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Condition Monitoring in the Age of the of the IIoT // Digital line of sight // Harnessing change for a successful business // Energy savings 4.0

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1/<strong>2019</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

Condition Monitoring<br />

in the Age of the of the IIoT p 12<br />

DIGITAL LINE OF SIGHT P 8 HARNESSING CHANGE FOR A SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS P 26 ENERGY SAVINGS 4.0 P 32


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Break the Break/Fix Cycle<br />

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faults before they cause costly downtime, and keep your equipment and<br />

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ICONICS’ Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) technology significantly reduces costs and improves<br />

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Reduce Maintenance and Determine<br />

Probable Causes


EDITORIAL<br />

Time to Invest<br />

in Europe’s Water<br />

Infrastructure<br />

THE WATER AND SANITATION sector is an<br />

important part of the European economy.<br />

It represents more than 500,000 people<br />

directly employed in water and sewerage<br />

companies, operating thousands of facilities<br />

and several million kilometres of<br />

networks.<br />

Investment in the water and sanitation<br />

sector is estimated at 30 billion<br />

euros per year, with an annual turnover<br />

of 70 billion. Investment needs of the<br />

sector are and will be high, as it results<br />

from the specificity of this sector. Water<br />

and waste-water services are based on<br />

capital-intensive infrastructure. In many<br />

countries it is difficult to maintain the<br />

infrastructure only from tariffs and as a<br />

result, the infrastructure is ageing rapidly.<br />

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),<br />

proposes a 3T solution to facilitate the water and sanitation industry’s capital<br />

management. 3T represents Taxes, Tariffs, Transfers as a source of financing<br />

for the water and sewerage sector. Overall, 3T is the method for determining,<br />

increasing and balancing finances in three forms, and the most important challenge<br />

is to understand and strike the right balance between the three sources.<br />

The functioning of the sector according to this methodology is not based<br />

solely on tariffs. However, it seems that the most transparent way would be to<br />

rely solely on tariffs, in line with the principle of cost recovery for water services<br />

set out in the Water Framework Directive.<br />

That is why EurEau - the federation of water and waste water sector (http://<br />

www.eureau.org) highlights in one of its position papers that “the WFD, lays<br />

down the principle of cost recovery for water services in Article 9, including<br />

environmental and resource costs. The water supply and waste water infrastructure<br />

in many parts of Europe is ageing. In some countries, the charges<br />

collected from the users are not sufficient to maintain and renew the systems in<br />

due time: tariffs should be set on the basis of the investment needs of the water<br />

infrastructure”.<br />

In addition to infrastructure maintenance, companies must respond in the<br />

future to further civilizational challenges. These include climate change and the<br />

need to systematically build resilience to violent weather events, water scarcity,<br />

droughts and floods, as well as the need to develop research and innovation.<br />

In the context of all these challenges, the lack of adequate financing for the<br />

sector is very dangerous. Taking care of low tariffs, regardless of current and<br />

emerging needs is very short-sighted. For the sake of future generations, companies<br />

should be able to finance their investments adequately. Moreover, the<br />

lack of appropriate depreciation contributes to limiting investment opportunities<br />

and closes the vicious circle of underfunding. The situation is often aggravated<br />

by a decline in consumption, which, with a fairly significant part of the<br />

variable tariff, results in a decrease in infrastructure funds.<br />

6 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong><br />

Klara Ramm<br />

Chair of the EurEau Committee on Economics and Legal Affairs,<br />

expert at IGWP, the Polish Waterworks Chamber of Commerce.<br />

48<br />

There<br />

are 5 common<br />

maintenance types and<br />

each of them features<br />

certain advantages and<br />

disadvantages.


IN THIS ISSUE 1/<strong>2019</strong><br />

26<br />

Change<br />

is natural and even<br />

crucial in order to survive<br />

and move forward. This is<br />

also true when it comes to<br />

business<br />

=<br />

32<br />

To achieve its energy<br />

goals, the paper mill is<br />

getting its own workforce<br />

involved. The company<br />

has been training energy<br />

scouts since 2016<br />

8<br />

12<br />

16<br />

20<br />

Digital Line of Sight<br />

CONDITION MONITORING in the<br />

Age of the of the IIoT – the fourth<br />

revolution<br />

Emerging Tech Brings New<br />

Maintenance Benefits<br />

Mobius Do you have all the<br />

answers?<br />

22<br />

26<br />

28<br />

30<br />

32<br />

Is Your Lubrication program<br />

world-class?<br />

Harnessing Change for a Successful<br />

Business<br />

Using Ultrasound and Infrared for<br />

Electrical Inspections<br />

OPC UA as the Architecture for<br />

IT/OT Convergence<br />

Save Energy in Steam and<br />

Condensate Systems<br />

36<br />

40<br />

44<br />

48<br />

Developing the Leadership Mindset:<br />

Set your Mind, Manage your Destiny<br />

Operator Essential Care (OEC)<br />

Routes<br />

How to Speed Up the Onboarding<br />

Process for New Maintenance<br />

Technicians<br />

How to Choose the Maintenance<br />

Strategy that Best Suits Your<br />

Company’s Needs?<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570<br />

Publisher Omnipress Oy, Mäkelänkatu 56, 00510 Helsinki, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi<br />

Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales<br />

Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and<br />

Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@media.fi Printed by Painotalo Plus<br />

Digital Oy, www.ppd.fi Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 7


DIGITALIZATION<br />

DIGITAL LINE OF SIGHT<br />

AARON BEAZLEY,<br />

Bentley Systems, Inc.<br />

Will a Digital Twin Become<br />

a Key Element of Your<br />

Digitalization Strategy to<br />

Reduce Risk and Enable<br />

Operational Excellence?<br />

DIGITAL LINE OF SIGHt is a digital connection<br />

(or thread) of data throughout<br />

an asset’s lifecycle to ensure information<br />

integrity, accuracy, and timeliness to access.<br />

There are many reasons for an organization<br />

to have a digital line of sight.<br />

However, not all of the reasons to implement<br />

digital line of sight are to realize<br />

the assets’ value, some organizations<br />

use digital line of sight to help ensure<br />

corporate reputation and positive public<br />

relations, as well as to ensure happy and<br />

safe workers.<br />

Asset management standard ISO<br />

55001 introduced a structured way in<br />

which to perform best-in-class asset<br />

management and suggests that there<br />

needs to be alignment from the corporate<br />

goals to the asset management policy to<br />

the asset management plans and tactics<br />

used on each asset under management.<br />

This alignment is the line of sight that<br />

enables individuals and teams to understand<br />

how their day-to-day actions match<br />

up with long-term corporate goals.<br />

Putting a digital line of sight in place is<br />

essential when seeking to achieve business<br />

objectives and efficiently deploy<br />

scarce resources. This process is necessary<br />

for organizations to execute in order<br />

to excel in the future and deal with their<br />

younger workforce – digital natives who<br />

are inexperienced but expect access to<br />

information at their fingertips.<br />

With the massive amount of data<br />

involved in managing assets, it is imperative<br />

that line of sight is digitally supported,<br />

ideally through an evergreen and<br />

immersive digital twin.<br />

The Backbone of a Good Asset<br />

Management System<br />

Connecting as-designed, as-built, and<br />

as-operated information to the digital<br />

twin in an open, connected data environment<br />

enables management to make<br />

fast and accurate decisions, and workers<br />

are more productive when they<br />

know the reasons behind their daily<br />

activities.<br />

8 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


DIGITALIZATION<br />

Digital line of sight connects the leaders<br />

of the organization, the assets they<br />

manage, and the workers to align work<br />

execution on business-critical assets to<br />

realize maximum value. The asset is the<br />

center of the universe in that it has been<br />

purchased to perform a function to create<br />

value to the organization. How an<br />

asset is managed depends on the current<br />

and future objectives of the organization<br />

and the risk it poses to the organization<br />

and the public if it fails to fulfill that function<br />

sufficiently. The workforce should<br />

only do the minimum amount of work<br />

to ensure that the asset functions to the<br />

necessary performance level to attain the<br />

objectives.<br />

While value is the ultimate goal we<br />

want to attain from our assets, it is also<br />

the key measure of our performance. We<br />

also should create value for customers<br />

and the public while meeting the requirements<br />

and targets set by our regulators.<br />

Digital line of sight can be achieved<br />

through a digital twin, that is, a digital<br />

representation of the physical asset and<br />

its associated processes and systems,<br />

including all the relevant information<br />

that allows you to understand and model<br />

its performance. Typically, a digital twin<br />

can be continuously synchronized from<br />

multiple sources, such as sensors and<br />

continuous surveying, to represent its<br />

nearly real-time status, working condition,<br />

or position. Digital twins are used to<br />

optimize the operation and maintenance<br />

IN ADDITION TO KPIS, ASSET CONDITION DATA ALSO HELPS<br />

THE WORKFORCE MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT WHICH ASSETS TO<br />

FOCUS ON TO ENSURE THAT BUSINESS OBJECTIVES ARE MET.<br />

of physical assets, systems, and manufacturing<br />

processes.<br />

Plainly stated, a digital twin is a<br />

highly detailed digital model that is the<br />

counterpart (or twin) of a physical asset.<br />

Connected sensors on the physical<br />

asset collect data that can be mapped<br />

onto the digital model. Anyone looking<br />

at the digital twin can view crucial information<br />

about how the physical asset is<br />

Digital line of sight<br />

can help with:<br />

• Safe work execution<br />

• Efficient work execution and<br />

optimal wrench time<br />

• Fewer operational delays and<br />

less downtime<br />

• Reduced procurement, expediting<br />

costs<br />

• Safe reaction to production<br />

upset and safe shutdown<br />

• Higher levels of operational<br />

excellence reached with consistency<br />

• Workers are more productive<br />

• Workers know the reason they<br />

are doing the activities they do<br />

on a day-to-day basis<br />

• Shortened decision-making<br />

time, increased accuracy, and<br />

effective decision-making<br />

• Enhanced outage planning and<br />

execution<br />

• Performance aligned to corporate<br />

strategy and organizational<br />

goals<br />

• Optimal TOTEX spend to attain<br />

organizational goals<br />

• Reduction in risk associated<br />

with capital assets<br />

Figure 3: Depiction of<br />

Digital Line of Sight<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 9


DIGITALIZATION<br />

performing in the real world so that the<br />

workers can easily see the relationships<br />

between data points and quickly make<br />

informed decisions to enable timely<br />

correction to poorly performing assets.<br />

Line of sight should be two-way or<br />

bi-directional; corporate objectives flow<br />

down to the workers so they know where<br />

to focus and spend their asset management<br />

efforts and process adherence metrics<br />

flow up as key performance indicators<br />

(KPIs). Having a digital line of sight<br />

also enables conformity and assurance<br />

within your processes. The executives<br />

set corporate objectives and targets, and<br />

then asset management decisions can<br />

be made and policies can be put in place<br />

based on those goals.<br />

KPIs are used to measure attainment<br />

to objectives, they show how the operation<br />

is performing, both for output and<br />

for adherence to process. In addition to<br />

KPIs, asset condition data also helps the<br />

workforce make decisions about which<br />

assets to focus on to ensure that business<br />

objectives are met. These decisions can<br />

be for minor repairs, refurbishment, or<br />

capital replacements. Once the “bad actor”<br />

assets are identified, the digital line<br />

of sight becomes even more important<br />

because it enables safe and efficient work<br />

to be performed to bring the assets back<br />

to good condition.<br />

Access to design data and settings<br />

allow workers to make safe corrections<br />

to production upsets. This is especially<br />

effective when connected with the asset<br />

condition data and current operating<br />

context of the asset. Without digital access<br />

to the current asset configuration<br />

and the ability to compare to the design<br />

basis, disaster can be the result. Workers<br />

often need more access to the knowledge<br />

base, whether it is to prepare for a job<br />

or to understand a new asset or process<br />

being worked on. This knowledge base<br />

should include things like failure modes<br />

and effects analyses (FMEAs), which<br />

document the asset functions, the ways<br />

in which the asset can fail to function,<br />

the business impacts of these failures,<br />

and the prescribed mitigation tasks that<br />

should be executed to detect and correct<br />

asset functional failures. The knowledge<br />

base also includes manuals, P&IDs,<br />

drawings, workflows, procedures, and<br />

task instructions so that the job can be<br />

done safely and in a timely manner.<br />

Without a digital line of sight, the<br />

work cannot be as easily done without<br />

wasting time looking for parts and instructions,<br />

knowing the settings and<br />

condition of the asset in question and<br />

those of adjacent or connected assets up<br />

and downstream. Lastly, as workers benefit<br />

from digital line of sight, so will the<br />

organization because objectives are met<br />

faster and more shareholder values are<br />

realized at a lower overall operation cost.<br />

Achieve operational excellence<br />

with minimum effort in the<br />

shortest time possible<br />

Organizations will more easily attain<br />

Examples<br />

their performance objectives and realize<br />

the best value from their assets if<br />

they enable digital line of sight. This<br />

will help the workforce reach high<br />

levels of operational excellence with<br />

minimum effort in the shortest time<br />

possible. Failure to do so will perpetuate<br />

the struggle and lower performance<br />

achievements. Rather than considering<br />

digital line of sight as unattainable or as<br />

a luxury, leadership needs to consider<br />

enabling a digital line of sight as mandatory<br />

to optimize performance.<br />

HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES of digital line of sight for executives and for workers.<br />

