In order

to create a textured surface, the coating

is sprayed at a lower rotation speed

than usual. In order to achieve short

cycle times – and thus high productivity

– in production, the coating must

dry quickly. Bergmann is planning a

new production line with a fully automatic

casting rotation table for the

production of structured liners in order

to achieve even greater economic

Figure 5: The coating adheres to the pipe and is pulled out of the die as completely as


22 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018



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with the JOEST Recycling Plant

Figure 6: A continuous coating layer contributes to cleanliness in the workplace

efficiency. In future, this will place additional

demands on the drying time

of the coating.

Gas absorption capacity

Since the metallic permanent mold in

centrifugal casting is impermeable to

gas, the die coating plays an important

role in “gas management”. In order

to avoid gas defects such as pinholes,

the coating must have a certain porosity

and be able to absorb decomposition

gases. At the same time, the gas

production of the coating itself should

be as low as possible, which requires a

low organic content, measurable in

the loss on ignition.

Extraction behaviour

In terms of work processes, extraction

behaviour is an important property.

When the tube is pulled out of the die

after solidification, the coating should

adhere to it and ideally be completely

removed from the die. For the cleanliness

of the workplace, it is desirable to

have a continuous coating layer on the

pipe that produces as little dust as possible.

When the coating is blasted in

the next step, it must be easy to remove

– even from the undercuts of the structure.

For health and safety reasons, the

coating must not contain crystalline

quartz silica (Figures 5 and 6).

One-stop solutions

In addition to the die coating tailored

for structured liners, Bergmann opts

for further solutions from Hüttenes-Albertus.

For example, HA also supplies

a coating for the production of cylinder

liners with smooth surfaces, which

have mechanically processed outer

surfaces. As an effective release agent

for all surfaces that come into contact

with molten iron, i.e. casting pots, barrels,

ladles and gutters, the company

uses the HA coating Nekropal, a water-based

graphite coating.

Integrating coating expertise into

process development

When it comes to manufacturing rotationally

symmetrical components,

centrifugal casting is a proven, technically

sophisticated casting process.

The production of cylinder liners at

Bergmann Automotive is an example

of how close cooperation between the

foundry and its suppliers leads to the

development of innovative solutions.

From the automotive, chemical and

paper industries; from pipes and rollers

to liners: there are many fields of

application with very specific requirements.

The casting result can be specifically

influenced by selecting the correct

coating as well as the appropriate

machine and process parameters. For

this reason, foundries would do well

to draw on the expertise of an experienced

coating provider when developing

processes for centrifugal casting

applications at an early stage.



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JÖST_Anzeige_CPT_2018_03.indd 1 05.09.2018 09:24:32


Mold friability is a decisive factor for the quality and economy of a casting (Photos and graphics: Imerys Metalcasting Germany)

Oleg Podobed, Maximilian Eilhard, Sandra Böhnke, Jens Brune, Imerys Metalcasting Germany GmbH, Marl

Friability tester for

molding materials

The friability tester is a highly promising tool for examining and adjusting the composition of

molding sand systems in order to achieve a stable mold and prevent the wash-out of sands. This

tool has recently been rediscovered in Europe after it had disappeared for a long time

( Figure 1). In combination with classic laboratory tests, such as compactability, moisture and

sand temperature measurements, the friability tester quickly provides information as to the

moldability and the resistance to “mechanical” erosion

Requirements on molding


Bentonite-bonded molding sands have

to cope with ever new and ever more

demanding challenges because molding

lines operate at shorter cycle times

and higher compaction pressures, the

patterns become more complex all the

time and flask utilization is constantly

being maximized, section thicknesses

become thinner and casting temperatures

higher, sand recirculation processes

run very fast resulting in the

molding materials being subjected to

varying stress. Ultimately, the mold is

expected to be stable and suitable to

produce a flawless and economic casting.

Molding sand has proved to be and

will continue to be appreciated as a robust

and extremely resilient material.

However, it needs more attention to

make available its full potential.

This article focuses on less frequently

studied criteria for the assessment

of the molding material quality, such

as plasticity, moldability and friabili-

24 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Figure 1: Friability tester by Simpson Technologies GmbH

Foundry A B C D E

Fmax [N] 439.2 317.4 348.7 387.0 338.5

smax [N] 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.50 0.73

Young’s modulus [N/mm²] 1006.0 502.2 790.5 938.3 504.1

Strain energy [N*mm] 127.3 145.1 91.5 100.5 136.1

Compressive strength [N/cm²] 22.4 15.2 17.8 19.7 16.2

Shear strength [N/cm²] 4.5 3.7 3.9 3.9

Moisture [%] 3.9 4.48 3.64 3.08 3.02

Com [%] 31 32 33 35 27

Active clay [%] 9.6 9 8.3 8.4 7.3

Fines content [%] 12.4 14.7 11.6 9.9 9.6

Table 1: Measuring results. F max

: force; s max

: deformation; Com: compactability

ty, in order to establish a relationship

between the molding sand quality and

potential molding and casting defects

and to define precise recommendations

as to how process-safe working

ranges can be defined for such criteria.

The authors’ impression is that in

the foundries the above mentioned

parameters are not or only sporadically

measured. Such measurements are

typically performed at universities or

by suppliers and instrument manufacturers.

This is often for the simple

reasons that the necessary equipment

is not available or there are no clear

guidelines, instructions or recommendations

as to how these tests have to

be performed and their results evaluated.

During the last few years, these

aspects have largely been neglected

within the European foundry industry,

although the topic as such is not

new. In the German-speaking world, it

was already discussed, for example, by

Boenisch und Ruhland [1].

The examinations described in this

article were performed using compactabi

lity testers, the ramming device,

high-speed dryers, equipment for determining

the shatter index (a parameter

indicating the plastic behaviour

of molding materials under dynamic

stress) and the moldability limit. The

examinations were mainly performed

Increasing compactability







Pin holes

Supervoids on

vertical faces

Poor finish

Gas, rough






Decreasing compactability



Cuts and washes


broken edges

Hard to lift


Cope downs




Figure 2: Effect of the compactability on the behaviour of the molding material and on casting defects caused by the molding

material [5]

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2018 25


Friability, %










Moisture, % 3,4



Friability, % 10,3 10,3



44 43 41 38 37

Compactability, %

Figure 3: Friability vs. compactability

54 °C (WG 3.62/VD 35)

67 °C (WG 3.82/VD 36)


47 °C (WG 3.89/VD 34)

58 °C (WG 3.21/VD 31)






Moisture (immediately), %

with operating sands – both in foundries

and in Imerys’ molding sand service


In order to examine the various

stages of molding material preparation

and mold making under realistic

conditions, the experiments were

conducted at time intervals, taking

into account the applicable working

instructions, i.e. measurements were

taken at different times from the time

of sample preparation. For horizontal

molding lines the tests were conducted

immediately, after 15 minutes and

after 30 minutes, in order not to only

simulate the “normal” operating situation

but also incidents like, for example,

a malfunction or an interruption

of production. For vertical molding

lines, in which the molds are closed

after a very short time, the measurements

were taken immediately, after 5

minutes and after 15 minutes.

Friability, %






immediately after 15 min. after 30 min.

Figure 4: High temperatures increase friability losses, to the more the lower the compactability

Friability, %















without starch 0,20 % 0,25 %


immediately 15


Sample setting time, min

Figure 5: Resistance to friability with starch added to the molding sand

The shatter index does

not provide meaningful


Determining the shatter index was discontinued

due to the great volatility of

the results and the low sensitivity of

the index. The reliability of the results

depends largely on the compactability.

Seemingly, this method provides reliable

plasticity information about the

molding sand (good or less good) only

for the higher compactability range (40

to 50 %). This may make this method

suitable only for semiautomatic single

molding machines. However, foundries

operating these machines hardly

ever have a laboratory or the suitable

testing equipment for molding sand


The literature states the following:

Too low or too high an index - in other

words too dry or too moist - is deleterious

to molding sand. “Too moist”

and consequently “too plastic” molding

sands are difficult to compact. The

castings made with such molding

sands are susceptible to dimensional

inaccuracies (expansion defects) and

the sands may cause shake-out problems.

In contrast to this, “dry” molding

sands flow much better. But they

are more prone to cracking, broken

edges, and cuts and washes, which

26 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

may lead to inclusions of sand in the

castings (Figure 2).

Abrasion resistance

According to instrument manufacturer

Simpson, based in Aurora, USA, “a friability

value above 11 % can indicate a

tendency to produce dirt defects and

loss of casting surface quality”. Initially,

it does not become clear why the

critical value should be 11% (and not

10%, 12 %, etc.). However, the formulation

“can indicate a tendency” is very

interesting. According to the authors,

with values below 12 %, molding sands

generally ensure a good result, provided

that the molding line or the patterns to

not have any significant deficits. When

the molds are assembled quickly and

pouring takes place without delay, good

casting results can be expected.

On the other hand, the results become

distinctly worse, for example,

when the sand temperatures are high

(> 45°C) or the compactability is too

low. The same happens when the mixing

times are too short, the molding material

has to be transported a long way

to the molding line or the produced

molds are left open for too long before

the pouring takes place (Figure 3).

Interestingly, the results determined

in the laboratory experiments are very

much the same as those measured in

the foundries. It seems that the sand

temperature has a greater influence

than the compactability variations

due to the transport effects (Figure 4).

