CPT International 04/2018










induction furnace


Reports and

product news on

GIFA 2019



It’s It’s time again in in Düsseldorf,

from 25 25 - 29 - 29 June 2019: the foundry

sector once more presents itself as as

a a high-tech industry.

We look forward to to your press releases and

specialist reports for for GIFA 2019!



e-mail address: redaktion@bdguss.de

We We would be be pleased to to receive

questions by by phone:

Contact: Robert Piterek

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Tel.: +49 (0)211 6871-358

More than 2,000 exhibitors from over 30 30 countries are expected

at at the 14th GIFA international foundry trade fair with

WFO Technical Forum. In In the News section, among other places,

the editorial staff at at CP+T will report on on innovations, new products

and new technical processes in in advance of of GIFA. Please

send press releases and specialist reports for for GIFA 2019 to to the

editorial office via via e-mail under the heading “GIFA 2019”.


The range of casting

applications is increasing!

GIFA is approaching, so the sector is increasingly expressing views about the

expectations, previous planning and coming trends that will play a role at the

world’s largest casting trade fair. The man who knows best which new chapters

of foundry history will be opened at the upcoming 14th International Foundry

Trade Fair (GIFA) has his say in this issue of CP+T: Heinz Nelissen, Managing

Director of Vesuvius GmbH, Foseco Foundry Division, was appointed President

of GIFA and NEWCAST 2019 a few months ago. In an interview with our magazine

he discusses hot topics such as additive manufacturing, Industry 4.0 and

e-mobility, as well as the market situation facing the various product segments

in casting, potential substitutions by competing production processes, and

how to ensure the recruitment and advancement of skilled labor and mana gers

(more on this from P. 6).

Consistent with the trends and directions of development in the sector, this

final issue of 2018 is also dedicated to the future of casting with examples of

best practice from Germany and the USA. The casting process is one of the

world’s oldest production techniques – ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics show

that it was already being used many thousands of years ago. The reason why

the technique has lasted so long can be traced back to its high level of design

freedom. This can be even further expanded with the help of state-of-the-art

‘additive’ technology, considerably broadening the range of casting applications

and making the process even more attractive. The American Foundry

Society has now selected its Casting of the Year. It was created using a combination

of additive and foundry practice. Bionic production aspects were also

involved. In the article from P. 35, we reveal what the workflow looked like and

the challenges that had to be overcome.

The other topics covered in this issue are just as exciting: CP+T reports on

melting technology and the range of competences of the globally active industrial

furnace constructor Otto Junker. We also describe the experiences

gained with a high-tech sand preparation plant in Bavaria, as well as with the

latest simulation software for optimizing product design and casting technology.

There are also company reports on investments in Industry 4.0 at Ortrander

Eisenhütte, as well as on Modulcast, a combination of high-bay storage,

molding plant and the casting process – a first in the foundry sector!

Merry Christmas and a happy New Year!

Have a good read !

Robert Piterek

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018 3



Nelissen, Heinz

“The foundries will stand up to new challenges and solve the problems” 6


Otto Junker GmbH

Jägerhausstr. 22

52152 Simmerath-Lammersdorf



One of two Otto Junker induction crucible

furnaces installed at Fima-Olimpia

Fonderie S.p.A. in Barberino val d’Elsa,

Italy. The ovens hold a weight of 6 tons

and melt with a capacity of 4 MW. The

furnaces were delivered in 2011 and

since then provide reliable service. In

particular, the IGBT converter ensures

high reliability and excellent network

performance (Photo: Fima-Olimpia

Fonderie S.p.A.)


Niklaus, Steffen; Reiermann, Joachim; Schmitz, Wilfried

20 Years of Otto Junker Melting Technology Centre – state-of-the-art

induction technology 12


Meier, Wolfgang

The latest generation of sand preparation at Isar Metallgusswerk 22


Pretzell, Anja

Magmasoft - Autonomous Engineering 26


Klingauf, Peter

Refiner optimizes yield by briquetting 32

12 35

Otto Junker has been operating a Technology Centre for

melting and casting trials for 20 years – the birthplace of

many innovations (Photo: Otto Junker)

The uniquely shaped motorcycle swing arm portrays the

possibilities available when combining additive manufacturing,

simulation and innovative design (Photo: AFS/TEI)


4 | 2018




Wetzel, Shannon

TEI swing arm wins Casting of the Year 35


Vehreschild, Michael

Investments in Industry 4.0 have paid off for the

Ortrander Eisenhütte 38


Vehreschild, Michael

Achieving top form 42



News in brief 48


Fairs and congresses / Ad Index 58

Preview / Imprint 59


The Friedrich Lohmann foundry now has “a lot in stock” thanks to the new high-bay storage system which is called Modulcast.

Casting takes place at a height of four meters. Employees literally operate at top form here.The connection of high-bay storage

system, molding plant and casting process is a novelty in the foundry industry (Photo: Friedrich Lohmann GmbH)


“The foundries will stand up

to new challenges and solve

the problems”

Dipl.-Ing. Heinz Nelissen, President GIFA 2019 and NEWCAST, Managing Director Vesuvius

GmbH, Foseco Foundry Division, Borken, Germany, spoke with the technical journal CP+T.


What can visitors expect from the upcoming

GIFA trade show? What will

be different compared to last GIFA in


The megatrend of the moment and the

topic of the future in production technology

is additive manufacturing. Also

the digital transformation is an issue

for foundries. 3-D printing has been

gaining in importance alongside traditional

manufacturing techniques. 3-D

printing has already proved its worth

in practice in a wide range of high-end

sectors such as in medical engineering

as well as in the automotive and aerospace

industries. Meanwhile also the

foundry industry and the steel and aluminium

sectors have recognized the

potential of 3-D printing. GIFA is going

to dedicate due attention to this topic,

among others by a special show featuring

the great potential this technology

provides. I am sure that we will see

3-D solutions and products not only at

the special show, but also at numerous

exhibitor stands. We are very likely to

come across exciting approaches to designing

self-optimizing systems as part

of the “digital transformation”.

Who should visit GIFA?

Everybody active in the foundry industry

or in related sectors should see

GIFA as an opportunity to get a personal

impression of the state of the

art and current development trends.

The main target groups of GIFA are

employees and managers of iron, steel

and malleable iron foundries, as well

as non-ferrous metal foundries. The

trade show also addresses mechanical

and apparatus engineering companies

and manufacturers of equipment for

the automotive and gear engineering

sectors as well as the supply industry.

Recent development trends like 3-D

printing and digital technology are

characterized by much shorter innovation

cycles than those we know

from classical foundry equipment suppliers.

Competitive events such as the

biennial Euroguss become bigger and

more international, and new trade

fairs with new focuses, like CastForge

in Stuttgart, have emerged. How is

GIFA positioned within this competitive


Events with a regional or national

scope fulfill an important role, as they

cover topical issues from the expert angle

and address a regional audience.

However, GIFA – and METEC, THERM-

PROCESS and NEWCAST alike – showcase

innovations, products and services

on a global scale. No other trade

show provides such a wide-ranging

and far-reaching picture of the complete

range of foundry technology,

cast products, metallurgy and thermal

processing technology. It is a forum for

both the big players of the foundry industry

and the smaller, highly innovative

champions to present themselves

to large audience. The big equipment

suppliers often time their research and

development projects around the fouryear

cycle of the show. The key to the

success of this trade fair quartet is that

it covers the complete market of both

the demand and supply side. This also

mirrors in the decision-making responsibility

represented by the GIFA

visitors: In 2015, more than half of the

about 50,000 visitors held top management

positions and correspondingly

high decision-making responsibilities.

In terms of internationality, the trade

fair quartet GMTN is second to none:

In 2015, 58% of the visitors came from

112 different countries. And the fouryear

cycle ensures that the event does

not loose any vigour.

Is it true that apart from new topics

such as additive manufacturing and

the digital transformation the overall

concept of the fair has remained

the same?

Obviously GIFA comes up to the visitors’

expectations. For example, in

2015, 97% of the about 50,000 visitors

gave a very high rating to the event

and stated that their expectations had

been fulfilled. Every second one stated

that they had established new supplier

relations. GIFA is certainly an ideal

platform to meet customers, colleagues

and junior staff. We expect

young talent to visit the trade show in

great number again next year.

In which way has the economic landscape

changed versus 2015?

A key criterion for the assessment of

the foundry market is the cast output.

NF-metals foundries have seen a

constant rise in production and, with

lightweight construction and e-mobility

gaining in importance, their prospects

for the future are also excellent,

especially in pressure and low-pressure

die casting ...

But not for the iron foundries ...

... the iron foundries in Germany – and

elsewhere in Western Europe – experienced

a rather moderate development

from 2011 until recently. However,

Casting Plant & Technology 4/ 2018 7


since 2017 and the first half of 2018,

they have been feeling a clear upturn.

This was triggered by the growing demand

in the mechanical engineering

sector as a result of a catch-up effect

and a booming phase in all its subsegments,

with the exception of wind

power. Although the current market

situation is very positive, there is a dark

cloud on the horizon. This is due to

the dramatically changing eco-political

environment. Just take the anti-free

trade measures implemented by the US

Administration, the unsolved Brexit or

the increase in sanctions. The reliability

of business relations has definitely

not improved. Let’s hope that the all in

all positive climate will persist beyond

next year’s GIFA.

What will be the main top issue at

next GIFA?

I do not see one single, overwhelming

topic, but several interrelating and interdependent

issues. As well as additive

manufacturing, topics like lightweight

construction in automotive

engineering, Industry 4.0, the digital

transformation, energy and resource

efficiency, and sustainability will play

central roles at next GIFA – not forgetting


Do you see additive manufacturing

and casting as partners or competitors?

They are two complementary trends.

Generative processes currently represent

one of the most important and

intensive research areas of the global

industry. Products for specific applications,

prototypes and parts for

airplanes are already being produced

by 3-D printing, replacing castings in

these areas. However, for large series

production, casting still is the most

economical process – also according to

statements by major OEMs. With computers

becoming increasingly more efficient

and faster, costs decreasing and

the quality of metal powders improving,

this balance may, however, slightly

shift towards 3-D printing in the future.

There are already examples of application

where 3-D printing and casting

complement each other. These will be

featured in a special show at GIFA.

Is 3D printing also an interesting option

for your company?

We already produce prototype tools

by 3-D printing. This allows us to test

the tools under manufacturing conditions

before kicking off the cost-intensive

production of metal tools in large

series. We know that some pressure die

casting shops use extremely complex

tools which they can produce only by

3-D printing. Additive manufacturing

provides much more design options,

for example, as it can produce parts

with undercuts.

What will be Foseco’s main focus at


Foseco is going to feature the main

R&D areas in foundry technology. Energy

and resource efficiency can be significantly

improved by specific products

and technologies. Visitors may

look forward to our presenting innovations

in gating technology. We will

introduce a new technology allowing

virtually turbulence-free casting of medium-heavy

steel castings. In non-ferrous

metals treatment, we have long

been active in developing products

and processes for optimized melt refining.

At our booth we will showcase

new technologies for our FDU

and MTS equipment in combination

with innovative solutions for the metal

transport. Innovative coating and

binder systems will round out our exhibits.

Do you think there is potential for

the casting process to substitute any

of its competing manufacturing techniques?

Do you expect any new casting

solutions and new markets for

castings to occur?

We are in competition with hybrid

metal/metal and metal/plastics

components, with 3-D printing,

with high-performance machining

techniques, and with our traditional

“competitors” forging and welding.

We don’t see the new technologies

take over significant market

shares from the foundries or vice versa

during the next five years. However,

this does not mean that the new

technologies will not position themselves

in the market as solutions for

certain niche applications or applications

that require a very specific range

of properties. By further sophisticating

the technology of thin-wall casting

not only in pressure die casting

but also in iron and steel casting, the

foundries may open new application

opportunities. Also the development

of new casting materials and the further

development of existing ones

will provide new options. Generally,

due to the advance of e-mobility, we

will see a number of entirely new components

in the market, mainly made

of aluminium.

8 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Yet, a growing mix of materials is being

used in automotive engineering.

This further intensifies the competition

between materials and production

processes. Are structural components

made of fibre reinforced

composite materials a threat to structural

aluminium castings?

The plastics industry has been dedicating

great efforts to achieving an even

deeper penetration of the automotive

market. Thermoplastics and fibre reinforced

plastics are used in technologically

highly demanding solutions.

However, casting alloys, in the here

described case especially high-strength

aluminium alloys for the production

of safety-critical components, provide

better strength and elongation properties.

Only casting alloys can be 100 percent

recycled and reused to produce a

casting of the same high quality. Plastics

manufacturers still haven’t solved

the issue of recycling. And the current

discussion about plastics contaminating

the environment is likely to serve

as a promoter of cast products.

Are the players in the markets relevant

and with a potential for castings

aware of the advantages of cast

products? Or is this an area where the

foundry industry needs to become

more active?

Our big customer segments are passenger

car and utility vehicle producers

and the mechanical engineering sector

with its numerous subsegments.

Alongside these, there are many more

specialized segments. The main customer

groups of the foundry industry

know the advantages of castings very

well. However, I believe that spreading

the word about the foundries’ performance

capacities more widely and intensively

would open new application

potential for castings also among our

traditional customers. Despite the Internet,

websites and search engines,

the lack of knowledge about the performance

features of cast components

is surprisingly great in many potential

customer segments. Nevertheless, the

foundries should not start to take over

the job of the universities.

Up until the present, iron castings

have always succeeded in defending

their position in automotive engineering

against non-ferrous metals

castings, even in lightweight solutions.

Is this going to change in the

future against the backdrop of e-mobility?

Weight reduction of castings for automotive

applications will remain a key

development target among OEMs, independent

of e-mobility. We can see

today that castings will continue to

be indispensible in both fully electrically

and conventionally propelled vehicles.

Lightweight construction with

cast iron components, and with thinwalled

steel castings, will also be needed

in the future alongside further op-

Competence in

Shot Blast Technology

We offer a complete service in surface preparation technology,

not just as machine designers and manufacturers.

Our emphasis is on providing reliable service on:

• Wear and Spare Parts

• Repair and (remote) maintenance

• Inspection and process advice

• Machine upgrades and performance


• Upgraded used machines


Gesellschaft für technische Oberflächensysteme mbH

Gutenbergstraße 14 · D-48282 Emsdetten

Tel. +49(0)2572 96026-0 · info@agtos.de



Casting Plant & Technology 4/ 2018 9


GIFA 2019 and NEWCAST – Foundry technology

at global scale

NEWCAST: Registrations will be accepted beyond the official deadline!

GIFA 2019, the world’s biggest and most important trade fair for foundry machinery,

casting processes and cast products, follows seamlessly in the footsteps

of the previous shows. More than 900 exhibitors – including numerous

market leaders – from all countries relevant for the foundry industry will present

their products and technologies in halls 10 to 13 and 15 to 17. The 14th edition

of GIFA will provide a concise overview of topical issues such as energy

and resource efficiency and present advanced, future-oriented innovations and

world’s firsts for the entire process and value chain of casting.

NEWCAST, launched in 2003, has since evolved into an international event

representing current market trends. In 2019, more than 400 exhibitors are expected

to present their competence and products in halls 13 and 14. The participation

of international market leaders, including Bosch Rexroth AG (Germany),

GF Casting Solutions AG (Switzerland), GOM GmbH (Germany), Kimura

Foundry Co., Ltd. (Japan), Kutes Metal Inc. (Turkey), Finoba Automotive GmbH

(Germany) and Siempelkamp Giesserei (Germany) highlights the growing importance

of NEWCAST. Countries like China, India and Turkey will present

themselves with big pavilions. Other highlights will be the NEWCAST Award

and the NEWCAST Forum, sponsored and organized by the Germany Foundry

Association (BDG). Foundries interested in using the Forum as an active marketing

platform can still register.