WORKERS WITH DIGITAL LINE OF SIGHT<br />

Workers access the digital twin to know where to focus their attention and manage by<br />

exception. They have access to all necessary data and documentation to execute the work<br />

safely and on time.<br />

MANAGEMENT WITH DIGITAL LINE OF SIGHT<br />

Executives visualize the organizational and unit performance compared to the objectives<br />

and targets they have set.<br />

10 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

CONDITION MONITORING<br />

in the Age of the of the IIoT –<br />

the fourth revolution<br />

Considering Industrial<br />

history in four different<br />

revolution steps, let’s<br />

briefly outline what kind<br />

of challenges condition<br />

monitoring and maintenance<br />

employees are facing in the<br />

age of Industry 4.0.<br />

ANTON IRLBECK,<br />

Sales Manager,<br />

PRUFTECHNIK<br />

THE TERM (IIOT) IS OFTEN SET EQUIVA-<br />

LENT TO “INDUSTRY 4.0” – industry<br />

in the age during and after its fourth<br />

revolution. And it is true: Both economy<br />

and society at the beginning of the 21st<br />

century are at the starting point of disruptive<br />

changes caused by the impact<br />

of modern information technology and<br />

most of all a thing called “The Internet”.<br />

For sure it is not possible to predict what<br />

this fourth revolution will bring in the<br />

near and far future. But when prediction<br />

is hard to make, a look into the past, in<br />

order to learn from the developments<br />

and technologies that shaped our history,<br />

is a good step forward.<br />

The steam engine as the<br />

baseline of the industrial age<br />

The first industrial revolution roots back<br />

to the invention of the steam engine<br />

(app. end of 18th century). Many books<br />

BUT WHEN PREDICTION IS HARD TO MAKE, A LOOK INTO<br />

THE PAST, IN ORDER TO LEARN FROM THE DEVELOPMENTS<br />

AND TECHNOLOGIES THAT SHAPED OUR HISTORY,<br />

IS A GOOD STEP FORWARD.<br />

were written about that time, when a<br />

piece of technology – today considered<br />

as baseline technology – changed the<br />

face of society and even more; it changed<br />

the face of our planet. An example: In<br />

the 100 years that followed, steam trains<br />

and railroads made continents smaller<br />

and economies grew faster because of<br />

the quicker exchange of goods and information.<br />

From the human perspective<br />

however, societies took decades to adjust<br />

to the social impacts of the steam age<br />

– this process still lasts to this day. The<br />

foundation of early labour unions and<br />

social insurance systems were first steps<br />

in humanity to adapt to the unstoppable,<br />

and pace-setting age of industrialization.<br />

And yet working conditions nowadays<br />

worldwide are still not equal.<br />

Henry Ford starts another<br />

technical and social revolution<br />

The second industrial revolution commonly<br />

starts with the era of electricity,<br />

automation and mass production.<br />

Let’s point out Henry Ford as the most<br />

12 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

renowned representative of this age.<br />

He was the first industrialist, who introduced<br />

the forty-hour workweek as early<br />

as in 1926. He did this though he was fully<br />

aware of the common situation of his decade.<br />

He strongly believed that this would<br />

raise productivity on the one hand and<br />

would give his employees more time and<br />

freedom to spend money on the other.<br />

Also during this era, workers all over<br />

the world started to take care more and<br />

more of the production process itself<br />

instead of just being contributors to the<br />

final product. This had a great impact<br />

on the role of the working people, since<br />

their role had changed. You might want<br />

to say that this was the starting point of<br />

industrial “care taking”, not only for the<br />

people, but also for the machines. A new<br />

profession was born: maintenance employees,<br />

who “took care” more and more<br />

of their machines on a regular basis.<br />

From Konrad Zuse to Steve<br />

Jobs and Bill Gates – computers<br />

start the next revolution<br />

The third industrial revolution is<br />

strongly connected to the introduction<br />

of personal computers and their impact<br />

on professional life from about the second<br />

half of the 20th century onwards.<br />

Thanks to the miniaturization of semiconductor<br />

technology, companies like<br />

IBM, Apple and Microsoft revolutionized<br />

the work in offices and in plants.<br />

Cumbersome and long calculations<br />

could be resolved in no time by microcontrollers<br />

and personal computers.<br />

Finally even pocket calculators made<br />

the life of engineers (and students)<br />

easier and more efficient.<br />

Regarding the now highly-educated<br />

and specialized maintenance staff,<br />

their working ways changed rapidly<br />

too. The stethoscope, dial-gauge and<br />

straightedge were replaced by computerized<br />

systems. Infrared cameras,<br />

ultrasound testing devices, vibration<br />

analyzers and laser shaft alignment<br />

systems became standard tools at the<br />

end of the 20th century to analyze the<br />

health status of production assets in<br />

order to avoid downtime.<br />

The invention of OPTALIGN® – the<br />

first computerized laser shaft alignment<br />

tool that utilizes a laser and a sensor<br />

to measure the misalignment – in<br />

1984 revolutionized the way to align<br />

machines. This new technology introduced<br />

by PRUFTECHNIK has been<br />

saving millions of hours’ working time<br />

for maintenance staff all over the world<br />

and goes hand in hand with a parallel<br />

reduction of energy consumption and<br />

production downtime.<br />

The Internet as worldwide<br />

accelerator for industry and<br />

society<br />

The ignition spark for the fourth revolution<br />

has just been set. Its beginning<br />

can be marked with the high degree of<br />

computer connection and interaction as<br />

machines start to communicate. Today,<br />

any everyday device from computers<br />

to mobile phones or even refrigerators<br />

and wearables are connected to each<br />

other. Industrial machines may get into<br />

interaction, too. Intelligently-mounted<br />

sensors monitor the machines. Algorithms<br />

take over the steering. Human-<br />

Machine-Interaction (HMI) is escalated<br />

to another level as it was only a few<br />

years ago.<br />

In the past 300 years the world’s industry has been growing and evolved through four major revolutions. Each of them roots in<br />

technologies that were ground breaking at their times and disruptive with impacts on work and society.<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 13


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

However today, we are still at the beginning<br />

of this new era of Industry 4.0<br />

and some people are convinced that future<br />

history books will name the world<br />

wide web (or the “Internet” in short) as<br />

the key trigger for these massive changes.<br />

And of course, this fourth industrial<br />

revolution will change the way in which<br />

we work and live together as it always<br />

did in the eras before. There is hope and<br />

good reason to assume that it will not<br />

only be for the worse but for the better<br />

– as seen in the past summary of historical<br />

industrial revolutions. But what<br />

challenges and impacts can be expected<br />

for maintenance employees in almost<br />

daily changing working environments?<br />

The Industrial Internet of<br />

Things – challenge or solution?<br />

Predictions are hard to make but already<br />

today there are sophisticated challenges<br />

that need to be resolved, especially when<br />

considering the IIoT environment. The<br />

more Things mankind connects to each<br />

other – starting from computers through<br />

mobiles up to industry and everyday devices<br />

– the more data are produced and<br />

collected. These require not only huge<br />

amounts of storage space, but even intelligent<br />

management. On an industrial level<br />

those connected Things are the machines<br />

and assets, their control systems and the<br />

net of sensors that measure and finally<br />

steer the variables of all those machines.<br />

Let’s pick a typical example of a<br />

temperature sensor on a motor that<br />

transmits the information into a Programmable<br />

Logic Controller (PLC) or<br />

database. Ok, this alone is not sufficient<br />

to talk about a new paradigm change.<br />

But let’s scale this onto a higher level.<br />

There is not just one sensor in an industrial<br />

plant or mill, there are thousands<br />

of different sensors that transmit their<br />

data into a storage mine that is filled<br />

with other plant’s data, too. A data lake<br />

– rather a sea – is created. Intelligent<br />

algorithms will mine through this data<br />

lake in order to find problems, but also<br />

better operating parameters for plants<br />

worldwide. Though innovative solutions<br />

for the maintenance world have<br />

been available for some time, new questions<br />

arise due to this technology: How<br />

to manage, store and secure this huge<br />

amount of data? How can this data be<br />

prepared for algorithms? Who is responsible<br />

for the results of self-learning<br />

algorithms that work with all those data,<br />

especially when it comes to machine<br />

damage or even people’s death due to<br />

wrong decisions being made?<br />

What’s next?<br />

The answers to all the questions above<br />

certainly will not come as early as tomorrow<br />

but maybe with the next industrial<br />

revolution since not just technical, but<br />

even social, ethical and juristic questions<br />

need to be answered. But in any<br />

case, what we can learn from the history<br />

above, is that the maintenance sector is<br />

changing faster and with greater impact<br />

than ever before.<br />

Employees in the maintenance sector<br />

for now and in the future have to be<br />

able to read, understand and interpret<br />

algorithms and their results. Their profession<br />

is rather turning from a skilled<br />

craftsman to a “data lake manager”.<br />

Wherever the journey of maintenance<br />

will go to in the future, one thing<br />

certainly cannot be captured by any<br />

machine or algorithm: Decision making<br />

based on real world experience. This is<br />

and certainly always will be a humanonly<br />

skill. But self-learning algorithms<br />

and their results (based on giga- and<br />

terabytes of measurement data) are going<br />

to support the professional maintenance<br />

employee of the future to decide<br />

how to solve maintenance issues.<br />

PRUFTECHNIK has been delivering<br />

and optimizing industrial solutions<br />

for maintenance personnel throughout<br />

more than 40 years and always adapted<br />

to changes within the industrial environment.<br />

Its laser shaft alignment<br />

systems are using the latest microelectromechanical<br />

systems (MEMS)<br />

technology in the sensors with in-built<br />

intelligence.<br />

PRUFTECHNIK handheld and<br />

online Condition Monitoring systems<br />

keep the productivity of plants high in<br />

actually any industry sector around the<br />

globe. PRUFTECHNIK implements<br />

the latest technology always with the<br />

goal to create ultimate benefit to their<br />

customers. The German maintenance<br />

specialist therefore is excited and curious,<br />

too, what the future will bring and<br />

will keep on supporting maintenance<br />

personnel in their daily life with highest<br />

quality and latest technology precision<br />

tools and monitoring solutions.<br />

www.pruftechnik.com<br />

Within the fourth<br />

industrial revolution<br />

maintenance practices<br />

will change their shape,<br />

too, and will become<br />

more data-driven and<br />

automated. Mining<br />

through the big data<br />

lake of a plant promises<br />

to drive productivity to<br />

higher levels.<br />

14 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


Results Oriented Reliability and Maintenance<br />

Management Consulting and Training<br />

Run your plant. Don’t let it run you!<br />

Improving reliability and reducing cost is achievable.<br />

Remove the pressures<br />

of unreliable equipment<br />

Find a clear path<br />

to achieve reliability<br />

Reach the organization’s<br />

maintenance goals<br />

Are you tired of constant call-ins and reactive maintenance?<br />

It's time for a sustainable approach.<br />

A reactive environment leads to poor quality repairs and higher safety risks.<br />

Poor repairs lead to re-work and an even more reactivity...we call this the "Circle of Despair".<br />

IDCON coaches your plant how to break this vicious cycle and be more effective.<br />