The moisture was identical in most

cases, due to the fact that the samples

were sealed all the time. The method

can also be used, for example, to provide

quantitative proof of the positive

effects of starch, glues or cereal binders

(Figure 5). Also here it can be observed

that the effect of these additives

decreases with time (i.e. with the setting

time of the samples or molds).

Higher mold compaction leads to

lower friability – if the mold properties

remain the same (Figure 6). The reasons

being higher strengths and the

coherent surface. However, it has to be

noted that excessive compaction may

cause breaking of sand cods, gas-induced

defects and explosive penetration.

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Friability, %







3 Ramming strokes 9 Ramming strokes

immediately after 15 min. after 30 min.

Figure 6: Compaction vs. friability resistance

Figure 7: Instrument for determining the deformation behaviour

Standard force, N







0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8

The investigations were complemented

by the additional use of state-of-theart

instruments ( Figure 7) in order to

measure the plastic behaviour of the

production sands ( Figure 8). The readings

are listed in Table 1. The research

Compression, mm

Figure 8: Resulting compression stress-strain curves



into the relationship between molding

and casting issues and the quantitative

formulation of evaluation criteria is

planned to be continued. Corresponding

research activities are already under

way, for example, at the Austrian Foundry

Institute under the responsibility of

Hubert Kerber.

However, the root causes of erosions

and washes are often very complex and

versatile. They may result from an inappropriate

gating system, large quantities

or high flow rates of metal, long

casting times above the ingate, damage

of the mold during assembling or core

setting, or insufficient mold properties

due to higher sand temperatures. Even

reactions between bentonite-bonded

molding sand and individual inoculants

have been reported which can be

similar to sand or slag inclusions

The methodology is not able to simulate

the thermal behaviour of the

molding material. A “modified” version

of the friability tester, as used at

the Technical University of Freiberg,

may help here. The modified tester

measures the friability losses at room

temperature and under a heating lamp.

However, a comparison of both has not

been made yet. Notwithstanding the

above, in order to provide direct quantitative

information about the susceptibility

to casting defects or about the

quantities of lost molding material and

scrap casting, it is essential to conduct

a comprehensive on-site analysis at the

foundry because the interaction between

the molding material (bentonite,

lustrous carbon agents, auxiliary

materials), the metallurgy and the gating

system and, above all, the quality

requirements of the foundry have to be

taken into account.

The authors are committed to develop

a comprehensive expert system for

the analysis of molding sands for product

development and for foundry use,

employing state-of-the-art analytical

methods and latest measuring devices.



Dr.-Ing. Oleg Podobed, Head of Application

Technology; Maximilian Eilhard, M.Sc., Account

Manager; Dipl.-Geol. Sandra Böhnke,

Science & Technology; Dipl.-Geol. Jens

Brune, Head of Laboratory Activities, Imerys

Metalcasting Germany GmbH, Marl



28 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018


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The profitability of a die casting foundry can be sustainably improved by a systematic analysis of all influencing factors

(Photos & Graphics: Bühler AG)

Marc Fuchs, Bühler AG, Uzwil, Switzerland

Process optimization of a

die casting cell

Efficient processes are key to the commercial success of die casting foundries. As a result, producers

are continuously trying to optimize their processes in order to increase the quality of the

products as well as the profit. However, many factors influence the production process and the

number of targeted measures varies accordingly. A systematic approach is recommended for

sustainable process optimization

Established and reliable information

about the current status of the particular

plant provides the foundation for

every process optimization. In practice,

looking at the overall equipment

effectiveness (OEE) has proven to be

beneficial. The three most important

factors for this key figure are the number

of rejects, the degree of utilization

of the machine and the amount of

downtime incurred as well as the productivity

of the die casting cell itself

(Figure 1). The OEE is directly reflected

in the cost efficiency of a die casting

foundry. The OEE is a specific measure

for checking the efficiency and cost effectiveness

of a plant. It also helps to

identify measures required to increase

effectiveness. Experience has shown

that the OEE should be above 65 % for

die casting plants.

30 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

other hand, internal errors such as

pores, cavities or inclusions as well as

surface flaws such as cracks, cold shuts

and burr formation must be taken into

account. Depending on the error –

which might also appear in combination

with other errors – specific corrective

measures are taken. As a rule, this

would include adjusting the parameters

of the die casting machine and the

peripheral devices, as well as modifying

the casting die. In some cases, this

is not enough and more changes have

to be made to the design of the die.

However, this step tends to be more

time-consuming and costly.

Figure 1: An example of how to calculate the OEE. The key figure is calculated using

the product taken from the degree of utilization, the output ratio and the degree of

quality of the die casting cell

A systematic approach

For the systematic process optimization,

it has to be analyzed at first which

factor affects the OEE the most. Depending

on the component produced

and the conditions in the foundry,

some deterioration in performance

and quality as well as varying degrees

of downtime might be found. If

a high number of rejects are produced

in a particular plant, the focus is first

placed on the quality of the castings

during optimization. In this case, it is

not expedient to spend a lot of time at

first thinking about improving the cycle

time or the degree of utilization.

The degree of utilization and the stability

of the process are examined in

a second step, and then end by taking

measures to improve the cycle time.

Possible control variables that have a

direct influence on these three factors

include the machine, the available die,

but also the person (Figure 2). Since it

takes great effort to modify the die,

fine-tuning on the machine results in

improvements very quickly. The efficiency

of a die casting cell can also

be increased through instruction and

well-instructed personnel.

are clearly identified. This refers to a

physical process error that might cause

some malfunction on the component.

On the one hand, these include misshaping

such as deformation, warping

or displacement of dies. On the

Improving productivity

In order to show the discrepancy between

possible and actual production

time, a well-founded evaluation of the

downtimes is needed. Downtime may

be caused by maintenance and service,

technical failures and repairs as well as

organizational coasting due to operating

errors, a lack of material and personnel.

Automatic evaluation of downtime

and reasons for that are provided

Increasing quality, minimizing


Measures taken to improve quality will

only reach their goal if casting errors

Figure 2: Quality, efficiency and cycle time determine the OEE. They are influenced by

the machine and peripheral equipment, as well as by die casting and stamping dies,

and by people involved in the process

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /2018 31


Figure 3: Specialized software solutions such as the Bühler Event Analyzer allow for the precise analysis of reasons and duration of


Figure 4: Consistency of the process is an important variable as regards productivity. In unsatisfactory cases (Foundry A), production

is interrupted every 21 minutes on average. In cases where production is balanced (Foundry B), the average time is 72 minutes.

These values can be increased considerably

32 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Figure 5: By comparing the reasons for downtime over time, corrective actions are checked in terms of their effectiveness

by special software tools such as the

“Event-Analyzer” by die casting machine

manufacturer Bühler from Uzwil

in Switzerland, which is installed on the

machine control system. It generates a

LOG File that is submitted to Bühler’s

team of experts and which can be evaluated

by them. These evaluations and

statistics are returned to the foundry

which is then able to derive concrete

measures for improving productivity

together with Bühler (Figure 3).

If the data collected from various

foundries is compared, surprising results

can be seen. While casting plants

with balanced production hardly

ever register interruptions and operate

for up to 100 minutes in automatic

mode, plants with instable processes

register up to 200 interruptions per

day. Sometimes they operate for less

than 10 minutes in automatic mode

( Figure 4). Based on these data, it is not

difficult to recognize which potential

for increasing productivity has been

neglected. By consistently searching

for causes and adjusting measures to

Figure 6: Average values of a cycle time analysis of various castings and machine sizes:

Around 66 % of the cycle time is used for spraying and cooling the die until the correct

temperature for extraction is reached. Substantial savings can be achieved at this point

if conformal cooling is used

be taken, the degree of utilization of

a die casting plant is increased with a

lasting effect. The results are also interesting

when one looks at the reasons

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /2018 33


of or prepared. Currently there are already

technologies for cooling the die

efficiently and quickly from the inside,

even for complex components. However,

concrete ideas are needed already

during the die designing phase, e.g. regarding

where it would be possible and

useful for die tempering.

Figure 7: Example of a component optimized, conformal cooling structure as part of

the research NeuroTemp project (Source: Hofmann Innovation Group)

for the downtime over a longer period

of time. The results of measures for improvement

can then be clearly evaluated

(Figure 5).

Efficient changes in


Observations made in die casting

plants have also shown that an efficient

change of die provide an enormous

contribution to increasing the

productivity of the machine. An instrument

used to optimize productivity

of a casting cell is called SMED (Single

Minute Exchange of Die). SMED

is an approach which can be used to

make the change of production more

efficient and faster. The time it takes

to change the die is reduced by using

standardized procedures and dies,

such as quick-coupling, and the plant

is ready for production much sooner.

Improving cycle time

Optimizing the cycle time leads directly

to an increase in the rate of production.

In other words: the number of good

parts that have been produced within

a given period of time increases. With

the currently commonly used die casting

process, approximately 45 % of the

time is used for the external output of

energy during spraying (Figure 6). This

can be problematic because long cycle

times do not only decrease the productivity

of the machine. They also lead to

huge thermal loads and, therefore, to a

shorter die life. Furthermore, approximately

40 % of the cycle time is used

for dosing and solidifying the aluminum.

