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OCT 2015

Created by Teresa Johnson

Cover Art by Ken Samonte




The Science

that’s all

about you!




Psych2Go started as a blog to feature short psychology facts in the format of memes

(text-posts that are rapidly spread around the internet). Our mission was to brand

ourselves as a forum/platform for people to get quick psychology information to further

discuss and debate about the posts. We wanted to create an open forum of discussions

to help foster critical thinking about research methods and limitations.

To accomplish that, the Psych2Go team is transparent about the fact that we don't

always post legitimate psychology information, but only do so in order to get people

to really question ALL our posts and think on an analytical level. Sometimes what you

think is true is actually not true and sometimes what is not true is yet to be supported

by research.

We have found that understanding research methods and having an open and

encouraging forum for all of this is essential. Several Facebook groups have also

been created, already aiming at this - including groups that allow people to express

their creativity like our “Poetry” and “Doodle” group, and our “Research and Writing

Discussion” group which creates discussion among expression of ideas, and academic


As time went on, it made sense that Psych2Go should start providing supplementary

materials such as sources, references, as well as some explanation to our viral meme

posts that are featured on our Tumblr (as you’ll see an example from the “Psych to

Go” article in this magazine issue) which generates large discussion from audience

members. From these realizations to include more material content, psych2go.net, the

sister site was born.

When we started, Psych2Go had a team of 10 writers and published over 200 articles

within less than 2 months and received over 1 million page views. And the articles

followed a specific format:

1. Intro

2. Bring up research.

3. Identify the research methods and the limitations

4. question for our readers

This format is aligned with our mission statement to analyze research, create

discussions, and provide the resources needed to facilitate those discussions.

Then, as time went on, we thought about implementing a mentorship program to help

further facilitate this learning process for our younger audiences (since a majority of

our readers were not yet psychology students).

And that’s where psych2go.net is today! We have editors, mentors, and intern writers,

who our Human Resource team has a very close relationship with and helps them every

step of the way.

Our goal is to become the go-to site for psychology, writing, help, research, studies,

and so forth. Psych2Go serves as an easily accessible and inclusive platform for our

young audiences.

Tai Tai

Manager and Creator of Psych2Go






Artwork by:Ken Samonte




As a special part of the “Psych2Go” team, we believe that this magazine sets itself

apart from other science magazines out there. Understanding this magazine is not in a

traditional “magazine” format gives our magazine a creative and unique feel.

This was made by a collection of young entrepreneurs from all over the world. This

publication includes international contributors from places like Slovenia, The U.K., the

Netherlands, the Philippines, Canada, and people within various places of the U.S. like

New York, Maryland, D.C., Tennessee, and California.

Keep in mind that not all of us are trained professionals in the Psychology field, but

simply people that are intrigued by Psychological concepts, only wanting to pass our

research along, while involving people to talk about their personal experiences, as well

as informing an audience with interesting Psychological facts.

We hope that you enjoy this collaborative publication that acts as an extension of our

online blog, psych2go.net, and we ask that you get involved with this entrepreneurial

organization as well! After all, Psychology is the science that’s all about you, and as a

growing company, we’re offering the opportunity for you to grow with us.

Teresa Johnson

Editor-in-Chief, Manager & Coordinator of Psych2Go Magazine




Artwork by: Drew Borja






About Psych2Go / 2

Hello Message / 4

Meet the writers /10

Psychology in the news /13

Interview with a Psychology student /14

Social Psychology / 16

Exploring mental health / 18

Significant people that endured mental illness / 22

LGBTQA Psychology / 24

Music Psychology / 26

Personality Psychology / 28

Developmental Psychology / 30

Autism Spectrum (S.E.E.P.) Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary, People / 32

Animal Psychology / 36

Forensic Psychology 38

Art Submissions Winner / 40

Career Building / 42

Outside Submissions / 44

Entertainment/Games Section / 50

Projective Psychology / 54

Book Review / 56

Creative writing / 58

Psych to Go / 60

Debunking Psychological Myths / 62

Advice Column / 64

Mental Health Hotlines / 67

Thank you to contributors / 68

Psych2Go's Community Challenge / 70

Reader Testimonials / 72





Artwork by: Drew Borja



Hello all! I’m Sneha and I’m currently pursing my Master's degree

at University of Pennsylvania's School of Design and I’ve been

practicing Arts & Design for around 5 years. My work inclines toward

a palate of textures that influence the organic and structured notion

of spaces around me. Recently, I completed a Diploma in Learning

Disorders Management and Child Psychology.

U.S. (Pennsylvania)


Hi, I’m Sophie! I’m currently doing my BSc in Communication

and Media, but I have always been interested in psychology. I am

especially interested in criminal psychology and how the mind of

a psychopath works, but I am also interested in personality, social,

and child psychology.



Hi, I’m Teresa and I attend Community College as a sophomore in

hopes of taking on NYC my Junior and Senior year of college. I plan

to receive a bachelors degree of communications and journalism

due to my love of writing, communicating and self-expression. In my

free time I love to sing, draw, write, and explore new places. I started

by making videos for Psych2Go on their YouTube channel, but now

I’m project manager and editor-in-chief of this magazine!

U.S (Maryland)


I'm Imogen, I'm 21 and going into my final year of an MSci in

Psychology and Psychological Research. I work as a staff writer

and a HR rep for psych2go.net, and I love learning and teaching all

things psychological. I hope to one day become a researcher, and I

love forensic, child and animal psychology!

The U.K.


I'm a sophomore/junior at American University, and I’m majoring

in Psychology with minors in Spanish Language/Translation and

Business Administration. I love blogging and crafting, as well as

watching YouTube like it's my job. I'm super excited to be a part of

this magazine, and I can't wait to see where this adventure takes


U.S. (Maryland)


Hello, I’m Larissa, and I’m a third year Psychology major working

towards a minor in Law and Society as well as Ethics and

Philosophy. Some of my greatest passions in Psychology include the

topics of eating disorders, self-harm, psychopathology, and forensic

psychology. When I’m not working or doing homework I enjoy

watching Netflix, sleeping, reading, playing with cats, and writing!

U.S. (Minnesota)



Hi! I’m Kayleigh. Besides having a passion for writing, learning new

things and gathering interesting facts (Did you know the majority

of lizards can’t run and breathe at the same time?), I love creative

things like drawing and making jewelry. I'm currently studying at

University and in my free time I can be found listening to music,

reading and writing, or browsing the internet.



Hi I'm Hannah. I have my BSc in Psychology and I'm completing

my post grad in journalism at the moment. I’m fascinated by

human sexuality & sexual behavior, and the science behind mental

illness. I enjoy editing papers and long runs on the elliptical. My

two hedgehogs keep me motivated, and they say that they hope you

enjoy our articles and magazine! Just know that whenever you read

something by me, a hedgehog was nearby.

Nova Scotia


I’m Sheena, and I study Psychology BSc with the University of the

Highlands & Islands in Scotland. Being both the kid who grew up

reading encyclopedias and the ‘Agony Aunt’ friend, I’ve always been

interested in how what happens in our heads affects the way that we

live our lives, and in practicing acceptance (and hopefully spreading

it too!).

The U.K.



Being a media student, I am a huge supporter of anti-consumerism

and media awareness. In my spare time you can find me reading

(especially fantasy literature), listening to music, watching

Japanese anime, taking long walks in the nature and most often

writing. Above all I am simply a girl, madly in love with stories in all

shapes and sizes.



Hi there! I'm oftentimes described as a shy girl with a quick wit.

Amazingly, I've managed to channel my passion to different facets

of art and psychology, and blended my two loves. A firm believer that

you never stop learning



My name is Laura Corona and I am 21 years old. Currently studying

Communications and soon will begin working my way into becoming

an American Sign Language Interpreter.

U.S. (California)

Advice Column Team




I'm Tyra Davis, a middle school English Teacher living in NYC, but

I've always been a writer at heart. Although my background is not

in psychology, I have suffered from anxiety and depression in the

past, which brings with it a lot of experience dealing with negative

feelings and emotions. I hope to bring some of this experience to

light in my advice to our readers.

U.S (New York)

Advice Column Team



Hey, my name’s Myelin (like Myelin Sheath). I receive my B.A. in

Psychology in November 2015. After that, I aspire to get a PsyD in

Clinical Psychology (fingers crossed). As a staff writer on Psych2Go,

I write on topics related to abnormal or cultural psychology and

sexuality. In my free time, I enjoy belly dancing and sketching!

U.S (California)

Hey, hello! My name’s Aubrey, as I’m sure it probably says

somewhere already. I squint while I talk sometimes, forget to eat

occasionally, and have hot chocolate stains in most of all my sketch

books. I work three, long and tedious jobs and go to community

college in Memphis so that I may transfer into a larger art school

within the same area. I love to both draw and write, so comics and

cartoons are an absolute passion of mine!

U.S (Tennessee)


Hi I'm Lauren, I graduated with a degree in psychology and a

masters in counselling. I've been a youth worker, a counsellor and

currently I'm working towards becoming a social worker. I wanted

to be apart of the magazine as I know what it's like to struggle with

your feelings and I want help where I can. That's my passion in life.

My other passion is art. I post videos of my digital art on YouTube in

the hopes of creating a relaxing space for others. You can find me at

Rad Little Drawings.

Northern Ireland

Advice Column Team


Hi! Jessica here. I'm a psych major in college working on my junior

year. I've been inspired to study psychology by my passionate high

school teacher but my favorite topic is the brain. I'm studying hard

to research and learn to help others.

U.S (Maryland)





This past month was a big one for

psychology in the news. One big thing

for people involved in the field was the

revelation of repeated studies, which all

had differing results.

An article published in The Toronto

Star entitled “Repeating Psychology

Experiments Yields Different Results”,

details how a group of researchers in

New York attempted to duplicate over 100

social science studies. The only obvious

conclusion found was that more research

is needed after every study, including

their own. Around 40% of their attempts

yielded the same results, which is not

great news. None of the experiments

were developed to test treatments, and

tended to focus on studies with strong

statistical evidence, as well as studies

that didn’t have surprising results.

A biography of Dr. Marnie Rice, who

studied the minds of some of the worst

offenders in Canada who needed

psychiatric care, was also released this

past month.

“Psychologist Marnie Rice Probed the

Minds of Psychopathic Offenders”, an

article in The Globe and Mail details her

lifetime. She started off working in the

jail in Penetanguishene, Ontario, where

she eventually became the Director of

Research. She did behavior modification

research here on what were referred to

as the “worst offenders” such as serial

killers, pedophiles, and other sexual

offenders. The article details her life,

her upbeat personality, and what her

research did for the field of Psychology.

By: Hannah Jade

Artwork by: Erin Jean

She passed away in August of 2015.

A bit of comedy is involved in the

psychology news this past month; an

article entitled “The psychology behind

why couples fight when assembling

Ikea furniture”. Released on a website

called Quartz, this article details reasons

couples would fight whilst assembling

furniture. It causes unnecessary stresses

and people tend not to be as polite with

those they love than those they are just

friends with. Though probably not rooted

in fact, in general the article was slightly


Another article was released on a Calgary

programme to create an addictions

help programme almost completely

routed in the psychology of addiction.

Published in Metro News, the article

“New Calgary Addictions Programme to

bridge psychology and substance abuse”

details it. This programme is meant to

focus specifically on the needs of women

with addictions. It is expected to roll

out at the end of the year and women

who had participated in the programme

will eventually become mentors to new

people involved.

Those are a few of the bigger stories of

psychology in the news over the past few



Ritter, M. (2015, August 30). Repeating psychology

experiments yields different results. Retrieved

September 26, 2015.

Ryell, N. (2015, September 15). Psychologist Marnie

Rice probed the minds of psychopathic offenders.

Retrieved September 26, 2015.






Hey guys! In this section of the magazine,

we’ll be interviewing a psychology

student who is going to tell us about their

course, some personal details about

themselves and their interests in psychology,

and also their career aims and

how they hope to achieve them and finally

some advice for prospective students.