Although the official registration period has expired, the trade fair organizer

Messe Düsseldorf will be accepting registrations until the start of the event.

NEWCAST provides participating foundries an excellent platform for promoting

themselves and meeting new customers.

timized solutions based on light-metal

castings. Iron and steel castings owe

their relevance to their excellent fatigue

strength properties and the

great flexibility in designing bionic

constructions. The production of

thin-walled iron and steel castings requires

high capital investments in machinery,

above all in core and mould

making equipment, fettling machines,

robotic equipment for automatic handling

and, last but not least, machining


Where do you see potential for steel


We expect a great deal from steel casting.

The last few years have seen a

strong demand for lightweight castings,

especially of ferrous materials.

One can generally state that casting is

an ideal process for bionic constructions.

Here, we expect new opportunities

for steel castings. Currently, thinwall

casting of steel is being further

developed with a view to new applications

triggered by e-mobility but only

feasible thanks to thin-walled steel

castings. An example is the development

of spring supports for chassis.

Should foundries get more involved

with IT-related topics and new, data-driven

business models?

Foundries are familiar with data-driven

business models because many of

their customers operate on this basis.

The customers usually define the requirements

and the foundries have to

comply with them in due time. Every

foundry should carefully consider up

to which point it is willing to disclose

their processes and operating procedures

to their customers. There is no

need to lay the entire production process

open because there are other options.

In no way should the foundries

adopt a defensive attitude. They are

way ahead of many other industries

and boast excellent skills and competences.

For 5,000 years, progress has

been tradition in the foundry industry.

And I am confident that the foundries

will come up with exciting solutions in

response to the digital transformation.

Is Industry 4.0 a chance for foundries?

In order to improve their competitiveness

and make processes more consistent,

foundries are urged to invest even

more in automation and process control.

There are concrete plans to build

new foundries here in western Europe.

These projects derive their profitability

from much improved productivity,

reduced maintenance needs and lower

energy costs. This entails very high

capital investment. But capital costs

are low at the moment. Many foundries

have reacted to the new situation

and started to dedicate resources to

making their operations more digital

and smarter. The casting process is

still held as being not fully controllable.

Current computer capacities and

the possibility to measure an increasing

number of casting parameters and

feeding them into process control

loops via dedicated software programs

opens many new opportunities.

Where in the foundry world will the

most important developments in digital

transformation take place?

Generally speaking, all activities in

connection with customer relations

will to an increasing degree be handled

electronically and via the Internet. Designing,

quotations, coordination of

deadlines, meetings via Skype or video

conferences – all this has become

so much easier thanks to the highspeed

Internet. And internally, there

are digitized processes like simulations,

patternmaking and, in the meltshop,

charging and furnace control. Or

let’s take the optimization of machine

control in the core and mould making

shops, in the fettling shop and, if

applicable, in the machining area.

Whether in the acquisition of operating

data, quotation preparation and

pricing, quality data collection and

10 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

evaluation, in all these areas the use

of Big Data and digital solutions will

increase dramatically. In the future,

many new foundry and casting parameters

will be collected and fed back into

the systems for process optimization.

More and more robotic systems will be

used in mould and core making, for fettling

and machining operations down

to the dispatch of the castings. In other

words: in all process steps with a potential

to control or reduce costs and

make the processes faster and more

consistent. Administrative procedures

such as procurement and accounting

are in many cases already digitalized

to a high degree. Also after-sales services

and the spare parts business will

become more digital.

Are the classical business models in

place in the foundries at stake due to

digital disruption?

Looking back, there have been very few

dispruptive developments. Therefore

we should avoid calling every development

a disruption or revolution. Especially

the fact that most of the foundries

are medium-sized businesses will

allow them to quickly adjust to changing

circumstances. The flexibility and

agility are lived reality in our industry.

Don’t you think that the growing digitalization

will change the working

environment in the foundries?

Being a classical supply industry,

foundries have always been extremely

flexible in adjusting to customer wishes

and deadlines. Communications

technology has been advancing with

rapid strides. The “new generation” of

foundrymen has grown up with modern

communication devices. Therefore

it is normal for them to use them on

the job. The foundryman of the near

future will certainly control its moulding

line via an app. We will see this

happen very soon. But there is no reason

to be concerned because: “A foundryman

can handle everything!”

What new challenges will the foundries

be confronted with in the future?

All kinds of challenges are possible:

profitability, technology, customer relations,

competition, environmental

regulations, technophobia, human

resources, regulation, and many more.

And we will certainly also be presented

with challenges that are unimaginable

today and that will come as a

surprise. Not very long ago, nobody

expected that we would so soon see

trade barriers being set up everywhere

in the world. No matter what challenges,

the foundries will stand up to them

and come up with solutions – worked

out in cooperation with their customers

and suppliers.

What do you think will be the biggest

challenges for the foundries during

the next five years?

Every company must be ready to permanently

fight for their survival. There

is often not one single front line, but a

fight at many different fronts. As well

as the economic constraints and the

technological challenges, safeguarding

a qualified human resource base

will become increasingly important

and mission-critical. The generational

change in all areas of the foundries

will lead to a shortage of skilled labour.

In your opinion, what is the currently

the most exciting development in the

world of casting?

Our industry can only prosper in the

long run when we succeed in attracting

and training foundry specialists of

the next generation – now! Our trade

associations BDG and VDG as well as

universities and companies have undertaken

great efforts to improve our

industry’s image and make the foundry

trade attractive for more young people.

We see first positive results of this

campaign. An increasing number of

university graduates have followed

the invitation to our annual foundry

conferences in recent years. At next

GMTN we will offer a special program

for school students, giving them the

opportunity to learn about the vast

range of highly attractive technology-related


The interview with GIFA and NEWCAST

President Heinz Nelissen was conducted

by Gerd Krause, Mediakonzept, Düsseldorf,




160 °C.


Medium frequency induction crucible furnace when tapping an aluminum master alloy (Photos and graphics: Otto Junker)

Steffen Niklaus, Joachim Reiermann, Wilfried Schmitz, Otto Junker GmbH, Simmerath

20 Years of Otto Junker Melting

Technology Centre – state-of-theart

induction technology

For 20 years, Otto Junker, Simmerath, Germany, has been operating a Technology Centre for

carrying out melting and casting trials in cooperation with customers and for internal development

projects. The heart of this facility always has been a coreless medium-frequency induction

furnace of close-to industrial size. In 2015 the originally used 750 kg furnace (related to iron)

was replaced by a new furnace with a capacity of 1,700 kg which incorporates all the latest developments

and innovations and is thus from unmatched flexibility. The article summarizes the

work carried out in the Technology Centre over the years. Also, there is a detailed explanation

of the technical innovations implemented in the new furnace plant.

12 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Introduction and


For 20 years, Otto Junker GmbH has

been operating a Technology Centre in

Lammersdorf, Germany, to carry out

R&D projects in the fields of melting,

holding and pouring equipment. In

all, the facility comprises a surface area

of approx. 450 m 2 . The relevant building

features a crane with max. payload

capacity of 3.2 tonnes, an array of indispensable

machine tools, a welding

station, several annealing furnaces, a

dedicated forklift truck and other miscellaneous

equipment. In addition, an

extensive array of advanced measuring

equipment is available. The core

of the Technology Centre, however, is

a medium-frequency coreless induction

furnace, originally with a capacity

of 750 kg (related to iron alloys), a

power rating of 400 kW and an operating

frequency switchable between 250

and 500 Hz (Multi-Frequency Technology).

The Multi-Frequency Technology

will be explained in detail later in

this paper. One crucial benefit is that

the Technology Centre holds an operating

permit for melting all common

wrought, cast and special alloys.

This pilot system has been employed

in diverse customer projects aimed at

investigating metallurgical and process

engineering issues. A number of

specific applications are listed by way

of example:

- Determination of melting behaviour

and collection of melting

data for small-sized silicon for the

solar cell industry (numerous trial

series for multiple customers)

- Recycling of silicon dust from wafer

slicing processes

- Trials investigating the smelting

reduction of filter dusts from highgrade

steelmaking processes

- Trials on the smelt reduction of

electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts

- Recycling of aluminium chips

- Testing of crucible materials for silicon


- Determination of melting behaviour

and collection of melting

data for ferrosilicon

- Pouring trials relating to a copper

anode casting process

Figure 1: Bath movement and meniscus

Carbon content in %







2000 kW-125 Hz

1000 kW-125 Hz

2500 kW-250 Hz

2000 kW-250 Hz


0 15 30 45 60

Time in s

Figure 2: Multi-Frequency Technology - carburization behaviour of cast iron melts at

different operating frequencies and power input levels

Hier kommuniziert

die Gießereibranche




Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 13




- Trial series relating to melt refining

of silicon melts

- Determination of melting behaviour

and collection of melting

data for ferrochrome

- Investigation of the carburization

characteristics of cast iron melts

- Sponge iron meltdown experiments

- Melting of copper-zinc alloys for

low pressure die casting

- Furnace engineering for the Vacural

die casting process

Figure 3: a) Influence of a 0° and b) 60° phase offset on the melt flow pattern, shown

on the example of a five-tonne furnace for zinc alloys (numerical calculation of flow

field, laminar, stationary)

Figure 4: Tapping of a copper melt

Of course, this pilot system has also

been used extensively for in-house development

tasks, such as testing of

temperature and melt level sensors, development

of crucible monitoring systems,

refractory testing, and the like. It

is worth mentioning here that numerous

trial series conducted as part of customer

projects have ultimately led to orders

for corresponding furnace systems.

When conducting extensive melting

trials, the melting process is of course

the first step, but then invariably

comes the problem of providing a sufficient

number of suitable containers to

receive the molten metal. Metal molds

are a perfectly good solution for individual

trials, but trial series stretching

over several days or even weeks would

necessitate a high number of these

costly molds, as the cooling times need

to be taken into account. This is where

another advantage comes into play,

namely that Otto Junker also operates

a sand casting foundry for high-grade

steel at its Lammersdorf site, so that

the required number of sand molds

can be turned out without much trouble.

In this case, the molten metal is

cast into formats that can easily be recharged

into the furnace.

In all, experience has shown that a

furnace of the size mentioned above

constitutes the minimum size required

for extrapolating the results of melting

trials to our customer’s larger industrial

installations. Mere laboratory-scale

coreless induction furnaces of the type

commonly found in research institutions

and universities can only yield

findings of very restricted information

value in this regard. The reasons will be

explained below.

14 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Meanwhile, the state of the art in

medium-frequency coreless induction

furnaces, especially in the field of

converter technology, had evolved so

much that the decision was taken in

2012 to replace the old well-tried system

by a new furnace which was to be

outfitted with everything Otto Junker

has to offer in this segment. This system

was commissioned on October

21, 2015. But before presenting this

system, let us first look more closely

at one of the key technical aspects of

induction melting, i.e., the melt bath

agitation caused by electromagnetic


Figure 5: IGBT frequency converter

Figure 6: Furnace visualisation and automation system JOKS 4.0

The medium-frequency coreless

induction furnace – cause

and importance of bath


One key property of the coreless induction

furnace which distinguishes

it fundamentally from other melting

resources is the melt bath agitation

caused by the electromagnetic forces.

This is illustrated in some detail in Figure

1, which depicts the current-carrying

water-cooled induction coil and

symbolically indicates the direction of

the current flow. It also shows the refractory

crucible which contains the

melt and is placed inside the coil. The

inductor current produces a magnetic

field which in turn induces ring currents

in the molten metal. It should

be noted here that the current density

is highest, due to the skin effect, in

the rim zone of the melt directly adjoining

the crucible wall. Because the

currents are short-circuited, Joulean

heat is generated in the melt, mainly

in the boundary layer close to the crucible

wall. In addition, these currents

– extending in a direction opposed

to that of the inductor current – produce

a secondary magnetic field. Due

to this effect, the coil exerts repelling

forces on the melt. With a coil of infinite

length, the magnitude of these

forces would be the same at all places

over the coil height. In a finite coil as

encountered in practice, the electromagnetic

force density is variable over

the height of the coil (Fig. 1). Hence,

melt volumes situated at the centre of

the coil encounter a more intense repellent

force and hence, are accelerated

more strongly in the direction of the

coil axis than melt regions located near

the edge of the coil.

One consequence of this situation is

that a flow pattern resembling two rotational

toroids will form in the melt.

In a high-power furnace, the local flow

velocity may amount to as much as 1 -

2 m/s. Moreover, a so-called bath meniscus

will form at the surface of the

melt due to the equilibrium between

the repelling electromagnetic force

and the force resulting from the metallostatic


The intensity of this bath movement

firstly depends on the furnace

power; the higher the power input,

the more vigorous the bath movement

will be. In addition, the melt

flow intensity varies with the frequency

of the alternating current

(a.c.) feeding the coil: the lower this

frequency, the more vigorous the bath

movement. It follows, first of all, that

for a given fixed frequency the heat

input into the melt and the intensity

of the bath movement are always

correlated. Furthermore, bath movement

intensity can be selectively controlled

at a given required furnace out-

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 15




Figure 7: Control cabinet on furnace platform; a) general view; b) detailed view

put by selecting the proper operating


Finally, at a given power and frequency,

the intensity of the bath

movement depends on the furnace

filling level; and this is particularly

true for the melt flow in the bath surface

region. The higher the filling level

at a given power and frequency, the

less vigorous will be the bath movement.

In the above considerations we have

assumed laminar flow conditions for

reasons of descriptive simplicity. In reality,

however, a substantial turbulent

flow portion will be superimposed over

the laminar flow. This will be the more

pronounced the lower the furnace’s

operating frequency.

Bath movement is very important

from a technological viewpoint since

it facilitates optimum melt homogenization

and stir-down of constituents

and thus ensures a uniform melt composition

and temperature at the same

time. Also, without this forced convection,

the coreless induction furnace

simply wouldn’t work because most of

the heat input takes place via a boundary

layer situated close to the crucible,

as explained earlier. If there were no

bath movement to distribute this heat

to the entire charge, strong overheating

of the melt close to the furnace wall

would inevitably occur within a very

short time, causing a failure of the refractory


Finally, it is important to remember

that for induction furnaces which are

operated at a fixed nominal frequency,

which is the majority of furnaces so far,

Figure 8: General view of furnace platform

heat input into the melt and the intensity

of bath movement are always correlated.

Special circuit techniques

From a metallurgical point of view,

the ideal induction melting process is

one in which both the input of thermal

power and the melt flow can be

controlled to match given technological

needs. Therefore it is desirable to

decouple heat power input and bath

movement from each other, i.e., the

desired melt movement in the furnace

should be adjustable independently of

the respective heat input. While controlling

electrical power – and hence,

the input of thermal energy into the

melt – poses no major problem to the

furnace engineer, it takes very special

circuit technology to control the melt

movement independently of the power


To achieve this objective, Otto Junker

had initially developed the special

circuit variants known as Power Focus

Technology and Multi-Frequency

Technology, both of which have been

successfully deployed in a large number

of furnace systems.

Power Focus Technology permits

an automatic or freely selectable concentration

of power in the coil region

where it is most needed (i.e., the upper

or lower section of the coil). Thus, on a

half-filled furnace, the power input can

16 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

e focused in the lower crucible area to

make more energy available there. On

the other hand, when the furnace is

filled to capacity, the operator can raise

the power input in the upper coil section

to agitate the bath more intensely

and thus improve stir-down, e.g., of

metal chips.