These figures clearly show that

the seamless integration of the peripheral

equipment in the die casting process

as well as improvements of thermal

management through conformal cooling

and new processes such as minimum

quantity spraying promise great


Thermal management

The greatest potential for improving

efficiency for aluminum die casting

is found in the thermal management

of the process. In particular, cooling

the casting from the outside using

the spraying process will be reduced.

The real job of the spraying process is

the application of die releasing agent

which ensures that the molten aluminum

does not react to the steel in the

die and remain stuck. At the same time,

the die is protected against corrosion.

Using the spraying process for cooling

takes a long time and uses up resources.

A lot of the die releasing agent is

required and then has to be disposed

Conformal cooling

These days, the use of additive manufacturing

processes for making die inserts

has already become widely used in

injection molding technology. However,

they are rarely used in die casting

technology. Nevertheless, one has already

seen that for a cast component

the cooling time alone can be reduced

by about half based on the correct setup

of three-dimensional cooling structures

on the die (Figure 7). At the same

time, branching of the cooling channels

allows for a more homogenous

surface temperature and higher cooler

flow rates. However, the design of the

dies and the distribution of the cooling

structures are complex and extremely

challenging procedures. Nevertheless,

the higher costs involved for the

design and construction of the dies are

more than offset in the overall account

by the shorter cycle time and the lower

consumption of resources.

Minimum quantity spraying

The minimum spraying technology

together with an optimized, internal

die cooling system is recommended.

Since the die no longer has to be

cooled during the spraying process,

applying only a thin layer of die separating

agent is sufficient. This allows

for a massive reduction of the spraying

time on the one hand and on the

other hand, huge savings in spraying

agent, compressed air and water consumption

(Figure 8). This also reduces

corrosion of the die, and the service

life of the die is increased significantly.

Parallel processes

The cycle time is effectively reduced

by having parallel processes. These

days, the processes of the die casting

machine and those of peripheral devices,

such as the trim press, are handled

separately. The reason for this is

34 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Sample calculation 1

Component: Electronic housing

Die: Quadruple

Weight: 200 grams

Annual volume: 1,500,000 pieces

Machine locking force: 1,000 tons

Cycle time: 45 seconds

Figure 8: The cycle time can be reduced in the long term by using minimum spraying


that the casting process is monitored

by the machine control system, but

parts extraction and further treatment

are monitored by the local robot

control system. Thus, overall optimization

is difficult and options are limited.

However, there is huge potential

for the future with higher-level, global

cell management. Core processes with

higher priority will continue to be given

preference. Based on the complete

integration and thus improved coordination

of peripheral devices, synchronized

movements, shorter startup

phases and reduced cycle times can

be attained. At the same time, it is possible

to substantially increase the uptime

of the casting cell.

Profitable use

In practice, this step-by-step approach

to process optimization has proved

successful. Regardless of whether the

work is done under one’s own direction

or if an external consultant is

hired, impressive results are achieved.

Besides improved quality of production,

the foundry benefits from the

increased efficiency of its systems. At

the same time, it also works in a more

ecologically sound manner since consumption

of resources is significantly

reduced. In future, an additional, notable

increase in productivity will become

possible through the introduction

of cell management.

Economic influence of optimizing

the OEE

Improving the OEE is synonymous

with the increase of the output of good

parts per time unit. This significantly

increases the efficiency of a given die

casting foundry.

OEE improved by…


5 % results in an annual savings of

41,300 US-Dollars or 40,500 euros

(equals 2 %)


10 % results in an annual savings of

78,000 US-Dollars or 76,500 euros

(equals 3.8 %)


15 % results in an annual savings of

111,700 US-Dollars or 109,500 euros

(equals 5.4 %)

Sample calculation 2

Component: Motor block, 4 cylinders

Die: Single

Weight: 12,000 grams

Annual volume: 200,000 pieces

Machine locking force: 2,800 tons

Cycle time: 90 seconds

OEE improved by…


5 % results in an annual savings of

84,000 US-Dollars or 82,400 euros

(equals 1.1 %)


10 % results in an annual savings of

159,000 US-Dollars or 155,600 euros

(equals 2.1 %)


15 % results in an annual savings of

225,400 US-Dollars or 221,000 euros

(equals 2.9 %)


Extensive Offers not only for the Castings Industry !!!

Engineering – Manufacturing – Service

Please visit us at Ankiros ’18

Hall 2 – booth C110

Products and Services in Detail

Shake-out Feeders of different types and grid designs

incl. PLC/PC-assisted control systems for electronic adjustment

of oscillation angle and speed

Casting and Reclaimed Sand Coolers incl. PLC/PC-assisted control


Shake-out Vibro Drums incl. PLC/PC-assisted control systems

Coolers and Dryers for other branches

Weighing and dosing equipments

Charging Feeders for furnaces incl. PLC-assisted control


Feeders and Conveying Systems

Vibratory Screens and Conveyors

Engineering and Manufacturing of Complete Plants

Sand Preparation Plant

Sand Hopper Systems

Electronic Oscillation Monitors

Electric Control and Regulating Systems

Ceiling Oscillation Dampers

Oscillation Analyses at Vibrating Machines

Plan engineering via 3D Scan

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Casting Plant & Technology 3 /2018 35


Robert Piterek, German Foundry Association, Düsseldorf

On the peak of inventiveness

The 100% Bosch-owned subsidiary Buderus Guss has won the German Innovation Award with

a wear-optimized gray cast iron brake disc that offers enormous reductions in fine particle emissions,

a long service life, and is corrosion-free. The environmentally friendly and sustainable

foundry product could contribute towards solving the current problem with fine particles – and

is a good reason to believe in the future potential of cast iron

Driving restrictions for diesel vehicles

are being discussed in many of Germany’s

cities. This is because of the high

nitrogen oxide and fine particle levels

on the most travelled roads of major

conurbations. As regards fine particles,

a classic foundry product now

promises a way out of this complicated

situation: the new iDisc* produced

by Bosch subsidiary Buderus Guss.

The brake discs, made of cast iron with

lamellar graphite (gray cast iron) and a

tungsten-carbide hard-metal coating,

is the right answer to the current debate

and to demands made of brakes in

the dawning age of e-mobility.

Fully automatic coating cells for brake discs in Ludwigshütte. Robots coat the brake

discs with tungsten-carbide using the flame spraying process

Excellent marketing potential

In addition to a performance that

comes close to the ceramic brakes

used in racing, the brake discs reduce

the fine particle pollution caused by

friction by up to 90 percent. Wear itself

is also decreased by about the

same amount, while scoring and rust

are now things of the past. The corrosion

resistance of the brake discs is

particularly important for e-vehicles,

because this advantage ensures immediate

readiness for use and thus prevents

“the effect of sleeping brakes,”

as Gerhard Pfeifer, Managing Director

of Buderus Guss, stresses. “For us,

as a brake disc producer, e-mobility

is therefore not a disruptive development

– it promises even more new

business,” he adds proudly.

The iDisc is an enormous step forward

for his company and for the sector:

it gives mass-produced brake discs

a unique selling point with excellent

marketing potential. The pioneering

36 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

* Patented product

Ludwigshütte in Biedenkopf now accommodates the Development Department of

Buderus Guss. Most of the coating of the brake discs to produce the iDisc takes place


brake components also show that innovations

are still possible even with

classic foundry products. Gerhard

Pfeifer has led Buderus Guss since early

2016 and can look back at almost 30

years in the Bosch Group.

The iDisc is a top-class


Having reached serial maturity of the

technology in 2017, the iDisc underwent

extremely rapid development.

It was initially presented on a Porsche

Cayenne Turbo at the IAA in September

last year, where it was called the Porsche

Surface-Coated Brake (PSCB). Then it

won the Bosch Innovation Award in

December – which is a real feat given

that the technology group has more

than 400,000 employees worldwide.

And, finally, the iDisc was lifted to the

peak of inventiveness when it won the

German Innovation Award in the SME

category in April 2018. For the first

time one could mention a brake disc in

the same breath as current top inventions.

The iDisc shared the public spotlight

of this year’s German Innovation

Awards with revolutionary new developments

such as the cable-free lift from

thyssenkrupp Elevators or the so-called

Speedfactory from Adidas, a fully automated

and individual sports shoe production,

that manufactures the soles of

the shoes with a 3-D printer.

Is the iDisc a game-changer?

“We have developed the right product

at the right time,” Thomas Pfeiffer,

Head of Development of the iDisc, is

convinced. The brake expert has driven

forward and successfully completed

development of the iDisc during

the last three-and-a-half years in a

project involving numerous employees,

including some coating experts.

Work on a wear-optimized brake disc

has already been going on for almost

ten years. The aim has been to transfer

the properties of hard-metal coated

tools to brake discs. The cost of the

project: in the significant double-digit


It is strange that the public debate

on fine particles implies that the diesel

combustion engine is principally

responsible for the high level of fine

particle pollution. During conversations

with the Head of Development,

however, it becomes clear that the

combustion engine itself only leads

to five percent of particle emissions,

while the abrasion of tires and brakes

are each responsible for 15 percent of

such emissions. The remaining 65 percent

is due to, among other things, the

whirling up of road wear.

Logically, then, an almost complete

prevention of brake-related fine particle

pollution would have a greater

effect in German cities than a driving

ban for diesel engines – a fact that

would appear to be a game-changer in

the current debate on fine particles, if

only it would finally be carried out objectively

in public!