We’ll be interviewing Amy Livingstone,

a bachelor of social sciences (psychology

and forensic science) at Swinburne

University of Technology, Melbourne,

Australia. The course involves eight core

psych units, four core forensics units,

and twelve electives. She is currently in

her third year.

We’ll start by asking Amy about her

course, how the education is and what

the cost is like.

From: Australia



What’s the program like, what is the

cost and how’s the education?

I like the program at Swinburne, some

units are obviously run better than others

but overall I think it’s a pretty good

psych education. To be honest I’m not

sure about the cost, the government

basically pays for UNI and we pay them

back when we earn over $54k. I hope it’s

not too much! I think the education’s decent,

it differs again from unit to unit, but

I think if you do everything you can to be

responsible for your learning and reach

out when you need it, you can get the best

psych education anywhere.

Who’s your favorite professor?

My favourite lecturer is probably my forensics

convener; he lectures in a way

that is relatable and really clear. He’s really

easy to follow. Straight forward you

know what you have to do to do well and

it’s always interesting.

We’ll next move on to asking about some

of her personal views about psychology,

like which subjects she likes and dislikes.

What is your favourite topic within psychology?

Abnormal psych was my favourite unit so

far. It was really interesting and I guess

got down to the ‘real’ or ‘stereotypical’

psych stuff, the stuff that the public would

be thinking you’re learning I guess!

What’s your favourite psychology fact/

research study?

I wish I had a really good one of the top

of my head but I don’t, so I’d have to say

Pavlov’s dog. Everyone’s heard of it - I

learnt it in school psychology, but back

then I don’t think I understood what it

meant. I think it’s so cool how you can


really apply that to any situation, and

with enough work you can condition anyone/thing.

I like it because it’s so simple,

yet so significant.

The next topic was Amy’s career aims and

what she has done to try and help achieve

those aims.

What are your goals in terms of


I would like to work with youth offenders

at this stage, however I’m open to changing

direction as my education progresses.

I’m really into health and fitness also so I

would love to be involved with a program

that uses exercise to break down barriers

between psychologist and offender, I

believe it could be a really beneficial tool.

What do you look to do after your degree,

further study or work, or something


After this degree I will hopefully complete

an honours year, and then a master’s

course. It’s extremely competitive to get

into so I’m staying hopeful, but should all

go to plan I’m looking at another 6 years

of study ahead of me!

What, outside of your degree, have you

done to further your interest or career in


My current casual job is completely unrelated

to psychology, however it’s with

the YMCA who run a range of really great

programs that I think I could get involved

in. I guess what drew me to that job was

that it had the potential to provide pathways

for me.

I’ll have 6 months off study before starting

my honours (hopefully) so I’m hoping

in that time I can get a position somewhere

really cool that will be beneficial

for both my education and career. In the

meantime, I’m hoping to start writing articles

for psych2go, when I have time, to

get some better practice and some feedback

of my work.

Finally, we asked her for some advice for

you guys.

What is one thing a student should

know about studying psychology?

There’s lots of content, lots to memorise,

and in Australia it’s very competitive. People

don’t realise that though they think

things like biomed are tough, psych can

be worse. There are not nearly as many

positions, but almost as many applicants.

And what’s one thing a student should

know about studying at University?

I found UNI difficult to keep on top of, at

school you have a test every week and a

teacher making sure you’ve done your

work, whereas at UNI you’re responsible

for yourself, and you’ve now got a job, a

car, freedom, so study slips, and then it’s

exam time and you’ve done nothing all

semester. It’s definitely harder to keep on

top of, so be prepared and get organised.

Hope you enjoyed this!








Social Psychology

How what children see impacts who they become

By: Lauren Miedel

Artwork by: Pilar Chavez


Most people know that children are

especially impressionable, but to what

extent do they absorb information? What

kinds of things do they retain? While it

may be impossible to know every little

thing, social psychologists have some

ideas about what types of information

children pick up on.

One of the questions psychologists wanted

to know was whether children could

pick up on social cues similarly to an

adult. Diesendruck, Salzer, Kushnir, and

Xu conducted an experiment to see if children

picked-up on social cues from demonstrators

(2015). Their research showed

that when one demonstrator favored an

object, preschoolers associated it with a

person’s preference; however, when two

demonstrators favored the same object,

preschoolers “inferred that it was generalized

to other agents of the same kind”

(Diesendruck et al. 2015). This shows that

children are informed by social cues.

What does this information mean? Well,

this type of study starts to prove how children

don’t just listen to what they’re told.

They can be much more perceptive than

that. Anyone who has heard a kid mention

a word they heard their older sibling say

can attest to that. But, they are also able

to pick up social cues.

This could have serious impacts later in

life. It could explain how children grow up

to be racist or sexist when their parents

don’t really say to be out loud. If a child

notices how Mom always avoids making

eye contact with black people, or how Dad

snorts or rolls his eyes when someone

mentions being anything other than cisgendered*

or straight, the child notices.

It’s likely this is not the only reason, but it

could be a reason.

Another question on what influences

children is whether age plays a factor.

Schwarz and Roebers looked at 8- and

10-year old children and their ability to

“withstand” post-event information from

an interviewer or confederate (2006).

They found that 10-year olds were able

to distinguish that people talking with a

low amount of assertiveness probably

did not have much to contribute, and

were less trustworthy than those who

spoke assertively (2006).

The idea that children, of at least a certain

age, can distinguish assertiveness

when someone is speaking shows that

as they grow, they are able to selectively

take social cues and information from

those they deem knowledgeable.

No one is arguing that children are

sponges. But, they clearly absorb more

information than people like to think. So

to everyone who spends a lot of time with

children, remember that even if you believe

in the motto “Do as I say and not as

I do,” kids are paying attention to how you

act and what you do.

Works Cited:

Diesendruck, G., Salzer, S., Kushnir, T., & Xu, F. (2015).

When Choices Are Not Personal: The Effect of Statistical

and Social Cues on Children’s Inferences About the

Scope of Preferences. Journal Of Cognition & Development,

16(2), 370-380.

Schwarz, S., & Roebers, C. M. (2006). Age differences in

the effects of social influence on children’s eyewitness

performance and their metacognitive monitoring. Journal

Of Experimental Child Psychology, 94(3), 229-248.


*Cisgendered -applies to the majority of people, describing

a person who is not transgender.




Mental-Health Awareness Month:






By: Teresa Johnson

Artwork by: Pilar Chavez


The mental illness topic of this

month that Psych2Go chooses to bring

awareness to is ADHD. There are theories

created by people that those who

claim to be affected by Attention-Deficit/

Hyperactivity Disorder are simply creating

an excuse to explain their “hyper”

behavior. This is an incorrect speculation

because ADHD is in fact a real mental illness.

It’s a brain disorder that can extend

from childhood to adolescence. According

to the National Institute of Health,

studies have shown that people affected

by this disorder have brain developmental

delays by an extension of up to three

years! It’s brain-baffling to know that a

disorder can take that much growth-related

control. Hyperactive and impulsive

behaviors caused from people affected

by ADHD are much stronger and greater

than those who are not diagnosed with it.

Even though it’s still a mystery to scientists

as to what causes ADHD, genes, as

well as various environmental factors,

are said to help influence the actions

reflected through the disorder. ADHD

sometimes gets mistaken for ADD (Attention

Deficit Disorder), however they

differ in the ways of the “hyperactivity” element

that ADD withholds. Even though

ADHD is not a detrimental disorder, it still

can make life more challenging regarding

elements such as being distracted

and constantly getting up and moving.

The disorder is found in children, and can

extend throughout adolescence and into

their adult years. However, children can

grow out of ADHD and lead very productive

lives, but this requires proper change

to their environment, developing their

strengths, and medication if needed (according

to parents.com).

Bringing awareness to this disorder, certain

organizations like adhdawarenessmonth.org

and chadd.org serve to fulfill

that purpose and let people know that

it does affect people and their mental

health. Feel free to visit these particular

sites if you are someone that struggles

with ADHD and it affects your everyday

activities. Even when a health issue isn’t

physical, it can create just as many issues

within a person’s life. Although

certain theories are made, there is no

definite reason to why people are effected

by this, and the “cure” does not involve

taking a “magical” pill.

However, through time and being attentive

to ones’ environmental surroundings,

the disorder’s relevance in a person’s life

can slowly start to disappear. ADHD is

not made up. It is real and it does affect

people. If you have trouble concentrating,

find yourself being very impulsive, and

have hyper-tendencies, then you may

have ADHD. Don’t be afraid to reach out

and seek help from your doctor if it becomes

a frustrating issue.

Works Cited:

Smith, M., Robinson, L., & Segal, J. (2015, August 1).

ADD / ADHD in Children. Retrieved September 5, 2015.

Rosen, M. (n.d.). Attention for ADHD: 9 Key Facts. Retrieved

September 5, 2015.

Organizations to connect with:








By: Sneha Easwaran

Artwork by: Drew Borja

Exploring Mental Health

A normal part of growing up and being

a part of the real world is dealing with

separation in a myriad amount of ways.

Individuals with noticeable symptoms

tend to come from environments that are

held together at quite close approximation,

so as one moves away, the individual

may recurrently exhibit social withdrawal

symptoms, apathy, or difficulty in

focusing. It depends on the individual’s

age as well – from monsters to the dark,

and other situations that are perceived

as presenting danger to the integrity of

the family. This disorder isn’t a mild one

because it can dramatically affect a person’s

life by limiting the ability to engage

in ordinary day-to-day activities. Anger

and outbursts of emotion are very common.

Separation Anxiety Disorder affects approximately

2-5% of children and is much

more prominent to those who frequently

have other family members with anxiety

disorders. The tendency to develop this

disorder involves the genetic and environmental

factors that come into play in

a person’s lifetime. It can be effectively

treated and is based on a comprehensive

evaluation of a child and their family.

Some intervention strategies include

cognitive behavioral therapy with a focus

on helping the child learn skills to manage

his or her anxiety. It involves helping

children and parents understand and

learn way to change unhelpful thoughts

and behaviors. The therapist may help

a mentor understand ways in which an

individual can minimize effects by, for

example, allowing a child to miss a day

of school. It’s also beneficial to master

the situations that contribute to the

anxiety and to find ways to minimize

it as much as possible. As always, parents

and older mentors play a huge role

in being supportive in any treatment process

and some individuals may resort to

benefitting in treatment with antidepressants

or antianxiety medication to help

them feel calmer. Other methods may

include talking therapy in which an individual

develops a comfortable relationship

with the therapist, who provides a

safe haven to express one’s thoughts and

feelings. Another is play therapy, in which

the therapeutic use of play is a common

and effective way to get kids to talk more

openly. Counseling for the family and

school-based counseling is also vital as

a more mature understanding can benefit

an individual to explore more social,

behavioral, and academic demands of

an environment. Preventive measures to

minimize the effects of Separation Anxiety

Disorder can be detected at an early

stage. This can enable a person to effectively

have normal growth and development,

and to improve the quality of life

experience there on out. In order to diagnose

this symptom, it must be present

for at least 4 weeks and be more severe

than the normal occurrences an individual

may experience.

Works Cited:

“Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children.” Separation

Anxiety Disorder | Boston Children’s Hospital. Accessed

August 24, 2015.

“Separation Anxiety Disorder.” Separation Anxiety Disorder.

Accessed August 24, 2015.



“Separation Anxiety Disorder affects approximately

2-5% of children and is much

more prominent to those who frequently

have other family members with anxiety




Significant People Enduring Mental Illness in Psychology History:


Artwork by: Ale Caballero

By: Katja Stojic

“Life is hanging on me like a cloud.”

Exploring Mental Health

Women have always been on the

side-lines of history, leaving men to

make decisions for them. They did

not have many ways of expressing

themselves and were far from obtaining

an independent living status. The only

thing a woman could control was her

body. Hence the passage “A hysterical

woman responds theatrically, with her

own body, which is her only stage, upon

which she can perform publicly” (Duda

and Pusch, 1995). Although they’ve been

around for centuries, eating disorders

have widely spread in the last few

decades, hidden behind the forced smiles

and layers of clothing.