Multi-Frequency Technology provides

a means of changing the operating

frequency either manually or automatically

during the melting process.

With cast iron, for instance, a suitable

frequency of 250 Hz is used for melting

down the charge materials. A lower frequency

– e.g., 125 Hz – is then selected

for introduction of the carburizing

agents and alloying additives. Practical

experience shows that this changeover

to a lower frequency greatly accelerates

the carburization process performed to

adjust the melt composition (Figure 2).

At the same time, burn-off of carburizing

agent is reduced.

It should be noted here that these

two circuit technologies can also be

combined for even greater effect. This

approach has proven its merits, e.g., in

melting furnaces used for the recycling

of aluminium chips, which are always

molten with a liquid heel. Here, on the

one hand, the filling-level-related surface

bath movement must be reduced

as far as possible in order to minimize

oxidation and melting loss, while on

the other hand it must always remain

sufficient to ensure a rapid stir-down

of the chip material. This is achieved

via an automatic use of the Power Focus

and Multi-Frequency Technology

functions [1].

These options are substantially expanded

by the newest developments

relying on the special technical advantages

of IGBT converter technology:

Apart from proven thyristor-based

frequency converters, the successful

development of special IGBT converters

has gained increasing importance

in electrothermal processes. These systems

involve the use of Insulated Gate

Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) instead of

thyristors in the inverter.

A special design of the IGBT converter

with two separate inverters and

a system providing phase-shifted power

supply to two furnace coil sections

Figure 9: Existing filtration system

creates the technical prerequisites for

an even broader control of the bath

movement. In the charge melt-down

phase the furnace can thus be operated

at an appropriate nominal frequency

of, e.g., 250 Hz and to increase the

bath agitation at low power the frequency

can be controlled steplessly

below 100 Hz. The amount of phase

offset between the two coil sections is

likewise adjustable to provide a more

selective control of the flow pattern

(i.e., direction of rotation and velocity),

as illustrated in Figure 3. In this example,

illustrating a 0° offset vs. a +60°

offset, the second offset section permits

the region of maximum flow velocity

to be moved to the centre of the

molten metal bath to obtain more effective

intermixing of the entire melt.

In addition, the turbulent portion of

the melt flow is increased substantially

with this circuit technology, especially

at low frequencies, so that the mixing

effect can be maximized with minimum

heat input.

The technical options available for

influencing bath movement in a coreless

induction furnace can be implemented

and combined in manifold

ways to address specific metallurgical

tasks. The decisive factor is that the development

of said circuit technologies

(stepless frequency variation, phase

shift) has made it possible for the first

time to largely decouple heat input

from the intensity and pattern of bath


One typical application for this technology

is for example the production

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 17


Otto Junker’s furnace control system

for visualisation and automation is installed,

which is currently JOKS 4.0.

Figure 7 shows the control cabinet for

manual furnace operation installed on

the furnace platform. A complete view

of the furnace platform is provided in

Figure 8. Figure 9 shows the filtration

system and Figure 10 the existing vibratory

feeder for charging of fine materials

such as chips, for example.

Figure 10: Existing vibratory charging system for continuous feeding fine-sized charge


The capabilities of the furnace system

in terms of influencing the melt flow

via power, frequency and phase-shift

control are demonstrated in a video

(see QR-Code).

of master alloys presenting high concentrations

of alloying elements. In

this application, production rate is

determined mostly by the dissolution

kinetics of the respective alloying

agent. This is why this process calls for

a strong stirring action along with very

low heat input, so that the melt temperature

remains constant and does

not rise excessively. Such alloys are

also often prone to separation or gravitational

segregation, so that a certain

amount of bath movement is necessary

during the pouring process, which

takes some time also. During this time

the melt temperature, in turn, is not allowed

to rise. Said circuit technologies

are also used to improve the reaction

kinetics in vacuum induction furnaces

for melt distillation, as well as in other

special applications [2, 3, 4].

The new melting system in

Otto Junker GmbH’s Melting

Technology Centre

The new system (Figure 4) is equipped

with all three of the circuit variants described

above and thus offers unique

flexibility when it comes to selective

control of the melt bath movement.

Here are some key specifications:

- Capacity, related to iron materials:

1,700 kg

- Power rating, related to iron materials:

600 kW

- Nominal melting frequency

in melting mode (switchable):

200/100 Hz

- Operating frequency during stirring

at reduced power, steplessly

variable: 30-100 Hz

- Two coil sections (top/bottom) with

independent inverters, providing

different power input into the respective


- Phase-shifted operation of the coil

sections within the range of: -90° to


- JOKS furnace control system with

touch screen.

- Furnace weighing system

- Optical Coil Protection (OCP) system

- Radio remote control of power input

and furnace tilting operation

- Full cooling circuit instrumentation

for calorimetric measurements

- Ring-type exhaust system and filter


- Diverse charging equipment

- Operation under protective gas atmosphere

Figure 5 shows the converter cabinet,

Figure 6 the graphic user interface implemented

on a touch screen. Care is

taken that always the latest version of

The video shows the bath surface

(molten aluminium) and bath surface

movements at following conditions

(power and frequency, as indicated):

400 kW/200 Hz; 200 kW/100 Hz, 100

kW, 35 Hz. The objective is to demonstrate

that the apparent bath movement

has nearly the same intensity in

each of the three cases, even though

heat input is halved from case to case.

The fourth example illustrates the influence

of a +90° phase shift at a frequency

of 35 Hz and an even lower

power setting (60 kW). It is clearly visible

that bath agitation is somewhat

more intensive than in the previous

examples. Especially, it is apparent that

the turbulent portion of the melt flow

emerges here. In the Otto Junker Academy

courses held twice annually, this

trial series is demonstrated “live” – i.e.,

using actual molten metal – to the participants.

Needless to say, the system has also

been used for numerous trials carried

out as part of customer projects. Examples

include the following:

- Implementation of copper melt refining

trials using selective oxidation

- Melting trials with introduction of

silicon flakes into an aluminium


18 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018



For Your Successful Planning of GIFA 2019


Media-Informationen 2019




GIESSEREI 104 (2017) Nr. 6

Die Zeitschrift für Technik, Innovation und Management



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Nehmen Sie mit uns Kontakt auf: www.laempe.com/kontakt

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01.06.17 14:58

Entscheider lesen die Marktführer




Markus Winterhalter

T +49 211 1591-142 | E-Mail: markus.winterhalter@dvs-hg.de

DVS Media GmbH

Aachener Str. 172 | 40223 Düsseldorf | www.dvs-media.eu


- Melting trials aimed at producing

aluminium-titanium-boron grain

refinement alloys

- Melting down of aluminium returns

contaminated with ceramic

filter residue

- Production of complex aluminium

alloys for plain bearings

- Recycling of zinc-containing zinc


- Melting and foaming trials with

special glass

- Melting experiments related to the

production of ultra-pure aluminium

Figure 11: Automatic ladle pouring machine, type PUMA, during pouring tests

In those examples, the pilot system was

used to determine optimum design parameters

for the respective coreless induction

furnace. Also, customer objectives

were addressed in trials requiring

the full range of capabilities (e.g., phase

shift) in the context of sophisticated

industrial process sequences. In the

meantime, eleven furnaces so equipped

have been sold, nine of which featuring

steplessly variable frequency adjustment.

At this point, it is important to

reiterate that in the systematic elaboration

of solutions for metallurgical tasks,

a supplier-customer relationship built

on communication and trust is the

most important key to success, just as

much as the actual equipment. In this

context, it is standard practice to sign

a Non-Disclosure Agreement up front.

Of course, the system has also been

routinely employed for in-house trials,

e.g., in refining pouring technology

and designing new equipment.

These activities are related mainly to

aspects of pressurized pouring and automatic

tilt-pouring of cast iron. As for

the latter method, extensive trial campaigns

were conducted at the Melting

Technology Centre in the past two

years using a PUMA-type automatic ladle

pouring system developed by Induga

GmbH, Simmerath, Germany (Figure

11). Here, the medium-frequency

furnace served as a melt source and

buffer vessel. The aim of the trials was

to optimize pouring parameters as well

as the underlying mathematical models


To come back to what was said earlier:

A system of the dimensions and capabilities

discussed here is indispensable

if the results are to be extrapolated

to a large furnace, having a capacity of

10 t for example. This implies in particular

that power density and intensity

of bath movement must be transferable.

This brings us directly to the

aforementioned problem with small

lab furnaces (with capacities between

1 and 50 kg) as used in research institutions

and universities. They are mostly

operated at high frequencies in the kHz

range and offer comparably high power

densities, so that the relation between

heat input and bath movement is far removed

from the real-world conditions

in actual industrial furnaces. For example,

250 Hz is a typical nominal operating

frequency of standard coreless induction

furnaces used to melt cast iron.

On the other hand, melting experiments

with the above-mentioned

furnace (which, after all, has a capacity

of 1.7 tonnes) take a not inconsiderable

effort with regard to refractory

materials, charge material logistics

and pouring operations. In 2017, therefore,

the Melting Technology Centre’s

equipment pool was completed with

the addition of a smaller furnace and

frequency converter that allows reduced-scale

trials to be realized more

flexibly and with less cost and effort.

The unit has a capacity of 100 kg (related

to iron materials) and a power rating

of 60 kW. Its operating frequency

can be selected in steps between 350 Hz

and 1,000 Hz, i.e., close to the range

encountered in industrial practice.

Heat treatment research and

development systems

Although the present paper deals

mainly with the company’s Melting

Technology Centre, it should be

mentioned here that Otto Junker

GmbH also maintains an extensively

equipped Thermoprocessing Technology


In addition to a series of test set-ups,

several of which were built to customer

order with a view to investigating

special application issues, a hot dip

tinning line and a strip flotation furnace

with cooling section deserve special


These last two units serve primarily

for systematic development and improvement.

In this regard the use of

simulation techniques has proven its

worth: Firstly, they make it possible

to select a number of particularly suitable

test variants beforehand. Secondly,

empirical data obtained through

experiments permit continuous improvements

to the simulation models.

The HiPreQ mist quench (Figure 12),

already established in the marketplace,

and the proprietary blow-off system for

20 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Figure 12: HiPreQ mist quench

hot dip tinning lines are examples of

whole new equipment components developed

from the combination of simulation

and measurements, which create

major advantages for our customers,

such as the planarity of strips, which

are cooled down only as fast as is necessary

from a metallurgical viewpoint, or

the unmatched visual and dimensional

uniformity of tin-coated strips. As a

useful side effect, numerous parameter

variations in the empirically proven

simulations also permit complex interactions

to be coordinated such that the

mathematical models used in the thermoprocessing

equipment offer sufficient

accuracy and real-time capability.

All these possibilities are also benefits

for our customers to the extent that

heating or cooling processes can be verified

and, where necessary, optimized

already during the planning stage.

This not only ensures that the potential

investment into new equipment

will ultimately yield products with the

required metallurgical properties. The

findings also contribute to achieving

maximum economic efficiency as expressed

by productivity and energy efficiency.

And in cases where a problem

cannot be solved with ‘forced convection’,

e.g., due to requirements for very

short heat-up times or locally limited

heating, it is always possible to use the

synergy with the Melting Technology

Centre and fall back on inductive heating

processes [6].


The new melting system in Otto Junker

GmbH’s Melting Technology Centre

provides an ideal basis for addressing

metallurgical and process engineering

tasks via melting trials performed

jointly with the customer to define the

optimum parameters and equipment

level of any future melting system. In

addition, a multitude of circuit configuration

options form a perfect toolset

for exploring complex metallurgical

processes involving different operating

sequences. Finally, it should be noted

that Otto Junker offers the use of this

melting system, complete with peripheral

equipment and operating personnel,

not only in melting furnace projects

but also as a contract service on

attractive terms.








9 - 13 April 2019

BHR Treviso Hotel

Treviso - Italy


Conferences, Technical Tours, Social Events


Event organized by:


International Aluminium Publications

Interall Srl: Via Gino Marinuzzi- 38 - 41122 Modena - Italy - Tel. +39-059-282390 - Fax +39-059-280462

aluminium2000@interall.it - www.aluminium2000.com

CONFERENCE TOPICS: Main subjects (but not limited to):

Markets & strategies, alloys billets & related equipment, Rolling technology,

architecture & special uses, transport & automotive industry, anodizing,

coating, nano technologies, automation, measuring, testing & quality

techniques, advanced applications & research, environmental protection &

recycling, waste water treatment, foundry, casting & die casting, extrusion



120 highly specialized technical papers, expected 500 delegates from 55

different countries, 4 parallel sessions running throughout the 3 days event,

Social Program for all participants, Sponsorship opportunities

Official language: ENGLISH

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 21

Double belt conveyor for transporting sand vertically (left) and to the polygonal sieve for ejection of lumps of sand from the process

(right) during installation at Isar Metallguss (Photos: Isar Metallguss)

Wolfgang Maier, Managing Partner at Isar Metallgusswerk, Geretsried

The latest generation of

sand preparation at Isar


Isar Metallgusswerk, an SME based in Geretsried, Germany, has invested in state-of-the-art

molding sand preparation in order to meet the highest of quality demands in ever-harsher international

competition. Electronically controlled, the plant consistently supplies an optimally coordinated

and reproducible sand quality. In addition, electronic documentation enables precise

traceability for every casting batch.

Every caster knows that high-quality

molding sand is one of the decisive

prerequisites for good casting

quality. Grain size, moisture and

the proportion of bentonite must be

exactly right in order to prevent inclusions

and achieve clean surfaces. “And

the best quality – ‘Made in Germany’

– is precisely what we guarantee our

customers and what our partners can

expect from us. Whereby it plays no

role whatsoever whether we produce

one casting, hundreds of castings, or

thousands,” according to the credo of

the management at Isar Metallgusswerk.

For more than four decades, the

SME and its employees have stood for

reliable production of precise components

made of aluminum alloys, aluminum

bronzes, tin bronzes and gunmetal

alloys using the sand casting

22 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


Figure 1: Molding sand mixer from Eirich in Geretsried. The homogenization

of old sand, new sand and bentonite takes place

in the mixing system

Figure 2: Metal frame of the molding sand preparation plant

during installation. From the start of construction until commissioning

of the plant took a total of six weeks

process and permanent mold casting.

“We are recognized specialists for complex

shapes with high dimensional accuracy,

as well as for pressure-tight,

highly stressed parts,” according to

Works Manager Thomas Sandner,

who mentions the company’s DIN EN

ISO 9001:2015 process-oriented quality

management. A quality standard

that is appreciated by customers in

machine construction, the automotive

sector, the electrical industry, the

production of optical and medical devices,

hospital technology, general engine

construction, the lighting industry,

catenary construction and traffic


Fully automatic molding sand


Isar Metallgusswerk has been operating

a fully automatic sand preparation

plant for the last 30 years in order

to meet customers’ demands. The

equipment, however, slowly reached

the end of its useful life and no longer

met the management’s quality requirements.

The tour of the works reveals an

orderly and efficient company. The

management is particularly proud of

the state-of-the-art molding plant, integrated

in the production process almost

five years ago. The plant, however,

requires a continuous supply of

high-quality molding sand. By 2016,

the Geretsried executives had gradually

come to the conclusion that

is was essential to further modernize

production by installing a completely

new high-quality molding

sand preparation plant that would

also meet the requirements of Industry

4.0. A step that involves substantial

costs. And smaller operations

like Isar Metallgusswerk often shrink

from such major investments in view

of the fluctuating orders situation, as

well as shrinking and volatile markets.