Highly automated interlinked


The sacred halls of new innovation are

located in Ludwigshütte in Biedenkopf

(in central Hessen). Here, in the

Buderus Guss Managing Director Gerhard Pfeifer (left), Head of Development Thomas

Pfeiffer (center), and CP+T-Editor Robert Piterek (right) during a research visit to Biedenkopf

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2018 37


The surface of the brake disc is roughened during the structuring

processing step, decisively contributing towards stability of

the coating

Processing cell for the High Velocity Oxygen Fuel coating process

so-called ‘Iron Valley’ along the River

Lahn, Buderus Guss still produces

and processes cast iron at its Breidenbach,

Lollar and Ludwigshütte sites –

now mainly for the automotive industry.

Buderus Guss was founded nearly

300 years ago in 1731. The workforce

today comprises around 800 employees,

who produce around 20 million

castings per year.

The Ludwigshütte mill used to employ

about 900 casters. Now the Development

Department of Buderus

Guss and the processing center for

hard-metal coating of brake discs

are located here. Their actual production

takes place in Breidenbach,

where 750 employees work. The discs,

weighing up to 18 kg, are then processed

to create iDiscs in highly automated

interlinked processes in Ludwigshütte.

A sizeable machine park has been

gathered in the processing hall. The

hard-metal coating applied here is so

stable that it meets maximum thermal

as well as mechanical demands

and does not crumble, as Managing

Director Gerhard Pfeifer explains.

“The brake discs must still be functional

even if they are red hot,” as the

qualified industrial engineer and father

of three children describes it vividly.

“The discs start glowing at about

800°C,” adds Head of Development

Thomas Pfeiffer.

The coating process starts: removal of an uncoated brake disc from a container

Coating with one of the

world’s hardest materials

The core process is so-called High Velocity

Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) coating, a

common flame spraying process. The

coating is carried out in a fully automatic

cell with robots. In the HVOF

process, tungsten-carbide powder is

mixed with oxygen as a driver and

ethene as a catalyst to burn and melt

the powder – to create one of the hardest

materials in the world. During the

high-speed flame spraying process,

tungsten-carbide particles hit the disc

at supersonic speed and momentarily

envelop it in an aura of light.

The layer is only 100 μm thick at the

end but lasts for about 100,000 kilometers.

A maintenance-free braking system

that would reach the average lifetime

of a vehicle is conceivable with

a layer thickness of 300 μm – the customer,

however, makes the decision regarding

the thickness of the layer, and

this may be affected by strategic considerations

regarding after-sales business.

In addition to the positive effects

on the environment and service life,

the coated brake discs also offer further

potential for light construction.

This is because the massively reduced

38 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

wear makes the so-called ‘wear allowance’

unnecessary. Abandoning this

makes it possible to achieve astonishing

weight reductions for the discs and

brake caliper: “We are talking here of

weight savings of four to six kilograms

per vehicle,” explains Pfeifer and adds

that “This directly improves fuel consumption!”

During the subsequent grinding

process, the coated brake discs are

ground down and are then as smooth

as glass. “The discs even look the same

after 10,000, 20,000 or more kilometers,”

stresses the Managing Director.

The wheel rims always remain clean

as a consequence. The iDisc is now installed

in the Porsche Cayenne Turbo as

standard. And in order to clearly show

which brakes are installed in which vehicle

Porsche produces the brake calipers

of the different brake variants in

differing colors. iDisc brakes have been

installed if the view of the brake calipers

through the wheel rims show that

they are white.

Increased production


Painting and marking with a Data Matrix

Code (DMC) are carried out during

the final two work steps, then the

wear-optimized brake discs are ready

for dispatch.

Up to now, annual production has

still been relatively limited, particularly

when compared with the company’s

annual total production of 18 million

brake discs. After completion of

current negotiations with “numerous

well-known customers”, however, the

quantity will rise rapidly. Investment

capital has already been set aside for

this purpose.

Despite all the refinement of the

coating process, the brake discs predominantly

consist of gray cast iron.

“This is the ideal material for brake

discs and we do not currently see any

alternative,” Managing Director Pfeifer

makes clear. And for a good reason:

“The decision regarding this material

can be traced back to the main functions

of brake discs: firstly, because of

brake torque transmission, for which

the disc provides the structure. And,

secondly, it is a heat reservoir for intermediate

storage of the brake energy,”

says Head of Development Pfeiffer.

Competitive price

The brake discs basically remain a mass

product made up of proven and recyclable

cast iron. And that plays a role in the

price, which is more than that of conventional

brake discs but is highly competitive

compared to ceramic brakes offering

the same performance. The discs,

however, no longer brake in a largely

abrasive manner, but mostly act adhesively.

“It is a force of attraction between

molecules,” brake expert Pfeiffer explains

the braking effect. “One can compare

it with a wet eraser on a mirror.”

Different brake linings are required for

the new braking principle. So development

partner Porsche had to completely

redesign the braking system with the

iDisc in the new Porsche Cayenne Turbo.



Gravity and Low Pressure

Die Casting Machines,

Trimming Presses,

Automation, Turnkey Solutions,

Engineering and Services.

NADCA 2018

15–17 October,

Indianapolis, IN

Visit us at booth 644

Kurtz Foundry Machines


Casting Plant & Technology 3/2018 39


Flame spraying pistols just before use: both the lower and upper sides of the brake discs are coated

The brake disc casters on the banks

of the River Lahn have recognized that

this is an opportunity for safeguarding

their business in the long term –

their plans meanwhile also extend beyond

sales in Europe. “We see a very

good future for the iDisc and opportunities

with customers who have previously

not been approachable, on other

continents for example,” according

to Gerhard Pfeifer. “Brake disc business

has so far been regional, and they are

not normally shipped overseas, but

this can change,” he describes his vision

for global expansion. With 260

sites in 50 countries, Bosch’s good infrastructure

can also play a role in this:

“The fact that Bosch has such a good

worldwide presence gives us the opportunity

to make plans within existing

Bosch structures.” Pfeifer also sees

possible customers for the iDisc in the

USA and Asia.

Politicians are also showing


Pfeifer recently had a visit from a

high-ranking politician. There is

At Porsche, the development partner of

Buderus Guss, the brake system is called

the Porsche Surface Coated Brake (PSCB).

The white brake caliper shows that an

iDisc is installed here

great interest in this environmentally

friendly product, though there has

not been any political commitment to

introduce the iDisc extensively to reduce

fine particle levels. “Up to now,

demand is more strongly influenced by

performance than by the environmental

contribution of the brake discs,” admits


Development of the iDisc gives gray

cast iron brake discs a future orientation

because the new coating technology

enables the optimized brake

components to outlast the upcoming

development in mobility from combustion,

through hybrid drive, to electric

motor. The iDisc, however, also offers

the chance to contribute towards

solving current environmental problems.

Politics can also help here – if the

statements of its representatives about

wanting to comply with fine particle

limit values are not simply paying lip

service to the topic!


40 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Reports and

product news on

GIFA 2019



It’s time again in Düsseldorf,

from 25 - 29 June 2019: the foundry

sector once more presents itself as

a high-tech industry.

We look forward to your press releases and

specialist reports for GIFA 2019!


e-mail address: redaktion@bdguss.de

We would be pleased to receive

questions by phone:

Contact: Robert Piterek

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Tel.: +49 (0)211 6871-358

More than 2,000 exhibitors from over 30 countries are expected

at the 14th GIFA international foundry trade fair with

WFO Technical Forum. In the News section, among other places,

the editorial staff at CP+T will report on innovations, new products

and new technical processes in advance of GIFA. Please

send press releases and specialist reports for GIFA 2019 to the

editorial office via e-mail under the heading “GIFA 2019”.


The parent factory of the Kutes Metal foundry in Çorlu from above (Photo: Kutes Metal)

Klaus Vollrath, Aarwangen, Switzerland

A modern new iron foundry

for Kutes Metal

Joint project with leading German foundry equippers

Turkey has achieved very high economic

growth during recent decades,

and its technical level in many sectors

is now at a level comparable to

that of producers in advanced industrial

nations. This also applies for key

industrial sectors such as automotive

and machine construction – and their

suppliers, including the foundry industry.

The investment level is also

high, thanks to the thriving economy

and policies that identify growth as a

public service for the population. Cutting-edge

technologies are considered

very important when selecting suppliers

for capital goods, so German producers

are highly esteemed.

Kutes Metal is an SME (Small to Medium

Enterprise) iron foundry in Çorlu,

Turkey, with current net annual

production of about 21,000 tonnes.

A wide range of cast iron types with

lamellar (GJL) or spheroidal graphite

(GJS) is used within a weight range of

1.5 to 85 kg, whereby the ratio is about

60 % GJL to 40 % GJS. The new investments

detailed below will increase

annual production to about 45,000

tonnes of castings per year.