“Something inside of me resists gaining

weight. It resists getting healthier; having

round, red cheeks, becoming a simple,

bold woman, which would actually suit

my nature… it is driving me desperate

so that I cannot help myself with all the

big words. I am fighting against secret

forces stronger than me. I cannot unite

and grab them” (Duda and Pusch, 1995).

Ellen West wrote this four months before

she decided to end her life. She was

thirty-three at the time. Her life was filled

with fear and what she dreaded most was

fear itself. Food was always on her mind;

either she ate nothing or she stuffed

herself with anything she could find. She

could only eat by herself, as family meals

made her feel hopeless and empty. Her

therapist said she was trying to fulfil two

needs: hunger and love. The first was

satisfied, the second was not.

Ellen West lived in the late 19th and

early 20th centuries, a time when all

that mattered in a woman was how she

looked. She was a patient of Dr. Ludwig

Binswanger, and suffered from anorexia

nervosa, possibly in addition to other

mental illnesses. Her name is most

famously associated with existential

analysis because the treatment started to

emerge during this time. She described

her struggle with food in her diaries

which she kept for many years.

Even as a child she was intentionally

refusing sweets and was very

strongminded. Her father was wellcontrolled

and stiff but secretly sensitive

and suffering from night depressions and

fears. Ellen supposedly loved him very

much. Her mother was gentle and


also suffered from depression.

The family was traditional, yet many

questions remain unanswered. Many

relatives suffered from mental illnesses.

Even as a child Ellen refused to submit to

the expected role of a mother and a wife;

she wished to be a boy. Her extensive

reading and ability to deal with social

problems made her different from others.

Her problems became severe in her

twenties when she refused to live by the

strict social standards of her time. She

despised the hypocrisy and the limitations

of her gender. An ideal image formed in

her mind: a slim body. Friends mocked

her because of her figure so she started

to lose weight. She felt useless and

unworthy, was afraid of everything and

longed for death, which she saw as the

only happiness in life. “Anorexia demands

a perfect self-subordination and thus

gives a possibility of existing” (Duda

and Pusch, 1995). After her enrolment

in college her condition improved for a

while before she relapsed again. Doctors

discovered problems with her thyroid

and ordered bed rest, which led to her

gaining weight. The cycle repeated. “She

is denying her own personality which is

full of needs, hunger, anger and desire”

(Duda and Pusch, 1995).

She was very creative and wrote poetry,

mostly about freedom. After some

persuasion from her family she married

her cousin, but soon had a miscarriage

due to her poor physical health. She

must have dreaded being pregnant and

gaining weight. One of the means to her

remaining slim figure was the use of

laxatives and vomiting. Not much is said

about her husband except that she only

confessed her problems to him at the age

of thirty-two, which is why he soon sent

her to a clinic. She had reached a point

where all she thought about was food

and remaining slim. Her psychological

condition weakened, which is the reason

she wilfully saw a doctor. Her diagnosis

stated “Advancing schizophrenic

psychosis. No effective treatments.”

“I am sitting in a glass sphere,” she

confessed, feeling isolated from others

and being able only to see them, not hear

or touch them (Duda and Pusch, 1995). All

she felt was emptiness and loneliness.

Her thoughts of being inadequate and

unfit for life had reached their peak. She

seemed better in her last days, however;

she enjoyed food and wrote letters. Then

she swallowed poison. Her face was calm

and seemingly happy in death.

“A woman’s body is a battlefield where

she fights for control” (Duda and Pusch,

1995). It is all about controlling your body,

along with its emotional needs. Ellen

West wished to achieve something great

despite not being entitled to do so. Her

role was to be a woman, which meant

remaining in the shadows. Due to her

high intelligence she was able to analyse

her situation with fearful accuracy, but

she could not alter it. Her ultimate goal in

life was to maintain an independency and

to be different from others. She was never

able to discover who she was. Her writing

was not regarded as actual literature,

and even today her work is locked away.

We know much about her struggle with

food, yet almost nothing about her artistic

expressions. Her greatest fear had, in a

way, been realised; she was forgotten

for many years until finally her case was

re-opened and examined, but even then

her real name vanished, leaving her with

the pseudonym Ellen West. Many of her

poems and writings remain locked away

at the clinic where she spent the last

months of her life. It is a shame that a

woman of her potential could not properly

succeed due to the social, economic and

political situations of her era.


Duda, Sibylle; Pusch, Luise F. (1995). Nore ženske

(Wahnsinns Frauen). Ljubljana: Krtina

Wikipedia. (2015). “Ellen West.” The Free Encyclopedia.

Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellen_






The Online Community

By: Aubrey Bryan

Artwork by: Fieni Aprilia

LGBTQ+ Psychology

The internet is wide with all kinds

of diversity from silly baby-burp videos

to middle-aged house-dwellers trying to

find the cure for the common cold. To add

some background, I was always more the

animated cat video kind-of person growing

up. It wasn’t until I came across my

first social website that I realized there

was a real community on the internet.

With community however comes conflict,

opposing sides, and people with their

own individual stories feeding into these

opinions. The greatest example of this is

the *LGBTQA community! There is a consensus

that people with different romantic

and sexual preferences aside from the

“norm” are just as important and need

recognition within society. With today’s

internet culture, the LGBTQA community

has more room to grow, spread information,

and even discuss issues within the

group itself to allow positive change. But,

because we are dealing with the internet,

there’s going to be those that take refuge

behind their screens to hurt, belittle or

put down others for self-righteous gain—

and I’m still talking about the same community.

It’s too often we see on social media

what awful things people can do to make

themselves feel in the right position or

believe they’re doing justice by hurting

or, in extreme cases, destroying the lives

of those with one (or a few) terrible opinion(s).

Those who’ve been on the internet

long enough can already think of multiple

examples, though they may not exactly

be the same examples. From one end, an

example would be the overbearing social

activist bloggers that find it their job to

come down on anyone for any small slipup

comment or joke. On the other end,

there are the less educated members of

the LGBTQA community spreading false

information or making a bad example

of the community as a whole. As

surprising as it is that such well-intentioned

people could also drag in so many

opposing perspectives to the foundation

of these beliefs, it is also not that surprising

at all.

Since we’re all from different areas of

the world and our countries, we’re all

bound to have different views on what

makes sense in the LGBTQA community.

Some less populated places, like the

country-side in Mississippi of the United

States, may hold the reservation that

love is between two individuals; and if

a girl likes a girl she’s gay and if a girl

likes a boy she’s straight. In places like

these, it may just seem a little weird to

begin talking about all the in-betweens

and gray areas. However, a more populous

area with wider variation between

culture, person and belief may be more

accepting to the idea that there’s a neighbor

next door claiming to be demi-sexual.

Not only location, but also upbringing

can affect the way we understand what

LGBTQA supports. Bisexuality, for example,

in some households is the, “I’m

confused about my sexuality” sexuality.

While that certainly isn’t the case, it is

a fermented stereotype attached to the

identity. It’s taught through several different

mediums and not just in the household.

Social groups, media and even our

culture have a bit of an input into this

belief. We have a natural tendency to feel

like we need to “pick a side”, like it’s a

football team or our favorite brand.

I think a lot of people tend to forget about

all the different perspectives and experiences

others may have when they hop

online. For every trans woman that’s

praised and told to be proud of her identity

there’s another just like her being near


beat to death for it. The LGBTQA community

is so large and diverse now with

all these separate experiences that we

can’t ever entirely pinpoint an exact focal

point in our goal sometimes. But that

also gives way to discussion and debate

that will allow us to continue to grow even

more diversely. While some could say

that’s an issue, because that would cause

even more conflicting opinions and sides

of the matter—and honestly I wouldn’t

blame anyone for having that view. However,

diversity leads to the evolution of

these opinions, change in culture and society,

and creates new levels of concepts

in gender identity and sexuality that we’re

starting to scratch the surface of. Whether

or not these newer concepts are valid

is a whole other area of debate already,

and you can only wonder how much further

our community will change for better

or worse ten years from now.


*LGBTQA – Acronym for the Lesbian, Gay,

Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Agender




Music Psychology




By: Sheena Mackenzie

Artwork by: Jane Shi






Back in 2011, an Australian tour

operator by the name of Matt Waller

revealed that for a number of years he

had been tracking Great White Sharks

for a very unique series of experiments.

After hearing of divers in Guadeloupe

who observed sharks reacting to certain

songs, he played music from his collection

through speakers attached to shark

cages to attract them, monitoring their

reactions – and it turns out that Jaws may

have been a bit of a metalhead. When

Waller played heavier music like ACDC to

the sharks he tracked, he observed more

calm and curious behavior as they detected

the vibrations made by the music

(since they don’t have ears to hear it).

This year, a similar experiment was carried

out by Leah Sharman and Genevieve

Dingle of the University of Queensland

in Brisbane, Australia, but with slightly

more docile subjects. In order to examine

the popular notion that angry music

makes for an angry listener, they found

39 participants who listened to ‘extreme’

genres of music (including the likes of

Rob Zombie and Disturbed). The subjects,

with an average age of 20, were

first provoked into an angry state of mind,

then the control group were left in silence

to deal with their anger, while the other

participants were asked to take out their

iPods and listen to angry extreme music

from their personal playlists for ten

minutes. Sharman and Dingle measured

changes in heart rate in both sets of participants,

and also asked them about

their levels of hostility, irritability,

stress, relaxation, activity and inspiration.

The results showed that listening to

extreme music while experiencing feelings

of anger and aggression has a positive

effect on the listener, allowing them

to process their feelings, much like the

participants in Papinczach’s (2015) experiment

which reported a similar sense

of sad music helping them to process

feelings of sadness.

Essentially, these findings have shown

that music can affect our moods, and that

those who consider themselves listeners

of extreme music, much like Waller’s

Great White Sharks, deal with their anger

better and ultimately feel calmer when

listening to heavier music (although most

likely for very different reasons). Now that

I’ve discovered this research, when I feel

myself becoming angry about anything,

I may reach for my headphones before I

reach for someone’s neck.

For those of you who listen to ‘extreme’

genres of music, do you find that you

choose songs specifically to influence

and control your emotions in a certain

way? Do non-listeners do similar things

with their own music?

References & Further Reading:

Case, A., (2011, June 02). Great White Sharks Attracted

By AC/DC Hits. Australian Geographic. Retrieved from


Sharman, L., Dingle, G. A., (2015) Extreme Metal Music

And Anger Processing, Fronteirs In Human Neuroscience,

9, 272









Personality Psychology

I came across a quote a few

years ago that stuck with me:

“Don’t make decisions

when you’re angry, and

don’t make promises

when you’re happy.”

By: Sophie Poulsen

Artwork by: Ruth Grace Estipona

…I’d like to address the first part of

this quote.

Some qualities that are more commonly

associated with anger are stupidity, risky

behavior, distrust, prejudice, hostility,

aggression, and, above all, being irrational.

We’ve all been in a fight where we’ve

said things we didn’t mean. We may have

called someone something we didn’t

mean, hurting them and embarrassing

ourselves in the process. We may have

impulsively lashed out and made hasty,

stupid decisions, similarly to when

we’re intoxicated.

More and more research has shown,

however, that anger can perhaps make us

more rational.

One of the most prominent experiments

in this area was done by Moons and

Mackie (2007), where they presented two

groups of students - one angry, one neutral

- with a persuasive message about

the fiscal responsibilities of students.


one angry, one neutral - with a persuasive

message about the fiscal responsibilities

of students. Each group of

students had to write about a particular

situation or event. One group, however,

was instructed to write about an event

that made them feel angry. The researchers

then presented them with different

persuasive messages that they had to


Moons and Mackie (2007) found that angry

students were more likely to ignore

an irrelevant message from a superficial

expert, while participants in neutral

moods did not. This shows that angry

people appear to process analytically,

which “contradicts the notion that angry

people…lack the cognitive resources or

the motivation to engage in deeper processing”

(Moons & Mackie, 2007, p. 717).