+1 919 847-8764<br />

www.idcon.com


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Emerging Tech<br />

Brings New<br />

Maintenance Benefits<br />

Those responsible for the maintenance of facilities<br />

and business operations strive to remain in step<br />

with the latest technological trends. PCs helped to<br />

advance the ticketed assignment method. When<br />

cellular phones gained popularity, they led to better<br />

remote/dispatch communications. Early mobile<br />

handheld PCs eventually melded with phones to<br />

become today’s ubiquitous smartphones, providing<br />

technicians with required info “at hand” while on site.<br />

MELISSA TOPP,<br />

Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS,<br />

melissa@iconics.com<br />

FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS maintenance<br />

professionals now have their<br />

choice from a wide array of modern IT<br />

devices, including desktops, laptops,<br />

tablets, smartphones, smart watches,<br />

wearable head-mounted displays, and<br />

more. Many successful organizations<br />

employ a mixture of such devices for<br />

their day-to-day maintenance processes.<br />

For each new hardware breakthrough,<br />

there has always been equally innovative<br />

software to capitalize on it for specific<br />

applications.<br />

ICONICS, headquartered in Foxborough,<br />

Massachusetts, is a global<br />

automation software provider with over<br />

three decades of experience in meeting<br />

customers’ technology needs. The<br />

company can trace its history from the<br />

strict command line days of DOS to the<br />

emergence of GUI-driven operating systems<br />

such as Microsoft Windows. Over<br />

the years, the company has been on the<br />

forefront of major paradigm shifts in the<br />

industry, including graphical advances<br />

from 2D to 3D visualization, as well as<br />

the leap from 32-bit to 64-bit computer<br />

processing. It prides itself in constantly<br />

looking for ways to help its customers<br />

take advantage of the latest cutting-edge<br />

technologies.<br />

Organizations across a wide variety<br />

of industries, including manufacturing<br />

(process and discrete), building automation,<br />

government and military, oil and<br />

gas, and power and utilities are all striving<br />

in one way or another to reduce costs<br />

and optimize efficiency. The applications<br />

they utilize to meet those goals encompass<br />

many areas of automation including<br />

HMI/SCADA, analytics, IoT, data<br />

historian, mobility, fault detection and<br />

diagnostics (FDD), energy management,<br />

alarm management, SPC, and OEE.<br />

End-to-End Maintenance<br />

Software Solutions<br />

Since its beginnings in 1986, ICONICS<br />

has developed solutions to help reinforce<br />

the value of maintenance engineers and<br />

field technicians within their organizations.<br />

These employees are tasked daily<br />

with diagnosing a wide array of issues<br />

and are counted upon to utilize their<br />

well-earned institutional knowledge.<br />

Since these workers have “been there,<br />

done that” in their experiences, they<br />

typically become some of the most valuable<br />

employees in the company. When<br />

these employees hang their hats and<br />

call it a career, their organizations can<br />

sometimes be left with a substantial gap<br />

in their collective wealth of knowledge.<br />

However, there now exists a way for that<br />

shared knowledge from the most experienced<br />

workers to be retained and utilized.<br />

Not only does this solution provide<br />

a way that new hires can quickly learn<br />

from and leverage prior knowledge, it<br />

also provides the basis for a comprehensive<br />

fault detection and diagnostics tool<br />

based upon that knowledge.<br />

Imagine this modern-day scenario.<br />

You are responsible for your company’s<br />

maintenance operations. You can remember<br />

a time when your maintenance<br />

16 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

personnel were constantly trying to<br />

tackle multiple service calls per day,<br />

where priorities seemed to change instantaneously;<br />

definitely mired in the<br />

typical reactive break/fix mode. As your<br />

company grew in size, it also extended<br />

geographically, putting even more pressure<br />

on getting the right skilled people to<br />

the right location at the right time with<br />

the right knowledge. Luckily, you and<br />

your company’s management recognized<br />

the need for improvement.<br />

Fault Detection and<br />

Diagnostics<br />

With ICONICS’ FDDWorX fault detection<br />

and diagnostics software, your company<br />

was able to shift its maintenance<br />

philosophy from the break/fix model<br />

to a predictive maintenance one. The<br />

software utilizes user-customizable<br />

fault rules to help anticipate faults and<br />

failures. It weighs the probability of<br />

equipment failure and can then advise<br />

personnel of immediate preventative actions.<br />

Since installation, your company<br />

has been able to leverage hundreds of<br />

fault rules for facility-based and operations<br />

equipment (helping to capture and<br />

capitalize on expert/institutional knowledge),<br />

minimized equipment downtime<br />

with actionable alarms, monitored fault<br />

states with enhanced analytics, and optimized<br />

the overall efficiency of facility<br />

operations.<br />

Connected Field Service<br />

So your company was able to move from<br />

reactionary to proactive maintenance.<br />

Still, with its expansion to multiple territories,<br />

your company determined it<br />

ICONICS CONTINUES TO<br />

PIONEER NEW TECHNOLOGIES<br />

FOR THE BENEFIT OF<br />

MAINTENANCE APPLICATIONS.<br />

needed a way to ensure that the right<br />

skilled technician could be quickly<br />

identified, notified, and sent to the location<br />

requiring maintenance. ICONICS<br />

developed its new connected field service<br />

solution, CFSWorX, to streamline<br />

the efficiency of field service personnel<br />

through intelligent scheduling and guaranteed<br />

notifications. The notifications<br />

can be triggered by any events, such as<br />

alarms and faults.<br />

A customizable, weighted scoring<br />

system is used to factor in each worker’s<br />

schedule, availability, location and skill<br />

level. It then delivers a notification to<br />

the selected field service worker’s mobile<br />

device for immediate action. A specialized<br />

algorithm now helps your company<br />

determine the best available technician<br />

to send between its multiple geographically<br />

dispersed locations.<br />

Internet of Things Integration<br />

Your company realized that it could attain<br />

multiple benefits from connecting<br />

its operations to the Industrial Internet<br />

of Things, including ensuring IT equipment<br />

resiliency and scalability, futureproofing<br />

existing IT equipment, and<br />

assuring global access to accumulated<br />

data. As the person responsible for your<br />

company’s maintenance operations,<br />

you knew your existing fault detection/<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 17


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

diagnostics and connected field service<br />

solutions would benefit from IoT connectivity,<br />

as well.<br />

However, management wasn’t sure<br />

if they should spend the money on new<br />

IoT-integrated equipment, on retrofitting<br />

existing equipment, or if they<br />

should find an alternative option. Ultimately,<br />

the third option made the most<br />

sense (and saved the most on possible<br />

costs) and your company incorporated<br />

ICONICS’ IoTWorX IoT gateway software.<br />

It allowed you to invest in lower<br />

cost edge devices (IoT gateways) that<br />

came with the IoT application-enabling<br />

software embedded, providing a bridge<br />

between your enterprise’s data and<br />

HMI/SCADA, analytics, and mobile<br />

solutions running in the cloud. Now,<br />

vast amounts of data are collected from<br />

multiple company sites, empowering<br />

employees throughout the organization<br />

and providing you and other operators<br />

with a new layer of actionable<br />

intelligence.<br />

A Glimpse into a Not So<br />

Distant Maintenance Future<br />

You’ve tailored your maintenance operations<br />

into a fine-tuned proactive outfit.<br />

ORGANIZATIONS ACROSS A<br />

WIDE VARIETY OF INDUSTRIES<br />

ARE ALL STRIVING IN ONE WAY<br />

OR ANOTHER TO REDUCE COSTS<br />

AND OPTIMIZE EFFICIENCY.<br />

You’ve embraced intelligent scheduling<br />

and notifications for your connected<br />

field service personnel. You’ve championed<br />

increased IoT connectivity for<br />

your company’s equipment and networks.<br />

“What’s next?” you may have<br />

wondered.<br />

ICONICS continues to pioneer new<br />

technologies for the benefit of maintenance<br />

applications. The company<br />

has developed a Holographic Machine<br />

Interface (HMI) that integrates with<br />

head-mounted display hardware such<br />

as Microsoft’s HoloLens self-contained<br />

holographic computer. Maintenance<br />

personnel utilizing this combination<br />

are able to see 3D augmented reality<br />

(AR) representations of equipment in a<br />

heads-up, hands-free display, in order<br />

to assist with repairs or improvements.<br />

Users could also access equipment schematics<br />

or provide a first-person video<br />

feed to a remote technician who could<br />

assist in diagnosing problems.<br />

ICONICS is currently developing<br />

additional new technology tie-ins, including<br />

a new Voice Machine Interface<br />

(VMI) and integration with other types<br />

of wearable devices (e.g. smart watches).<br />

The voice-based option involves integration<br />

with popular voice assistant<br />

technologies, including those from<br />

Amazon, Google, and Microsoft. Users<br />

will be able to create “skills” that work<br />

through these vendors’ cloud services<br />

and voice interactivity technologies<br />

(e.g. Amazon Web Services for Alexa,<br />

LUIS.AI for Microsoft Skype/Teams/<br />

Cortana, and Google Actions for Google<br />

Home/Assistant). For wearables, ICON-<br />

ICS is working on providing UI/display<br />

compatibility and geolocation features<br />

for popular smart watches and similar<br />

devices.<br />

As new technology continues to<br />

evolve, ICONICS will work to provide<br />

the best software-based benefits to<br />

maintenance-focused users.<br />

18 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


OPTIMIZE LUBRICATION<br />

& EXTEND BEARINGS<br />

LIFETIME<br />

An Ultrasound<br />

instrument is<br />

the perfect tool<br />

for lubrication<br />

management<br />

60-80% of<br />

premature bearing<br />

failures are<br />

lubrication related<br />

Avoid downtime<br />

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Ultrasound Assisted<br />

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ULTRAPROBE<br />

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adding lubrication and<br />

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www.uesystems.eu/ebook-lubrication<br />

UE Systems Europe - Windmolen 20, 7609 NN Almelo, The Netherlands<br />

T: +31 546 725 125 | E: info@uesystems.eu | W: www.uesystems.eu


LEADERSHIP<br />

Who leads the reliability<br />

(and performance)<br />

improvement initiative<br />

in your facility? Who<br />

determines which<br />

improvement projects<br />

should be implemented?<br />

Who executes the<br />

projects? Who performs<br />

the root cause analysis?<br />

If the answer is “me”, or<br />

“my reliability team”, then<br />

we may have found the<br />

person who is holding<br />

back the success of your<br />

programme!<br />

JASON TRANTER,<br />

CMRP,<br />

Mobius Institute<br />

The classic “iceberg of ignorance”<br />

-graphic illustrates the level of<br />

knowledge and awareness that is<br />

common in most plants.<br />

(www.torbenrick.eu)<br />

Do you have all the answers?<br />

MAYBE YOU SHOULD LOOK<br />

FOR HELP FROM WITHIN<br />

NOW, JUST POSSIBLY, you may be upset<br />

with me right now. Keep reading and I<br />

hope to change your opinion. But before<br />

I do, I would like to ask you a few more<br />

questions.<br />

Who in your plant knows the most<br />

about the problems that occur: the slowdowns,<br />

minor-stoppages, equipment<br />

failures, the waste, the inefficiencies, the<br />

source of poor quality, the frustrations<br />

due to maintenance work not being executed<br />

correctly, and so on? Is it you? Is<br />

it senior leadership? Is it anyone in management<br />

or engineering?<br />

What about the maintenance technicians<br />

and operators? Aren’t they the<br />

people who face these issues every day?<br />

Don’t they see it all first hand? And<br />

I wonder how many times they have<br />

thought of solutions to those problems,<br />

but no one has listened to them – and no<br />

one has asked their opinion.<br />

There is a classic graphic known as the<br />

“iceberg of ignorance” that illustrates the<br />

level of knowledge and awareness that is<br />

common in most plants. Where are you<br />

on this graphic?<br />

So, if you agree that the people working<br />

closest to the equipment know the<br />

most about those problems, what would<br />

you think about getting them involved<br />

in the solution? Now, what just went<br />

through your mind? “How would they<br />

know how to solve the problems?” “I<br />

could not trust them to make improvements.”<br />

“Some of those guys thrive on fix-<br />

20 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


LEADERSHIP<br />

ing the problems (hero status, overtime<br />

pay, etc.), they don’t want to eliminate<br />

them.” “Those guys cause the problems,<br />

they won’t fix them.” “It is not in their job<br />

description to make improvements.”<br />

Maybe there are other thoughts going<br />

through your mind, but if they are anything<br />

like those listed above, then unfortunately<br />

you are selling them all short.<br />

Pay respect, show trust, and<br />

ask for help<br />

OK, more questions. What do you think<br />

those people do at night and at the weekends?<br />

Are they capable people who solve<br />

problems, build stuff, fix other stuff, help<br />

in the community, and so on? OK, they<br />

may not have degrees and they may not be<br />

qualified reliability engineers, but most of<br />

the problems that need to be solved do not<br />

require rocket scientists. Just as you probably<br />

hate it when your manager/supervisor<br />

sells you short and is unwilling to give<br />

you responsibility, they feel the same way.<br />

It is time to pay them respect, show<br />

some trust, and go and ask for help. There<br />

are lots of ways that you can execute this<br />

process, but you need to provide a means<br />

to ask for ideas and suggestions, put a<br />

value on those ideas, and ask their help in<br />

executing the solutions.<br />

Yes, don’t just ask for their suggestion,<br />

let them take ownership and execute the<br />

improvement plan. Put yourself in their<br />

shoes.<br />

• OPTION 1 is to ignore them. They<br />

will be frustrated and annoyed<br />

– and thus you have the current<br />

situation.<br />

• OPTION 2 is to require them to<br />

change their practices according to<br />

your directives. And there will not<br />

be many of those requests because<br />

there are only so many projects<br />

you can manage. They have zero<br />

ownership, and again they are frustrated<br />

at not being consulted.<br />

• OPTION 3 is to ask their opinion<br />

(much better for morale), but you<br />

take control and then implement<br />

the changes. Again, this will be a<br />

slow process as you only have so<br />

much time.<br />

• And OPTION 4 is to ask their help,<br />

(financially justify the ideas if necessary),<br />

and then get out of their<br />

way and let them take ownership.<br />

Wow, how would they feel? They are<br />

being trusted and respected. They<br />

will be proud of the changes they<br />

have implemented. They will see<br />

the benefits of their actions. And the<br />

initiative will take off when others<br />

see the results of these projects, and<br />

witness the thanks and praise you<br />

heap on them when the projects<br />

are executed (don’t forget to do<br />

that). Just think about how many<br />

improvements can be made when<br />

everyone is involved!<br />

Will they execute those projects the same<br />

ways as you would have? Maybe. Maybe<br />

not. They may do a better job as they know<br />

more about the problem and have more to<br />

gain. But if they happen to make mistakes,<br />

learn from them and move on. Improve,<br />

don’t punish.<br />

This isn’t anything new. It is at the<br />

heart of TPS and Lean (depending whose<br />

book you read). Performing root cause<br />

analysis, making suggestions, and executing<br />

the solution is fundamental to how humans<br />

work. You need to show some trust<br />

and let nature take its course.