The company complies with modern

industrial standards and is TÜV-certified

with ISO/TS 16949:2009, ISO

9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004, as well

as having approvals from Lloyds Register

and Germany’s national railway

company Deutsche Bahn. Customers

come from numerous sectors, such as

automotive, pump and railway equipment

producers; the construction in-

42 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Complete view of the new foundry plant: Key 1. Molding sand mixer, 2. Ready-to-use

molding sand with sand silo above molding machine, 3. SEIATSU molding machine

with mold line, 4. Separate upper and lower box line, 5. (Optional) automatic casting

machine, 6. Transfer trolley with pusher unit, 7. Cooling line, 8. Ejector, 9. Discharge

channel, 10. Casting cooler, 11. Sorting and transfer channel, 12. Return sand transport

system, 13. Bucket elevator, 14. Polygonal sieve, 15. Return sand cooler, 16. Return

sand silos, 17. Discharge and dosing belt conveyors (Graphics: HWS)

The EFA-SD Seiatsu mold plant from HWS (Photo: HWS)

dustry; the agricultural sector; and mechanical

engineering in general. There

are currently about 40 major customers,

for whom a range of more than

800 cast components are actively produced.

Joint project with German

foundry plant producers

Kutes Metal will have completed a new

state-of-the-art foundry in Çorlu (in

the province of Tekirdag) by late 2018,

if all goes as planned. This is expected

to more than double current capacity,

and will enable expansion of the product


Initial concepts were already discussed

at the Ankiros trade fair (an international

trade fair for iron, steel &

foundry technology, machinery and

products) in October 2016, where German

foundry equippers routinely hold

discussions with customers. The finalization

phase started in February 2017

following a range of intermediate stages.

The concept required various adaptations

for technical reasons, and there

were several visits to user foundries

with a corresponding reputation in

Germany and Turkey – allowing maturation

of the layout until reaching the

configuration that was finally ordered.

The following machine and plant producers

for the foundry sector were involved:

Heinrich Wagner Sinto (HWS)

in Bad Laasphe (molding plant), Eirich

in Hardtheim (sand processing),

VHV in Hörstel (conveyor belts), and

Jöst in Dülmen (cast/sand separation

and cooling of the castings). The ultimate

requirement specifications were

contractually finalized in March 2017.

HWS: molding plant

The centerpiece is an EFA-SD greensand

molding line from Heinrich Wagner

Sinto Maschinenfabrik. The flask

molding plant works with the familiar

two-stage Seiatsu compaction process

that achieves excellent and even

compaction of the molding material,

even in critical areas with large projections

or closely arranged ribs. In order

to enhance the result of the Seiatsu

flow of air during the first stage, the

compaction process is furthered using

a so-called multi-anvil press. This

combined technology is particularly

recommended for jobbing foundries,

because they can use the system for

molding very complex pattern geometries

with great accuracy, and they can

ensure that the forming material has

a high level of compaction (and thus

strength) even with difficult batches.

The molding box dimensions are

900 x 700 x 300/300 mm³; plant performance

is 120 complete molds per

hour. After detailed consulting, Kutes

Metal decided to use the Seiatsu plus

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2018 43


RV24 molding sand mixer from Eirich with an effective volume of 3,000 liters for 78 m³

of molding sand per hour (Photos: Eirich)

QualiMaster AT 1 online molding sand inspection device

process. The ‘plus’ variant includes

an auto-level frame as supplementary

equipment, improving compaction of

the pattern sides. This substantially increases

mold strength, particularly at

the mold’s edges.

The molding plant is equipped with

a system for automatic pattern exchange

which increases flexibility by

speeding up product changes for short

production runs. The pouring line has

been designed to accomodate an automatic

casting machine at a later date.

In addition to the molding plant,

the Kutes foundry has invested in a fully

automatic Type P 10S pouring machine

from HWS Heinrich Wagner Sinto


The pouring automat has a ladle volume

of up to 1,400 kg and is equipped

with two independently operating inoculating

systems, enabling treatment

of the melt during the pouring process.

The pouring automat travels alongside

the box as it moves along the casting

line. This ensures that the casting process

can be carried out independently

of the molding plant cycle. The pouring

automat, constructed on weighing

cells, has automatic pouring control –

which regulates the pouring process

via pouring parameters that are specifically

adjusted for each pattern. Constant

weighing, and monitoring of the

pouring process via cameras (which,

among other things, monitor the filling

level of the pouring funnel) support

optimum mold filling.

Use of the pouring machine ensures

that modern demands regarding quality

and repeat accuracy are met while

maintaining compliance with safety

aspects. All process-relevant data can

be assigned to the individual casting

process and, if required, transferred

to a higher-ranking IT system. In addition

to displaying current status information,

the pouring control system

offers users a range of statistical functions,

as well as analyses of problems

and downtimes.

Eirich: preparation and mixing

of the molding material

Optimum preparation of the bentonite-bonded

forming material is one of

the most important factors for pro-

44 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

ducing high-quality castings in sand

molds. Eirich has been a technological

leader in this field for many decades.

The mixing system developed by Eirich

guarantees reproducible mold material

quality at the highest level. The particularly

thorough intermixing of the

molding material leads to an even distribution

and homogenization of all

input materials, including the added

water. An intensive wet-mixing phase

ensures optimum conditioning of

the bentonite and complete envelopment

of the sand grains. As a result of

this thorough preparation, the molding

material offers the best prerequisites

for the production of high-quality


Eirich supplied an RV24 molding

sand mixer with a volume of 3,000 liters

for the new Kutes Metal foundry.

The throughput volume of prepared

molding sand is 78 m³/h (about 68 tonnes/h).

Three weighing systems (for reclaimed

sand, additive and water), an

FS5 molding sand aerator, and a complete

control system for the plant (including

the reclaimed and ready-touse

sand lines) were also included in

the delivery.

The AT1 Qualimaster online testing

device has also been integrated in the

production monitoring and control

system. It automatically takes samples

of every mold material mixture and

monitors the important properties of

compressibility and shearing strength.

These values are fed into the plant control

system and used to automatically

correct the input of additive and water.

This guarantees high reproducibility of

the required mold material values.

Eirich has delivered several molding

sand preparation plants in Turkey

in recent years. In addition to improving

the quality of the castings, another

crucial factor for customers is the

high availability of the plant due to the

comparatively low wear of the mixing


Jöst: cast/sand separation and

cooling of the castings

Jöst supplied the entire vibrating machine

arrangement between the ejector

of the HWS molding plant and the

hanger-type or continuous blasting

machines. The arrangement consists

of a separating channel, casting cooler,

primary and secondary channels,

as well as the corresponding control

system. During design, particular attention

was paid to optimized flexibility

of material flow, workplace ergonomy,

and the prevention of damage to

the castings.

At the separating channel, both the

angle and frequency of vibration can

be adjusted from the control center to

optimally adapt the vibration parameters

to the specific properties of the

various castings. Grid perforations are

trapezoidal, oriented in the direction

of transport, and open downwards to

prevent blockage of the holes or the

castings becoming jammed. The in-


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Silo from VHV (Photos: VHV)

PS150x3 polygonal sieve for filtering lumps from the return sand

terface to the sand cod removal system

was thoroughly coordinated with

HWS to eliminate unnecessary height


A sand discharge channel, which

evens out the pulsation of the mass

flow caused by the plant cycles and facilitates

the horizontal arrangement

of sharp downfalling air pipes, is located

directly below the separating

channel. It also protects and props up

the downstream belt conveyor made

by VHV.

The casting cooler is designed to

minimize the transmission of dynamic

forces to the floor. The active mass

elements used for this purpose consist

of solid steel. This prevents the familiar

risks of fatigue fracture of concrete-filled


In flow and thermodynamic terms,

the casting cooler is designed as a real

counterflow heat exchanger. This principle

offers the maximum physically

possible effectiveness and has the

major advantage that pre-heated air is

blown onto the castings as they enter

the cooler. This reliably prevents the

formation of undesirable inner stresses

due to direct contact of the initially

still very hot castings with cold air.

Such problems can occur, for example,

in the case of casting coolers in which

cold air is blown in directly onto the

casting from above via several jets. Residual

sand that comes loose in the

casting cooler during the cooling process

is sieved off at the end of the cooling

section and fed back to the sand

reclamation system.

Like the casting cooler, the downstream

breaking and sorting channels

are in the form of mass-compensated

resonance conveyors. Long-lived, abrasive-resistant

manganese steel troughs

as used here, too. The material flow

constellation can be adapted to the

particular casting type thanks to the

use of several possible ejection methods.

VHV: sand transport and

conveyor technology

VHV Anlagenbau delivered all the belt

conveyor technology, the overhead

magnetic iron removal plants, and the

polygonal screen for sand preparation.

The return sand, as well as sand trickling

out beneath the molding plant

and from the vibrating machine, is collected

and transported from the cellar

to a bucket elevator using a belt conveyor.

Overhead magnet belts in two

locations take iron out of the sand.

The return sand is transported via the

bucket elevator to the PS150x3 polygonal

screen from VHV for removal of

the lumps. A reversible belt conveyor

below the polygonal screen distributes

the material to two sand silos. One silo

is used to discharge return sand and

lumps. Ejection takes place by means

of a discharge belt conveyor below the


The second silo stores the material

before it reaches the sand cooler.

From this silo, the material is discharged

onto a reversible belt conveyor

that transports it to the cooler or, as a

bypass, directly to the downstream

bucket elevator. After the bucket elevator,

the return sand is distributed –

via a belt conveyor with plough scrapers

that can be lowered – to two return

sand silos for storage. There is a discharge

belt conveyor at each of the silos’

outlets to transport the material

to the return sand weighing system.