Thus, anger acts as a motivator rather

than a barrier to analytic thought.

In another study, Young, Tiedens, Jung,

and Tsai (2011) researched whether angry

people could objectively evaluate

information without confirmation bias.

Confirmation bias is when individuals

seek information that favors their pre-existing

beliefs while ignoring information

that does not favor their beliefs, meaning

that individuals create biased opinions

because of the way in which they evaluate

information. For example, a reporter

writing an article on an important topic

may only interview experts who support

his or her views on the issue. Confirmation

bias is problematic because it does

not allow for an objective, realistic perspective.

So are angry people also affected by confirmation


Interestingly, Young et al. (2011) found

that anger results in less confirmation

bias than other emotional states. In their

study, Young et al. (2011) provided participants

with a survey that asked them

about their political views. The main

question was: “Who do you want to win

the 2008 Presidential Election?” Their

choices were Senator John McCain and

Senator Barack Obama. Participants

were then presented with twelve expert

statements on the election. Half of

the statements were in favor of McCain,

the other half were in favor of Obama.

Participants were asked to select the

statements that they were more interested


In order to manipulate the participants’

emotional states, they were also asked

to recount

a memory that was either angry, sad, or


Young et al. (2011) found that angry participants

often selected information that

did not follow their beliefs. They attributed

this to the fact that the feeling of anger

produces an “antagonistic interchange,”

where individuals are in an argumentative

state, ready to “move against” someone

who disagrees with their opinion.

In comparison, people in sad or neutral

states were more likely to select information

that confirmed their current opinion.

Both of these studies are significant in

that they show that angry people will be

more flexible in their perspectives, as

well as more analytical in their thinking,

than people in other emotional states.

However, this does not mean that people

should try to experience more anger in

order to make better decisions or think

more analytically.

Every individual is different; anger can

make you rational, but it can also lead to

impulsive decisions that you regret later.


Work Cited

Moons, W. G., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Thinking Straight

While Seeing Red: The Influence of Anger on Information

Processing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,

33(5), 706- 720. doi: 10.1177/0146167206298566

Young, M. J., Tiedens, L. Z., Jung, H., & Tsai, M. (2011).

Mad enough to see the other side: Anger and the search

for disconfirming information. Cognition and Emotion,

25(1), 10- 21. doi: 10.1080/02699930903534105



Developmental Psychology


By: Kayleigh Herber

Artwork by: Jeffrey Bigelow

Developmental Psychology is the

study of how, and why, people change

over their lifetime. When this branch of

psychology was just getting started it

was primarily concerned with babies and

young children, but over the course of the

decades it has expanded to include adolescents

and adults as well. As humans

we are constantly developing in one way

or another, for better or for worse, and

developmental psychology now studies

people of all ages. Today we will be discussing

three major themes within developmental

psychology that scientists have

been busy with for years.

The Nature and Nurture Debate

Over the course of history psychologists

have argued whether behaviour is

shaped by genetics and natural forces we

encounter growing up, or if it’s shaped by

a child’s upbringing. These are referred

to as empiricism (nurture) and nativism

(nature). The empiricists argue that children

are born as a tabula rasa (“blank

slate”), and that behavioural traits develop

almost exclusively from the way

children grow up. On the other hand,

nativists argue that a lot of skills have a

genetic or innate basis, like instinctively

looking for food. While both points of view

used to be usually quite black and white,

contemporary psychologists recognise

that both are very important, though it

is hard to prove exactly how much each

contributes. In a 2014 survey, many of

the responding scientists wrote that the

two-sided nature vs. nurture debate has

outlived its usefulness because it has

3 Important

Themes in


Psychology You

Must Know About

sufficiently been proven that both

sides interact.

Continuity and Discontinuity

Also a very widely discussed topic – even

the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud

discussed it - is how we describe patterns

of development. Some psychologists view

development as a continuous process,

where development happens gradually

and skills and abilities are accumulated

over the years. Others tend to view it as

a staircase of step-like phases that are

qualitatively different from the ones before

and after, each defined by particular

behaviours. Contemporary psychologists

view development as a smooth continuous

curve rather than steps; they do

agree that within that curve there are

phases, but they transition into another

phase gradually.

Domain-general and Domain-specific

Another topic that has intrigued many

psychologists is whether, and to what

extent, the development of new skills

can influence our development of other

skills. For example, if you’re learning

a new way of swimming like the backstroke,

which involves bringing your arms

over the head in order to move through

the water, it might impact other motor

abilities too. Practicing this posture and

movement could possibly help you develop

other skills, like over-arm serving in

tennis, or weight lifting, which includes

similar movements. Psychologists differ

in how far they consider things like these

are domain-general. Others have tak-


en a more domain-specific point of

view, and believe developments like this

proceed rather independently.

These three important subjects might

seem very one-or-the-other, but they

are anything but that. There is more and

more consensus among scientists and

psychologists that development is probably

caused by multiple factors at all levels.

This means that there is rarely just

one correct answer to the question ‘what

causes this development?’ or ‘which of

these is true’. Finding out exactly what

the answer is seems pretty much impossible,

but the psychological community

will keep trying and trying to get as close

to the answer as possible.

As humans we are constantly

developing in one way or

another, for better or for



Works Cited:

Buehl, M. M., Alexander, P. A., & Murphy, P. K. (2002).

Beliefs about schooled knowledge: Domain specific or

domain general?. Contemporary educational psychology,

27(3), 415-449.

Gopnik, A. (2014). Time to Retire: The Simplicity of Nature

vs. Nurture,”. Mind and Matter”, published, 1, 25.

Leman, P., Bremner, A., Parke, R. D., & Gauvain, M.

(2012). Developmental Psychology. London: McGraw


Weinfield, N. S., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (2000).

Attachment from infancy to early adulthood in a high

risk sample: Continuity, discontinuity, and their correlates.

Child development, 71(3), 695-702.

Further reading:

Developmental Psychology (2011) – Dr Rachel Gillibrand,

Dr Virginia Lam & Dr Victoria L. O’Donnell.

An Introduction to Developmental Psychology (2011) –

Alan Slater, J. Gavin Bremner






By: Sheena Mackenzie

S.E.E.P. (Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary People)

To those unfamiliar with Autistic

Spectrum Disorders (ASD), our ideas

about what it really is are shaped by

representations in popular culture,

and perhaps the two most prominent

examples are the film ‘Rain Man’ and

Jim Parson’s Sheldon Cooper from

the American comedy series ‘The Big

Bang Theory’ (although the latter is not

diagnosed, it is widely accepted that he

is). Representational media is incredibly

important to all of us, but it can present

its own problems, as in this example,

where both characters are portrayed

similarly: as troubled geniuses with

strangely obsessive interests, ‘quirky’

behaviors and difficulty in socializing

with others. All of these traits are

associated with autism, but the reality is

much more complex than the simplistic

understanding many seem to have of

it - it’s a spectrum disorder, with many

different levels of functionality and kinds

of expression.

As someone who has known a number

of people at different points on the

Autistic Spectrum, a trend I’ve noticed

is that once children reach about seven

or eight years old, there comes a division

in which neurotypical children exclude

and sometimes even bully peers who

have autism. Promoting the inclusion of

those on the autistic spectrum in schools

is vitally important to allowing them to

create friendships, relationships, and

support systems which are key to living

a fulfilled life for all people. Creating

awareness of autism among those

who attend school with people who

have ASD and dealing with the stigma

of it at a very young age could greatly

improve tolerance and understanding

of the sometimes confusing behavior

that people with autism can exhibit, and

allow them to develop sympathetic and

supportive friend groups with peers,

separate from the parental and formal

support that can easily become the only

support a person receives coping not only

with their disorder, but the other stresses

that young people face growing up.

To this end, Kimberly Maich and E.

Christina Belcher from Ontario, Canada

and Melbourne, Australia respectively,

have investigated the use of picture

books depicting and exploring autism in

schools to promote awareness among

children from a young age. Their study

looked at a variety of books already in

print which address this issue, including

both books which specifically addressed

autism and autistic behavior (such as

“Understanding Sam And Asperger’s

Syndrome” (Van Niekerk & Venters,

2006)) and books which portray autism

in an indirect manner (like “Looking

After Louie” (Ely, 2004)). It’s important

to use both types of portrayal so that

children both understand the complexity

of the disorder, but also that to have

autism does not have to be a disruptive

or defining thing in normal everyday

situation. The paper suggests ten factors

to be considered when approaching this

issues in this way (‘including (a) story

selection tools, (b) direct labelling,


(c) indirect terminology, (d) the

wider context, (e) finding positive

perspective, (f) pictorial and literary

value, (g) curricular considerations, (h)

participation possibilities, (i) instructional

approaches, and (j) putting a plan in

place’), but concludes that, although

it needs to be done in a very carefully

planned manner in educational setting, it

is beneficial for both neurotypical pupils

and pupils with ASD.


The key thing to remember when

educating people about the autistic

spectrum is that those with ASD are

people who have autism, not autistic

people. This particular condition, to

varying degrees, does have an impact

on an individual’s social, intellectual,

and emotional development, but it is

not their defining characteristic. Autistic

is not a personality trait or a lifestyle,

and those who have it are people before

they are autistics, people with dreams,

motivations, a sense of humor and their

own way of being in the world.




By: Natalie Pedemonte

S.E.E.P. (Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary People)

All my life, I knew my brother had

Autism. Being the younger of the two,

I didn’t always understand what that

meant, but I knew that he was different.

As far as I was concerned, Spencer was

the kind of big brother that all my friends

had. But as I grew up, I slowly began to

realize that my brother and I were not the

same in comparison to my friends and

their siblings.

I took notice and was baffled by how my

friends’ older siblings always seemed

so uninterested in spending time with

their younger brothers and sisters. Most

siblings with a three-year age gap didn’t

get along as well as me and my brother

did. They never really developed a bond

until later in life. But despite their lack of

interest in one other, the older sibling was

always there to show the younger one the

ropes of life. In my case, I had to try and

figure out the ropes on my own and then

try and help Spencer figure some out

along the way. Spencer and I have always

been close and I can’t remember a game

that he didn’t involve me in. I could always

confide in him when it came down to it.

Spencer was big into history when we

were younger, and every game we played

had some historical significance that we

always stuck to. So all in all, a majority of

my childhood was learning a wide range

of historic events. By the time I got to high

school, I knew almost everything I was

learning in class because my brother and

I had played games based on the same

content as children.

The patience required by me to

play games with my brother rolled

over into my teenage years, and in turn,

he’s affected the way in which I interact

with others. I believe that I’m able to

understand how people think a lot better

than other people my age. From years of

following games step by step, I’m a lot

more analytical when observing people’s

actions. Spencer has allowed me to

look at the world and the people in it,

much differently.

People have asked me what it’s like

growing up with Spencer being the way he

is. And I have never been able to properly

answer them because I was less than a

year old when he was diagnosed, so I’ve

never known any differently.

For my entire life, Spencer has always

been Spencer. And while that made him

different to others, it made my entire

childhood all the more special. There was

never a dull moment with him. I’ve had to

grow up a little bit faster than my friends

have because of my brother. And since

the death of our mom, we’ve both had to

do a lot of growing up in a short period

of time. From experiences like this that

have evoked life-changing mentalities,

our relationship has become even

stronger. I’ve had to be his rock, and he’s

done the same for me. I’ve never really

known anything else and, despite a few

difficulties, I wouldn’t want anyone other

than Spencer to be my sibling. To be my

big brother.






Animal Psychology



By: Imogen Bowler

Artwork by: Ale Caballero


Future planning is an interesting,

and particularly hard skill to have. The

reason it is particularly hard is because

to plan for the future, you have to plan for

the motivational state (e.g. hunger, thirst)

you will be in at that time. This requires

the suppression of the motivational state

you are currently in. For this reason,

researchers are not sure whether it is

something animals can do or not. One

interesting study looking into this was

conducted with scrub jays, looking at the

hunger motivational state.