But those who really want to supply

high-quality products must also work

with high-quality sand.

Order placed with Maschinenfabrik

Gustav Eirich and VHV

The specialist expertise of the project

partners, and the proven quality

of the individual components of

the molding sand preparation plant,

played a decisive role in the decision

to award contracts to Maschinenfabrik

Gustav Eirich (Figure 1), in Hardheim,

and VHV Anlagenbau GmbH, in

Hörstel (both Germany). There were,

after all, enough challenges. The new

plant would have to be integrated in

the existing production hall because

there was no expansion space or alternative

area for the equipment. During

project planning, the professional adaptation

of the plant to the spatial conditions

at the works was greatly appreciated.

Only a partial heightening of

the production hall and some excavation

work were necessary for installation

of the new molding sand preparation

plant. It was even possible to gain

extra space for the actual production

processes at the foundry through the

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 23


Figure 3: The QualiMaster AT1 molding sand testing device is the interface to the digital world. The molding material properties are

initially digitally detected. Using software that has a self-optimizing pre-control function, the program calculates recommendations

for the addition of bentonite and water on the basis of a pattern parameter file

vertical installation of a state-of-theart

double belt conveyor (Figure 2) for

transporting sand, and the precise adaptation

– to within a few millimeters –

of the entire plant in the existing hall.

A qualitative leap in the

production process

The casters in Geretsried were very

satisfied with the new molding sand

preparation plant following its installation

in just six weeks – on schedule.

“During the process, the sand is emptied

from the mold boxes and falls

downwards onto the cover belt conveyor.

Like in a sandwich, the material

is transported upwards in the polygonal

screen; there is no return sand and

the belt can be wiped clean,” explains

Works Manager Sandner. Solid material

is sieved out. “The molding sand is

then alternately divided into two silos.

The material is constantly being evenly

blended and mixed with new sand

as a result of the alternating division

and the continuous removal of the

molding sand,” says Sandner. Shortages

are therefore offset, and the sand

quality is continuously improved. The

mix of old and new sand is transported

via a steep angle conveyor vertically

upwards to the weighing system and

dosed here in a mixer. “The mixing system

achieves perfect homogenization

of old sand, new sand and bentonite.

The rapid and complete distribution

of the dosed water added is essential

for optimum results. The bentonite

is completely solubilized during the

wet mixing phase and wraps the sand

grains evenly,” Sandner explains the

process while the plant is in running


Digital transformation

at the foundry

Digital transformation in the direction

of Industry 4.0 also finds its way

into molding sand preparation at Isar

Metallgusswerk. Thus the QualiMaster

AT1 (Figure 3) molding sand process

24 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


your profit

with 3D printed

cores & molds.

Figure 4: Project drawing

from the Isar

Metallguss works

Our experts

will be pleased

to advise you!

control system, in combination with appropriate software,

enables proactive management and regulation of the molding

material properties within narrow tolerances around a

defined target value. The software also has a self-optimizing

pre-control function with which it calculates recommendations

for adding bentonite and water on the basis of a pattern

parameter file. Sandner: “After completion of a mixture,

three samples are immediately taken and tested to determine

the compactability and shear strength control parameters.

These data form the basis for correcting the moisture

and the bentonite content of the next mixture, which has

already been prepared.” All the important parameters and

process measurement values can be visualized by online

monitoring and are documented charge-by-charge. “This

enables the detection of any deviations and prompt corrective

measures,” adds Works Manager Sandner, who sees a

real casting quality advantage in the reproducibility of the

high molding sand quality at any time. Thanks to this complete

documentation, customers can retrace the production

conditions under which their castings were manufactured,

even after years.

Good project planning and


The foundry management received very good support from

the machine and plant partners from the very first day of

drawing up the project (Figure 4) right up to its completion.

They could rely on the expertise and specialist qualifications

of the on-site workers, both during the planning and during

implementation, according to the foundry management.

The successful collaboration was crowned by the timetable

being meticulously adhered to during the wide-ranging

conversion and construction work.


Daimlerstr. 22 • 86368 Gersthofen

+49 (0) 821 650 630

ExOne.com • europe@exone.com


Dosing and shot profile in the shot chamber (Figures & Graphics: MAGMA)

Anja Pretzell, MAGMA Gießereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen

Magmasoft – Autonomous


With the latest software version Magmasoft 5.4, MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen,

Germany, the worldwide leading supplier of software for the optimization of casting processes,

presents a comprehensive toolbox of new capabilities for the optimization of casting designs,

tooling layouts and robust production processes.

By integrating the MAGMA Approach

and the possibilities of Autonomous

Engineering into the software,

the user can now fully utilize

virtual experiments to ensure sound

decision-making and effective root

cause analysis. By specifying quantitative

objectives and the critical production

variables in the software, the

simultaneous optimization of casting

designs, tooling layouts and robust

process design throughout the entire

development process can be easily

achieved. For this purpose, comprehensive

enhancements have been

integrated into the new release, which

make Autonomous Engineering with

the simulation software even more efficient.

New solver for high pressure

die casting

A major advancement in the new version

is the extensive support of the

development for the component, the

tooling and the process setup of high

pressure die casting. With the innovative

TAG-meshing (True Adaptive

Geometry), Magmasoft 5.4 offers

new possibilities for the flexible, local

meshing of the geometry. A new algorithm

for the filling process in high

pressure die casting considers the spe-

26 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

cial requirements of the process on the

description of the free surface of the

melt, the metal viscosity, and the prediction

of air entrapment for improved

result quality. The new solver can simultaneously

calculate different flow

models (such as the flow through cooling

lines during filling of the casting)

while also supporting flexible boundary

conditions (plunger movement,


With these new features, Magmasoft

5.4 enables the detailed investigation

of the dosing process and the shot profile

considering the shot chamber geometry

(Figure left). This enables the

optimization of dosing parameters,

dwell times, plunger velocities, and

switching points.

The consideration of the available

machine capacity (PQ 2 diagram), the

venting conditions and the complete

thermal balance in the die, which are

all critical for casting quality, can be

evaluated at the earliest stages of process

and tooling design.

Simulation of the spraying


Based on the level of detail required

to achieve a given objective, Magmasoft

5.4 offers various capabilities for

optimizing the spraying process in

both die casting tooling and process

development: a classical approach

with uniform heat extraction from

the cavity in early-stage product optimization,

an extended approach with

user-defined static or movable spray areas,

or even the realistic consideration

of the spray head with individual circuits,

nozzle positions, and programming

of the head movement.

This enables an even more precise

evaluation of the influence of spraying

on the thermal balance in the

tooling, the distortion of casting and

die components, or local die lifetime

( Figure 1).

Figure 1: Realistic description of the spray process

Figure 2: Prediction of flow and heat transfer for cooling channels and contour cooling


The flow within cooling lines, spot

cooling or conformal cooling near

the die contour can be optimized for

increased thermal efficiency, by taking

into account the cooling medium

with its inlet/ outlet conditions, temperatures,

and flow rates (Figure 2).

Figure 3: Visualization of quantitative heat balance data for casting and mold

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 27


Figure 4: Prediction of ejection forces and contact pressures in the casting

Magmasoft 5.4 now additionally offers

an intuitive visualization for all

casting processes of the thermal balance

between the casting and the die

for the quantitative evaluation of energy

exchange over the complete process,

in individual process phases, or

for defined time intervals (Figure 3).

With the integration of all important

process steps in die casting, the virtual

process chain is represented realistically:

from ejection, quenching and

cooling of the casting, through trimming

of gates and overflows, to consideration

of the residual stress redistribution

caused by machining of the

as-cast part.

Die casting tool design is supported

by the calculation of contact pressures

between casting and die, now including

the prediction of the corresponding

required ejector forces (Figure 4).

The simulation of heat treatment is

also seamlessly integrated. Therefore,

minimization of casting distortion

through the optimization of production

parameters, or by compensating

for dimensional change when designing

the die cavity, or through the design

of heat treatment racks can be in-

Figure 5: Support of the complete process chain for distortion-optimized castings

28 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Figure 6: Magmasoft calculates the impact of gas generated during binder degradation (left) and predicts the risk of casting defects

due to gases (right)

vestigated during the development

process (Figure 5).

New quality criteria like the local

porefree zone thickness help to securely

design die cast components by

taking into account the casting properties.

Casting optimization beyond

high pressure die casting

In addition to the comprehensive toolbox

for high pressure die casting, Magmasoft

5.4 offers numerous other new

capabilities for casting optimization

and process validation.

Prediction of binder decomposition

and core gases

Gases are generated during the casting

process when the binder systems used

in the cores and molding materials decompose.

Depending on the binder system

and its degradation behavior on the

core geometry and the layout of the

core prints, these gases may lead to

casting defects. With complex cores

or core packages, it is not always easy

to understand and control the impact

that the amount of gas generated, the

permeability of the core package, or of

vent size and placement can have on

defect formation.

Magmasoft 5.4 virtually reproduces

these processes in a comprehensive

Figure 7: Coupled calculation of convective and feeding flows (left) and their effect on

segregation (right) in steel castings

manner, thus enabling a systematic

prediction of the risk for gas-related

defects. By systematically analyzing

gas formation, gas transport and

venting conditions, the use of Autonomous

Engineering ensures the pre-

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 29


Extended aluminum microstructure


The prediction of microstructure for

aluminum alloys with MAGMAnonferrous

has been significantly extended.

The new features enable the prediction

of the local solidification behavior

and the resulting microstructure within

a broad alloying range of Si, Cu,

Mg, Zn, as well as numerous other elements.

The visualization of local liquidus

and solidus temperatures also

provides new opportunities when displaying

cooling curves.

Figure 8: Significant additions and extensions to the parametric geometry library

Figure 9: Intuitive curve visualization for a given process

vention of casting defects due to binder

gases ( Figure 6).

Segregation and porosity

under risers

The steel casting module MAGMAsteel

has always offered the ability to predict

the impact of thermal convection on

the development of segregation within

the casting. Convective flow during

the solidification of steel castings can

significantly change the temperature

fields and thus the feeding behavior

within the casting, especially heavy

sectioned steel castings. Magmasoft

5.4 now offers the coupled calculation

of both convective and feeding flows.

This improves the quality of the segregation

predictions and also the feeding

behavior, especially with risers that

have a narrow feeder neck (Figure 7).

Effective software operation

The new release simplifies the use of

Magmasoft in various areas: In the Geometry

Perspective, you can now select

and modify several geometries at once.

This is especially useful for optimizing

parametric geometries. Complex surfaces,

like partitions, can be created by

extruding curves. The new “Cutting

Knife” capability is a powerful tool that

enables the engineer to cut CAD or STL

geometries. This is especially useful for

separating gating and rigging systems

from the actual part or for the segmentation

of tool data in imported geometries.

The geometry database has been

extended significantly and now offers

a large variety of parametric geometries

for easy use within your projects

for optimizing gating and risering or

tool design (Figure 8).

In the Result Perspective, the visualization

and handling of curve results has

been greatly enhanced, enabling the

engineer to quickly and easily display

different curves as needed. The curves

are always shown in the context of

their process mode. The software enables

an easy comparison of different

projects and project versions, which

also includes measured data (Figure 9).

The movement of virtual tracers or inclusions

during mold filling is now visualized

with the help of 3-D “bubbles”

(Figure 10).

Multitasking design optimization

In Magmasoft 5.4, the Parallel Design

feature facilitates the parallel computation

of several simulations (virtual

trials) within a Design of Experiments

or optimization, dependent on

the number of available CPU cores. For

example, with a 16-core license, up to

8 virtual trials can now be calculated

in parallel, which can lead to a significantly

faster time to solution.

30 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

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Figure 10: Visualization of complex turbulent

flows by three-dimensional tracer


Through the extension of the

MAGMAlink module, any geometry

and all results from Magmasoft can

now be used for forming simulations

with Simufact (for further details see

the MAGMA website).

The new release is now fully integrated

with the website. By saving your

login credentials in Magmasoft, the

customer support area of the website

is now directly available from within

the software. The online help system

now allows an integrated opening of

videos and tutorials from the website.

A direct upload of support requests to

MAGMA’s support through the website

is also possible.

Soon, the Magmasoft 5.4 user interface

will also be available in Chinese

and Portuguese.

By systematically applying Autonomous

Engineering, Magmasoft 5.4

supports a fast product and process

development, optimized process and

tooling designs as well as a robust process

layout with maximum reproducibility

of quality.


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Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 31

MT Comax is operating two RUF briquetting systems with a total throughput performance of max. 3.5 tons per hour, which ensure

that the loose aluminium chips that are delivered to them, become compact briquettes. Therefore, less storage space is needed, the

production process is simpler and the metal yield is higher (Photo: MTC)

Peter Klingauf, Augsburg

Refiner optimizes yield by


Metal Trade Comax operates an aluminium melting plant for the recycling of aluminium scrap to

produce various aluminium cast alloys. The basis for this is defined aluminium scrap. A large

share of that is delivered to the Refiner as loose chips. Before these are loaded into the furnace,

they are processed and then pressed into briquettes with automated RUF briquetting Systems.

The briquetting of the chips, in particular, ensures optimized metal yields and therewith a markedly

increased profitability.

Founded in 1938, and headquartered

in Velvary, Czech Republic, Metal

Trade Comax a.s. is a well established

European-wide metalworking company.

Almost 30,000 tons of aluminium

cast alloys and several hundred tons of

copper alloys are produced each year

in the modern Czech plant alone. In

other locations, different sectors of the

company produce semi-finished products

from sheet steel. Amongst others a

coil coating plant is operated.

The decisive basis for constantly

good results according to Peter

Bruženák, head of sales for the alu-

32 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


minium sector at Comax, is on the

one hand his experienced head of

production who knows exactly how

the correct charging of the material

must be carried out. On the other

hand, he needs good, utilizable aluminium

scrap, which is delivered in

many varying forms. “We use dross,

sheets, foils, profiles as well as our own

cast and lump scrap and buy aluminium

chips of varying quality. The latter

makes up more than half of our raw

materials. So it is vitally important to

deal professionally with the chips” explains


Dealing with chips professionally

What the engineer means by that is

easy to understand when the supplied

chips are examined: they contain, on

average, more than 15 per cent residual

moisture mainly in the form of cooling

lubricant residuals as well as fine

particles (< 0,4 mm). Furthermore they

sometimes have mechanically free

iron content. Therefore, a structured

process of chip processing is very important

for the Refiner.

Before the chips can be delivered to

the well-organized store, they undergo

several stations of chip preparation

(not part of RUF’s scope of delivery).

Upon delivery, the quality is controlled

first. This is carried out by measuring

the moisture and then doing a

spectral analysis. Then the chips are

put through a sieving station to separate

the rough particles and afterwards

they are put through a shredder, which

breaks up all long aluminium chips.

The first reduction in moisture content

is then achieved in a centrifuge. This is

necessary to ensure that afterwards a

strong magnet can reliably remove the

free iron content. Now they come to

the last and most important step of the

entire process; the briquetting.

It is now more than ten years since

Metal Trade Comax purchased its first

briquetting press as it was noted feeding

of loose chips lead to high losses in

yield. The results of the melting process

were markedly better afterwards.

Only the reliability and quality of the

system left a lot to be desired according

to Peter Bruženák: “Our technicians

Peter Bružeňák, head of sales at Metal Trade Comax (left), and Andreas Jessberger,

head of sales at RUF, are delighted with the successful cooperation (Photo: RUF)

The modern tilting rotary furnace at MT Comax is fed with chips, which have been briquetted.