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

IS YOUR<br />

LUBRICATION<br />

PROGRAM<br />

WORLD-CLASS?<br />

Ultrasound performs<br />

well at sensing and<br />

measuring changing<br />

in friction levels.<br />

Acoustic Lubrication is just one of the eight application pillars adopted by worldclass<br />

ultrasound programs. And what an important one it is. Poor lubrication<br />

practices account for as much as 40 percent of all premature bearing failures. When<br />

ultrasound is utilized to assess lubrication needs and schedule grease replenishment<br />

intervals, that number drops below 10 percent.<br />

ALLAN RIENSTRA,<br />

SDT Ultrasound,<br />

allan.rienstra@<br />

sdtultrasound.com<br />

WHAT WOULD 30 percent fewer bearing<br />

related failures mean for your organization?<br />

Keeping up with the changes in<br />

on-condition bearing lubrication techniques<br />

is challenging. Technology advancements<br />

from SDT’s LUBExpert allows<br />

us to transform complex processes<br />

into simple, 5-step procedure.<br />

How to Get Started<br />

Success is dependent on organization<br />

and commitment. Without these two<br />

structural elements, your ultrasound<br />

lubrication program will find difficulty<br />

getting traction. A well-organized strategy<br />

and carefully planned execution will<br />

get the project started properly. Getting<br />

the commitment from all levels becomes<br />

much easier when a program can demonstrate<br />

structure and cohesion. Results<br />

will prove the program faster which will<br />

trigger easier access to funding to grow<br />

and sustain the program.<br />

Clearly defining and communicating<br />

the objectives of your lubrication program<br />

is the best way to create a precision<br />

lubrication culture that benefits your<br />

entire organization.<br />

Start by asking “Why start an ultrasound<br />

lubrication program and what<br />

improvements do we expect?” There is<br />

no one easy answer to the question. Saving<br />

money is an obvious benefit that gets<br />

the attention of management, but it is not<br />

specific enough.<br />

HOW WILL AN ULTRASOUND LUBRICATION<br />

PROGRAM SAVE MONEY?<br />

• By reducing grease consumption<br />

• By raising awareness of the right<br />

types of grease to use<br />

• By making more effective use of<br />

lube tech’s time<br />

• By reducing unwanted machine<br />

breakdowns caused by lubrication<br />

failures<br />

• By extending bearing life expectancy<br />

A new beginning is the best opportunity<br />

to review what you have been doing<br />

previously. Identify what worked and<br />

improve or remove what did not. We will<br />

not go deeply into all aspects related to<br />

22 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

5-STEP<br />

ACOUSTIC LUBRICATION PROCEDURE<br />

1 2 3 4 5<br />

Visit Lube<br />

Room<br />

Pre-Lubrication<br />

Checks<br />

Initial Lubrication<br />

Check<br />

Evaluate Bearing<br />

Condition<br />

Grease The<br />

Bearing<br />

Simple method for<br />

determining bearing failure<br />

stages using ultrasound:<br />

Select grease gun<br />

designated for asset.<br />

Safety:<br />

Follow facility/equipment<br />

safety requirements.<br />

Connect ultrasound sensor<br />

to grease fitting using<br />

lube adapter, or directly to<br />

clean bearing housing with<br />

magnetic base.<br />

Quantitative: Based on<br />

historical trend.<br />

Right Quantity: Deliver a small<br />

amount of grease, no greater<br />

than 5% of the total bearing<br />

volume. Depending on grease<br />

gun calibration this could be<br />

equal to one shot.<br />

Safety:<br />

Follow OEM safety<br />

protocols for grease gun.<br />

Inspect equipment for<br />

cleanliness, especially coupler.<br />

Inspect lube delivery tube for<br />

damage.<br />

Select the Right Lubricant<br />

for each asset/lube point.<br />

Check condition of old grease<br />

in the gun, if applicable.<br />

Consider using a new grease<br />

tube.<br />

Calibrate the grease gun’s output<br />

per stroke/shot and document<br />

accordingly.<br />

Tip: Color coding grease<br />

containers and bearing fittings is<br />

highly recommended.<br />

Equipment Check:<br />

1. Personal Protective<br />

Equipment (PPE)<br />

2. Ultrasound instrument<br />

3. Headphones<br />

4. Contact sensor<br />

5. Lube adapter<br />

6. Defect log<br />

7. Grease gun with flex hose<br />

8. Lint free rags<br />

9. Flashlight<br />

Visually inspect asset and<br />

document any defects.<br />

Identify grease fittings e.g.,<br />

Zerk, button head, etc.<br />

Confirm bearings are greasable<br />

(not sealed).<br />

Inspect and clean grease<br />

fittings and color-coded caps<br />

with lint free rag. Confirm<br />

color codes of fittings and<br />

grease gun.<br />

Right Location: Measure<br />

the ultrasound signal from<br />

the same spot each time.<br />

Tip: Do not measure from the<br />

bell housing.<br />

If measuring from grease<br />

tube extension (not<br />

recommended), inspect it for<br />

damage or obstruction.<br />

Record initial<br />

ultrasound measurement<br />

(RMS dBμV and Crest Factor).<br />

Right Interval: Based<br />

on data, determine if the<br />

bearing requires grease<br />

replenishment.<br />

Qualitative: Based on lube<br />

tech’s perception<br />

+8 dBµV<br />

Quantitative: Increase of 8 dBµV<br />

over trend line indicates a need for<br />

lubrication.<br />

Qualitative: Tech may note<br />

elevated whirring sound typical<br />

of increased friction from metal to<br />

metal contact.<br />

+16 dBµV<br />

Quantitative: Increase of<br />

16 dBµV over trend line<br />

indicates warning stage.<br />

Qualitative: Tech may note louder<br />

signal and small popping signal<br />

indicative of impacting.<br />

+24 dBµV<br />

Quantitative: Increase of<br />

24 dBµV over trend line<br />

indicates severe stage.<br />

Qualitative: Tech may note<br />

significant increase in signal, and<br />

rough, growling sound with loud<br />

popping.<br />

Churning Phase:<br />

Allow ultrasound readings to<br />

stabilize based on RPM:<br />

>1200 RPM = 5 seconds<br />

500 - 1200 RPM = 10 seconds<br />

300 - 500 RPM = 20 seconds.<br />


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

good lubrication<br />

practices. However,<br />

there are<br />

some basic and<br />

relevant points<br />

that should be<br />

noted.<br />

Lubricant management program:<br />

Keeping your bearings healthy requires<br />

a lubricant with the right quality for the<br />

application. By quality we refer not only<br />

to the quality of the grease manufacturer,<br />

but quality in a broader sense which<br />

involves all the processes from manufacturing<br />

to application.<br />

SOME GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS ARE:<br />

• Keeping high standards of housekeeping<br />

for storage, handling, and<br />

application to prevent contamination<br />

that degrades the quality of<br />

lubricants.<br />

• Keep a detailed list of products to<br />

use for each lubrication point. Selecting<br />

the right lubricant requires<br />

technical knowledge in several<br />

aspects. Using the wrong product<br />

will jeopardize the useful life of<br />

the component. Don’t change<br />

lubricants without solid reasons.<br />

Consider contracting a lubrication<br />

consultant to direct advice on this.<br />

WHAT WOULD 30 PERCENT FEWER BEARING RELATED<br />

FAILURES MEAN FOR YOUR ORGANIZATION?<br />

• Provide training in every aspect<br />

relevant to lubrication practices<br />

and product knowledge to those<br />

responsible for lubrication.<br />

• Set objectives to reach so you have<br />

a clear path to follow.<br />

Application Guidelines: Delivering<br />

the lubricant to the right point<br />

requires some type of device; usually<br />

a grease gun. There’s lots of<br />

different types but they all have<br />

one thing in common; they deliver<br />

grease with high pressure; enough<br />

to overcome the backpressure in<br />

the grease fitting.<br />

Dirty grease and mixing grease<br />

types kills bearings. Therefore, it<br />

is necessary to extend the precautions<br />

for contamination and storage<br />

discussed above, to the application<br />

of lubricant through grease<br />

guns:<br />

• Wherever possible insist on using<br />

a dedicated grease gun for each<br />

grease type to avoid the risk of applying<br />

the wrong product through<br />

cross contamination. Label the<br />

grease gun with the associated<br />

grease to be used. LUBExpert manages<br />

multiple grease guns to prevent<br />

mixing of grease types<br />

• Standardize your grease guns so<br />

they all deliver the same quantity<br />

of grease per stroke<br />

• The same principle must be applied<br />

for your ultrasound device.<br />

If using SDT’s acoustic lubrication<br />

adaptor, assign a different<br />

lube adapter for each grease type.<br />

Grease remaining in the adaptor<br />

can mix with new grease causing a<br />

degrading chemical reaction.<br />

• Always clean the grease fitting and<br />

grease gun before and after every<br />

application.<br />

• Some bearings have drain plugs for<br />

purging old grease. If you open the<br />

drain, remember to clean the drain<br />

hole; it may be clogged. Use a clean<br />

brush like a bottle washing brush<br />

to clear the port.<br />

• Apply grease slowly, one full stroke<br />

24 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

at a time (no more than 20% of the<br />

maximum designated quantity per<br />

injection) to avoid over greasing.<br />

This also avoids potential damage<br />

to the bearing as too much pressure<br />

can push the bearing cage into<br />

the roller elements.<br />

• Always allow for churning time<br />

– the time required for freshly injected<br />

grease to work its way into<br />

the bearing.<br />

• Type of bearing inside: Don’t assume<br />

that a grease fitting installed<br />

on a bearing housing means a path<br />

to grease the bearing. Sometime<br />

motors are fitted with both grease<br />

fittings AND sealed for life bearings.<br />

You must identify every<br />

grease point to be managed within<br />

the ultrasound program. Identify<br />

the bearing inside to know the size<br />

for lubrication quantity, the particulars<br />

for defect diagnosis, and<br />

the type of grease used.<br />

HERE ARE SOME HELPFUL TIPS REGARD-<br />

ING THE USE OF ACOUSTIC LUBRICATION:<br />

• Friction produces ultrasound.<br />

Bearing friction is produced by the<br />

contact between race, rolling elements<br />

and seals or shields<br />

• Less contacts means less friction.<br />

A ball bearing produces less friction<br />

than a same size roller bearing<br />

under the same lubrication conditions,<br />

speed and load.<br />

• Plain bearings produce the lowest<br />

friction levels. Their ultrasound<br />

baseline often trends in the single<br />

digits or low teens. Typically,<br />

they remain consistent for their<br />

lifespan and only display sudden<br />

upward trend lines when the oil<br />

film becomes contaminated or the<br />

bearing is near failure.<br />

Benefits of Ultrasound<br />

Ultrasound performs well at sensing and<br />

measuring changing in friction levels.<br />

It’s the perfect technology to guide lube<br />

technicians during the lubricationreplenishment<br />

task. Ultrasound assisted<br />

lubrication of plant assets offers significant<br />

benefits that calendar based lubrication<br />

cannot. The days of relying on<br />

calendars and calculators are over.<br />

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ASSET MANAGEMEMT<br />

Text: Nina Garlo-Melkas<br />

HARNESSING CHANGE FOR<br />

a Successful Business<br />

Change is natural and even crucial in order to survive and move forward.<br />

This is also true when it comes to business. Mainnovation’s Focus+Change -<br />

approach puts inevitable change in the spotlight, helping businesses manage<br />