For context, experiments with humans

have shown even we are not perfect at

this kind of future planning. For example,

in Atance and Meltzoff’s (2006) study

children were allowed to eat as many

pretzels as they liked. They were then

asked if they would want a glass of water,

or some more pretzels tomorrow. While

4-5 year olds performed above chance

level, they were not perfect. 3 year olds

also failed this task (ed: what determined

a fail?). It’s even been shown that adult

humans can fail at these kinds of tasks.

Read and van Leeuven (1998) conducted a

field experiment on adult participants in

an office, they were asked whether they

would want a healthy or unhealthy snack

the day after. They were either hunger or

not at the time of asking, and hungry or

not when they would receive the snack.

Participants struggled to correctly predict

what they would want when the two

states of hunger did not match.

With these findings in mind, let’s look at

what Raby et al (2007) found when testing

this skill in scrub jays. This study consisted

of two phases, a training phase and a

testing phase. In the training phase, for 6

days scrub jays spent the morning either

in place A or place C. In place A they were

given breakfast, whereas in place C they

were not. Therefore, in place C, hunger

was more likely to occur. On the 7th day,

the scrub jays were pre-fed so they were

not hungry. They were then given extra

food which they could cache. Caching is

a behavior many birds display where they

store food in a hidden place in case they

need it at a future date. During this

testing phase, the jays were given free

reign of the two places (A and C). If they

were able to ignore their current state

(not being hungry) and plan for a future

point in time (where they would be hungry)

then they should cache more food in

place C. This was in fact what was found,

scrub jays would cache the food in place

C at a higher rate than chance.

This is taken by some as an example of

the scrub jays resisting current state to

plan for the future, however others suggest

that there are problems with this

experiment and that coming to that conclusion

is premature. Can you think of

any possible alternative explanations of

this finding?

Works Cited:

Atance & Melztoff (2006) Preschoolers’ current desires

warp their choices for the future. Psychological Science,


Read & van Leeuwen (1998) Predicting hunger: the effects

of appetite and delay on choice.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,

76(2), 189-205

Raby, C.R., Alexis, D.M., Dickinson, A., & Clayton, N.S.

(2007) Planning for the

future by western scrub jays. Nature, 445, 919-921






By: Larissa Grundmanis

Artwork by: Pilar Chavez

Forensic Psychology


“I’m not a psychopath, I’m a highfunctioning

sociopath.” This quote has

often been heard by fans of the BBC show

Sherlock, and while viewers may laugh,

do they truly understand what is it to be

a psychopath, and why Holmes would

prefer to be called a high-functioning

sociopath? As an avid fan of Sherlock

as well as someone who is interested

in forensic psychology I have often

wondered to myself: do I truly know the

difference between the two? While both

are truly fascinating, the main focus

here is on psychopathy – after all, many

individuals with psychopathic traits are

found in prisons.


Psychopathy, while often confused

with one who is psychotic, is actually a

mere individual who has the abilities to

manipulate their way through life without

remorse. While this is a simplified

definition, the most common traits of a

psychopath are that they are incapable

of forming deep emotional attachments,

they often times are unable to feel guilt or

empathy, they are manipulative, and they

often hold a profuse level of “superficial

charm”. Unfortunately, many times these

traits are overlooked by the general public

who instead see someone with antisocial

personality disorder, psychosis, or a

serial killer, according to the Society for

the Scientific Study of Psychopathy.

Why then, is psychopathy so often

associated with murderers? Perhaps it

is because of the media, or perhaps it is

because many individuals who have killed

have been diagnosed with some form of

psychopathy, such as Joanna Dennehy. It

may also be due to the notion that only

criminals would be able to behave in

such manners, but is that really true?

According to Chivers, it’s not. He notes

that Robert Hare, the creator of the

PCL-R once stated:

“There are people who are part-way up

the scale, high enough to warrant an

assessment for psychopathy, but not

high enough up to cause problems. Often

they’re our friends, they’re fun to be

around. They might take advantage of us

now and then, but usually it’s subtle and

they’re able to talk their way around it.”

How many times have you found yourself

taking advantage of your friends, even if it

was to just get a free meal out of them?

How many times have you or your friends

acted impulsively or irresponsibly? How

many times have you found yourself

unwilling to acknowledge that you made

a mistake, and take responsibility for the

consequences? How many times have

you, or someone you know, committed

acts of wanton sexual behavior?

Most individuals would be able to find

some common ground between these

traits and their own lifestyles, but that

does not mean that they are violent

individuals who are prone to crime.

Psychopathy is often looked down

upon, but many times the average

human being acts in ways that would

be found in someone with psychopathic

tendencies. Perhaps instead of jumping

to conclusions, we, as individuals, should

look for true motives behind someone’s



Chivers, T. (2014, April 6). Psychopaths: How can you

spot one?. In The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://



Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy. (2013).

Psychopathy: A misunderstood condition. In Society

for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy. Retrieved from


Webb, D. (n.d.). The psychopath. In All About Forensic

Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.all-aboutforensic-psychology.com/psychopath.html


40 3




THEME: “Psych2Go Community”

“I chose to illustrate the theme “Psych2Go Community” as

a group of people helping each other solve a puzzle. I’ve observed

members of various Psych2Go Facebook groups from

their posts online that the wit and wisdom of each community

members increases camaraderie - or the spirit of humor and

fun. I want to express it in this illustration how they share their

views to enhance learning from each other while in the process

of creating something big.”

Ruth Espinosa


If you would like to have the chance to win and have your art

showcased in our next issue, be on the lookout for the next art

theme which will be posted on our social media!





Career Building

By: Jessica Jang

Artwork by: Jane Shi


For those trying to get a job,

here are some tips for your interviews!

You’ve got your foot

in the door and now it’s time to

tell your story. These are also

helpful for conducting your own

interviews. Good luck!



Eye contact

This is when the interviewer and interviewee

look each other in the eyes.

The culture and the interviewee might

prefer it to others.

Body language

This is when the interviewer or interviewee

communicate other messages

based on their movements and posture.

Mirroring is when both parties are consistent

in their movements and is best

done subtly. This helps people become

comfortable with you.

Vocal qualities

This is how loudness, pitch, rate, and

fluency affects the interviewee since it

can communicate feelings of empathy or

cause conflict. It’s best to use a soft, firm

voice when interviewing.

Verbal tracking

This is listening to the interviewee to

clarify and summarize what they say

without putting their meanings in it.

Negative attending behaviors are overused

positive attending behavior that it

becomes uncomfortable. Excessive head

nods are distracting, saying “uh huh”

often becomes annoying, too much eye

contact overwhelms others, repeating

the last words intimidates the client,

awkward mirroring looks like mocking.

The interviewee doesn’t want to be scrutinized

or apprehensive otherwise the interviewer

won’t get the true information

they want. Remember everything is good

in moderation.

It’s important to consider culture with

attending skills because an interview

should be a good environment for getting

information and both parties should be

respectful of each other. Individuals have

a preference on the amount of each dimension

of attending behavior. Gestures

could convey other messages in other

cultures and might not be appropriate.

The most important part of interviewing

is being a good storyteller. You need to be

able to take your past experience and use

it to explain how you’ve developed skills

important for the new job. DO NOT just

repeat your resumes because they have

already seen it you just need to expand on

it more. A good method to use is to write

out your positions then come up with at

least three tasks you had to do then the

skills related to it. Here’s an example:

1. Cashier

a.) Accept currency and keep accounts updated


i.) Trustworthiness

b.) Clean checkout area

i.) Multitasking skills

c.) Help customers with purchases

i.) Communication/interpersonal skills

ii.) Customer Service



Community Submissions:

October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet





What is Sports Psychology? (Cherry,

2015) tell us that Sports Psychology is

the study of how psychology influences

sports, athletic performance, exercise,

and physical activity. It is said that sport

psychologists, aside from working with

people who just want to exercise for their

health and well-being, they also work

with athletes and coaches so they can enhance

the ir motivation and performance.

Could that be effective? Thanks to this

article and my perfectly done research

you’ll find out now, today. Just keep reading!

According to (Comar, 1994) educationally-based

psychological interventions

have produced significant increases in

performance. He states that 38 of the

45 studies examined (85%) have found

positive performance effects. Recently

conducted research has added that

sport psychology has had positive affect

on performance enhancement, as well as

the personal growth of athletes. However,

further research needs to be conducted

to improve the understanding of these

positive affects. You’re probably thinking

that this article will only contain information

about studies that have been conducted

throughout the years but you’re

wrong. Besides information about those

studies, I will be speaking about the

athlete’s perspective which is extremely

important. The psychologists can say

anything they want, but if the athlete or


By: Yara Meléndez

Artwork by: Jane Shi

coach doesn’t feel like he or she has

made any progress throughout the process,

then it hasn’t been effective at all.

(Sharp & Hodge, 2014) conducted a study

in which nine elite athletes would be interviewed

to talk about what they perceived

to be essential for effective sport

psychology consulting and to examine

their perceptions of the key components

of an effective sport psychology consulting

relationship. There were six males

and three females from a variety of sports

(e.g. cricket, rugby, swimming, triathlon,

dressage and wheelchair rugby).

The analysis indicated that three categories

were essential for sport psychology

consulting effectiveness; sport psychology

consultants were friendly but not a

friend, consulting experience and athlete-centered







categories resulted essential for

effective consulting relationships;


open, honest, and respectful

contributions from both the athlete

and the consultant

athlete as an active participant in the

consulting relationship

After conducting this research I did some

serious brainstorming. I tried to see this

from their perspective and came to my


own conclusions and opinions. I think

that sports psychology could really be effective.

Yes, people say that you can only

motivate yourself and the only one that

can or cannot make you do what you want

is you. Somewhat that might be true

but don’t you think that if you have people

around you who care, take the time

to listen and give you advice; that it will

motivate you too ? Having someone rooting

for you always. Isn’t that nice? Yes, it

is! That’s why I think it is effective. Obviously,

the psychologist cannot do the job

by him or herself. You have to be faithful

and hopeful about your goals and try to

make them happen with the help of your

sports psychologist or any psychologist if

you want to speak about your goals in life

instead of just athleticism. You do your

part and he/she will do his. In the end,

everyone wins.


Weinberg, R. (1994, December 1). The Effectiveness of

Psychological Interventions in Competitive Sport. Retrieved

September 1, 2015.

Weinberg, R. (1994). The effectiveness of psychological

interventions in competitive sport. Retrieved September

1, 2015

Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2014, April 14). Sport psychology

consulting effectiveness: The athlete’s perspective.

Retrieved August 31, 2015.

The psychologists can say

anything they want, but if

the athlete or coach doesn’t

feel like he or she has made

any progress throughout the

process, then it hasn’t been

effective at all.





Body, Mind, Spirit:

The Strength from Within

By: Mitchell Mabugat

Artwork by: Jane Shi

Community Submissions:

October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

“I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 punches once,

But I fear the man who has practiced 1 punch 10,000 times.”

-Bruce Lee

Dedication. Intensity. Control. Focus.

All these are key aspects in the world of

martial arts. Dating back to as far as 2000

BCE, martial arts has become a strong

spiritual, physical, and emotional discipline,

that for years has given strength

and enlightenment in one way or another,

to all those who went in search for the

true meaning of combat.