There is a VHV silo with a discharge

belt conveyor below the mixer for the

molding sand. Finally, the molding

sand is transported to the molding

sand silo above the molding machine

via further conveyor belt systems. A

material sampler is located on one of

the belt conveyors. The molding sand

is removed with a discharge belt conveyor

and transported to the molding

boxes in batches.

46 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018


For the aluminum trade fair, which is attended also by numerous foundry companies, around 27,000 visitors from 100 nations are

expected to come to Düsseldorf this year (PHOTO: ALUMINUM 2018)


World’s largest aluminium trade fair continues to grow

The transport sector and the energy

transition are driving demand of aluminium.

The lightweight construction

megatrend ensures excellent

growth opportunities for aluminium

as an industrial material. All around

the world, the industry is making new

investments to gear up for an economy

that continues to boom. This positive

mood is felt as well at the ALUMINIUM

World Trade Fair in Düsseldorf, Germany.

From 9 to 11 October 2018, the Exhibition

Centre on the Rhine will again

become the global marketplace of the

aluminium industry. Some 1,000 exhibitors

from around the world will be

in Düsseldorf, the exhibition area will

grow to 80,000 square metres – a clear

indication of the current momentum

in the aluminium industry.

Spread across six exhibition halls,

global players, specialists and young

The official programme for the

ALUMINIUM 2018 Conference is also

complete. Under the heading „Aluminium

- Material for the Future“ a

total of 40 presentations are planned

for the three-day period of the trade

fair in the sessions Aluminium Markets,

Automotive, Surface, Recycling

Technologies and Plant, Processes,


Current program of the

ALUMINIUM Conference


innovative companies will showcase

the industry’s complete range – from

aluminium production to machines

and plants for processing to semi-finished

and finished goods and recycling.

Besides the aluminium key industry,

the trade show and its exhibitors will

focus on processes and products for the

main aluminium application industries:

automotive, engineering, building

and construction, aerospace, electronics,

packaging and railway.

Special areas such as the innovation

areas and guided theme tours are intended

to provide visitors from application

areas such as automotive engineering,

mechanical engineering, aviation

or the construction sector with better

orientation. The well-known theme pavilions

will serve as points of contact to

lead visitors through the structured exhibition

halls, including the Competence

Centre Surface Technology, the

Foundry Pavilion, the Primary Pavilion,

the Welding & Joining Pavilion, the Recycling

Pavilion and the Magnesium


In the new special exhibition area

Digital Manufacturing, visitors will experience

what Industry 4.0 means for

the aluminium industry and what

kinds of productivity benefits can already

be achieved today by deploying

high-performance IT solutions in production.

48 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Another new exhibition area dubbed

“Environmental Engineering” will

cover water treatment, air filtration

systems and oil/oil mist-vacuuming

systems – and show how the aluminium

industry is leading the way when

it comes to emerging topics such as energy

and resource conservation in

one’s own production chain.

ALUMINIUM is much more than

just the world’s most important trading

centre. Above all, it’s a major

knowledge hub: expert presenters

from industry and science at the

ALUMINIUM 2018 Conference and

the ALUMINIUM Forum will discuss

the principles, trends and innovations

of the aluminium sector.

At the ALUMINIUM 2018 Conference

with its motto ‘Aluminium – Material

for the Future’, the various applications

of aluminium currently used

will be presented together with possible

further developments that will

make products in the future even lighter,

nicer and more resource efficient.

The congress is planned and organized

by the GDA, the German Aluminium

Association. Together with representatives

from the different sections of the

industry, manufacturers of semi-finished

products, refiners, remelters and

subsuppliers, the latest innovative and

future-looking solutions will be presented

and discussed. The five sessions

and nearly 40 lectures will focus on aluminium

markets, plant / processes /

digitalization, surface, recycling and


Exhibitors themselves will take the

podium at the ALUMINIUM Forum,

which is part of the trade fair’s supporting

programme. Over the course

of the three-day lecture event, companies

will introduce their innovations

and successful projects in the fields of

lightweight design, digitization, surface

technologies, sustainability and

recycling. The admission is free for

trade show visitors.

The trade show is the leading industry

get-together for producers, processers,

technology suppliers, designers

and engineers from the industries that

use aluminium. The event is organised

by Reed Exhibitions with valuable contributions

by GDA – the German Confederation

of the Aluminium Industry

– and the European industry association

European Aluminium.

About 27,000 visitors from 100 nations

are expected to attend the trade

fair. The exhibitor side is similarly international:

Nearly 70 % of the altogether

1,000 exhibitors will travel from

abroad to take part in the industry

meeting in Düsseldorf. Among the

largest of the 54 exhibitor nations this

year (behind Germany) will be Italy

followed by China, Turkey, Austria and

Spain. Other European countries as

well as North America and Asia will

again be represented in numbers at

ALUMINIUM, as well.


Pneumatic conveying


For dry, free-flowing,

abrasive and abrasion

-sensitive material

Core sand preparation


For organic and inorganic

processes, turn-key systems

including sand, binder

and additive dosing

and core sand distribution



Reclamation systems for

no-bake sand and core sand,

CLUSTREG for inorganically

bonded core sands









KLEIN Anlagenbau AG

Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 200 · 57572 Niederfischbach

Fon +49 2734 501 301 · Fax +49 2734 501 327

info@klein-ag.de · www.klein-ag.de


Via Don Orione, 198/E -198/F 12042 Bandito-BRA (CN), ITALY

Tel. +39 0172/457256 omlersrl@gmail.com www.omlersrl.com

Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018 49



Turnaround for the world market leader in 2017

German thermo process equipment

manu facturers increased their sales by

10 % on annual average in 2017

(Photo: Fotolia_57800333).

2017 saw a turnaround for German

thermo process equipment manufacturers.

This was already apparent at the

beginning of 2017. Over the course of

the year, there was a further slight fall

in orders from countries outside the Eurozone.

However, strong investments

in the Eurozone resulted in a sales increase

of 10 % on annual average compared

with the previous year. In 2017,

the production volume of this sector in

Germany recovered by almost 8 %.

The majority of participants in the

current economic situation survey of

the specialist association expect growth

in sales in the current year. On average,

growth could exceed 10 %. On the basis

of the average figure stated by respondents,

further growth in orders received

in the high single-digit range is also expected

in the course of the year.

In 2017, world trade in thermo process

equipment rose by about 4 %*.

However, at 9.1 billion euro, the volume

was still 500 million euro below the value

of 2015. Apart from the USA, the

largest delivery countries – China, Germany,

Italy and Japan – all reported rises

in exports again. Exports from Germany

and China recovered by almost

6 % and 4 % respectively to 1.8 billion

euro and 1.4 billion euro respectively.

Deliveries from Italy and Japan rose by

12 and 11 % to an export volume of 1.3

billion euro and 0.5 billion euro respectively.

Germany remained the world

market leader and was able to increase

its market share to about 20 %.

Higher deliveries from Germany

were largely accounted for by customers

in China (plus 27 %). Business with

EU countries rose slightly to a value of

about 650 million euro. There were

positive developments in exports to

Russia (up 51 %) and Turkey (up 56 %).

Growth was also recorded in business

with Mexico (up 17 %) and Switzerland

(up 7 %). Deliveries to the USA, the second-largest

export market for thermo

process equipment from Germany, fell

by 7 % in 2017 compared with the previous

year, following three years of

growth. However, Germany remains

the largest supplier for the USA.

The ifo business confidence index

for the respondent group “industrial

furnaces and burners” improved successively

over the course of the year.

However, at the beginning of 2018,

scepticism concerning existing geopolitical

risks led to a relatively subdued

assessment of the situation.

“Following the turnaround which

has been achieved, the persistent geopolitical

risks also form part of the

overall picture, despite general optimism.

The thermo process equipment

sector faces challenges and opportunities

as a result of continuing automation,

networking and the expansion of

service business,” said Dr. Timo Würz,

Managing Director of the VDMA Metallurgy

specialist association.

*Estimate – worldwide export data for 2017 are not

yet available in full.

50 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018


Introduction of new high-aluminium inoculant for grey-iron production

A new high-aluminium foundry inoculant

that maximizes chill reduction and

increases tensile strength in grey-iron

castings has been developed by Elkem

Foundry Products, Oslo, Norway, a major

producer of specialty additions for

grey and ductile iron. The new alloy also

minimizes the amount of slag formed

during inoculation, reducing slag buildup

and the possibility of casting defects

at foundries using pouring units.

Called Superseed Extra Al Inoculant,

the new product contains a specially

formulated combination of aluminium,

strontium, and zirconium that essentially

eliminates chilled white iron in

thin sections and corners, increasing

the machinability of grey-iron castings.

The extra aluminium allows foundries

to use a single alloy to increase the aluminium

content of iron to more than

0.010 %, a level that helps eliminate

chill. The strontium and zirconium contents

of this alloy enhance chill reduction

and strength.

At the same time, the new inoculant

achieves strong chill reduction without

relying on calcium, as in other inoculation

practices. As a result, this low-calcium

inoculant generates very little

slag, reducing the slag build-up in iron

being transferred to pouring equipment

and increasing the life of pouring-box

refractories compared to other foundry

inoculants. The unique combination of

elements in Superseed Extra Al Inoculant

also lengthens the time it generally

takes for inoculation to fade after additions

are made.