The main reason: the yield of the briquettes is on average about five per cent

higher (Photos: MTC)

therefore began the search for a high

quality briquetting technology and

made comparisons between systems

offered by various manufacturers. In

the end they were convinced that the

machines from the innovation leaders,

RUF from Zaisertshofen in Bavaria,

were the best match for our requirements.

And this opinion has proven

correct up to the present day”.

MT Comax acquired the first RUF

briquetting system RUF 75/2500/150,

in 2014, which can press up to 1.5 tons

of aluminium per hour. As the advent

of available loose chips increased constantly,

an expansion was necessary

after three years. This time, the decision

as to which manufacturer would

supply the system was a foregone conclusion

and therefore the company

invested in a further system, the RUF

90/2500/150 in 2017, with a capacity

of up to two tons of aluminium per

hour. The processing capacity of the

complete chip preparation system lies

somewhat lower than this, but the systems

provided by RUF provide a total

briquetting capacity of up to 3,5 t/hr .

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 33


Briquettes increase the yield – cost benefit calculation

High metal yields mean high economic efficiency for the MT Comax. This is

why they briquette almost all chip qualities before melting them. The experience

of the company’s melting foreman shows that the yield from briquettes

is, on average, five per cent higher than that of loose chips.

The decisive reason is the fast immersion and melting of the briquettes in the

liquid aluminium under the salt layer in the tilting rotary furnace. This and also

the reduced moisture content leads to less burn-off than with loose chips. Additionally

the logistics and storage before melting and charging is simplified. The

most decisive reason is the reduction in burn-off, which results in significant financial

benefits. In comparison to thermic chip preparation, chip preparation

with briquetting is the simpler and most cost effective preparation method as

the long-standing experience at Metal Trade Comax has shown.

High yield, low space requirement,

simpler production process

The designed set-up of the system as

well as the high hydraulic pressure of

2,500 kg/cm² are decisive for the high

quality of the briquettes created. Andreas

Jessberger, head of sales at RUF

describes the process: “Through the

enormous pressure, the loose aluminium

chips are pressed into solid briquettes,

whereby the residual clinging

moisture left over after the centrifuge

is almost completely removed.” This

is a fantastic result for Peter Bruženák,

who calculates the remaining moisture

in the briquettes in his plant as being

under three per cent. Furthermore,

the high density of the briquettes of

around 2.2 kg/l is extremely important

for the optimum yield from the melting

process (see box above).

Subsequently the RUF system feeds

the finished briquettes via an outlet

rail directly into the collecting container,

which is emptied at regular intervals.

“Because our machines have

additionally an automatic feeding

system, the personnel requirements

for MT Comax are minimal,” continues

Jessberger. Only the maintenance

has to be carried out by trained service

employees from the Czech company.

The effort required here is hardly

worth mentioning, according to Peter

Bruženák. The machines consistently

run without problems.

On the basis of comprehensive experience,

the head of sales, Bruženák

When the charging is completed, the liquid

material is mostly cast into ingots

and transported in this form to customers

from the most varied branches

and his melting foreman agree that the

investment in the briquetting presses

has paid off in several respects: “One

is that the yield from the briquettes is

on average around five percent higher

than that of loose chips. Secondly

we reduce the volume of the raw material

many times over and therefore

need much less space in the store, and

also the production process is markedly

simpler and faster. Particularly in the

charging process, a significantly higher

amount can be fed into the melting

oven in a shorter time.” That is the

reason why practically all chip qualities

are briquetted before melting at

MT Comax. Only by briquetting chip

qualities, which have been purchased

with residual clinging moisture, can be

successfully re-melted.

When the chips have been pressed,

personnel are needed again in order to

transport the valuable briquettes into a

short-term store where they are stored

according to type of alloy. This is important

for the further logistic process,

because it means the production

manager’s team know exactly where

to find the respective materials. They

can recognize at a glance where the relevant

alloy is and transport them correspondingly

to the furnace. In summary

this is how MT Comax produce

the desired alloys with the maximum

of quality and yield.

Aluminium can be delivered

in liquid or solid form

Alongside the raw material and the experience

of the head of melting operations,

the implementation of high

quality furnace technology is decisive.

MT Comax makes no compromises

here either and relies on a tilting

rotary drum furnace. This type of

furnace is considered especially beneficial

in aluminium melting plants, as in

general the total charging time is short

and the necessary addition of salt is reduced.

Therefore the specific energy requirements

are reduced and the relative

yield increases. This means the

profitability is also increased.

When the charging is completed, the

liquid material is mostly cast into ingots

and transported in this form to customers

from the most varied branches. They

are however mostly from the casting

sector of automobile suppliers. They in

turn use various casting processes but

above all pressure die casting, to produce

different products like pump casings,

gear boxes, cylinder heads, clutch

casings and many more.

Upon request however, the Czech Refiner

will deliver their aluminium alloys

in liquid form. For this purpose

the company uses transport containers

with a special thermic insulation and a

5 ton load capacity. A liquid metal delivery

using three thermic containers

thereby constitutes a delivery weight of

about 15 tons per transport. This method

saves the user from having to melt

ingots themselves, thereby saving on

both: energy costs and valuable time.


34 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


The swingarm was made for the motorcycle Lightning LS-218 of electric motorcycle manufacturer Lightning Motorcycle from San

Carlos in the USA (Photos: AFS/TEI)

Shannon Wetzel, Managing Editor Modern Casting, Schaumburg, USA

TEI swing arm wins Casting

of the Year

The uniquely shaped part portrays the possibilities and opportunities available when combining

additive manufacturing, simulation and innovative design

Three weeks. It’s all Tooling Equipment

International (TEI), had to design,

cast, clean, heat treat, machine

and inspect a motorcycle swing arm

so uniquely complex it looks more

like a spiderweb sculpture than vehicle


As a prototype casting shop, AFS

Corporate Member TEI (Livonia,

Michigan, USA) is accustomed to quick

turn-arounds and using technology to

achieve castings that push the boundaries

of traditional design. It was fastidious

in its approach to the project yet

confident the delivery would be made

on time.

Others were more pessimistic. That

first week, a customer walking through

the facility saw a TEI engineer working

on the mold design and declared,

“you will never be able to cast that.”

TEI proved him wrong.

“We were given an extremely tough

time scale to meet, and given the geometry,

that was a bit of a challenge,”

said Oliver Johnson, president of TEI.

“We had at best two shots to get this

thing right, and we got a good part the

first time.”

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 35



casting of the Amercan

Foundry Society

The swingarm is for the Lightning

LS-218 motorcycle produced by Lightning

Motorcycle. 3-D software design

company Autodesk commissioned TEI

to produce the prototype to prove the

capabilities of its generative design

methodology, which automates the

design based on process-specific parameters.

The intricate yet robust part replaces

a three-part billet machined into a box

section. The design reduced the mass

of the swingarm by 10 % while increasing

torsional and bending stiffness.

The organic shape hints at the future

of metalcasting and the growing opportunities

for the industry from additive

manufacturing methods, earning

the casting the title of 2018. Casting of

the Year from AFS and Metal Casting

Design & Purchasing magazine.

Autodesk had worked on some initial

designs for Lightning Motorcycle

six years ago, and now the company

felt it could put those ideas into reality

with TEI as the metalcasting partner.

“We had done some previous work

with TEI and knew that making more

complex shapes was totally possible,”

said Andreas Bastian, principle research

scientist at Autodesk. “We were

just looking for the right project to

take it for a spin.”

The biggest challenge after the design

phase was figuring out how to

clean the 3-D printed sand mold. The

two constraints to casting via 3-D printed

molds, Johnson said, are first must

be able to clean the sand, and then you

have to assemble the sand package.

For the swing arm, the loose, unbonded

sand would need to be cleared away

from the all the tiny passages between

the thin aluminum branches. But TEI

has been working with this medium for

many years and has experience in taking

on and then meeting increasingly

difficult challenges.

“We approach it maybe differently

than the industry – we have journeyman

patternmakers cleaning our 3-D

printed sand,” said Ted Kahaian, TEI

process manager. “It is common for us

to push the design boundaries to see

what we can or can’t do, and we haven’t

stumped them yet. We are making

it tougher on them but because they

are able to keep meeting the challenges,

we are innovating.”

To ensure the sand mold was totally

clean, TEI used a small endoscope

to travel down every passage of the

mold, referring frequently to the 3-D

design at the workstation. Critical to

this step was the quality of the sand.

Knowing this, TEI turned to AFS Corporate

Member Hoosier Pattern (Decatur,

Indiana) to produce the two 3-D

printed molds.

“It was vital that we had really good

sand that could be cleaned easily,”

Johnson said. After cleaning, machining

was another challenge. “There

were only three areas to machine, but


Cyclotron Motorcycle

Component: Swingarm.





Low pressure sand


6.4 kg.

Dimensions: 700 x 470 x 280 mm.

Application: Swingarm for the rear

wheel of a high performance

electric motorcycle.

the part isn’t easy to hold or access,”

Johnson said. “While were working on

the mold design and casting the part,

in parallel we were designing and machining

a fixture.”

TEI used simulation to map out the

entire manufacturing process of the

swingarm, including machining. The

prototype mapped out the whole machining

operation in a virtual simulation

that simulated the cutting tools,

fixtures, and the motions of the pallets.

“Everything is simulated because

you don’t want to have a mess up on a

job like this,” Johnson said. The simulation

paid off. The two molds both

produced good parts, cleaning was

successful, and machining operations

were completed without a hitch. Af-

36 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

ter CT scanning, white light scanning,

x-ray inspection, and dimensional

checks before and after heat

treating, the swing arm was ready for

the customer within the three week


“One of the reasons this has been

such a strong collaboration is TEI is

an early adopter and strategic user of

technology, particularly in simulation

technology,” Bastian said. “The casting

coming out right the first time was

pretty phenomenal.”

The success of the cast swing arm

will help Autodesk further make a

case for applying generative design to

not just metal printing but also metalcasting.

“Metal printing likes to show all

these exotic shapes that can be produced,

but we want to demonstrate

casting is a technology that is quite

well suited to those shapes, particularly

when you are making something

larger than a bread box,” Bastian said.

“Metalcasting offers hundreds of materials

to choose from compared to metal

printing, and the manufacturing base

is mature.”

Kahaian agrees and is excited for the

future of metalcasting as the adoption

of additive manufacturing in the industry

speeds up. “3-D printed sand is

a cheap medium to print in, and it’s using

the same materials we have been

using for hundreds of years,” he said.

“It’s unlimited in size. It is the future,

and realistically, there are no boundaries.”

Designs like the swing arm are great

showpieces, but Johnson believes the

impact can go past the exhibit floor.

“You might not see parts like the swing

arm on a mass-produced vehicle, but

you could apply the same approach of

optimized design,” he said. “The part

may only look subtly different but

it still can be optimized with the appropriate

constraints of conventional


The annual Casting of the Year competition

is sponsored by the American

Foundry Society and Metal Casting Design

& Purchasing magazine and recognizes

excellence in casting design.

The competition is open to all North

American metalcasters and designers/end-users

of metal castings. Castings

are accepted in all metals, casting

process, end-use applications and sizes.

Independent judges evaluate each

entry on:

- Benefits delivered to the casting


- The use of the casting process’

unique capabilities.

- Contribution to growth and expansion

of the casting market.









More foundries around the world

choose Simpson Analytics for

their sand lab than any other

technology. Consisting of over 85

instruments, Simpson Analytics is:

• More flexible to different standards

• More accurate • More repeatable

• Easier to use • More durable

• Easier to calibrate

Simpson Analytics, including all of

the former +GF+ products, is

supported by our global service

network, based in the USA,

Germany and India, for spare

parts, repair and calibration.



Simpson Technologies (Deutschland) GmbH

Roitzheimer Strasse 180, 53879, Euskirchen, Germany


The topic of Industry 4.0 is nothing new for Bernd H. Williams-Boock and Ortrander Eisenhütte. The Managing Director is driving

the topic forwards (Photos: Michael Vehreschild)

Michael Vehreschild, Kleve

Investments in Industry 4.0

have paid off for the Ortrander


Media inquiries are an almost everyday event for Ortrander Eisenhütte GmbH. Because, along

with Casper Guss, the southern Brandenburg foundry has become a model operation for Industry

4.0 since it started along the path towards an intelligent factory. And there is no end in sight.

The ARD television channel’s morning show also recently reported on what is considered a remarkable

development for the sector. There are also regular exchanges with the Brandenburg

state government. For good reason, as a closer look reveals.

38 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


company must earn respect before

it regularly attracts cameras

and microphones. And this

despite the fact that the main innovations

for Industry 4.0 at Ortrander

Eisenhütte were actually introduced

three years ago. But what happens

when the cameras are packed up and

have left? How successful is Industry

4.0 at the foundry in Ortrand?

Does everyday foundry work meet

the expectations awakened by stateof-the-art

technology? Bernd H. Williams-Boock,

as Managing Director, is

a driving force for the conversion of

Ortrander Eisenhütte to Industry 4.0,

and a highly sought-after expert representing

the entire company team.

His calendar is bulging with appointments.

He welcomes business partners

and employees for discussions before

and after our interview. Would you

bet against Industry 4.0 being a constant


The Hamburg-born Williams-Boock

has been in control of the company’s

destiny since 2004 and has always been

keen to modernize the ironworks. The

extent of the innovations and changes

does not fluster him. He discusses

even the more complicated aspects of

Industry 4.0 in terms that are almost


Figure 1: The use of RFID technology has

led to a considerable improvement in

process optimization

Homework done

It is clear that Ortrander Eisenhütte

has done its homework. “Our iron

production has undergone a 4.0-oriented

revision, our sand production

has been given a 4.0-oriented redesign,

and the mold filling plant has

had 4.0-oriented adjustments,” explains

Williams-Boock. His summary

is positive. Industry 4.0 enables the

company to work more precisely and

optimize its processes. Throughput

times have been reduced and bottlenecks

prevented in order to increase

customer satisfaction. Today, for example,

20 production logs allow parts

to be accurately traced when a fault

occurs. An enormous advantage – and

not the only one.

An important element on the path

to the intelligent factory was, and

remains, traceability – particularly

during serial production. Load containers

used to be manually labelled

with container packing cards until

the introduction of modern RFID and

tracking solutions. There was no rapid

overview of the state of production

because there was no digitalization.

Load containers in the block warehouse

were also difficult to identify.

Accompanying documentation had

to be found and identified manually,

leading to long search times and high

error rates.

Processes substantially


In order to solve this, the foundry

resorted to UHF-RFID in combination

with a real-time location system

(RTLS). According to the company, the

tracking of containers provides a seamless

flow of data. Transport containers

now carry all relevant information on

an RFID tag. The use of this combined

solution has led to a substantial improvement

in the optimization and

transparency of processes (Figure 1).

Another milestone was the new pyrometers,

which enable up to 600 real-time

measurement values per production

hour – instead of only two to

three measurements, as was the case

in the past. The advantage is that temperature

measurements during casting

processes are much cheaper and more

frequent. The quality of the products

has increased, and the use of raw materials

and energy is more efficient.

Data linked intelligently

The results of the individual projects

are represented via a foundry information

system. “Data that would

Figure 2: Long stretches of production technology are networked, though the employee

ultimately makes decisions

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 39


Figure 3: Most sub-processes at Ortrander

Eisenhütte can now be measured in


Tradition and modernity under one roof

otherwise be visualized separately are

merged,” explains Williams-Boock.