Whether you look at the ancient samurai

of Japan, or the brutal bare knuckle

boxing of Greece, all cultures of the world

have developed in some sense, their own

art of self-defense. Though a common

misconception, many people believe

that all combat consists of is a bunch of

brutes toppling over each other to see

who is the strongest. This idea, I can

confidently say, is false. Though physical

strength is, like in all sports important, it

does not alone make up the foundations

and principles of martial arts. The most

important and sometimes the most difficult

aspect of one’s self to master is the

mind. In its truest form, martial arts is a

science. Similar to all areas of science it

requires analysis, repetition, and reflection

in order to truly master. A second

too slow and you take damage, a second

to fast and you lose an opportunity to do


Keeping this in mind, I’d say that

approximately 80% of fights are won before

the first punch is thrown. In Sun Tzu’s

book, The Art Of War, he explains “A skillful

general must defeat the enemy without

coming to battle, take his cities without

siege and overthrow his state without

a long campaign. He must make every

effort under the heaven to achieve total

victory with his forced undiminished: This

is the true art of strategic offence.” (Tzu,

S. 513 BCE). Never let your enemy see

your fear. When weak appear to your enemies

as strong. When strong appear to

your enemies as weak. Sun Tzu describes

warfare and combat as “the path of deception”

(Tzu, S. 513 BCE). To never show

your aggressors your fears or insecurities;

to appear a lion when feeling like a

mouse. Showing your aggressor not how

strong you are physically but how impenetrable

and indestructible your mind is.

Even when in a competition of strength,

he whose psyche is unbreakable, is physically


Now I am aware that the topic I am supposed

to be writing on is sports psychology,

and although mixed martial arts,

boxing, and taekwondo are all technically

sports, I can assure you martial arts in

its truest form is much more than just

a sport. To some it is a lifestyle forged

through repetition and tradition, and to


others it is a form of self-expression.

But to all, it is simply an escape. Coming

into a training session, you could have

the world weighing down on you. And by

the end of the class, feeling lighter than

ever before. Sure, your body may not feel

that way at first, but your mind will gain

a sense of relief, if even for a moment,

which I could only describe as magical.

Throughout our lives we tend to find ourselves

shying away from any thoughts of

violence; however, when the time comes

– as it is inevitable, we are not prepared

to defend ourselves from this unexplored,

frightening monster. And unless you live

under a rock, I guarantee you that someday,

somewhere you will need to fight.

Fight for love, fight for pride, or even a

fight to get that killer beach body you’ve

always wanted. Everyday of our lives is a



Is martial arts for everyone? No. Will you

become a great UFC fighter by going to

a few classes? Hell no. Will you gain the

individual strength and resilience needed

to walk through life with less fear and

more confidence? Most definitely.


Anonymous. Martial Arts Training: Benefits Physical

and Psychological. Retrieved from http://www.ontarioselfdefence.ca/martial-arts-training-benefits-physical-and-psychological/

Lapre, S. Personal Communication. June 2012.

Mccaferty,G. (2015, July). Psychological Benefits of

Martial Arts Training. Retrieved from http://believeperform.com/performance/psychological-benefits-of-martial-arts-training/




By: Digby Driver

Artwork by: Pilar Chavez

Community Submissions:

October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

Interpretation is the most necessary

survival skill for all thinking creatures,

though rarely is it associated with basic

needs. Any cub scout, disaster prepper,

or off the grid homesteader will tell you

that food, shelter, and water are the most

crucial things to consider, but the fact

is that these things would never have

crossed their minds were it not for their

body’s ability to interpret hunger, thirst,

and cold. We use interpretation every

second of the day without hesitation as

our bodies interpret the need to breathe,

the words of our friends and family, and

the passing of time.

Have you ever realized that without sensory

data, (or the ability to interpret it),

we wouldn’t be able to interact with the

world on any level? We wouldn’t even

know it existed. Without the ability to

take in and interpret sensory stimuli, we

wouldn’t even be the most basic parts

within Sartre’s existential bubble as

for-itself beings in an in-itself world. The

only thing between us and falling into the

void is entirely in the way our body interprets,

translates, and plans to take in and

make sense of it all every hour in a day,

every day in a week, and year after year

so we can stay aware of our shared bubble

for as long as possible.

Well, that’s a little depressing.

Maybe so, but not as much as having

the ability to interpret all that sensory

stimuli, but not being able to explain it

in a way other people can relate to, or in

a way they can relate to you personally.

What happens if you’re the one with

an atypical method of interpretation that

makes the status not so quo for you and

seemingly no one else? What then? Consider

carefully that it takes us right to to

why the Internet is so much more than

just a piece of technology, and why the

psychology behind the Internet isn’t just

for kicks and pop culture giggles.

Communication and interpretation are

the fluids that keep so many areas of

cognitive and developmental psychology

running smoothly. It’s the oil, the

antifreeze, the water pumping through

the radiator cooling down Carl Jung’s

engine of human thought and reaction.

They’re the most basic parts of our brain,

yet so crucial. In a car, they’re the one

thing mechanics and garages will top up

and monitor freely. It’s not just because

they’re nice guys, but because without

them everything in the entire engine will

break apart, fuse together, and grind to a

painful, inevitable halt if they run out or

grow too stagnant.

A popular quote from Jung’s novel Memories,

Dreams, Reflections says, “loneliness

does not come from having no

people about one, but from being unable

to communicate the things that seem

important to oneself, or from holding

certain views which others find inadmissible.”

The internet is not just another product

or service of the tech age. It’s not the

same thing as the first blocky, off-white


Macs my generation started out with.

Neither can the Internet be compared to

the other more advanced technology that

seemed to grow mushrooms overnight

during the late 90s and on into the 21st

Century. Perhaps the Internet started

out that way, and it was probably intended

to be nothing more than another tool

in the end, but that’s not what happened.


Instead, the Internet has evolved into a

virtual real estate, pioneered and settled

by my fellow Millennials before it was

passed on and seized by Generation Z as

a brave new world they now claim as a

mother country. Like any other country,

the Internet has a language and a culture.

It has currency, government, and

patriotic pride. The fact that it has no set

location, legal residency, or even a physical

mailing addresses isn’t something its

citizens worry about. If the World Wide

Web were an actual place, anthropologists

and government intelligence agencies

would study nothing else for generations

to come, but since it exists solely

as data connections, Wi-Fi hotspots, and

DSL hookups across the world, it’s up

to psychology enthusiasts to spread the

news that the times are changing and

we’d better be prepared for a hostile

takeover by a country that exists only as

stored memory in hard drives and human





Created by: Sadia Nadeem

Designed by: Craig Alexander



Created by: Jade Li

Designed by: Craig Alexander

Please see answers on page 69!





Comic by: Katherine Fosso

Blog: sunsinourhands.tumblr.com



Projective Psychology

Rorschach Projective Test


By: Risha Mae Ordas


This set consists of the most common

answers that were sent to Psych2Go.

All compiled responses are listed here.

The audience’s responses were able to

point out and identify some aspects of

their personality and character:

1. A part of the human body.

A common answer was ribcage, but this

also varied to lungs or the pelvis of a

person. Sometimes, it was even specified

as an x-ray. This would be interpreted as

someone who tends to set the bar high

for themselves. Presumably, they would

be the type of person who (consciously or

unconsciously) projects their intelligence

to their environment.

2. An animal.

There were also a lot of responses

regarding animals—the most common

being a cow, but there were also

interpretations of different breeds of

dogs, followed by rats, elephants, and

foxes. Now, in order to decipher this,

it depends on the characteristic of the

animal. Cows, for example, are known

to be stoic, yet emotionally deep. Dogs

are often called loyal. Rats are often

the witty, mischievous ones. Elephants

are sometimes described as calm and

confident. While foxes are associated

with wisdom and are often guides.

3. Two people kissing/shaking hands.

First off, the immediate association with

a human being means that the person

who interpreted the picture in this

way may have strong connections with

humanism. Also, it would depend on the

gender of the person in the image (is it

a man and a woman? Or two people of

the same gender?). The gender or age

observation may depict the attachment

the interpreter has to a particular

figurehead in their life (was it you and

your sibling you saw shaking hands,

perhaps?). The action can be explained

as someone who is aware of themselves,

and is attuned to the different needs of

the people around them.

4. Supernatural figures such as

fairies, dwarves, and angels, and

the grim reaper, were also common


These kinds of responses can be

associated with someone who is aware of

themselves and has a greater tendency to

be more empathic to other people. But it

would also depend on what the creature is

doing: If it’s positive (like shaking hands),

then it can be interpreted in a positive

light. If negative emotion is clipped with

the figure, then the person identifying the

image could be experiencing some sort of

negativity within their life, or some kind of

pent up emotion.

The next Rorschach will be posted on

the Psych2Go Website and social media

accounts before the next issue, so to

keep yourself up to date and post your

interpretation, be sure to follow us on

social media!






By: Hannah Jade

Book Review

Anderson, L. H., & Viking. (2009). Wintergirls. New York: Viking.


While well written and an interesting

read, “Wintergirls” is definitely not

representative of what it is like to have

an eating disorder. The book opens with

a description of how Cassie, Lia’s best

friend of 10 years, has been found dead

in the room of a motel. Lia is the main

character of the novel, which documents

her struggles with anorexia, which she

has personified with the name “ana”. It

appears to me that the author’s research

into bulimia and anorexia may not have

spanned further than researching pro

*ana and *mia websites.

A lot of the way things are written seem

to romanticize eating disorders, rather

than show what kind of torture they are.

Lia called herself strong for keeping

herself “empty”. Cassie had been

bulimic and was influencing her friend to

be the same, which actually made Lia’s

parents somewhat grateful that she had

died. I thought that was a bit of a harsh

way to introduce the stepmother in a

scene. I understand that they could have

been blaming her for the eating disorder

of the child they were raising, however

wouldn’t a death of your child’s best

friend warrant a response that was more

caring and trying to help your struggling

child rather than tarnishing their late

best friend’s name? I don’t know really,

as I thought the way the stepmother was

shown was extremely cold, even though

most of the time she was making an

attempt to help out. A lot of the book the

narration is disconnected and it feels

cold. The chapters are titled in the way

that she would weigh herself and write

down the weight (00.0) which I thought

was interesting. Stylistically, the book

somewhat resembles a diary. It is written

in a very poetic style, but I didn’t hate the

poeticism as much as I hate anything like

that by Sharon Creech. (I’m looking at

you, Heartbeat).

However, a lot of the time the author

will cross out words to show what the

character was thinking at first but then

changed their mind to state differently.

Things like “stepmother” crossed

out to say Jennifer. She also refers to

any type of food as either a number or a

color. The numbers represent the calories

in the food she is discussing. There are a

lot of scenes that are graphically about

self harm and intense self deprecation on

Lia’s part both mentally and physically.

She realized that Cassie had called her 47

times on the night of her death, and a part

of what is making her so stressed out and

ill is that she blames herself for not being

there for her friend.

The hotel in which Cassie died has a

person named Elijah working there and

he and Lia form an unlikely friendship.

It’s very strange to watch this person’s

world unravel. We find out that Cassie

died from a ruptured esophagus and Lia

had actually had some points where she

sabotaged Cassie’s attempts to recover

from bulimia- the disease that ultimately

killed her. Cassie had left a message

for Lia - that she was the skinniest, and

she had won. As if it was some sort of

competition, again the glorification of a

weight achieved by means of an eating


The book describes the changes in her

body and it gets increasingly emaciated,

which shows the brutality of what

happens with an eating disorder. The very

end of the book Lia is cutting herself,

and her stepsister Emma who absolutely

adores her walks in. It ends on this note

and doesn’t allow further elaboration, so

one can only make assumptions about

where to go from there. Overall, the book

was decent, however I found it slightly

romanticizing eating disorders and who

can be the sickest, but I have not suffered

from bulimia or anorexia, so I would leave

people with more authority on that to

judge better. All in all the book was easy

to read, well written, and interesting. I

think research could have been better,

but overall it was a good read.

*ana – short for Anorexia Nervosa

*mia – short for Bulimia



58 3




Everyday tell something you didn’t see Something

that wasn’t old, or on repeat Something that would

give me hope, to believe So I can see a chance, to

come back from defeat

Ammunition takes lives is what I hear on the radio

From state to state, from coast to coast

Most of the times we ask why, but don’t know

We don’t have an answer; there’s nothing to post

More tears than smiles, I continue to hear

More suffering than living, please tell me how

These young kids that live their life in such fear

Give me a reason why I shouldn’t be doing

something now

This list goes on as we drift into slumber

Reset the clocks, for the day is almost over

Prepare yourself tomorrow; it’s time to repeat the

same thing Our first world problems block out the

help when others sing


Artwork by: Ale Caballero

Note from the author: This poem represents how people can alter

their thinking to reflect more positivity to make an impacting change.