“We developed Superseed Extra Al Inoculant

in response to a grey-iron customer

who asked us for an alloy that

maximizes chill reduction without

building up slag in the pouring ladle,”

Superseed Extra Al Inoculant minimizes

slag and slag build-up. This reduces the

possibility of casting defects at foundries

using pouring units (Photo: Elkem).

said Matthew Liptak, Elkem’s Sales

Manager who invented the alloy and

has applied for a patent. ”

Superior chill reduction and less slag

build-up in the pouring box was obtained

when the inoculant was tested

in production foundries.




12th World Trade Fair & Conference

9 – 11 October 2018

Messe Düsseldorf, Germany


Organised by




Quick digital bentonite testing reduces casting defects

The sand is heated for approx. 35 seconds. Then the test ring is lifted from the tube

causing the specimen to break (Photo: Jung Instruments)

The new WJ1 tester from Jung Instruments,

Viersen, Germany, automatically

measures the wet tensile strength

of molding sands and displays the

measured results as digital readings in

N/cm 2 within a minute. These measurements

increase process security before

the casting process starts, reducing

overall reworking and scrap.

The wet tensile strength of molding

sands largely depends on their content

of active bentonite. Too little bentonite

may lead to cracks or spalling in the

sand mold, resulting in casting defects,

such as scabbing. With the new WJ1

tester, foundrymen can measure the

wet tensile strength and adjust the

bentonite content as required.

The innovative system is the world’s

first to operate fully electronically, using

a calibrated load cell, a digital display

for the measured results and, as an

option, an interface for data transfer.

Carsten Jung, Manager Developments

at Jung Instruments, sees clear

advantages for his customers: “As the

measurements take place fully automatically,

they are in no way influenced by

subjective factors, as for example the

skills of the operator. And the instrument

is very easy to use: All the operator

has to do is push a button for the

measurement to start and take the readings.

The instrument does not have to

be attended as it performs the measurement.

This saves time and money, as

the operator can perform other tasks

while the measurement is going on.”

The tester measures the tensile force

at which a standard test specimen

breaks in a tensile test. The specimens

are produced by filling sand into a testing

tube and pressing in a liftable ring

at the top end of the tube. The tube

with the specimen is placed into the

instrument and heated at approximately

300 °C. The heating is continued

until the fracture area that will result

from the imminent breakage will

have reached the top rim of the specimen

tube. According to practical experience,

this will take approximately

35 seconds. By this heating procedure,

a condensation zone is generated in

the specimen which in sand casting is

a critical parameter for the avoidance

of scabbing.

Upon reaching the end of the heating

time, the ring is automatically

pulled upwards causing the specimen

to break. The tensile force measured

during the breaking process is equal to

the wet tensile strength. It is indicated

on the digital display in N/m 2 .

The entire procedure takes place fully

automatically. The operator starts

the measurement by the push of a button

and can take the readings within a




52 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018


A foundry invests in an integrated solution

ConviTec GmbH based in Offenbach,

Germany, will deliver an integrated

solution for a foundry in the south of

Europe. This foundry reaffirms its confidence

in Convitec not least because

the equipment previously delivered has

been operated most reliably for many

years. The really big challenge for this

project is to insert the new plant components

into the already existing plant.

The plant consists of three modules

and ensures an automatic run-through

of the casts from cooling to blasting.

The first module is the separation of

cast and sand, the second one the cast

post-treatment and as third module a

modern sand recycling system is installed.

In the first plant section, the

hot cast-sand mixture is fed by means

of an ascending conveyor to a shakeout

feeder after a rotary drum. Controlled

cooling of the cast is reliably ensured

by a casting cooler. After that,

the cast and recycled material can be

separated and sorted by hand.

The connection between sorting

feeder and blast machine is provided

by means of a belt conveyor and the altitude

gain required for inflow into the

blast machine is created.

The vibratory equipment of the blast

machine consists of a loading conveyor,

an unloading conveyor with steps

and a return chute with screening of

the blasting abrasive.

Here it was especially important to

establish a constructive cooperation of

the two project teams during project

processing. The delivered feeders and

conveyors were designed, made and installed

exactly in accordance with the

Integrated plant solution for a foundry in southern Europe (Graphics: Convitec)

requirements of the blast machine.

The onward transport of the blasted

casts is enabled by an eccentric conveyor,

which is specifically designed as required

for sorting the cast.

The new sand conditioning system

is integrated and technically incorporated

in the already existing plant. In

addition to a polygonal screen and

flow-bed sand cooler, some other conveyor

components will be delivered

here. They include conveyor belts and

belt-and-bucket elevators. Using the

flow-bed sand cooler, the operator obtains

a reliably high sand quality in

terms of temperature and moisture so

that the cast quality and efficiency of

the foundry is sustainably ensured.

The mixing times are shorter due to

the very good homogenization of the

sand through the vibrating fluid bed.

Furthermore, the sand is not subject to

mechanical stress, which results in

high efficiency and low operation costs

with high availability and a long service

life. Compared to a mixer cooler a

ConviTec sand cooler only needs one

third of the electric connected load,

and mixers do not only show higher

ventilator power but also a considerably

higher power for the drive.

ConviTec’s scope of delivery also includes

the new electrical switch and

control system which meets the modern

requirements of future-proof

equipment such as e.g. a ProfiNet connection

to other plant components.

This project represents an example

for a complete solution covering everything

from planning to manufacture,

assembly and commissioning and

shows ConviTec’s competence in the

foundry industry.



Chemex and Eurokern become Chemex Foundry Solutions

With the aim of further simplifying

the organizational structure within

the HA Group, Eurokern Gießereitechnik

GmbH, Baddeckenstedt, has been

renamed into Chemex Foundry Solutions

GmbH with effect from 20 June

2018. At the same time, the former Chemex

GmbH, Delligsen (both Germany)

has gone over into the new Chemex

Foundry Solutions GmbH with its

main office now in Delligsen.

“With this merger the HA Group aims

at strengthening its brand presence and

simplifying its structures”, says Martin

Lauter, Managing Director of Chemex

Foundry Solutions GmbH. “Apart from

the change of name, the taken steps

have no impact on our existing business

relationships. Our cooperation with

customers and suppliers will continue.”


Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018 53



Melting and refining rotary furnaces

Specification copper ingot production

from Monometer rotary furnace (Photo:


A new copper melting rotary furnace

by Monometer Holdings Ltd, Leighon-Sea,

UK, is scheduled to be installed

in Africa this Autumn. Facilities at the

plant will equip the installation to

meet European standards for emissions

abatement, and the furnace technology

will enable the client to cast specification

ingot from all grades of scrap while

melting with low-cost reclaimed oil.

The furnace will be one from the

Monometer range of economical units

with capacity between 1 and 2 tonne

designed for thermal and metallurgical

efficiency where smaller batch production

is preferred.

Monometer equipment in the UK

continues to provide foundries with

the competitive versatility to produce

a range of specification product from

all grades of scrap material. For example,

the popular Monometer 5 to

7 tonne capacity rotary furnace cycles

in around 3 hours 30 minutes with a

lining life in the region of 220 heats.

Alloys commonly produced range

from LG1, LG2 through to the higher

grades CT1 and the phosphor bronzes.

Further products and high purity copper

is obtainable from the furnace’s

Monometer refining technology.

For refining, the furnace is equipped

with programmable gas diffusion refining

technology, and variable chemistry

main burner. The variable flame

chemistry is designed also to protect

the molten bath from oxidation, so to

allow effective protection with minimal

slag volume production and in the

absence of any slag covering.

Various rotary melting processes

have incorporated Monometer refining

equipment, including iron, copper

and lead, performing significantly

above traditional methods in terms of

increased yield, thermal efficiency and

furnace productivity.

For example, in copper refining from

Birch-Cliff to high purity copper, a

6-tonne capacity Monometer tilting

rotary furnace will typically cycle in 4

- 6 hours; 3 tonnes of scrap iron may be

melted, alloyed and tapped in under

120 minutes, and 10 tonnes lead battery

scrap may be processed through

the furnace in under 5 hours. Monometer

designs and supply includes the

furnace charging system, gas diffusion

technology for the refining process,

slag systems, oxy-fuel burner system,

and exhaust filter complete with settler,

as well as the fluxing agents injector,

and consumable spare parts.

Monometer offers comprehensive

onsite support, ranging from turnkey

management or installation support, to

short training packages targeting metallurgical

training or general furnace

performance. All Monometer clients

benefit from being kept up to date with

the latest equipment software updates

and full engineering on site support.



A quarter of power now supplied by solar energy

One of Upper Austria’s largest photovoltaic

systems has been in operation

at foundry maschine manufacturer Fill

in Gurten since the beginning of July

2018. Implementation of this project

shows how consistently the internationally

successful machine engineering

experts are implementing their policy

of resource-conserving production.

The new photovoltaic system will reduce

CO 2

emissions by some 500 metric

tons per year. “Minimizing resource

use, reducing emissions, and protecting

ground, water, and air are very important

to us,” explains CEO Andreas Fill.

In around four weeks, ten fitters assembled

and installed more than 3,000

5,000 m 2 photovoltaic system supplies Fill

Machine Engineering with environmentally

friendly energy (Photo: Fill)

individual modules on the roofs of the

production halls completed in spring

2018. In total, the system covers an

area of 5,000 m 2 . The aluminum substructure

represented one of the biggest

challenges in the installation process.