Components are linked intelligently.

Industry 4.0 namely.

“A major challenge is to arrange the

consistent collection of data in order

to ensure comparability,” explains the

CEO of Ortrander Eisenhütte. “Interpretation

must enable connection of

the data in such a way that the result

can be used to control the processes.”

This offers the opportunity to obtain a

reliable foundation for decision-making

based on comprehensive data.

Thus data analysis now has a considerably

higher status for processes than

ever before. “We no longer try something

– we calculate. This allows us to

minimize unpredictability.”

Training courses and


A development that has changed activities

in the foundry and thus the

role of employees. While personnel

carried out a lot of work themselves

in the past, employees are increasingly

becoming ‘masters of the processes’.

“This needs the foundry team to

demonstrate a very great willingness

to learn,” says Williams-Boock. It is

important to accept changes and work

out solutions together. The employees

are not left to themselves on this path

– training courses and qualifications,

mostly concrete training on-the-job,

get them fit to face the new challenges

(Figure 2).

Expenditures on technology and

the team that have already paid off.

The works, which has invested a total

of 2.5 million euros in recent years –

of which about 1.6 million euros has

been in Industry 4.0 – has achieved a

permanent reduction in the rate of defects.

The production of fewer rejects

saves enormous amounts of material.

“10 - 15 percent more liquid iron is produced

and cast, depending on the material,”

according to Williams-Boock.

In addition, regarding the entire process,

electricity consumption has fallen

to below 500 kWh per tonne of

melt. For comparative purposes: it was

Ortrander Eisenhütte GmbH in Brandenburg has been producing and supplying

thin-walled weight-saving iron castings for more than 130 years. The

company is now considered one of Europe’s most modern foundries for machine-molded

iron casting. The foundry’s customers mainly come from the

automotive industry, from stove and oven construction, and from the infrastructure

and household appliances sectors. Thus the company produces, for

example, components for power transmission in cars, or entire ovens.

Four induction melting furnaces are responsible for melting grey, spheroidal

graphite and vermicular iron. Ortrander Eisenhütte generally produces small

and medium-sized series. Iron-carbon casting alloys are melted, cast and machined

at Ortrander Eisenhütte. The foundry also supplies assemblies and finished

ovens, among other things.

Approximately 26,000 tonnes of saleable high-quality castings are produced

annually. Roughly 70 per cent are intended for export. About 300 employees

are anticipated to achieve sales of 50 million euros in 2018. The exploitation of

Industry 4.0 methods is also a driving force for increased sales.

516 kWh in 2011/2012 and 510 kWh in


Good – even if not perfect

These are changes that affect sales,

which will probably rise to about

50 million euros in 2018, according

to Williams-Boock. The company

achieved sales of 42 million euros

three years ago. “Without Industry

4.0 we would not have been able to increase

casting quantities.” His summary

is thus positive: “Industry 4.0 works

well, even if it is not yet perfect.”

Modern technology does not replace

humans, even if the some of the activities

of the roughly 300 employees have

changed. “Jobs have been retained; the

number of employees is stable. Industry

4.0 is not a job-killer,” stresses the

Managing Director of Ortrander Eisenhütte.

On the contrary – the intelligent

factory offers the foundry new potentials

(Figure 3). And this new modern

technology fascinates many young

people. “It makes a company more attractive

and more sustainable.” An effective

means of combating the skills


The next step: deep learning

Real-time data collection and traceability

are part of Industry 4.0 and an everyday

matter at Ortrander Eisenhütte.

But Williams-Boock does not want to

stop there. ‘Done’, ‘accomplished’ –

these are terms that do not exist for the

Managing Director. He already has the

next step in mind. And this could be an

even greater quantum leap. “Artificial

intelligence” and “deep learning” are

the key terms.

“Deep learning” promises a great

deal because it creates algorithms autonomously.

The system itself independently

detects interactions, recognizing

linkages that humans cannot

see. Science fiction? No, deep learning

already shapes our daily lives. For example,

when Google determines and

displays perfectly customized advertising

for the user. According to Williams-Boock,

deep learning could

even become standard for foundries

in three to five years’ time. Initial trials

at foundries abroad have apparently

been successful.

40 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Considerable investments

“One must take this path, though the

financial and technical circumstances

are still unclear.” For example, standard

software still needs to be configured

and parameterized for foundries,

i.e. coordinated to meet the needs of

the individual foundry. Deep learning

also involves a considerable investment

in software. In other words, it is

also a question of cost.

Will artificial intelligence and deep

learning initiate a new age of computing?

Williams-Boock answers this with

a definite “yes”. Then one and one will

most certainly not equal two anymore,

but also not three. It is quite possible

that then one plus one will equal four

or even five! What this means for defect

rates and cost savings in a company,

for example, is currently only speculation.

“Only heaven knows”

Given these new developments, the

question arises of how the future of

foundries will actually be shaped in

concrete terms. “Only heaven knows at

present what it will be like.” And perhaps

Ortrander Eisenhütte, of course, in a

couple of years. Always open for whatever

might come, the head of Ortrander Eisenhütte

will certainly be one of the first

to find out. Would you bet against…?


In demand: “Remaining viable

thanks to Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 is already the present and will probably influence many sectors in future. Some

foundries are also undertaking initial steps along the path to the intelligent factory. But what

can the sector expect and what risks do these developments involve? An interview with Bernd

H. Williams-Boock, Managing Director of Ortrander Eisenhütte.

You have made major investments

in Industry 4.0 (under the program

title ‘Ortrander 4.0’), commissioning

iron-quality software and a casting

control system about three years

ago. Have there been further sizeable

investments at Ortrander Eisenhütte

since then?

Up to now, those have been our decisive

investments in Industry 4.0. But

enormously effective investments: we

have been able to make our production

much more flexible and more

process-reliable. At the same time, we

are now able to offer more consistent

quality. There have, of course, been

software updates in recent years. The

control system, however, has remained

the same.

Will you make further investments in

Industry 4.0?

Industry 4.0 is a constant process with

continuous further developments. The

journey is the destination. Further investments

here – in deep learning for

example – depend upon the extent to

which financial and technical questions

can be resolved. We are therefore

currently miles away from saying

that we will introduce this or that.

Whereby I think that one must continue

along the path to Industry 4.0.

Where do you think the foundry sector

is regarding the topic of deep


Some sectors already use deep learning.

They have gone farther than the foundry

sector where, in effect, deep learning

has not been implemented at all.

Though this could change in three to

five years. And if the step is taken properly

it will offer enormous advantages,

for example regarding cost savings.

Progress, with all its advantages, also

poses risks. In the case of Industry 4.0

this is the enormous amount of data

that is collected and processed. How

secure are your data?

This is, of course, an important topic.

The data infrastructure and data security

must be built up in parallel and optimized.

We need concepts for how to

handle this. We have them because we

examined the topic in detail. We can

say that our data is secure.

How great is your trust in Industry


First of all, I believe that our team can

position itself positively here, and

that the company can thus remain future-oriented.

In general, I also think

that artificial intelligence can enable

foundries to develop a promising future.

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 41

The Friedrich Lohmann foundry now has “a lot in stock” thanks to the new high-bay storage system.(Photo: Michael Vehreschild)

Michael Vehreschild, Kleve

Achieving top form

Modulcast is energy-efficient and sustainable

Foundry workers at Friedrich Lohmann

GmbH in Witten, Germany, have recently

started aiming sky high. Casting

takes place at a height of four meters,

while beneath it numerous boxes from

the molding plant are stacked all the

way down to the hall floor. What almost

looks like a beehive is a real novelty

for the sector. Because the highbay

storage system, the molding plant

and the casting process have never

been connected like this before. A new

development with far-reaching advantages

regarding energy efficiency and

sustainability. This will be followed by

a new energy-efficient sand preparation

plant at the end of the year.

Always accepting uniformity – and

the resultant restrictions – is not something

that the Friedrich Lohmann

foundry does. ‘Think big’ is called for

Modulcast is an imposing plant with a height of four meters (Photo: Friedrich

Lohmann GmbH)

42 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


here. And when could be better for this

than during an upcoming investment

in a replacement? A vibrating compression

forming machine with ageing

technology needed to be replaced.

A new hall was planned as an extension

of the existing one because a new

forming plant, with greater automation

and more equipment, would require

more space. And Lohmann decided

against a track system for the

new molding plant in order to structure

process workflows better. Tracks

had proved sub-optimal: the track is

blocked if a molding box is located on

it for cooling – no further boxes can

pass. This could be arranged more efficiently…

Making a virtue of necessity

“So we made a virtue of necessity,” says

Thorsten Kutsch, Foundry Division

Manager at Lohmann. “If we could not

expand horizontally, why not vertically?”

The idea of a high-bay storage system

with stacks of single storage spaces

– ‘modular casting’ – was born. The

child’s name: Modulcast. Born in early


Just looking at the high-bay storage

system makes observers stretch their

necks and goggle. Two parallel towers

of shelving rise to the haughty height

of four meters. Each tower has four

rows with numerous spaces above,

and next to, one another. The action

on offer is no less impressive. Because

the moving part of the plant shuttles

back and forth between the two towers

of shelving, picking up a finished box

– after an employee has poured it on

the uppermost level – and automatically

putting it down again to cool in a

single storage space in the rack. Wherever

there is a vacant space. “There is

no line-oriented thinking any more

like with a track, only perfect flexibility.”

“This is Industry 4.0”

And the next step is also automatic.

The new system autonomously knows

how much cooling time a box has undergone

and automatically removes it.

The molding plant now produces new

boxes again. “When removing from

the storage system the rule is always:

Casting takes place at a height of four meters. Employees literally operate at top form

here (Photo: Friedrich Lohmann GmbH)

first in, first out,” according to Kutsch.

In addition, everything is automatically

documented. The new plant offers

online logging of the production steps

involved in molding and casting. “This

is Industry 4.0.”

The times when almost everything

was done manually are therefore over.

When employees themselves had

to keep an eye on which boxes had

cooled, i.e. were ‘ready’, and whether

the desired quality had been achieved.

The employees used slips of paper and

made handwritten notes about what

they had done. “This allowed faults

to creep in. And can no longer occur

now,” says a pleased Kutsch.

Instead, Lohmann now has all the

advantages on its side: the high-bay

storage system meant that the foundry

only needed half of the otherwise

necessary space. This alone fulfilled

the original wish of the company.

Efficient production

But abandoning the track system to

adopt high-bay storage offers a whole

cornucopia of further advantages –

made possible by the newly gained

flexibility. Because the arbitrary access

to the molding boxes at any point

in the pouring process considerably

shortens throughput times. Waiting,

transport and handling times during

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 43


Everything OK? The employee’s critical view is essential (Photos:

Michael Vehreschild)

“There is no line-oriented thinking any more like with a

track, only perfect flexibility,” Thorsten Kutsch, Foundry Division

Manager at Lohmann describes the new Modulcast plant

Lohmann – everything from a single source

melting and pouring are shorter compared

to conventional static processes.

A circumstance with consequences:

“Tapping temperatures have fallen

by an average of about 40 °C as a result

of the shorter waiting times at the

induction furnace,” explains Kutsch.

Casting is only carried out as hot as

is necessary. This leads to considerable

energy savings and a substantial

reduction in melting losses. The casting

process is more reproducible. This

results in considerable gains in yield.

“This allows the prevention of strongly

overheated melts and cold welding,”

according to Kutsch. This efficient

production regime results in fewer rejects,

conserving resources. Costs are

considerably reduced, particularly for

larger parts. In addition, energy-efficient

IE3 motors (or IE4 when available)

are used.

Lohmann is a family-run company that is now managed in the seventh generation

and can look back at a history lasting almost 230 years. Sheet and bar steel

products made of high-speed, tool and special steels are manufactured at the Witten-Herbede

works. The Witten-Annen works produces heat-resistant and wear-resistant

stainless steel molded castings; the foundry offers everything – from design

and dimensioning to ready-to-install components – from a single source. The field

of heat-resistant stainless steel castings includes, for example, gratings or frames

for heat treating gear parts for the automotive industry. Parts subject to wear intended

for steel shot-blasting wheels, such as those found in every foundry, are

made of wear-resistant steel castings.

Lohmann employs about 340 personnel, the minority of them at the foundry.

Production ranges from individual castings up to medium-sized series of about

10,000 units. Annual total sales amount to roughly 80 million euros.

In future Lohmann wants to further enhance its alignment on international markets.

Germany, however, will remain the main market, where many hardening

plants and foundries are supplied. These, in turn, mostly produce for the automotive


Sustainable dust extraction


Not only does the high-bay storage system

ensure energy efficiency and sustainability,

but the new dust extraction

system also makes a major contribution.

It works with negative-pressure

control and only operates when needed:

the dust extraction system ‘knows’

where it must vacuum and automatically

reduces suction when it is not required.

Kutsch: “Only as much suction

is applied as is necessary.”

The filter area of the dust extraction

system is twice the size needed. This

leads to lower filter area loads. The

consequence is that energy consumption

falls because a smaller ventilator

is now sufficient. “This filter plant initially

results in extra costs of 50,000

euros. This sum, however, is recouped

after just one-and-a-half years.” Moreover,

two heat exchangers can almost

completely heat the hall complex in

winter because the exhaust air heats

the incoming air and the exhaust from

the induction furnace is also exploited.

The halls therefore also have a balanced

air supply.

Supported by the Federal

Ministry for the Environment

Energy efficiency and sustainability

have thus been significantly im-

44 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Excavation for the planned new 32-meter-high sand preparation plant has already been completed. It will commence operation in

late 2018

proved. The resource conservation effects

can be expressed in figures with

a throughput of 4,500 tonnes/year: rejects

have been reduced by about 39

tonnes/year, melting loss by about 61

tonnes/year. There are also savings of

1,021,500 kWh/year of electricity and

a reduction of about 594 tonnes of CO 2

emissions per year. Diffuse dusts have

been reduced by about 50 tonnes/year.

Good prospects that have also convinced

the Federal Ministry for the Environment

(BMU). Lohmann received

a grant from the Environmental Innovation

Programme for its process

with the high-rack system, used for

the first time in the sector. The project

was granted funding of about 870,000

euros, while the company’s investment

in the high-bay storage system

amounted to about 5 million euros.

A rewarding investment – one way or

the other.

Employees are also

taken care of

But Modulcast is not only energy-efficient

and sustainable, but also goes

easy on the employees. An objective

that Lohmann has long aimed for.

The company successfully introduced

its ‘Zero Accidents’ initiative years

ago, in which, for example, marked

paths were laid down for employees

in the halls, sound insulation was

provided, and workplaces were specially

set up.

And this also applies for the hall with

the high-bay storage system. The new

workplaces are ergonomic. Recesses below

the machine allow casters to stand

straight. The movements of the machines

are gentle and quiet, so there is

a low noise level. The shake-out channel

is located in a noise-protection cabin.

Health and safety at work is a major

priority at Lohmann.

“Innovative projects also create

many problems and challenges that

one can only solve with a good team,”

Kutsch praises the employees.

Attractive for other foundries

Could the high-bay storage system

also act as a model for other foundries?

Thorsten Kutsch nods. “Yes, it can be

adopted by many foundries. Particularly,

however, for the production of

small to medium-sized batches.” This

is where major demands are made of

the process – melting, casting conditions

and after-casting times vary according

to the finished product. The

system’s flexibility is advantageous

where there are frequent material

changes, involving different casting

temperatures and weights, among

other things. “And this is regardless of

whether steel, copper or aluminum is

used, for example,” stresses the Foundry

Division Manager.