By: Lauren Miedel


If you’re like me, you’ve had your fair

share of awkward moments. A lot of

mine revolve around the fact that I cannot

control when I laugh. I laughed when my

friend told me that she and her girlfriend

had broken up. I make jokes about awful

situations, as well as during sad and

angering scenarios. I joke around during

serious talks between myself and my

parents. I have depression, and lots of

times people think that I’m ok because of

how often I make them laugh. So I can say

with certainty that it was a relief when I

discovered that I wasn’t broken; in fact,

I’m just one of many who use humour

to deal with fairly large problems. Many

people use humour or laughter to cope

with stressful and hard situations.

According to Keltner and Bonanno (1997),

laughing helps us respond to stress by

“increasing the psychological distance

from distress and by enhancing social

relations.” In other words, we laugh in

times of distress because sometimes

our minds cannot handle the stress.

Think about it, whenever something bad

happens, it can be hard to process. Your

brain deals with this trouble processing

by laughing, which releases a bunch

of endorphins, increases personal

satisfaction, and improves your mood—

all of these help deal with stress (Mayo

Clinic Staff 2013). By creating these

physiological changes to make your body

think it’s happy, you put distance between

yourself and the situation. Also, think

about how laughing and joking around

play a huge part in our socialization.

Laughing is one of the biggest socializing

elements. In times of distress, your mind

craves human contact and interaction (to

help deal with the stress), so it makes

sense that it would laugh to increase

those chances.

There’s also another reason the brain

might force us into laughter. As humans,

we are generally very good at reading

people’s emotions. We know when

someone is smiling out of politeness

or, in this case, when someone laughs

without feeling a positive emotion.

People who are not as good at hiding

their true emotions are more likely

to do this fake-laugh, which could be a

signal to others that we are in distress.

The brain may do this in order to raise

the likelihood of someone coming to find

out what is causing the stress (Keltner &

Bonanno 1997).

With this information in mind, it’s easy to

see why the brain would sometimes think

that having us laugh is the best course of

action. It may be inconvenient and possibly

a social faux-pas, our brain is just trying

to look out for us. Now I understand why

I make so many jokes when I’m feeling

so down; my brain is trying to find ways

to help me cope with the stress. So the

next time you find yourself laughing when

you think you shouldn’t, remember that it

may help you in the long run.


Keltner, D., & Bonanno, G. A. (1997). A Study of Laughter

and Dissociation: Distinct Correlates of Laughter and

Smiling During Bereavement. Journal Of Personality &

Social Psychology, 73(4), 687-702.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2013). Stress relief from laughter? It’s

no joke. Retrieved September 10, 2015.





Similarities Attract

Debunking ‘Opposites Attract’

By: Myelin Abenojar

Artwork by: Jane Shi

Debungking Psychological Myths

When looking at one’s partner or

friend, one may suddenly question

with squinting eyes: Why? This may

be a question that is posed repeatedly

or not at all. Maybe there is a mystical

acceptance of fate that brought two

beings together. Or maybe it was simply

proximity, and there was no one else to

choose from. Regardless of the believed

circumstances, it is safe to wonder: Why

do people like the people that they like?

What is this gravitational pull called

“attraction” that people experience

amongst each other? How can this bond

be maintained? And, what if we knew the

formula to achieving peak happiness in

interpersonal romantic relationships?

There are some basic trends that have

been found. “Opposites attract” is a

rationale that is often disputed yet

equally often suggested. The sight of a

cat cuddling with a dog, an interracial

couple, or the pull of two magnets

promotes a sense of awe. But, is it true?

In general, it is more difficult to interact

with someone who is unlike us. As

depicted throughout history in various

battles and wars, dissimilarity has often

been a source of conflict, and furthermore

hatred. Conversely, one can also assume

that it is easier to interact with someone

who is like them. This phenomenon is

highlighted when people of similar ages,

races, religions, or socioeconomic status

get along because they are connected via

a point of similarity (Wilson & Cousins,

2003, p. 161). Overall, partners or

friends who are similar are more likely

to establish, maintain, and sustain happy

and healthy interpersonal relationships.

Similar Romantic Partners

Romantic partners, especially long

term marital partners, tend to be more

similar on personality and interests

than dissimilar in comparison to

random couplings (Gonzaga, Carter, &

Buckwalter, 2010, p. 642). In fact, the

more similar the couples were the

greater report of marital satisfaction

resulted (Wilson & Cousins, 2003, p. 164).

So, similarity is not a random occurrence

amongst people, but something that tends

to bring people together and promotes

happiness. The interplay of a couple’s

“neuroticism, openness to experience,

empathy, self-esteem, extraversion,

emotional stability, and autonomy are

all qualities that significantly affect

the quality of an intimate relationship”

(Barelds, 2005, p. 502, 513). For instance,

an introvert in a relationship may feel

very drained being with an extrovert. Or

someone with low self-esteem may grow

to feel inferior with his or her partner who

has a high self-esteem. And perhaps, in

a stressful situation, someone who is

emotionally stable will find the reactions

of an emotionally unstable partner

strange and discerning. Discordance in

personality type can create dissonance in

the relationship.

Yet, this does not answer why partners

tend to be similar in these studies. The

most convincing argument for how

interpersonal similarity is the largest

factor in relationship satisfaction is based

on the idea of convergence. Convergence

is “the tendency for partners to become

more alike over time” (Gonzaga et al.,

2010, p. 634). One study showed that,

“couples who converged in personality

between first meeting and the first

years of marriage were more satisfied

with their relationships” (Gonzaga et al.,

2010, p. 642). In this situation, similarity

is something that occurs overtime. This

leads to question, are couples least

similar from the onset of a relationship?

To answer that question, it’s logical to

revisit our first interpersonal relationship.

Foundational Primary Caregivers

The foundation created by the initial

relationship with our primary caregiver

affects all future interpersonal


relationships. For instance,

“individuals with an avoidant attachment

style use fewer relationship-maintaining

behaviors, such as talking about problems

and coming to an understanding, and are

less likely to seek support from [others]

(Barelds, 2005, p. 503)” thus making

relationships more difficult to maintain

than they already are. But this trend does

not determine that other relationships

with children raised with an avoidant

attachment will be fruitless, but instead

shows that this individual must find a

friend or partner that can understand

and fulfill their needs. And that is the

key difference between our interpersonal

relationship with our primary caregiver

versus our romantic partners or friends;

there is an element of choice. As infants

we do not choose whom we interact with

but as we grow older we gradually receive

freedom to interact with our environment

and the people in it.

Our lives begin with and are propelled by

interpersonal relationships. Others can

and tend to be our source of self-esteem,

comfort, love and belonging. Similarity

is an ideal, but often not a reality—for

the attraction to someone exactly like

oneself is narcissism. And presumably

people are not generally aware of the

similarities they may find in another

person and it is also possible that they

are unaware of their own personality

characteristics. There is not a constant

evaluation mechanism that we go through

that weeds out people who are unlike

ourselves. Our attraction is dependent

more on our perception of the other

person. “Perceiving that another has

similar traits (attitudes, interests, etc.)

increases attraction only because the

perceiver usually positively values those

traits and [therefore hold a] positive

value of the other person (Steele &

McGlynn, 1979, p. 111-112).” Essentially,

it is not the list of traits that may match

up with another person; it is whether or

not those perceived similarities have an

affective value on us, which produces

a sense of attraction. Notably, there

is more to attraction than personality.

Yet, it is helpful to know in retrospect

that the “symmetry that is reflected

between partners at the very start of

the relationship may help determine the

eventual success of the partnership, and

the changes over time may help shape

the relationship as it develops (Gonzaga

et al., 2010, p. 642).” In conclusion,

relationships are subjective and can vary

across cultures and individuals. So what

may work for one couple may not work

for another. Research in this field of

relationship attraction and maintenance

is not only useful to researchers but also

to marriage counselors, relationship

therapists, clergy, love-struck teenagers,

friends, co-workers, and basically anyone

in the world who engages in any form of

an array of interpersonal relationships

(Wilson & Cousins, 2003, p. 165). But

discovering exactly what elements or

personality characteristics to find in

another person to complement one’s own

personality should be knowledge received

and taken in precaution. Although it is

an ideal to achieve peak happiness in

our lives, that sense of happiness would

be irrelevant if there was nothing to

compare it to. Therefore, people should

not limit themselves and disregard other

people who are unlike them. For while

there are times of dissonance when

confronting differences between people,

there is also an equal potential for growth

and understanding in others as well

as ourselves.



Barelds, D. (2005). Self and partner personality in intimate relationships. European Journal of Personality, 19(6),


Gonzaga, G. J., Carter, & Buckwalter (2010). Assortative mating, convergence, and satisfaction in married couples.

Personal Relationships, 17(4), 634-644.

Steele, M. P. & McGlynn, R. P. (1979). Effects of affective value and similarity on attraction. Journal of Social

Psychology, 108(1), 111.

Thompson, W. & Nishimura, R. (1952). Some determinants of friendship. Journal of Personality, 20(3), 305.

Wilson, G. D. & Cousins, J. M. (2005). Measurement of partner compatibility: further validation and refinement of the

CQ test. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 20(4), 421-429.

Wilson, G. D. & Cousins, J. M. (2003). Partner similarity and relationship satisfaction: development of a compatibility

quotient. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 18(2), 161.




“I’ve been in a long term relationship

for almost six years. We have a child,

and I also have a child from a previous

relationship. We had only been dating

for six months when I got pregnant,

and things weren’t going so well then.

I decided to stay in the relationship

and make it work for the new baby. I

thought - if I loved him once I could love

him again. I did fall in love again but

everything that happened within the

first year of our child being born brought

me to a deep depression. He was so

naive and selfish that he neglected my

feelings and just said I needed to ‘suck

it up’. All this created resentment, but

we finally bought a house, and I thought

maybe then we would be happy. So many

more things happened, which lead me to

cheat. I never slept with anyone, but I

did manage to get involved emotionally.

I feel that his neglect didn’t help, and I

think I fell out of love with him. I know

that I love and care for him, but I’m not

in love. It’s important to me to be in love

with the person I’m spending the rest of

my life with. We get along, he’s a great

dad, but he also hurt me by mistreating

my son verbally. He takes care of all his

responsibilities, is a family man, and is

really smart. I have told him how I feel,

and I know he’s upset that I might not

be in love anymore. He’s being sweet

now but what if it’s too late? I have a life

coach, and I’m trying to give our love and

family a chance, but I can’t seem to get

that feeling back. I feel I have stronger

connections with other men that I meet,

but I fight it off. I can’t help but wonder

why my significant other and I can’t

connect. I think it’s easier if I just suck it

up and stay rather than separate and put

the kids and him though the heartache. I

don’t want to hurt anyone by making a

selfish decision. Please help!”

– Anonymous

Thank you for sharing your story

with us. I believe the first step to

creating positive change in our lives is

getting real about what needs fixing.

As I read through your very personal

account, I can’t help but notice some

contradictions in the ways you describe

your significant other (s.o.). You say you

love and care for him, but you are not in

love with him due to stronger emotional

connections you have with other men

(despite efforts to “fight it off”). You say

your s.o. is smart, responsible, and is a

great dad even though he has verbally

abused your child from a previous

relationship in the past. Finally, you say

you don’t want to hurt anyone by making

a selfish decision. I think it’s a great

thing that you are seeking the help of a

life coach, but if you are still focused on

the negatives you are not going to make

much progress. If your s.o. is smart,

responsible, and great as a father as you

say he is and you sincerely want to keep

your family together, I think you already

know that you’re going to have to stop

indulging outside emotional connections

as this just divides your energy and focus.