Countless individual parts had to

be fitted properly and thousands of

meters of cables laid. All the more astonishing

is the short period in which

the new system was completed and


The generated power is largely used

on the company premises. Surplus energy

is only fed into the local grid – at

a pre-determined tariff – at weekends

and in the late afternoon. The new system

meets around 25 % of the energy

requirements of Fill Machine Engineering.

In addition, employees can recharge

their vehicles free of charge at

10 electric charging stations.


54 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018


Robot cutting and grinding of steel and high-alloyed castings

Automated casting finishing is becoming

increasingly important in

foundries in order to further increase

efficiency and quality. That is why

foundries around the world rely on

automatic cutting and grinding machines

by Reichmann, Weißenhorn,

Germany. The Robot Fettling Center

unites the flexibility of a robot with the

high performance of the grinding and

cutting processes as well as the robust

machine design, for which Reichmann

is known all over the world.

Reichmann Casting Finishing has

been developing robot solutions for

years, which are adapted to the individual

needs of the customers. From

castings in the automotive and aerospace

industries to medical technology

– the Reichmann Robot Center can

handle a wide variety of castings with

high cutting and grinding quality. Depending

on the requirements, the separating

unit, grinding or belt grinding

unit can be combined.

The use of a workpiece guided robot

makes it possible to align the casting

exactly on the cutting or grinding

wheel. Due to the high performance

As a leading supplier of automatic fettling solutions, Reichmann cutting and grinding

systems are in use worldwide (Photo: Reichmann)

of the separating and grinding units

in the Fettling Center, almost no process

heat is transferred to the casting

and tool. In this way, feeders and

sprue residues on all required sides are

removed in short time and the socalled

“blue cut” can be avoided. This

means a consistent grinding quality

without cracks and microstructural

changes in the component. The low

heat development also guarantees a

long service life of the tools. For

foundries that like to machine a wider

range of castings in smaller batch sizes,

tool-guided robot solutions can

also be implemented.

With automated processes, foundries

benefit from productivity gains, saving

time and money. In addition, the use of

robots facilitates the work of the staff

and thus contributes to the humanization

of the foundry workplaces and an

increased safety standard.



Heavy-duty furnace for heat treatment

No. 1042 is a 2,000 °F (1,093 °C), gasfired

heavy-duty furnace from Grieve

Corporation, Round Lake, USA, currently

used for heat treating at a customer’s

facility. Workspace dimensions

of this furnace measure 30” (76.2 cm)

W x 60” (152.4 cm) D x 30” (76.2

cm) H. 750,000 BTU/HR (219.8 kW)

are installed in four modu lating natural

gas burners with a floor mounted

combustion air blower. Burners fire below

hearth, with 9” (22.86 cm) thick

insulated walls comprising 5” (12.7)

thick 2,300 ° F (1260 °C) ceramic fiber,

4” (10.16 cm) 1,900 ° F (1037.8 °C) block

insulation and 8 1/2” (21.59 cm) floor

insulation made from 4 ½” (11.43 cm)

of 2,300 °F (1,260 °C) firebrick and 4”

(10.16 cm) of 1,900 °F (1,037.8 °C) block


This Grieve furnace has two lanes of

roller rails supported by firebrick piers

and an air-operated platform with roller

rails to bridge from loading table to

workspace. Features include a ¼”

(0.64 cm) plate steel exterior reinforced

with structural steel, ½” (1,27

cm) steel faceplate at doorway and an

air-operated vertical lift door.

Other features include safety equipment

required by IRI, FM and National

Fire Protection Association Standard

86 for gas-heated equipment plus a

free-standing 390 CFM high-pressure

combustion blower.Controls on the

No. 1042 include a digital indicating

Grieve furnace No. 1042 (Photo: Grieve Corp)

temperature controller and manual reset

excess temperature controller with

separate contactors.


Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018 55


Center of Competence

8 pages, English

A brochure describing the Center of Competence of HA (Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische

Werke). The HA CoC has about 8,000 m 2 of pilot and industrial facilities and replicates

almost all stages of the foundry process. Production processes can be tested in practice,

without disrupting the processes of the customers.


Inorganic binder technology

14 pages, English

A detailed brochure featuring the INOTEC inorganic binder system developed and

patented by ASK Chemicals. It sets out the technological potential, the economic and

environmental benefits as well as the portfolio of products, including both binders and




24 pages, English

In this brochure, SQ Group has summarized its range of sleeve products for foundry

operations. These include a great number of insulating riser and direct pouring sleeve

series for different sleeve shapes, such as cylindrical, oval, neck-down and domed, or

flexible boards for large steel and iron castings.


Simulation-based design

6 pages, English

In this brochure, ESI explains its approach to simulation-based design and the associated

potential to shorten a product’s time-to-market. ESI offers an extensive suite of coherent,

industry-oriented applications for virtual prototyping, eliminating the need for

physical prototypes during product development.


56 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018

Lightweight solutions

8 pages, English

A brochure setting out the competence of Nemak as manufacturers of highly complex

aluminium lightweight castings for vehicles, including power train components such as

cylinder heads, engine blocks and transmission cases, castings for vehicle structures and

e-mobility components.


Vibration technology for the foundry industry

4 pages, English, German

In this brochure, Joest provides an overview of its vibration products and systems for

foundry processes such as green sand moulding, no-bake moulding, lost foam and

melting processes. The company’s product range also includes core sand transport and

recycling systems


Aluminium melting systems

12 pages, English

This brochure features aluminium melting systems manufactured by Andritz Metals

summarized under the name HI T.E.Q. This technology range covers a great variety of

equipment, including gas and electric crucibles, low-energy holders, mini-melter furnaces,

dosing furnaces, reverb furnaces, gas stack melters, heated launder systems, fully

integrated systems, etc.


Sand preparation equipment

4 pages, English

A brochure providing a concise overview of sand preparation equipment supplied by

JML, including sand aerators, which loosen the sand, sand conveying equipment such

as Archimedes screws, and sand V-plough diverters for separating the flow of sand on

converter belts.


Casting Plant & Technology 3/ 2018 57


Fairs and Congresses

Euroguss Asia Pacific 2018

September, 19-21, 2018, Bangkok, Thailand


73rd World Foundry Congress

September, 23-27, 2018, Krakow, Poland


Metal 2018

September, 25-27, 2018, Kielce, Poland


FOND-EX - 17th International Foundry Fair 2018

October, 1-5, 2018, Brno, Czech Republic



October, 9-11, 2018, Düsseldorf, Germany


Die Casting Congress

October, 15-17, 2018, Indianapolis, USA


Indometal 2018

October, 17-19, 2018, Jakarta, Indonesia


Die Casting Expo 2019

October, 17-18, 2018, Queretaro, Mexico



October, 24-26, 2018, Guadalajara, Mexico



October, 24-26, 2018, Guadalajara, Mexico


Ankiros and 10th International Foundry Congress

October, 25-27, 2018, Istanbul, Turkey


7th International Foundry Congress & Exhibition (IFCE)

November, 14-15, 2018, Lahore, Pakistan


China Cast

November, 15-17, 2018, Suzhou, China



December, 6-8, 2018, New Delhi, India


Advertisers´ Index CPT 3/2018

Admar Group, Ocala, FL/USA 27

AGTOS Gesellschaft für technische Oberflächensysteme

mbH, Emsdetten/Germany 9

ASK Chemicals GmbH, Hilden/Germany


Christian Bürkert GmbH & Co. KG,

Ingelfingen/Germany 11

ConviTec GmbH, Offenbach/Germany 35

Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich GmbH,


ExOne GmbH, Gersthofen/Germany 17

Hannover Messe Ankiros Fuarcilik A.S.,

Cankaya, Ankara/Turkey 47

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH,


Jöst GmbH & Co. KG, Dülmen/Germany 23

KLEIN Anlagenbau AG, Niederfischbach/Germany 49

Kurtz GmbH, Kreuzwertheim/Germany 39

Monometer Group Manufacturing Company Ltd.,

Leight-on-Sea, Essex/Great Britain 15

O.M.LER SRL, Bandito-BRA (CN), Italy 49

Reed Exhibitions Deutschland GmbH,


Regloplas AG, St. Gallen/Switzerland 21

voxeljet AG, Friedberg/Germany 45


Bad Laasphe/Germany 29

58 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018


Preview of the next issue

Publication date: December 2018

The swing arm that has become

Casting of the Year is a component

for the Lightning LS-218

motorcycle. 3-D software design

company Autodesk commissioned

Tooling Equipment International

(TEI) to produce the

prototype (Photo: AFS)

Selection of topics:

S. Wetzel: TEI swing arm wins Casting of the Year

The uniquely shaped part portrays the possibilities and opportunities available when combining additive manufacturing,

simulation and innovative design

H. Nelissen: “The foundryman will face new challenges and solve the problems”

Heinz Nelissen, President GIFA and NEWCAST 2019, Managing Director Vesuvius GmbH, Foseco Foundry Division, Borken,

Germany, in an interview with CASTING, Plant & Technology

A. Pretzell: Magmasoft 5.4 – Autonomous Engineering

With the upcoming version Magmasoft 5.4, MAGMA Gießereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen, Germany, presents a toolbox

of new possibilities for the optimization of casting design, casting technology and robust manufacturing technology



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Casting Plant & Technology 3 / 2018 59

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