Kutsch encourages the foundries.

“We have developed something brilliant.

And we hope that others will

follow our example.” And this leads

to his offer to sector colleagues to visit

Lohmann and find out about the new

system. Mind you, not because of the

beckoning licensing income for use

of the registered patent on the highbay

storage system, jointly developed

by Lohmann and the producer, “But

simply because it is such a good idea,”

stresses Thorsten Kutsch.

Casting Plant & Technology 4/2018 45


New sand preparation by end

of 2018

Kutsch looks out of the window. His

view expands. Excavation for the

planned new 32-meter-high sand

preparation plant has already been

completed. The company will therefore

be looking up more and more during

the coming months, and Lohmann

will be visible from far away when the

plant is finished. This third part of the

project, following the hall expansion

and the new molding plant, should go

into operation in late 2018. The sand

preparation plant enables the processing

of 40 tonnes of sand per hour.

Lohmann is investing a total of 11 million

euros in the hall, high-bay storage

system and sand preparation plant.

The Lohmann foundry has already

achieved greater productivity which

is, however, only the start of something

bigger. “We will have a massive

increase when the sand preparation

plant is finished.” Production capacity

can be tripled to 4,500 tonnes per

year with the help of this new plant.

The important foundry pillars would

then be in place with the high-bay

storage system and the sand preparation

plant. Lohmann wants to fly high

and will – literally – be able to achieve

top form.



„Employees and Ministry on board“

New paths – new risks. The foundry at Friedrich Lohmann GmbH nevertheless trusts itself to

make investments. And convinces both employees and the Ministry with its innovative idea for a

new type of high-bay storage system. We asked Thorsten Kutsch, Foundry Division Manager at

Lohmann, how the company had managed this.

How great was the risk involved in

betting on a completely new type of

high-bay storage system?

The producer was initially not at all

keen on our idea of a high-bay storage

system, with doubts about the residual

risk. The producer considered it a

fire hazard because casting takes place

‘upstairs’ and the storage and retrieval

machines are ‘downstairs’. We have

therefore installed a splash guard. We

consider the plant both innovative and

controllable. Of course, little inattentions

will cause trouble.

How have the employees reacted to

the new workplace situation?

There were initially concerns because

of the unusual casting height of four

meters. These, however, have been dispelled.

The employees have noticed that

it is actually more comfortable now

than it was before. The new workplaces

have been set up ergonomically.

Were there also concerns about the

increased automation?

The increase in the quantity produced

has been achieved with the same number

of personnel. We have also restructured

the workplaces to be more attractive

as group workstations. Three

employees alternate between knocking

out, core insertion and machine operation,

ensuring greater variety. Everyone

must be able to do everything (thanks

to previous training) and also actually

do everything. Whereby each employee

must spend at least 12 per cent of their

annual working time on each activity.

So all employees receive the same wage.

And the somewhat less attractive activity

of knocking out is divided up among

three people. Our personnel like this.

Apropos automation: how far does

the Lohmann foundry intend to go in

this direction?

Only subsections will be automated

because complete automation would

come at the cost of flexibility, which is

particularly important with our batch

sizes. We are therefore deliberately not

going all the way. But it will take another

couple of years until the entire plant

has been partly automated.

A good idea must also have a chance

of being heard. What path did you

take for funding by the Federal Ministry

for the Environment (BMU)?

It is generally difficult for a company to

file the application in such a way that

approval is granted without any trouble

at all. The formalities must be observed.

So one needs a kind of ‘interpreter’. We

used Metatech GmbH from Kamen for

this. They advised us and formulated

the applications. The Effizienz-Agentur

NRW consultants acted as the intermediary

between us and the authorities.

Both organizations were very helpful for

us. We immediately received approval

of the funding by the Federal Ministry

for the Environment. I can only recommend

all this!

Thank you for the interview!

46 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


gif1902_TBWOM_210x108+3.indd 1 17.09.18 15:17

Call for papers

As a part of GIFA/NEWCAST 2019, Bundesverband

der Deutschen Gießerei-Industrie e. V. (BDG) and

Verein Deutscher Giessereifachleute e. V. (VDG) are

again organizing the following fora:

the GIFA Forum

is primarily addressed to foundry suppliers and

deals with topics like

> process and product development

> digitalisation and information management

> efficiency of resources and environmental


> manufacturing technology and automation

This forum supports a dialogue between suppliers,

designers and foundrymen and achieves synergies for

both research and industry.

English and German (with simultaneous translation

into English) presentations will be accepted at all


Please send a short abstract and your CV to:

Bundesverband der Deutschen Gießerei-Industrie

Ms Marion Harris

Hansaallee 203, 40549 Düsseldorf

E-Mail: marion.harris@bdguss.de

Tel.: +49 211 6871-217

the NEWCAST Forum

presents perspectives for the application of state

of the art cast materials and products. The technical

presentations will concentrate on

> casting product development

> substitution of materials and processes

> component construction and design

> optimization and simulation

> light-weight design and conservation of resources


More than 24,000 visitors and just under 1,000 exhibitors gathered at the aluminum

trade fair this year. The exhibition was shaped by the mega trends of electromobility,

digitization, sustainability and additive manufacturing (Photo: Messe Düsseldorf).

„United Nations of Aluminium“

“Despite” was a phrase that came up

in nearly all conversations at this year’s

ALUMINIUM from October 9-11, 2018.

Despite current trade disputes, such as

punitive US tariffs, sanctions against

Russia and various bottlenecks in the

supply of raw materials, global production

and demand are still continuing

to grow throughout the world. This

was clearly emphasised by ALUMINI-

UM 2018, which was bigger and more

international than ever before.

“ALUMINIUM is a trade fair for light

metal, but a heavyweight in its global

significance for the industry. This is

particularly true at a time when there

are irritations and when some parts of

various markets are realigning themselves,

as it’s also a time when trade

fairs can play a crucial role in providing

orientation for global trade,” says

Hans-Joachim Erbel, CEO of Reed Exhibitions

Germany, the organizers of


This explains why the number of visitors

has remained so robust – despite

the current challenges and obstacles in

international trade. “It’s where the

world comes together, and no one

wants to miss out,” says Hans-Joachim

Erbel. In fact, all industry representatives

fundamentally agree that the current

aluminium rush will continue to

gain momentum.

In total, the organizers reported

24,148 trade visitors (previous year:

24,373). The result of this year’s ALU-

MINIUM is therefore very close to the

record achieved at the previous event.

Whether they came from South Africa,

the United States, Brazil, Japan,

New Zealand or of course Europe, the

visitors from 123 nations (previous

event: 108) turned the trade fair into a

“United Nations of ALUMINIUM”. At

nearly 20 per cent, the number of overseas

visitors who came to Düsseldorf

was particularly remarkable. It meant

that the overall level of internationalism

had risen from 58 to 63 per cent.

“It’s a yardstick for the quality and

worldwide relevance of ALUMINIUM

and it’s something that reflects developments

in the international markets,”

says Olaf Freier, Event Director of

ALUMINIUM at the end of the threeday

event. In this way ALUMINIUM

underlines its function as a global trading


The same picture emerges for exhibitors.

The trade fair has now reached the

point where over two thirds of exhibitors

– 664 businesses in all – come from

outside Germany, amounting to a 4-percent

increase since the previous event.

In total, this year’s world trade fair of

the aluminium industry featured 971

exhibitors. 54 nations were represented,

headed by Germany (307), then Italy

as the second biggest exhibiting nation

(118), and then China (103), Turkey

(64), Spain (32), Austria and Spain

(both 32), the United States (29), the

Netherlands (25), France and the UK

(both 23 exhibitors) and Canada (19).

The next ALUMINIUM, the 13th Aluminium

World Trade Fair and Convention,

will be held in Düsseldorf

from 6 to 8 October 2020.


48 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018



Inauguration of modern and efficient steel shot industrial plant in Spain

The Winoa Group, a French company

headquartered in the Isère region, is a

world leader in metal abrasives, with

11 industrial plants in the world. With

an investment of more than 20 million

euros, Winoa has inaugurated its new

industrial plant in Spain, on the outskirts

of the Biscayan town of Balmaseda.

This plant is now one of the most

modern of its kind.

The factory covers an area of

30,000 m². Four inter-connected build

ings have been erected to improve the

distribution and communication in

the production processes. It has induction

furnaces, heat treatment furnaces,

grinding stations and conveyor belts

for storage and packaging. In addition,

auxiliary installations use cutting-edge

technology for water usage control and

air treatment.

“The plant is completely automated

and centrally controlled to ensure that

only the very best quality metal abrasives

are produced in an efficient and

flexible manner. Thanks to these new

installations, we are better able to

adapt to the varying needs of our customers

and to specialize in “Premium”

products”, emphasizes Luis Resusta,

MD of Winoa Iberica.

The use of steel abrasives for surface

treatment is essential in almost all industries:

automotive, steel, renewable

Since the beginning of October WINOA is producing blasting agents and abrasives in

its new plant in Balmaseda, Spain. They are used among others for blasting systems in

foundries (Photo: WINOA).

energies, rail and sea transport, aeronautical

and construction, to mention

only the main ones.

The plant in Balmaseda relies on the

very latest production techniques in

order to reduce its environmental footprint:

a dual purification system to

guarantee a clean environment inside

and outside the plant; heat recovery

equipment; smart sensors and a water

treatment plant meeting the highest

standards of efficiency.

“This new factory is an excellent example

of our four strategic pillars: by offering

the highest standards in terms of

safety and environment, it contributes

to making us a company of choice.

Thanks to our ultra-modern equipment,

this factory will enable us to optimize

our operational efficiency, which

will guarantee our competitiveness, ensuring

that we stay ahead of market

trends. And finally, by focusing its operations

on Premium products and new

industrial applications, it strengthens

our position as a privileged partner in

terms of customer services for surface

preparation”, highlights Pierre Escolier,

CEO of the Winoa Group.



Successful event in Krakow

More than 200 presentations, 180 posters

and 40 regular scientific and technical

sessions took place during two Congress

days in the ICE Congress Center

in Krakow. The Congress which took

place from September 23-27, 2018 for

the 73rd time was a meeting place for

more than 900 delegates from 43 countries

as well as for 100 students, young

researchers and practitioners who took

part in a two-day Young Researcher’s

Seminar. Two exhibitions took place

during the Congress: A historical Exhibition

which focused on the development

of the foundry industry during

the years and a Creative Foundry Exhibition

with more than 50 exhibitors

from around the world along with a lot

of accompanying and social events.

The next 74th World Foundry Congress

will be held in Bexco, Busan,

South Korea, on October, 18-22, 2020.

Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018 49


The project partners of Daimler and Krämer + Grebe in front of the new core forming tool for HDEP cylinder heads, which was

handed over to Daimler at the end of July 2018 (Photo: Krämer+Grebe)


Setting new standards in the tool design for cylinder heads

There is always a first time, just as recently

happened in the history of the

foundry Mannheim of the longtime

client Daimler AG. In order to meet

the highest quality criteria and at the

same time produce very efficiently, for

the first time a completely new tool

concept was developed in cooperation

with a development partner instead of

building on a tried and tested one. The

tool should serve the new cylinder head

core production of the 10.7 l to 15.6 l

heavy-duty engine platform (HDEP) engine

generation. Together the partners

have now created a double-beam core

mold which not only sets new standards

in design and quality but at the

same time significantly reduces the total

cost of ownership (TCO).

Daimler was looking for a partner

with whom it could independently develop

an innovative tool concept that

would meet all of the company’s own

standards and the highest demands in

subsequent production. As a

long-standing trusted partner for the

tool production of cylinder heads,

among other things, eventually, the

mold and toolmaker Krämer+Grebe,

Biedenkopf, Germany, fully convinced.

Particularly due to their maximum

flexibility, the use of the latest technologies,

simulation and production

methods, an extremely tight timeline

and a highly demanding development

loop, Krämer+Grebe was the perfect

partner for a development project of

this scale. The goahead was given for

the joint project to develop a completely

new and more efficient tool concept.

The starting point was the existing

single-core cylinder head mold. From

there special features of the new concept

should include double engraving,

ease of maintenance, functionality

and robustness. By means of FEM calculations,

in particular, the latter could

be guaranteed. A specific focus during

the tool design was also placed on

stress reduction and minimization of

deflection, as well as the analysis of

various load cases, such as shooting

head and load carrier. The highlights

of the entire development process were

comprehensive core process simulations

in several development loops,

which made it possible to redefine bullet

holes, ejection and venting at an

early stage of the process. Overall, the

tool concept is now optimized in such

a way that it has an extremely positive

effect on maintenance, lifetime and repairs.

This is of great importance for

the new concept, as it extends the production

cycles, significantly reduces

the amount of amine required as well

as the original tool weight by 600 kg.

An equally faithful process companion

throughout the entire concept development

and of high importance for

the final construction was the decisive

criterion of minimizing the TCO. According

to Katrin Grebe, managing director

of Krämer+Grebe, an essential

point within every development process,

still a truly holistic and early focus

is often considered too rarely.

Therefore, among other things, also

the philosophy of using standard parts

in such developments is crucial for its

success. This represents not only a

considerable cost factor but also increases

the ease of maintenance. Due

to the overall complexity and amount

of demands towards the new tool concept,

hence it is no surprise that the

cooperation between the two companies

built on a maximum level of trust

and continuous exchange of experience.

As a result, for example, the tool

was directly adapted to the “State of

Art Technology” in order to achieve

the best possible production performance.


50 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


Foundry adopts SinterCast process control technology

Kimura Foundry Company, Ltd., a ferrous

cast metal foundry located in Japan,

has entered into a technology

supply agreement with the Swedish

process control specialist SinterCast

for Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI)

product development, prototyping

and niche volume production. Under

the terms of the agreement, SinterCast

will install a Mini-System 3000 at the

Kimura Foundry located in Shizouka,

Japan. The Mini-System 3000, which

is planned to be shipped during November

and commissioned before

year-end, will enable Kimura Foundry

to independently produce high quality

CGI components for its global customer


“Adding CGI casting capability with

the SinterCast process will position

Kimura as a leading global casting supplier

for new product development.

Together with our Full Mould Process

and 3D sand printing capabilities,

global OEMs and partner foundries

can leverage Kimura’s engineering and

casting capabilities for short lead-time

prototype castings, providing design

engineers with the ability to rapidly

develop new engine programmes or

other component applications” said

Mr. Kazutoshi Kimura, President of

Kimura Foundry Company, Ltd. “We

look forward to the CGI installation,

which will provide an opportunity for

us to play a key role in the global

growth of CGI.”

“The Kimura order reaffirms the

trend toward CGI for demanding casting

applications. Kimura will now be

able to offer complete CGI casting

solutions for automotive, commercial

vehicle, and industrial power OEMs for

prototyping and niche volume production”

said Dr. Steve Dawson, President

& CEO of SinterCast. “The Kimura

installation marks our fourth

installation in Japan and our twentieth

installation in Asia. We are pleased

that our longstanding support of CGI

development in Asia combined with

our commitment to local commercial

and technical support, has led to

Kimura’s decision to adopt our technology.”













and more

to come…


Germany, Nuremberg

EUROGUSS euroguss.de

Germany, Nuremberg

January 2018



Mexico, Guadalajara



India, Greater Noida,

Delhi, NCR




Greater Noida,

Delhi - NCR

December 2018





China, Shanghai

19 - 21 July 2017

China, Shanghai




Bangkok, Thailand


Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018 51



That’s how the new foundry in Sweden should look like: Scania is investing around

150 million euros for this purpose (Photo: Scania).