uncertainties for the benefit of their operations.<br />

– THERE IS NOTHING PERMANENT except change. Heraclitus,<br />

the Greek philosopher expressed that change is the only reality<br />

in nature. That is also the case in Maintenance & Asset Management,<br />

says Peter Decaigny, Managing Partner of the Netherlands<br />

–based consultancy company, Mainnovation N.V.<br />

Decaigny notes that Maintenance & Asset Management<br />

organizations must continuously respond to changing market<br />

conditions, production requirements and cost targets. Technical<br />

departments need to deal with different external influences<br />

such as the shortage on the labour market of technically skilled<br />

employees, the digitalization shift towards a digital factory, the<br />

aging of production assets as well as the pressure on life time<br />

extension and renewals.<br />

– These are all “additional” challenges next to the day-byday<br />

challenges of every technical organisation, he explains.<br />

Managing the permanent change modus<br />

Mainnovation’s Focus+Change approach is universal, it is a<br />

mindset. To improve the effectiveness of change programmes,<br />

companies must work on the acceptation of it.<br />

– In our daily contact with maintenance and asset management<br />

organisations we observed that a lot of good initiatives<br />

and improvement programmes did not have the expected results.<br />

Despite all the effort to optimize the content, the result<br />

was often poor and unsustainable. Technically skilled people<br />

try to solve this problem with more focus on the content: more<br />

milestones, more processes, etc. However, it is not about being<br />

right, it is about getting it right.<br />

Decaigny points that the employee is a key and scarce resource<br />

in businesses. Therefore, companies need to pay special<br />

attention to the “human” aspect in all kinds of changes.<br />

– This is in contradiction to what we often see in technical<br />

departments. There is often over attention for the technical<br />

(content) aspects and little attention on the change or the acceptation.<br />

Decaigny adds that there are two prerequisites for a successful<br />

change: the necessity to change – in other words is<br />

everybody convinced (not only the management team) – and<br />

do we have a clear future vision? For these prerequisites to be<br />

matched the employees should be involved. When this is done,<br />

companies should work on a guided transition.<br />

– Employees have a lot of knowledge and insight. This information<br />

is often crucial for the next steps. The involvement also<br />

helps to overcome the NIBM (Not Invented By My) syndrome.<br />

26 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


– If employees in the field are not involved, you get<br />

natural resistance, but even worse, some solutions cannot<br />

be implemented due to possible practical issues that<br />

are left neglected. For instance, tablets that have a short<br />

battery life, synchronisation cycles of more than an hour<br />

every morning, smart glasses that need a finger touch for<br />

commands in an environment where everybody must wear<br />

special gloves and so forth.<br />

Because time is also a scarce resource in today’s fast-pace<br />

business world, Decaigny recognises that new ideas are<br />

needed to help guide workers through the change process.<br />

– We do not have the time for everybody to participate<br />

in all steps of a change programme. So, we must combine<br />

different success factors like storytelling and leadership<br />

behaviour to motivate and coach the people.<br />

Getting employees involved in change is key<br />

Focus+Change are two parallel, but interconnected, tracks<br />

where Focus has a direct link with the content (the ratio, the<br />

analysis, the solutions) and Change has a direct link with the<br />

acceptation (the behaviour, the mindset, the soft skills).<br />

– The result is the product of Focus (quality of the content)<br />

with Change (the effectiveness of the acceptation).<br />

You can compare it with an OEE measurement that is used<br />

to improve how effectively a manufacturing operation is<br />

utilized. In our case it is used to improve the effectiveness<br />

and sustainability of transitions in Maintenance & Asset<br />

Management.<br />

The approach applies 10 proven success factors to help<br />

companies manage the constant flux of change they face.<br />

– This is not an add-on somewhere at the end of a project<br />

but something we must integrate from the very beginning<br />

of every project or programme.<br />

The Focus+Change approach has<br />

10 proven success factors that<br />

can be used as a checklist:<br />

1. Make the need for change visible. We do this<br />

through our VDM XL benchmarking and economic<br />

value-driver analysis<br />

2. Develop a clear vision for the future and strategy<br />

3. Measure the result and progress. We do this by<br />

continuously measuring and improving KPIs in the<br />

VDMXL Control Panel<br />

4. Create management support by demonstrating the<br />

economic added value<br />

5. Involve the workplace actively in designing and<br />

implementing the strategy<br />

6. Improve the skills & tools for all employees<br />

through training and coaching<br />

7. Communicate the change programme by storytelling<br />

8. Ensure strong leadership within the Maintenance &<br />

Asset Management organization<br />

9. Motivate the employees and management by using<br />

techniques such as change readiness assessment,<br />

people impact analysis and the excuse wall<br />

10. Engage VDMXL Coaches for the guidance of the<br />

change process


ASSET MANAGEMEMT<br />

Using Ultrasound and<br />

Infrared for Electrical<br />

Inspections: Examples<br />

Ultrasound and infrared technologies are a perfect match when conducting<br />

inspections of electrical equipment. At any voltage, thermal anomalies and<br />

sources of ultrasound such as tracking and arcing can occur. Corona can also<br />

occur at 1000 volts and greater. Any of these conditions threaten the reliability<br />

of the equipment being inspected.<br />

ADRIAN MESSER,<br />

CMRP<br />

adrianm@uesystems.com<br />

TYPICAL ELECTRICAL components that<br />

can be inspected with ultrasound and<br />

infrared include:<br />

• Switchgears<br />

• Load interrupter switches<br />

• Breakers<br />

• Transformers<br />

• Motor control centres<br />

• Terminal transition cabinets.<br />

As a further complement to infrared<br />

inspections and to aid in the proper<br />

diagnosis of the condition, recorded<br />

ultrasounds can be seen in both FFT<br />

and Time Wave Form from spectrumanalysis<br />

software - this will show how to<br />

properly diagnose electrical anomalies.<br />

This form of analysis is referred to as ultrasound<br />

imaging.<br />

Ultrasound technology and<br />

electrical inspections<br />

Ultrasound is probably the most versatile<br />

of any PdM technology. Typical<br />

applications for ultrasound include compressed<br />

air & gas leak detection, bearings,<br />

motors, gearboxes, valves, steam<br />

traps, hydraulic applications, and for<br />

condition-based lubrication of bearings<br />

and rotating equipment.<br />

When it comes to electrical inspection,<br />

ultrasound instrumentation can<br />

Ultrasound and infrared: Examples<br />

1. 2000-AMP MAIN BREAKER (FIGURE 1)<br />

• Figure 1 represents a 2000-amp main breaker. Arcing was detected on the B Phase line<br />

side. The arcing heard was worse when the load increased. The arcing has severely<br />

deteriorated the internal contacts, and eventually will become so deteriorated that the<br />

voltage and waveform will be unable to reach the load. At this particular facility, the<br />

replacement cost for this item is approximately $20,000 USD.<br />

• Figure 2 The Time Waveform from the<br />

recorded ultrasound shows characteristic<br />

patterns of arcing – changes in<br />

amplitude and a loss of well-defined<br />

60Hz harmonics<br />

28 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMEMT<br />

2. 2000 KVA 11KV-415V CAST RESIN TRANSFORMER<br />

• Figures 3 and 4 show an example of a 2000 KVA 11KV-415v cast resin transformer.<br />

An inspection on this equipment was requested after audible noise in the area<br />

increased, so the operators knew something has changed for the area to become louder.<br />

The inspection was done during the winter months, and for this facility, this transformer<br />

typically sees a reduction in load as it supplies chillers and associated other<br />

plant equipment that normally does not work as hard during the winter months. During<br />

the inspection it was noted that the load was around 420 Amps per phase.<br />

be used on almost any energized electrical<br />

equipment including metal-clad<br />

switchgear, transformers, substations,<br />

relays, and motor control centres just to<br />

name a few. Ultrasound instruments can<br />

be used to inspect energized electrical<br />

components that are on low, medium,<br />

and high voltage systems.<br />

ULTRASOUND AND INFRARED<br />

TECHNOLOGIES ARE A<br />

PERFECT MATCH WHEN<br />

CONDUCTING INSPECTIONS<br />

OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT.<br />

Figure 3 and 4 – Images of the 2000KVA transformer<br />

Figure 5 Time Waveform of recorded<br />

ultrasound from this transformer<br />

showing characteristics of arcing<br />

Figure 6 Time Waveform of another<br />

2000KVA transformer in the same<br />

facility showing normal ultrasonic noise<br />

for this type of transformer<br />

3. CONTACTOR<br />

• Figures 7 and 8 show an example of a contactor on a piece of equipment called an<br />

orbit motor. A routine airborne ultrasound inspection was done, and distinct sounds<br />

of tracking were heard. A follow up inspection with infrared was performed, and the<br />

diagnosis was severe tracking.<br />

Figure 9 Time Waveform view of the<br />

recorded ultrasound of this contactor<br />

show distinct signs of severe tracking<br />

and early stages of arcing<br />

Traditional inspection of energized<br />

electrical equipment has been performed<br />

by noncontact infrared cameras.<br />

However, in recent years, ultrasound<br />

instruments have been added to these<br />

inspections for various reasons. One of<br />

the main reasons has been safety. An ultrasound<br />

inspection of electrical equipment<br />

can be performed without opening<br />

the cabinet or enclosure.<br />

Ultrasound is quite effective in<br />

detecting certain failures like corona,<br />

tracking and arcing.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Ultrasound instruments are versatile<br />

and easy to use and can greatly enhance<br />

inspections on almost any electrical<br />

equipment. In the end, it is all about<br />

safety. Ultrasound inspections can be<br />

done prior to opening the energized<br />

gear to scan with infrared. If an ultrasonic<br />

emission is heard, then the<br />

proper precautions can be taken before<br />

opening the energized cabinet. Also,<br />

for those that rely on the services of an<br />

outside contractor to perform infrared<br />

scans, an ultrasound scan can be done<br />

in between the annual infrared scan to<br />

see if any emissions are heard.<br />

When ultrasound and infrared are<br />

used together, an inspector is given a<br />

greater chance of detecting anomalies<br />

that could potentially be missed when<br />

relying on just one single technology.<br />

For best results, analyzing recorded<br />

ultrasounds in either the FFT, or time<br />

waveform view is the recommended<br />

method of diagnosing electrical anomalies<br />

heard with ultrasound.<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 29


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

OPC UA<br />

as the Architecture<br />

for IT/OT Convergence<br />

The challenge today is to how to best migrate the tightly-coupled factory floor<br />

architectures with the loosely coupled Web Services architecture of the IT world.<br />

Because of the discontinuity between the factory floor and the Enterprise,<br />

opportunities to mine the factory floor for quality data, interrogate and build<br />

databases of maintenance data, feed dashboard reporting systems, gather historical<br />

data and feed enterprise analytic systems are unavailable. Opportunities to improve<br />

maintenance procedures, reduce downtime, compare performance at various plants,<br />

lines and cells across the enterprise are all lost. But there is a reliable, highly secure<br />

and reliable solution: OPC UA.<br />

JOHN RINALDI<br />

Chief Strategist,<br />

Business Development<br />

Manager and Director<br />

of WOW! for Real Time<br />

Automation (RTA)<br />

jrinaldi@rtautomation.com<br />

John is an expert in industrial<br />

networks, a speaker, blogger and<br />

author of fifty articles and six books<br />

on automation. Get your free book<br />

by visiting http://www.rtautomation.<br />

com/rtafreegift/. You can reach John<br />

at: http://www.rtaautomation.com/<br />

contact-us/ or https://www.linkedin.<br />

com/in/johnsrinaldi.<br />

IF YOU’VE PAID any attention at all to<br />

factory automation over the last few<br />

years, you’ve noticed the ever-increasing<br />

emphasis on connecting the factory floor<br />

to the Enterprise and the cloud. There<br />

are many good reasons for this. Some of<br />

them are internal: efficiency, productivity,<br />

higher quality, and the like. Others are<br />

driven by external requirements such<br />

30 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong><br />

as efficiency gains from linking internal<br />

systems with important vendors and priority<br />

customers.<br />

In the old days (ten years ago?), the<br />

production department was a separate<br />

entity from the rest of the corporation.<br />

There was little to no electronic<br />

data transfer between the production<br />

machines and the company’s business<br />

systems. Production was a black box.<br />

Labor and raw materials went in one<br />

end, and finished product came out the<br />

other end. Most of the communication<br />

was carried out using paper: paper production<br />

reports, paper inventory levels,<br />

paper raw material usage, paper quality<br />

reports, etc.<br />

Today, the aim is for instantaneous<br />

closed-loop communication. As units<br />

of product are consumed in the field,<br />

that information gets reported back to<br />

the machine that made it. The production<br />

machine checks its raw material


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

inventory levels and on-hand finished<br />

product and schedules more production.<br />

It automatically transmits orders for any<br />

raw materials it needs from supplier machines.<br />

All automatic. All without human<br />

intervention.<br />

That’s the plan anyway. In practice,<br />

it’s rather hard to get there. We don’t<br />

have the luxury of ripping out all the production<br />

machines and replacing them<br />

with new, fully integrated machines<br />

with high-speed communication mechanisms.<br />

Instead, we must do piecemeal<br />

implementations: upgrading and replacing<br />

systems one by one as time and funds<br />

allow. It’s a marathon, not a sprint, to the<br />

goal of fully automated systems.<br />

The distinction that many people<br />

miss is that there’s a key distinction between<br />

the systems on the factory floor<br />

(OT) and in what’s known as IT. This<br />

difference can be described as “looselycoupled”<br />

systems vs “tightly-coupled”<br />

systems. These aren’t new concepts, but<br />

they haven’t been examined in the light<br />

of the current trend toward the integration<br />

of factory floor and Enterprise systems<br />

(aka IT/OT convergence where OT<br />

means Operational Technology).<br />

Factory floor systems can be labeled<br />

tightly-coupled. Systems that use Profibus,<br />

Profinet IO, DeviceNet, EtherNet/<br />

IP, or any Modbus version have a very<br />

strict architecture. These are really just<br />

I/O producers and consumers – despite<br />

that what some of the folks at the trade<br />

organizations sponsoring these systems<br />

might have you believe.<br />

OPC Information Model<br />

OPC UA IS about reliably, securely and most of all, easily, modeling “Objects” and making<br />

those Objects available around the plant floor, to Enterprise and cloud applications<br />

throughout the corporation. The idea behind it is infinitely broader than anything most<br />

of us have ever thought about before.<br />

An OPC UA Server models data, information, processes and systems as Objects and<br />

presents those Objects to Clients in ways that are useful to vastly different types of<br />