On the other hand, if you truly believe that

your relationship with your s.o. cannot be

salvaged, then be 100% honest with him,

yourself, and your children. Your children

will experience some negative emotions

either way. Again, I’m sure you know that

it’s better if they are supported by a single

mother who is confident and happy with

herself and her decisions rather than

a mother who is sad, depressed, and

regretful. Focus on what you really want

with your life, decide what will really

make you happy, and let your true desires

guide you.



“My best friend’s mom has cancer

and it’s really tearing her apart. What

can I do to make her feel better? How

can I make things better for her? What

are some things I can say to offer

comfort to her without sounding cheesy

and generic or unsympathetic?” –


Hi, I think your friend is very lucky to

have someone like you in their lives,

who’s so committed to being there for

them. I’m sure you’re already a huge

comfort to them. I think there’s 3 main

ways to help your friend. The simplest

one is just to ask them what they need,

this might be as simple as helping them

with chores. What they’re going through

is exhausting, so less responsibility could

make it easier for them to cope. Secondly,

normal life and routine are so important

to help someone feel grounded, try not to

treat them differently and that includes

not having that sympathetic expression

which can be alienating for some people.

The 3rd way to help would be support

groups. Bringing your friend to support

groups allows them to connect to people

going through the same thing. It can be

a place with a lot of information lead by

someone experienced and skilled. It’s a

very difficult situation for your friend to

be in but with a support network around

them, they’ll come through this.

Hello, I’m sorry to hear about what

you’re going through. No one should feel

that level of paranoia and not be able to

move on with their life. It seems to me

like you’re in a bit of a trauma situation.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

is a serious thing to deal with at an

early stage. I suggest you do go see a

therapist. Having nightmares about your

ex and feeling like he might show up out

of no where can be early signs of PTSD.

You have to let go of the past in order

to continue your relationship with the

new guy. You’ll never feel safe or worthy

enough around another man and that can

lead to a lot of emotional stress. Please

seek for help. My mother is a victim of

physical and verbal abuse and she never

took care of it. She always ignored and

pretended that things were okay. Now

she’s m.i.a. because she’s so afraid of her

boyfriend that she prefers not to leave his

side in fear he might hurt her if she leaves.

This is her choice. She got the same

opportunity you’re getting of starting

over again and she didn’t take it. You

must seek happiness for your daughter

and see that she doesn’t suffer the same

emotional distress from experiencing all

of this at an early age. Every day brings

new choices and you should always strive

for the best. Do not belittle yourself. You

have to stay strong for your daughter and

for yourself. I hope everything gets better

for you and always remember that there’s

help out there. You just have to reach out.



“I’ve moved on with my life and am over

what happened. My ex was very abusive

to me and made me feel guilty about it,

as though it was my fault. I’m over it.

But am I truly over it? Last night I had

a nightmare about him coming back into

me and my daughter’s life (he’s m.i.a.)

well he was just worse and I had to call

the cops on him. I kept asking this guy

that I want to be with (still in my dream) if

he wanted to be with me because I felt it

wasn’t worth him dealing with my ex and

baggage. What do I do? I’m considering

going to a therapist.” - Anonymous

For future issues if you’d like to receive

advice from your peers, feel free to email

your inquiry to psych2goadvice@gmail.

com. Advice responding to your concerns

may be featured in our next magazine!



Mental Health Crisis Lines

Suicide hotlines by country:

Argentina: 54-0223-493-0430

Australia: 13-11-14

Austria: 01-713-3374

Barbados: 429-9999

Belgium: 106

Botswana: 391-1270

Brazil: 21-233-9191

China: 852-2382-0000 (Hong Kong:


Costa Rica: 606-253-5439

Croatia: 01-4833-888

Cyprus: 357-77-77-72-67

Czech Republic: 222-580-697, 476-701-


Denmark: 70-201-201

Egypt: 762-1602

Estonia: 6-558-088

Finland: 040-5032199

France: 01-45-39-4000

Germany: 0800-181-0721

Greece: 1018

Guatemala: 502-234-1239

Holland: 0900-0767

Honduras: 504-237-3623

Hungary: 06-80-820-111

Iceland: 44-0-8457-90-90-90

Israel: 09-8892333

Italy: 06-705-4444

Japan: 3-5286-9090

Latvia: 6722-2922, 2772-2292

Malaysia: 03-756-8144 (Singapore:


Mexico: 525-510-2550

Netherlands: 0900-0767

New Zealand: 4-473-9739

New Guinea: 675-326-0011

Nicaragua: 505-268-6171

Norway: 47-815-33-300

Philippines: 02-896-9191

Poland: 52-70-000

Portugal: 239-72-10-10

Russia: 8-20-222-82-10

Spain: 91-459-00-50

South Africa: 0861-322-322

South Korea: 2-715-8600

Sweden: 031-711-2400

Switzerland: 143

Taiwan: 0800-788-995

Thailand: 02-249-9977

Trinidad and Tobago: 868-645-2800

Ukraine: 0487-327715

More specific mental health lines:


Depression: 1-630-482-9696

Suicide: 1-800-784-8433

LIFELINE: 1-800-273-8255

Trevor Project: 1-866-488-7386

Sexuality Support: 1-800-246-7743

Eating Disorders: 1-847-831-3438

Rape and sexual assault: 1-800-656-


Grief: 1-650-321-5272

Runaway: 1-800-843-5200, 1-800-843-

5678, 1-800-621-4000

Post Abortion: 1-866-4394253

Child Abuse: 1-800-422-4453


Childline (for anyone under 18 with any

problem): 08001111


Mind infoline: 0300 123 3393 e-mail:


Mind legal advice: 0300 466 6463 legal@


Eating Disorders: 0845 634 14 14 e-mail:


Eating Disorders for under age 25:


Bereavement: 08444779400 e-mail:


Frank (information and advice on drugs):


Drinkline: 0800 9178282

Rape Crisis England & Wales: 0808 802

9999 1 e-mail info@rapecrisis.org.uk

Rape Crisis Scotland: 08088 01 03 02


Self Harm:00 08001006614

Suicide: 022-27546669


Kid’s helpline: 1-800-668-6868


International text based help:





Artwork by:

Jeffrey Bigelow

Mental helpline provided by:





The contributors & Digital Research


Mary Walrath – U.S. (New York)

Rhonda Marie – U.S. (Kentucky)

Tai Tai - Canada,

Analucia Guzman –Guatemala

Holly Schaefer-U.S. (Pennsylvania)

David Bradley- U.S. (Massachusetts)

Megan Altemus- U.S. (Louisiana)

Jasmine Cepeda - U.S. (New York)

Game Designers:

Jade Li- The U.K.

Sadia Nadeem-U.S. (California)


Brandon Michael-U.S. (Ohio)

Jo Collinson- The U.K.

Elizabeth Bailey- U.S. (Maryland)

Miles Underwood-The U.K.

Angelina Coronado- U.S. (New Jersey)

Helen Warriner-The U.K.

Teresa Johnson-U.S. (Maryland)

Imogen Bowler- The U.K.

The graphic designers:

Ken Samonte – New Zealand


Pilar Chavez – Mexico


Jane Shi – Singapore


Ruth Estipona – Philippines


Ale Caballero – Mexico


Jeffrey Bigelow – U.S. (New York)


Instagram: Vapor_Wave

Fieni Aprilia – Indonesia



Anne Vu – Australia



Craig Alexander – The U.K.


Comic contribution:

Katherine Fosso- U.S. (Indiana)


Issues of the Psych2Go Magazine come

out Quarterly (four times a year) because

we want to make sure we deliver the

best compilation of Psychology related

material to you. All of the people that

have contributed to this entrepreneurial

project as a part of the Psych2Go

community, have worked very diligently

and hard to produce this publication.

Everyone was such a vital asset to its

production and none of this is possible

without everyone’s willingness to

participate! We’d love to hear your

feedback! Send us a message at

psych2go@outlook.com telling us what

you think of the magazine!

Be sure to keep up to date with Psych2Go

and check out the next issue of our

magazine coming out January 2016!

Teresa Johnson

Editor in Chief of Psych2Go Magazine


Thank You to the Donators of “Psych2Go Magazine” Campaign:

Dereck Lock

Mary Johnson

Tyra Tselane


Luc White

Keely Cooper

Gabriel Taylor

Courtney Allison

Cindy Miedel

Brandon Michael

Jamie Caknipe

Geneva Fluet

Paul Novak

Miles Underwood

Sadia Nadeem

Lauren Miedel

Caroline Johnson

Tooru Sugano


Your contributions helped make this project possible!

Stay tuned for Issue #2!



1. True

2. True

3. False

4. True

5. False


1. B

2. A

3. D

4. A





Psych2Go's Community Challenge







Psych2Go Issue 1

I thoroughly enjoyed reading Psych-

2go’s first magazine for ADHD awareness

month, for their first magazine this

is a very strong start, unfortunately it isn’t

without its problems. I was surprised to

find that the barrier to entry is quite low,

literally anyone with little to no background

knowledge of psychology or any of

the social sciences could pick this up and

read it if psychology is something you’re

interested in. This magazine covers a

plethora of thought provoking topics from

separation anxiety disorder, to autism, to

martial arts, and even tips for interviews

so it’s filled with things everybody can

take something away from.

The magazine is very colorful with many

illustrations throughout so it doesn’t feel

like you’re reading a college textbook.

However, many of the pdf pages follow

this format where there are two normal

pages crammed together on one page,

a nice idea but there are some instances

where I feel it doesn’t quite

work (for example page 37). I don’t know,

it just bugs me when one page is full but

the page next to it is half blank (or half

full if you’re feeling optimistic). The last

two paragraphs on page 19 clash a bit

with the art on the page, it’s a minor issue

but I feel that it should be mentioned.

Also, I wish that the font for the citations

were a little darker, so they’re easier to

read (especially pages 66 & 67 with the

suicide hotlines). Page 15 in particular

has a few font related problems, page

14 & 15 have an interview with a college

student but surprisingly there’s no use of

quotation marks at all for her responses,

even though the text is a different color

the questions have the same sized font as

her responses, and there’s even a part on

that page where it transitions from her

responses back into the next section


of the interview with the same font

styling(end of page 14 to the beginning of

page 15). That’s definitely not to say it’s

all bad, I love how all the colors pop out

at you and grab your attention I also enjoy

the pictures and imagery used for every

section of the magazine.


You can tell that the people writing this

put a lot of effort into it and genuinely

enjoy what they do, this is expressed

through the use of more personal dialogue

to connect with the reader rather

than just reading the information to you.

Despite my few complaints that I feel may

hamper your experience if only a little bit,

I have no doubt you will still enjoy reading

through this magazine as much as I did.

(Obligatory not-so obligatory review

score) PSYC out of PSYCH

- Callestere


Honestly I think that you guys had an

amazing idea of creating a dynamic and

more fun access to the psychological

world, something with good source and

using a language that is not too formal,

which makes easier and accessible for

anyone to read, Its just really amazing.

I’m brazilian and I found you guys through

tumblr, it was really great for me because

like some people who work in the magazine

I dont act in the psychology field but

I always had a great interest on it. Congrats

for the magazine, its awesome!!

Keep it up!

(Sorry about my english)

-Love, Marina.

Thank you for purchasing

Psych2Go Magazine!

Thank you for your purchase of Psych2Go Magazine!

Join our community challenge:

When you receive the magazine and are a user of social media,

feel free to post your photo with the magazine, or some

creative way you may be using it – whether it’s in the classroom,

showing a friend, or even posing with the publication!

Be sure to tag Psych2Go in it so we can see your post!

Feel free to use the hashtag: #Psych2GoMag as well!

Feel free to send images to teresajohnso3@gmail.com as

well so we can credit you and repost your photo if you decide

to share your enthusiasm!

Don’t forget to follow us on psych2go.net,

and our other social media!

Teresa Johnson

Editor-in-chief of Psych2Go Mag

Communications & Journalism Student

E-mail: teresajohnson575@gmail.com

LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/teresajohnso

Twitter: @teresaxjohnson



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