Major investment in energy-efficient foundry

Scania invest about 1.5 billion Swedish

crowns (around 150 Million euros) in a

new foundry in Södertälje, Sweden, in

order to triple production capacity and

achieve a 50 percent reduction in energy

consumption compared to the technology

and methods used in the current

foundry. The start of construction

is planned for January 2019. Through

more efficient materials handling and

recycling, a sharp reduction will also

be achieved in the transport need per

manufactured unit. The foundry will

be operated using electricity produced

from renewable energy sources.

“In the ongoing shift towards a fossil-free

society, even more energy-efficient

combustion engines as well as

combustion engines that operate on

biofuels and gas will be needed. In particular

for trucks and buses in long distance

transport. The new foundry will

be instrumental in providing such engines,”

says Ruthger de Vries, Executive

Vice President, Head of Production

and Logistics at Scania.

The investment in a completely new

foundry is one of Scania’s largest single

investments in an entirely new industrial

plant. The investment decision

was preceded by a comprehensive

analysis of various alternatives, such as

increased purchasing from external

suppliers or a conversion and extension

of the existing foundry.

“A completely new plant is the most

cost-efficient solution and the best alternative

from an environmental and

quality standpoint when it comes to

the future supply of strategically important

parts for our engine production.

Through this investment, we will

also retain important proximity to our

research and development organization,

which is concentrated in Södertälje.

Meanwhile, this means that

Södertälje will continue to be the hub

for our European engine production,”

says de Vries.

The energy usage per tonne produced

in the new foundry is expected

to be 50 percent lower than in the existing

facility. The largest energy gains

will be obtained through improvements

in the casting process and recovery

of the heat this generates.

With the introduction of new methods

for materials handling and recycling,

transports will also be reduced in

relation to the number of units produced.

The largest single energy saving

will be achieved through recycling of

the sand used in production of casting

molds, the cores, where it will be possible

to recycle 70 percent of the sand.

The technology used in the current

foundry does not permit any sand recycling.

The sand is transported long

distances by truck. These transports

will not increase despite a tripling of

production volume.

“From a sustainability perspective,

this means that we will reduce the use

of a finite resource while the climatic

impact from sand transports will not

increase despite a tripling of production

volume,” says de Vries.

Scania’s decision to invest in a completely

new foundry was based on consideration

of the local environmental

impact in the form of noise and emissions

from the operations and also

from goods transport services. The current

foundry, which was constructed

in 1914, is located in an industrial estate

close to central Södertälje, while

the new plant will be built in one of

the outlying areas of the city at Tveta

industrial estate, situated west of the

E20 route.

At full capacity utilization, the new

foundry will employ the same number

of people as the existing foundry, i.e.

almost 200 employees.


52 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


Strategic collaboration with Desktop Metal

The Fraunhofer Research Institution

for Additive Manufacturing Technologies

IAPT in Hamburg, Germany, announced

a strategic collaboration with

Desktop Metal, Burlington, USA, to

jointly develop specialty materials for

use with the Studio System+ for customers

in the European market.

As part of the collaboration, Desktop

Metal will provide its Studio System+

to Fraunhofer IAPT with the ability to

customize materials and parameter

sets for respective clients. Fraunhofer

IAPT will offer its own clients as well as

Desktop Metal customers its services

using the Studio System+. In addition,

Desktop Metal will spearhead the

manufacturing, selling and marketing

of newly-developed materials, alloys,

or other consumables developed jointly

with Fraunhofer IAPT.

Fraunhofer IAPT brings 17 years of

experience in 3-D printing technologies

and 3-D printing market, along

with a well-established network of industrial

clients to this partnership.

The Studio Systemä is the world’s

first and only office-friendly metal 3-D

printing system for rapid prototyping.

Safe and simple to use, the Studio System

is designed to make metal 3-D

printing more accessible, enabling design

and engineering teams to make

metal parts faster, without the need for

special facilities, dedicated operators,

or expensive tooling. This September,

the company introduced the Studio

System+, an advanced metal 3-D printing

system combining all the innovative

features of the original Studio System

with even more functionality to

print small metal parts with higher resolution.



Record-high orders for promising e-mobility market in China

Melting tapping in the light metal foundry in Suzhou (Photo: GF Casting Solutions).

GF Casting Solutions, a division of GF,

Schaffhausen, Switzerland, will supply

a large number of lightweight components

for a new generation of electric

vehicles in China. The new contracts

amount to approx. 370 million Swiss

Francs (328 million euros) and have

been placed by Chinese and European


One major order amounts to 235

million Swiss Francs (208 million euros)

and contains light metal e-drive

components for a completely new developed

e-vehicle platform from a wellknown

European car manufacturer.

These lightweight parts will be produced

at the Suzhou (China) plant of

GF Casting Solutions as of 2019. This

large contract is part of a whole series

of new orders for e-cars which has been

placed in the last few months for a total

value of approx. 370 million Swiss


The high number of new orders underscores

GF Casting Solutions’ lightweight

competence in the fast growing

e-mobility market segment in China.

Lightweight design is an important

factor to improve the range of electric

cars. Already 30 percent of all worldwide

orders obtained in 2018 by the division

were for components and solutions

for hybrid and electric cars. For

the Chinese market, this ratio exceeds

50 percent.

GF Casting Solutions is one of the

world’s leading solution providers and

a technologically pioneering development

partner and manufacturer of

components for passenger cars, trucks,

the aerospace and energy segment as

well as industrial applications. The division

provides casting solutions in

iron, aluminum, magnesium and super

alloys at production plants in Switzerland,

Germany, Austria, Romania,

China and the US.


Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018 53



Large orders from international automaker

An internationally operating automobile

group has awarded Düsseldorf-based

Rheinmetall Group

large-scale orders for its CWA 400 electrically

powered pump. The orders,

placed with Pierburg Pump Technology

GmbH (Rheinmetall Automotive)

represent a volume totalling 215 million


Just booked, the transaction involves

on the one hand the extension of an

existing contract, and on the other the

launch of a new engine project. Production

of the electric coolant pumps

will take place in Hartha in the German

state of Saxony. They will be used

for the main coolant circuit of four-cylinder

engines with two-litre cubic capacity

in European and Chinese vehicle

models. The pumps will be shipped

to one of the customer’s plants in Europe

as well as to several of its factories

in China.

The variable-flow electric coolant

pumps enable on-demand control of

Electric coolant pump CWA 400 from Pierburg (Photo: Rheinmetall Automotive).

the coolant flow. Depending on ambient

temperature and engine load, this

can result in fuel savings of up to four

percent. Moreover, since they do not

depend on the engine‘s mechanical

driveline, these pumps are also perfect

for hybrid and electric vehicles. A version

of the pump is also available for

48-volt electrical systems.



Divestment of two European automotive iron foundries

The trend towards lighter vehicles

continues to have a substantial impact

on the automotive industry. In

this context, GF Casting Solutions, a

division of GF, will have a stronger focus

on light metal casting whilst reducing

its presence in iron casting in

Europe. As a consequence, the iron

casting plants located in Singen and

Mettmann (both Germany) have been

divested to members of the management

of GF Casting Solutions, effective

retroactively as of 1 December

2018. This portfolio reshaping and

the resulting regional footprint adaptation

are fully in line with GF‘s 2020

strategy. The strategic EBIT margin

objectives will be increased to 9-10 %.

The transaction is profit neutral.

The fast growing demand for aluminum

and magnesium castings worldwide

calls for a sustained increase of

GFs presence in this sector. Accordingly,

GF Casting Solutions is building up

new capacities in the US, Romania and

China whilst extending its offering towards

ready-to-mount parts. Moreover,

the division is investing into its

promising super alloy com-ponents

business for aircraft engines and industrial

gas turbines, following the acquisition

of Precicast Industrial Holding

SA, Switzerland, in April 2018.

In line with this portfolio re-focusing,

the two iron casting plants in Singen

and Mettmann with a dedicated

workforce of 2,000 employees and a

combined sales of approx. 620 million

Swiss Francs (550 million euros) have

been acquired by Fondium B.V. & Co.

KG, Mettmann. GF remains a 20 % investor

for a transition period. Both parties

agreed not to disclose the transaction


Fondium B.V. & Co. KG has been

founded by three current managers of

GF Casting Solutions, Achim Schneider,

Arnd Potthoff and Matthias Blumentrath.

The three Executives have

together more than 40 years of experience

in the industry. The new owners

will continue all operating activities at

the facilities.

Achim Schneider, co-owner and

spokesman of the Fondium Group,

states: “With Fondium we create an agile,

owner-operated automotive supplier

with a clear market focus. We are

looking forward to create a successful

future together with our 2,000 employees.”


54 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


Furnace system upgrade worthwhile even after 15 years

Foundries should take note of a small

detail with a great effect: a melting

shaft that is filled at all times is crucial

for achieving the optimum energy

consumption. Filling level monitoring

using laser technology in the

StrikoMelter melting furnaces of the

StrikoWestofenGroup, Gummersbach,

Germany, achieves a measurable increase

in energy efficiency. Just by retrofitting

four 15-year-old StrikoMelter

systems, the Czech automaker Skoda

Auto A.S. was able to reduce its energy

consumption considerably: “The continuous

filling of the shaft made possible

by the integrated laser scanner has

increased the energy efficiency to the

point where we have been able to reduce

our gas consumption by around

ten percent per system,” explains Holger

Stephan, manager of the Sales Support

and Service department at StrikoWestofen.

More than 95 percent of the operating

costs for melting furnace operators

are a result of energy consumption and

metal losses. This makes measures designed

to increase the energy efficiency

especially worthwhile. That they

are an extremely good idea even for

15-year-old StrikoMelter systems is

proved by the automaker Skoda Auto

A.S. in Mladá Boleslav (Czech Republic):

here four StrikoMelter systems

were retrofitted with the shaft laser for

the first time in 2014 as part of a comprehensive

modernization concept.

This in conjunction with relining has

allowed the company to reduce the gas

consumption per tonne of molten aluminium

by about ten percent. “The

one-off purchase costs are usually recovered

after only a few months”,

Stephan explains. “Today the laser

scanner is one of the most frequently

sold modernization options, making it

one of our bestsellers!”

The fact that StrikoWestofen can

guarantee an especially low energy

consumption worldwide for its melting

furnace systems is mainly due to the

special geometry of melting chamber

and shaft. This is because the hot waste

By retrofitting filling level monitoring and carrying out relining, it is possible to reduce

the energy consumption of old StrikoMelter systems by up to ten percent (Photo: StrikoWestofen).

gases from the melting process are used

to preheat the melting material in the

EtaMax shaft prior to the actual melting

process. The standard version of

the StrikoMelter thus includes a heat

recovery system. The laser beam scans

the filling area of the melting shaft and

permanently monitors the filling level.

When there is no melting material left

in the upper part of the shaft, the filling

process is initiated automatically.

This optimum coordination reduces

the energy consumption dramatically.

Virtually all StrikoMelter systems

can be retrofitted with the shaft laser.

The StrikoWestofen modernization

program also offers many more additional

options for sustainably increasing

the performance level of existing

systems. Also, made-to-measure training

programs show operators how to

get the most out of their melting systems

with the help of optimum adjustment

and the correct filling ratio.


Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018 55


Sand coolers

4 pages, English

A brochure featuring the vibrating fluid bed sand coolers offered by JML. The coolers

have a maximum throughput capacity of 260 t/h and a cooling capacity that allows sand

of 120 °C to be cooled down to 35 – 40 °C.


New flask concept for hand-molded castings

4 pages, English

This brochure describes the ECO-FORM flask concept and its key advantages. These

include reduction of molding sand requirement, shorter cooling and throughput

times, and less space requirements in the molding shop. ECO-FORM is a division of GUT

Giesserei Umwelt Technik.


Carbon and sulphur analysis

4 pages, English

A product brochure setting out the features of the G4 Icarus carbon and sulphur analyzer

developed by Bruker Elemental. The analyzer comes with a high-frequency induction

furnace, which combusts the samples in an oxygen stream. The reaction gases CO 2


SO 2

are measured by NDIR detectors. The analysis and evaluation software is clearly

structured and easy to use.


Gas cleaning

6-page leaflet, English

In this leaflet, Standartkessel Baumgarte summarizes process engineering solutions for

waste gas, exhaust air and flue gas cleaning. It sets out the processes of condensation

and catalysis, and combinations of the two, used to recover pollutants and solvents.


56 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018

Company profile

12-page leaflet, English

A company profile of minerals group Imerys, providing business data, an overview of

the company’s global locations and their respective focus of activities, and the main

business fields. Imerys acts across a wide range of industries and markets, such as steelmaking

and metallurgy, automotive, energy, construction, etc.


Deburring and cleaning

8-page leaflet, English

A description of the deburring and cleaning plants as well as job cleaning and deburring

services offered by Piller Entgrattechnik. Burrs, chips, silicates, etc are reliably

removed in a high-pressure water jet process.


Refractory process technology

12 pages, English

A brochure describing the patented ancorro process, as a result of which refractories

employed in high-temperature processes become more stable and durable. The core

element of the process is a special surface treatment that generates a beading effect on

the surface of porous refractory components.



8 pages, English

A company brochure setting out the range of activities of Seven Refractories. The company

supplies key industries such as iron and steel, aluminium, foundries, furnace engineering

and power generation. It is present worldwide with own facilities and agencies.


Casting Plant & Technology 4/ 2018 57


Fairs and Congresses

Advertisers´ Index CPT 4/2018

IFEX 2019

January, 18-20, 2019, Delhi, India


Metal + Metallurgy China

March, 13-16, 2019, Shanghai, China



March, 10-12, 2019, Guangzhou, China


Aluminium Two Thousand

April, 9-13, 2019, Treviso, Italy


Castexpo 2019

April, 27-30, 2019, Atlanta, USA


Hannover Messe

May, 1-5, 2019, Hanover, Germany


GIFA 2019

June, 25-29, 2019, Düsseldorf, Germany


Admar Group, Ocala, FL/USA 31

AGTOS Gesellschaft für technische Oberflächensysteme

mbH, Emsdetten/Germany 9

ExOne GmbH, Gersthofen/Germany 25

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH,


INTERALL Srl, Modena/Italy 21

Nürnberg Messe GmbH, Nürnberg/Germany 51

Regloplas AG, St. Gallen/Switzerland 11

Simpson Technologies GmbH,


58 Casting Plant & Technology 4 / 2018


Preview of the next issue

Publication date: March 2019

A A large part of of the the workforce in in

the the iron foundry in in Dinklage is is

older than 50 50 years. So So far, far, the the

company does not have enough

offspring like Mario Faiss (right)

to to be be prepared for for the the future.

(Photo: Andreas Bednareck)

Selection of of topics:

R. R. Piterek: Full order books –– scarce human resources

The iron foundry Dinklage in in the the German state of of Lower Saxony manufactures counterweights for for the the forklift industry

using the the hand-molding process. Business is is booming, but but the the required capacity expansion is is jeopardized by by staff shortages.

S. S. Kesy: Special pre-shredder reduces scrap in in aluminium foundry

In In the the light alloy foundry of of BMW in in Landshut all all scrap products such as as punching waste and sprue systems are are remelted.

Now a a supplier designed a a plant that enabled the the collection and shredding of of aluminium waste directly from the the press.

P. P. Reichen: Characterizing the cooling capacity of of pulsed air air in in die casting molds

Today, inserts with conformal cooling channels just below the the surface are are applied ever more frequently in in die die casting molds.

Due to to their high cooling efficiency a a new cooling concept based on on air/water multiphase flow has has been investigated.



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