Client applications. And better yet, the UA Server provides sophisticated services that<br />

the Client can use, like the Discovery Service where Server can permit themselves to<br />

be “found” by Clients searching for data.<br />

OPC UA is the future and the perfect technology to bridge the chasm between<br />

loosely and tightly-coupled systems.<br />

Let’s look at the main<br />

characteristics of these Tightly<br />

Coupled systems:<br />

A STRICTLY DEFINED COMMUNICATION<br />

MODEL – The communication between<br />

these systems is inflexible, tightly regulated,<br />

and as deterministic as the communication<br />

platforms allow.<br />

A STRICTLY DEFINED DATA MODEL – The<br />

data (really, I/O for most of these systems)<br />

model is predefined, limited and<br />

inflexible.<br />

STRICTLY DEFINED DATA TYPES – The<br />

data types transported by these systems<br />

are limited, predefined and supported<br />

by both sides. There is no ability to send<br />

data in an open and universal format.<br />

Tightly-coupled systems provide<br />

much needed, well-defined functionality<br />

in a highly specific domain. Expanding<br />

operation to other domains or trying to<br />

provide more general operation is difficult.<br />

Making more generic data and functionality<br />

available requires significant<br />

programming resources that results in a<br />

very inflexible interface.<br />

And that’s why tightly coupled systems<br />

are wrong for Enterprise and cloud<br />

communications. It’s often amusing to<br />

see the proponents of OT Technologies<br />

like EtherNet/IP and Profinet IO say<br />

that they can be used to exchange data<br />

with Enterprise and cloud systems. Can<br />

they be made to work for a specific application?<br />

Yes. But to get there requires<br />

a whole lot of effort and results in a<br />

difficult-to-maintain, inflexible system<br />

that is extremely fragile.<br />

Loosely-coupled systems, on the<br />

other hand, provide exactly the right<br />

kind of interface for Enterprise and<br />

cloud communications. Loosely-coupled<br />

systems decouple the platform from the<br />

data, the data from the data model, and<br />

provide a much more dynamic mechanism<br />

for moving data.<br />

Loosely-coupled systems have<br />

these kinds of characteristics:<br />

A WIDELY USED, STANDARDS-BASED<br />

TRANSPORT LAYER – Messages are transported<br />

in loosely-coupled systems with<br />

open, widely-implemented, highly flexible<br />

transports layers: TCP and HTTP.<br />

AN OPEN, PLATFORM INDEPENDENT<br />

DATA ENCODING – Data is encoded using<br />

an open standard data encoding like eXtensible<br />

Markup Language (XML) that can be<br />

processed by any computer platform.<br />

A HIGHLY EXTENSIBLE OPERATING INTER-<br />

FACE – The interface between looselycoupled<br />

systems is flexible and extensible.<br />

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is<br />

the main interface, and it provides a highly<br />

flexible mechanism for messaging between<br />

loosely-coupled systems.<br />

Essentially, what I’ve described here is<br />

Web Services. Web Services is the backbone<br />

of everything we do on the Internet. It is<br />

extensible, flexible, platform independent<br />

– all required for the ever-expanding<br />

Internet.<br />

The challenge is to how to best migrate<br />

the tightly-coupled factory floor architectures<br />

with the loosely coupled Web Services<br />

architecture of IT and the Internet. Right<br />

now, because of the discontinuity between<br />

the factory floor and the Enterprise, opportunities<br />

to mine the factory floor for quality<br />

data, interrogate and build databases of<br />

maintenance data, feed dashboard reporting<br />

systems, gather historical data and feed<br />

enterprise analytic systems are nonexistent.<br />

Opportunities to improve maintenance<br />

procedures, reduce downtime, compare<br />

performance at various plants, lines and<br />

cells across the enterprise are all lost.<br />

The solution? It’s OPC UA. OPC UA can<br />

live in both the world of the factory floor<br />

and the Enterprise (Figure 1).<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 31


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Save Energy in Steam<br />

and Condensate Systems<br />

The oldest paper mill still<br />

operating in Germany<br />

detects defective steam<br />

traps with digital ultrasonic<br />

testing technology<br />

TWO APPRENTICES at the oldest paper<br />

mill still operating in Germany received<br />

an award for their project ‘Steam traps<br />

as an important component for energy<br />

efficiency’ in a competition sponsored<br />

by the ‘Energy Transition and Climate<br />

Protection’ initiative for medium-sized<br />

companies in Saxony. Which traps are<br />

defective and how high are the costs<br />

caused by defective steam traps? The apprentices<br />

used technology from the company<br />

Sonotec to assist them in answering<br />

these questions. The digital ultrasonic<br />

testing device supplied them with answers,<br />

which surprised everyone.<br />

Paper has been produced at Penig<br />

Papierfabrik in Saxony since 1537. Today,<br />

approximately 100 employees are<br />

employed at the oldest paper mill still<br />

operating in Germany. The mill produces<br />

décor paper under the name Schoeller<br />

Technocell GmbH & Co. KG Werk Penig,<br />

which is part of the Felix Schoeller Group<br />

in Osnabruck, Germany. Décor paper is<br />

used primarily for furniture and floors.<br />

The machines are in operation<br />

around the clock, 350 days a year, and<br />

consume 110,000 MWh annually. For<br />

this reason, Schoeller is searching for<br />

new ways to save energy.<br />

- We want to use 2 percent less primary<br />

energy every year in relation to<br />

production volume and the base year<br />

2012. New ideas are repeatedly needed<br />

to achieve this goal, says Rico Eidam,<br />

the Technical Director and Energy Manager<br />

at the paper mill.<br />

The apprentices are giving a<br />

boost to energy management<br />

To achieve its energy goals, the paper mill<br />

is getting its own workforce involved. The<br />

company has been training energy scouts<br />

since 2016. Rico Eidam remarks, ‘With<br />

this qualification scheme, we want to get<br />

our apprentices enthusiastic about the<br />

topic of energy efficiency, and of course,<br />

we also want to discover new ways of<br />

saving energy’. The apprentices Franz<br />

Weber and Martin Becher uncovered<br />

potential ways of saving energy by regularly<br />

testing steam traps. In 2018 they<br />

were both awarded a prize with their project<br />

titled ‘Steam traps as an important<br />

component in energy efficiency’.<br />

Equipment<br />

for steam trap<br />

testing: Digital<br />

ultrasonic device<br />

SONAPHONE<br />

with a broadband<br />

temperature and<br />

structure-borne<br />

sound sensor<br />

32 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Temperature<br />

measurement with a<br />

combined structure-borne<br />

sound and temperature<br />

sensor BS20<br />

About SONOTEC<br />

After the<br />

temperature<br />

is taken and<br />

the ultrasound<br />

is recorded,<br />

photos, voice<br />

memos and<br />

comments on<br />

each test point<br />

can be added.<br />

FOUNDED IN 1991, nowadays SONO-<br />

TEC GmbH is a leading specialist in<br />

ultrasonic measurement technology<br />

solutions. With more than 170<br />

employees, the technology company<br />

based in Halle (Saale) in the heart of<br />

Germany develops and manufactures<br />

customer-specific ultrasonic transducers<br />

and sensors as well as testing<br />

equipment and measuring technology<br />

solutions for a wide variety of industries.<br />

These range from medical technology<br />

and the chemical and pharmaceutical<br />

industries to engineering and<br />

plant construction and non-destructive<br />

testing.<br />

Martin Becher, an industrial mechanic<br />

in his third year of apprenticeship, explains,<br />

‘After we completed several modules<br />

on the topics of energy efficiency,<br />

project work and working with measuring<br />

devices at the Chamber of Industry and<br />

Commerce (IHK) in Dresden, we were<br />

given the task of implementing a practical<br />

energy efficiency project in our company.<br />

After conducting research and consulting<br />

with the Energy Manager, the two<br />

apprentices decided to carefully examine<br />

the steam traps at the power station.<br />

- Defective steam traps can lead to unscheduled<br />

downtime and higher energy<br />

consumption. By regularly testing the<br />

traps, repairs and replacements can be<br />

planned better. Energy costs for steam<br />

production can also be significantly lowered,<br />

which we demonstrated in our project,<br />

explains Franz Weber, an electronics<br />

technician in his fourth apprenticeship<br />

year.<br />

The paper mill primarily requires<br />

steam during the drying process, where<br />

residual water from the paper is evaporated.<br />

The décor paper web runs through<br />

the labyrinth of 30 drying cylinders in the<br />

paper machine. At the end of the process,<br />

the finished paper contains 7 to 8 percent<br />

residual moisture. Experts assume that<br />

around 15 to 20 per cent of the steam<br />

produced is lost as a result of leaky steam<br />

traps. This calculation is an example<br />

which illustrates the costs: A leak with a<br />

diameter of only 5 mm leads to a loss of<br />

5 bar of pressure and 65 kg of steam per<br />

hour, which means approx. 550 t are lost<br />

per year (at a rate of 8,400 operational<br />

hours annually). With production costs<br />

of €20/t , this loss can add up to nearly<br />

11,000 Euros per year.<br />

When testing the steam trap, the<br />

energy scouts used technology from<br />

the company Sonotec to assist them. Is<br />

the steam trap working correctly or is it<br />

defective? The digital ultrasonic testing<br />

device Sonaphone delivered the answer to<br />

this question.<br />

Combined ultrasonic and<br />

temperature testing<br />

- Up until now, we have not had much<br />

experience with steam and condensate<br />

systems. At first, we had to familiarise<br />

ourselves with the topic and we attended<br />

a one-day training session at Sonotec,<br />

Martin Becher explains,<br />

During the session, the two energy<br />

scouts learned, among other things, about<br />

how to distinguish between intact and<br />

defective traps using audio samples. Depending<br />

on the design, a functioning trap<br />

opens and closes continuously or discontinuously<br />

and it produces characteristic<br />

ultrasound signals during this process.<br />

They can be recorded and analysed with<br />

the digital ultrasonic testing device<br />

SONAPHONE, the LevelMeter App, and<br />

the broadband ultrasonic and temperature<br />

sensor BS20. The theory was then<br />

put into practice back at Penig.<br />

A section with 28 thermal and float<br />

condensate drains were supposed to be<br />

analysed. All of the steam traps in the device<br />

were recorded and were set up as test<br />

points with an image, number and type.<br />

Then the energy scouts plugged the BS20<br />

sensor into the device and began testing.<br />

Initially, the temperature of the trap<br />

was measured at the inlet and outlet.<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 33


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

The apprentices Franz Weber (left) and<br />

Martin Becher (right) from Peniger<br />

Papierfabrik were awarded a prize for<br />

their project ‘Steam traps as an important<br />

component for energy efficiency’.<br />

The temperature can determine, for example,<br />

if the steam trap has the operating<br />

temperature expected or if it tends to be<br />

too cold (condensate backup) or too hot<br />

(leaky) depending on the system’s pressure.<br />

The difference in temperature is<br />

assessed at the inlet and outlet depending<br />

on the operating principle of the trap.<br />

An evaluation of the steam trap can be conducted on site or later at your computer using<br />

DataViewer software. The report can be exported as a CSV or PDF file for documentation<br />

purposes.<br />

The condition assessment<br />

requires experience<br />

Afterwards, the two apprentices recorded<br />

the ultrasonic signal with a broadband<br />

structure-borne sound sensor using a<br />

frequency range of 20 to 100 kilohertz.<br />

There were no problems during testing<br />

and it was also possible to conduct the<br />

tests while the equipment was in operation.<br />

They selected the measuring intervals<br />

in such a way that the steam trap had<br />

circulated and drained at least once. An<br />

interval of approximately one minute was<br />

used for the float condensate drain and an<br />

interval of about three minutes was used<br />

for the thermal drain.<br />

The emission of an acoustic signal on<br />

the display in the form of a spectrogram<br />

proved to be helpful for their subsequent<br />

evaluation. The characteristic sound<br />

changes of defective steam traps can be<br />

34 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

distinguished immediately from the<br />

characteristic sounds of intact traps.<br />

‘Initially, we recorded the signal from a<br />

new trap which was very likely working<br />

properly. Then we were able to compare<br />

the recording with the other recordings<br />

and could draw some conclusions about<br />

which traps were defective. This also involves<br />

having a little experience.’<br />

During the testing process, the two<br />

apprentices used the LevelMeter App.<br />

After recording temperature and ultrasound,<br />

they could add photos, voice<br />

memos and comments on each test<br />

point. Franz Weber says, ‘Handling the<br />

testing equipment is really very intuitive<br />

and easy; it is similar to using a smartphone.<br />

Once we were finished, we could<br />

create a report with just a few clicks.’<br />

50 percent of the traps<br />

were defective<br />

At the end of the case study, everyone<br />

was surprised about the results of the<br />

tests. Fifty percent, i.e. 14 of the 28 traps,<br />

proved to be defective.<br />

- If we assume that one defective trap<br />

costs us about 4,000 Euros per year, we<br />

can save around 48,000 Euros alone<br />

in this section by replacing the traps.’<br />

The last defective traps will be replaced<br />

during the next downtime. The Energy<br />

Manager reports, ‘The temperature of<br />

the condensate has dropped considerably<br />

since we changed the first traps, Rico Eidam<br />

states.<br />

In the future, all of the steam traps in<br />

Peniger’s factory will be recorded and<br />

tested on a regular basis. The scheduled<br />

preventative maintenance will include<br />

monitoring the condition of the traps<br />

every six months. Moreover, the team<br />

also plans to use the Sonaphone for other<br />

maintenance tasks. For example, they<br />

can use the digital testing device to detect<br />

leakages in the compressed air systems<br />

and to monitor the condition of roller and<br />

ball bearings. Additionally, the testing<br />

device is suitable for inspecting partial<br />

discharges in electrical equipment.<br />

When it comes to saving energy,<br />

Peniger has taken the lead. The energy<br />

scouts received an award for their project<br />

‘Steam traps as an important component<br />

for energy efficiency’ in a competition<br />

sponsored by the ‘Energy Transition and<br />

Climate Protection’ initiative for mediumsized<br />

companies in Saxony. ‘We, of course,<br />

are proud of this achievement. Up until<br />

now, we have been able to exceed our goal<br />

for saving energy every year. This type of<br />

project is an important component for<br />

achieving our goal and it raises the awareness<br />

of this issue among all our staff.<br />

SONAPHONE areas<br />

of application<br />

• Leak detection and evaluation<br />

• Detection of partial discharges<br />

• Condition monitoring<br />

• Steam trap testing<br />

PRESS CONTACT:<br />

Stephanie Moczigemba<br />

SONOTEC Ultraschallsensorik<br />

Halle GmbH<br />

Nauendorfer Strasse 2<br />

06112 Halle (Saale), Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)345 13317-822<br />

E-Mail: s.moczigemba@sonotec.de<br />

ULTRASONIC TESTING DEVICE<br />

Leak Detection<br />

Condition Monitoring<br />

Electrical Inspection<br />

Steam Trap Testing


LEADERSHIP<br />

Developing the Leadership<br />

Mindset: Set your Mind,<br />

Manage your Destiny<br />

In the time it takes you to<br />

read this article, I hope to<br />

forever change how you<br />

think and act. A lofty goal<br />

for 1,638 words, right?<br />

No pressure. How is this<br />

possible? By helping you<br />

to develop an unbreakable<br />

perspective that is the<br />

key source of success for<br />

modern leaders. Whoever<br />

you are, whatever your<br />

situation, you will benefit<br />

from this powerful<br />

mindset. 1,574 words to<br />

go; let’s get started.<br />

36 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong><br />

THOMAS J. FURNIVAL,<br />

Director of<br />

Training Services,<br />

MARSHALL<br />

INSTITUTE, INC.<br />

MINDSET IS A SUPERPOWER<br />

INGREDIENT IN SUCCESS.<br />

GREAT LEADERS TODAY are viewed as<br />

champions of the right things, for the<br />

right reasons. They are advocates and<br />

catalysts for important causes that benefit<br />

the greater good. They earn, rather<br />

than inherit, their leadership mantle by<br />

building trust and acting consistently<br />

with integrity. Leadership can be hard to<br />

succinctly define but easy to recognise.<br />

Here are some of my favourite quotes<br />

that summarize some key characteristics<br />

of modern leadership:<br />

• Leadership is the capacity to<br />

translate vision into reality. -<br />

Warren G. Bennis<br />

• The greatest leader is not neces<br />

sarily the one who does the greatest<br />

things. He is the one that gets the<br />

people to do the greatest things. -<br />

Ronald Reagan<br />

• Leadership is an achievement of<br />

trust - Peter Drucker<br />

• The function of leadership is to produce<br />

more leaders, not more followers.<br />

- Ralph Nader<br />

• Before you are a leader, success is all<br />

about growing yourself. When you<br />

become a leader, success is all about<br />

growing others - Jack Welch


LEADERSHIP<br />

• Leaders should be role models and<br />

walk the walk - Gary Vaynerchuck<br />

• As we look ahead into the next<br />

century, leaders will be those who<br />

empower others. - Bill Gates<br />

• The supreme quality of leader-ship<br />

is integrity. - Dwight D. Eisenhower<br />

The SuperPower of<br />

Perspective<br />

What is a mindset and why it important?<br />

My own father answered both<br />

questions with a phrase he mentioned<br />

at several pivotal points in my youth,<br />

“Your attitude determines your altitude”.<br />

My definition of mindset is the<br />

orientation of key beliefs that act as<br />

an internal compass directing how we<br />

think and act. Its influence is so strong<br />

that it ultimately selects the coordinates<br />

to our life's journey and destination.<br />

Take a second or two to pause and<br />

reflect about the power of those words.<br />

You already know it to be true. You<br />

have known people with great attitudes<br />

who seemingly attract a steady stream<br />

of happiness and success, and alternatively,<br />

you have known an Eeyore<br />

(Winnie the Pooh) who attracts constant<br />

gloom.<br />

Mindset is so important that it is<br />

hard to overstate. Because mindset is<br />

a superpower ingredient in success, it<br />

is valuable and applicable to all of us,<br />

regardless of job title, industry, department,<br />

or company.<br />

Leadership vs. non-leader<br />

mindset<br />

To explore how the leadership<br />

mindset is different from the<br />

non-leader mindset we are going<br />

to cover seven belief areas. We<br />

will reflect on the differences in<br />

perspective between leaders and<br />

non-leaders. As you read these perspectives<br />

consider the life-long impact<br />

of holding these two different<br />

mindsets. Think about the different<br />

career paths, experiences, and<br />

destinations two young hires at the<br />

same company would travel after<br />

40 years of working with these two<br />

mindsets.<br />

Key Beliefs Leadership Mindset Non-Leader Mindset<br />

Purpose<br />

Potential<br />

Motivation<br />

Leaders view all that they do and all that others do with an<br />

understanding of the task’s higher purpose. They see alignment with all<br />

activities and the big picture. They view no value-added task as too small<br />

or unimportant.<br />

Leaders see greater potential in situations, in themselves, and in other<br />

people, and have a positive outlook on what’s possible.<br />

The perspective on potential is epitomised by Henry Ford’s powerful<br />

statement, “Whether you think you can, or think you can’t - you’re right.”<br />

Leaders are fuelled by collective achievement and sustained by internal<br />

motivation, not external sources.<br />

Although they appreciate recognition, it is not a driving force of their<br />

achievement.<br />

Non-leaders tend not to identify or reflect on the higher<br />

purpose of tasks. They are also less likely to visualise the<br />

holistic and system impact of tasks, resulting in viewing them<br />

with less value.<br />

They are often less optimistic about what is possible. They<br />

are content with the status quo and less interested in, and<br />

attracted by, messages of growth and improvement.<br />

They are more often motivated by external sources such as<br />

financial rewards and personal, individual recognition.<br />

They receive fulfilment from individual achievement, and<br />

vie for individual recognition rather than shared team<br />

recognition.<br />

Responsibility<br />

Capability<br />

Change<br />

Leaders accept more responsibility than what is given to them. They take<br />

on more responsibility to advance the cause and to support their team<br />

whenever needed.<br />

They do what is needed to complete tasks or accomplish goals.<br />

Leaders know that their capabilities and intelligence are not fixed at<br />

birth, and they take active control over self-development inside and<br />

outside of the workplace.<br />

Although they are optimistic about their potential, they are firmly<br />

grounded in reality and have an accurate inventory of their own<br />

strengths and shortcomings.<br />

They actively support others in growing their capability and reaching<br />

their potential.<br />

This perspective is called a Growth Mindset, and was defined and<br />

brilliantly explained by Carol S. Dweck in her book Mindset – The New<br />

Psychology of Success.<br />

Not only do leaders expect change, they anticipate it, and successfully<br />

adapt to it.<br />

They view external change as opportunities. And they know how to<br />

influence others with integrity to successfully navigate change and<br />

turbulent times.<br />

Leaders view both failure and success as outcomes to learn from.<br />

They are less willing to work beyond their inherited<br />

responsibilities.<br />

Although they may accept greater responsibility for more<br />

pay, they are less likely to take initiative to do what’s needed<br />

to achieve team goals.<br />

They view their capability and the capability of others as<br />

something that is more fixed and limited. As a consequence<br />

they view self-development and learning as less important.<br />

They tend to notice others’ shortcomings rather than their<br />

strengths and potential.<br />

This perspective is called a Fixed Mindset, and is also covered<br />

by Carol S. Dweck in her book Mindset – The New Psychology<br />

of Success.<br />

They are more sceptical of change, sometimes even outright<br />

fearful of it. They are less able to find the opportunities in<br />

change and think more about how change will negatively<br />

impact them.<br />

They are happier in homeostasis.<br />

They view outcome as very important to their sense of self.<br />

Outcomes<br />

They understand that successes are achieved by the efforts of many, and<br />

ultimately sustained by creating the processes and systems.<br />

They celebrate successes as a team.<br />

They also understand that failures should be dissected for learnings and<br />

these learnings should be understood by the team. They also ensure that<br />

processes and systems are updated to eliminate these future ‘failures’.<br />

In their mind, a successful outcome means they are<br />

successful, an unsuccessful one means they are a failure. They<br />

tend not to learn from outcomes and then do not adjust or<br />

change to avoid similar outcomes in the future. This results<br />

in them continuing to tie their self-worth to outcomes.<br />

Ultimately they view the overall journey and learnings as the most<br />

important experience. Achievements are simply important milestones on<br />

the journey.<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 37


LEADERSHIP<br />

Protect...<br />

Be aware of the people and factors affecting<br />

your mindset, positively and<br />

negatively. Jim Rohn said, “You are the<br />

average of the 5 people you spend most<br />

time with.” Who are you the average of?<br />

If they are not people you admire and<br />

want to emulate as leaders, then it could<br />

be time to think about making some substitutions.<br />

Conversely, think about how you<br />

impact your 5 people. Do you bring the<br />

average up or down? Take some time to<br />

do an honest inventory of your habits.<br />

Keep up with habits that reinforce the<br />

mindset you want to protect, and eliminate<br />

all others.<br />

...and Develop<br />

When you are surrounded by the right<br />

people, you can focus your efforts on developing<br />

your leadership.<br />

Consider the following:<br />

- Practice: To effectively adjust your<br />

behaviour you first must re-position<br />

your perspective on the key beliefs<br />

of the leadership mindset (purpose,<br />

potential, motivation, responsibility,<br />

capability, change and outcomes).<br />

Identify moments that will allow you to<br />

apply them frequently and consistently.<br />

38 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong><br />

- Self-audit: Set up a daily or weekly<br />

audit schedule to assess your behaviours<br />

and mindset. Review your recent<br />

behaviours and actions against the<br />

leadership elements outlined above.<br />

VIEW YOUR MINDSET<br />

AS ONE OF YOUR MOST<br />

POWERFUL TOOLS.<br />

Take note of where you are aligned and<br />

misaligned. Understand the causes of<br />

both. This is a learning opportunity.<br />

Take note of any changes you observe<br />

in how people are interacting with you.<br />

Have frosty relationships warmed a<br />

little?<br />

- Ask for feedback: Ask your peers,<br />

boss, and team pointed questions about<br />

your behaviours and performance. For<br />

example, you could ask:<br />

• “What positive changes in my<br />

behaviour and performance have<br />

you noticed in the last month?<br />

• “What behaviours of mine do you<br />

believe prevent me from being a<br />

better leader?<br />

If you have strong relationships<br />

with these people they should give<br />

you more candid and insightful<br />

feedback that you can reflect on, and<br />

compare against your own perception<br />

of your leadership performance.<br />

This feedback should inform and<br />

improve your practice. Remember,<br />

practice doesn’t make perfect; perfect<br />

practice makes perfect. Seek<br />

feedback to make your practice more<br />

valuable.<br />

I sincerely hope that this article<br />

has excited you enough to leverage<br />

the superpower of the leadership<br />

mindset. Armed with this knowledge,<br />

you have the potential to change how<br />

you think and act forever.<br />

Before we go, answer this great<br />

question posed by Robert Goffee and<br />

Gareth Jones, “Why should anyone<br />

follow you?” We will all have our own<br />

answers, but in general people will<br />

follow you if they trust you. And their<br />

trust is determined by consistent<br />

alignment with your intentions, your<br />

words, and your actions. Your mindset<br />

influences all of these things.<br />

View your mindset as one of your<br />

most powerful tools. Protect it, develop<br />

it, and you'll be amazed by the<br />

journey it takes you on.


Data Collector<br />

Detect, Measure, Analyze<br />

Ultrasound and<br />

Vibration<br />

Ultrasound Soluons<br />

sdtultrasound.com<br />

Scalable<br />

Multi-technology<br />

Multi-platform<br />

UAS4.0<br />

Analysis Software<br />

APPLICATIONS<br />

MECHANICAL<br />

Detect defects in<br />

any mechanical<br />

system.<br />

LEAKS<br />

Find pressure and<br />

vacuum leaks in<br />

noisy conditions.<br />

LUBRICATION<br />

Avoid over/under<br />

lubrication. Grease<br />

bearings right.<br />

ELECTRICAL<br />

Inspect medium and<br />

high voltage systems<br />

for arcing, tracking<br />

and corona.<br />

VALVES<br />

Asses valve<br />

tightness<br />

STEAM<br />

Find faulty steam<br />

traps and leaking<br />

components<br />

HYDRAULICS<br />

Troubleshoot any<br />

hydraulic system<br />

for passing and<br />

blockages.<br />

TIGHTNESS<br />

Determine the<br />

tightness of any<br />

enclosed volume


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

OPERATOR ESSENTIAL<br />

CARE (OEC) ROUTES<br />

It is said that, “Maintenance is Managed by<br />

Managing Backlog”. Truer words were never spoken.<br />

Improvement in the management of maintenance leads<br />

to lower maintenance costs, more operating hours,<br />

increased safety and higher equipment reliability.<br />

So, the question is, how do we generate backlog to<br />

improve the management of maintenance?<br />

TERRY TAYLOR<br />

CMRP<br />

Senior Consultant,<br />

IDCON INC.,<br />

t.taylor@idcon.com<br />

THE SIMPLEST definition for Backlog is –<br />

work that needs to be done in the future.<br />

Often an organization does not have its<br />

“True Backlog” identified and documented.<br />

We usually know this because<br />

of the amount of Reactive Maintenance<br />

Work that is taking place. We also see this<br />

when the Open Work Order List contains<br />

very little work that would fall into the<br />

category of Backlog, that is, work (corrective)<br />

that needs to be done in the future.<br />

How can the organization address the<br />

problem?<br />

We begin with the Preventive Maintenance<br />

(PM) program, where OEC can be<br />

an integral part. This is where the problem<br />

as to why there is little to no Backlog<br />

is addressed. The first point of contact<br />

for detecting problems early resides with<br />

the equipment operators. It should be no<br />

surprise as to why equipment operators<br />

are the first line of defense in early detection;<br />

they are tending to the equipment<br />

every hour it’s in operation. Detecting<br />

problems early and reporting them gives<br />

maintenance the opportunity to plan and<br />

scheduled the corrective repairs.<br />

You may be wondering how to engage<br />

the operators to do OEC. There are 3 key<br />

steps to take:<br />

• First, build (document) the Operator<br />

Essential Care (OEC) routes.<br />

• Second, establish the training required<br />

for the operators to be able<br />

to detect these problems early.<br />

• Third, determine the KPIs that<br />

should be used to measure the results<br />

of the OEC routes.<br />

40 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong><br />

STEP 1 –<br />

Building the OEC Routes<br />

A Best Practice PM program consists of<br />

these elements -<br />

PM – Preventive Maintenance<br />

• EC – Essential Care<br />

• CM – Condition Monitoring<br />

• Objective Measurements<br />

• Subjective Measurements<br />

Essential Care (EC) – For example;<br />

Lubrication, balancing, alignment, oil,<br />

filters, adjustments, cleaning, operating<br />

correctly – The things you do to Prevent<br />

Failures<br />

Condition Monitoring (CM) – Objective<br />

methods such as Vibration, Thermography,<br />

Oil Analysis, together with<br />

subjective checks, meaning, look, listen,<br />

feel, smell, etc.- CM are all the things<br />

you do to Detect Failures<br />

Although various disciplines (Mechanical,<br />

Electrical, instrumentation<br />

and operations) are accountable for the<br />

many tasks associated with a comprehensive<br />

PM program, it is with Operators<br />

that this list of tasks can begin.<br />

Operators are responsible for operate<br />

the equipment correctly in order to


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

avoid equipment failures. This element<br />

of OEC is often forgotten. This article<br />

focuses on the inspection routes, but<br />

keep in mind correct operation is often<br />

the most important factor operations<br />

can contribute towards equipment reliability.<br />

Operators make routine rounds on<br />

the equipment in their area(s) of responsibility<br />

and it within these rounds<br />

where you can add certain PM tasks to<br />

the operator’s list of duties. These PM<br />

tasks are normally very simple, easy to<br />

do and require very little training. But<br />

what exactly are these tasks and how are<br />

task lists developed?<br />

THIRD –BUILD A SPREADSHEET WHERE<br />

YOU CAN BREAKDOWN THE ASSETS<br />

INTO THEIR VARIOUS COMPONENTS.<br />

After breaking each asset down into<br />

its components, list these on a spreadsheet.<br />

The list of assets should be in a<br />

logical order as the operators go from<br />

one asset to the next. There will be<br />

OEC tasks associated with each component.<br />

So, leave some lines on the<br />

spreadsheet for these OEC tasks. This<br />

is more fully explained in the next<br />

step. Below is an example of a partial<br />

spreadsheet for the Equipment and<br />

Components ››<br />

Floor Equipment Component<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Motor<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Omega Coupling<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Speed Reducer<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Speed Reducer<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Speed Reducer<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Speed Reducer<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Grid Coupling<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Drive Worm Gear<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Drive Gear Case<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer DO Drive Gear Case<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer DO Drive Gear Case<br />

4th Floor D1 Washer Drum Seals<br />

FIRST – PICK AN “AREA” FOR A ROUTE(S)<br />

The “area” would be associated with an<br />

operator’s area of responsibility. Within<br />

the area are many assets consisting of different<br />

components. It is the components<br />

that you want the OEC tasks to focus on.<br />

Example: For a Bleach Plant in a Pulp<br />

Mill consisting of many floors, the areas<br />

may be broken down by floor. In a Paper<br />

Mill, the areas may be broken down by<br />

function. A paper machine, may be broken<br />

down into the wet end, the dry end,<br />

and the winder.<br />

SECOND – BREAK EACH ASSET IN THE<br />

“AREA” DOWN INTO COMPONENTS.<br />

This exercise is the equivalent of<br />

breaking the elephant down into bitesized<br />

pieces. It is not the equipment<br />

that fails, it is a component that is a<br />

part of the equipment that fails and<br />

causes the equipment to stop.<br />

For example: A conveyor belt will be<br />

part of an OEC route. To begin breaking<br />

it down into components, have a<br />

diagram of the entire conveyor and<br />

identify everything you want to include<br />

as part of the OEC route. One area<br />

would be the “drive (or head) pulley”<br />

this would include the motor, gearbox,<br />

couplings, pulley, pulley bearings and<br />

holdback. Another area would be the<br />

“conveyor structure” which might<br />

include the idlers, walkways, the structure<br />

itself, take-up, etc. Continue this<br />

exercise until all of the components<br />

are identified. The point is, to not miss<br />

anything in the “area” you have identified<br />

as being part of the OEC route.<br />

You might also refer to the Equipment<br />

Register or Functional Location and<br />

the hierarchy in your CMMS. And finally,<br />

confirm the list of components<br />

by visual verification.<br />

FOURTH - POPULATE THE SPREADSHEET<br />

WITH THE OEC TASKS FOR THE COMPO-<br />

NENTS<br />

Now it’s time to decide the tasks operators<br />

will do as a part of their OEC routes.<br />

This is where a facilitator or an appointed<br />

“team leader” will assist leading what<br />

is best described as a very tedious exercise<br />

in populating the spreadsheet. Don’t<br />

underestimate how difficult this might<br />

be. Expect a great deal of discussion as<br />

you address each component.<br />

A time saver is to address common<br />

components ahead of time. So, if the<br />

component is an AC motor, the tasks<br />

that an operator would do is decided<br />

early on and a list of those tasks are used<br />

each time that common component<br />

comes up on the list. Here is a short list<br />

of common components in a pulp mill<br />

that could be addressed early, and “templates”<br />

made for these and their associated<br />

OEC tasks –<br />

• AC Motors<br />

• Centrifugal Pumps<br />

• Couplings<br />

• Gear Boxes<br />

• Agitators<br />

The OEC tasks are often executed more<br />

frequently, non-intrusive and take a very<br />

short period of time to execute. But what<br />

is documented for the tasks are very important<br />

because these become the actual<br />

task descriptions that the operators will<br />

see. For example –<br />

• “Check Motor” is a poor task<br />

description<br />

• “Check the temperature of the<br />

motor at the mid-point (Black<br />

Target) of the housing” is a<br />

much more descriptive task.<br />

It is vital tasks are written descriptively<br />

so the operators will know exactly what<br />

to do. Many checklists contain brief and<br />

inadequate descriptions for the tasks<br />

that need to be executed. The example<br />

below shows a few inadequate task descriptions<br />

from a PM checklist.<br />

1 INSPECT & ADJUST FUN & ALTERNATOR BELTS<br />

2 LUBRICATE FAN & PULLEY BRG´S<br />

3 LUBRICATE UNIVERSAL JOINTS<br />

4 INSPECT HOUR METER<br />

5 INSPECT ALL GAUGES, INDICATORS & ALARMS<br />

6 INSPECT ALL CAB SEALS<br />

7 INSPECT & OR REPLACE CAB AIR FILTERS<br />

8 SAMPLE WINCH OIL IF APPLICABLE<br />

9 INSPECT EITHER STARTING AID CANSTERS<br />

10 SAMPLE & CHANGE ENGINE OIL & FILTERS<br />

11 INSPECT & ADJUST BATTERY ELECTOLYTE<br />

12 INSPECT & ADJUST COOLING SYSTEM<br />

13 INSPECT PRECLEANER<br />

14 CHANGE FUEL FILTERS<br />

15 INSPECT PRIMARY AIR ELEMENT<br />

16 INSPECT SECONDARY AIR ELEMENT<br />

17 INSPECT WATER PUMP WEEP HOLE<br />

18 CHANGE COOLING ELEMENT<br />

19 SAMPLE FINAL DRIVERS<br />

20 INSPECT TRACK ADJUSTMENTS<br />

21 INSPECT TRACK WEAR<br />

22 INSPECT ROLLER & IDLER SEALS<br />

23 INSPECT ROLLER & IDLER FOR WEAR<br />

24 INSPECT SPROCKET SEGMENT WEAR<br />

25 INSPECT HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 41


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

The task descriptions must be written<br />

in such a way that no matter whom<br />

the operator is, no matter what they<br />

know or don’t know, the task description<br />

is detailed enough so there no reason for<br />

the operators to not do an adequate job<br />

on each respective task. These tasks are<br />

usually done on-the-run while the equipment<br />

is operating. That is, no shutdown<br />

of the equipment is required to execute<br />

the OEC tasks.<br />

Here is an example of good task descriptions<br />

for an operator on an OEC<br />

spreadsheet ››<br />

Equipment Component PM Task Description<br />

HW HD Tower Motor Measure vibrations of motor with vibration pen at designated locations.<br />

HW HD Tower<br />

HW HD Tower<br />

Motor<br />

Motor<br />

Check temperature of bearings with heat gun by<br />

scanning for highest temperature.<br />

Check temperature of windings with heat gun by<br />

scanning for highest temperature.<br />

HW HD Tower Motor Check general cleanliness of motor, including motor shroud.<br />

HW HD Tower Centrifugal Pump Check oil level in housing through the sight glass.<br />

HW HD Tower Centrifugal Pump Visually inspect seal water for exiting flow.<br />

HW HD Tower Centrifugal Pump Visually inspect for loose bolts in pump to base assembly.<br />

HW HD Tower Centrifugal Pump Check pump vibration with vibration pen at designated locations.<br />

The most difficult part in building the<br />

list of tasks for the operators is deciding<br />

where to draw the line on what is included<br />

in the OEC routes and what tasks<br />

others will do as a part of the overall PM<br />

program. These other tasks would be<br />

executed by the mechanics, electricians,<br />

instrument techs and contractors. These<br />

tasks are usually more technical in nature<br />

and/or require that the equipment<br />

is shutdown or deenergized in order to<br />

complete the tasks.<br />

Below is an example of other fields<br />

in the spreadsheet that should be populated<br />

››<br />

• Frequency – How often you<br />

want to execute each particular<br />

task<br />

• Frequency Unit – This is normally<br />

Date-Based such as daily,<br />

weekly, monthly, quarterly,<br />

annually. For OEC tasks, daily<br />

and weekly are the most often<br />

used frequency units.<br />

• Resource – Simply the Craft<br />

type and skill set required to<br />

do the task. For OEC tasks, this<br />

would always be the Operator.<br />

• Route – Answers the question,<br />

can the task be listed as a<br />

part of a Routine Route to be<br />

executed on a regular basis? It<br />

serves as a check and balance<br />

for the execution of the task.<br />

• Shutdown – Is it a requirement<br />

that the asset be shutdown<br />

to execute the task?<br />

• Existing PM – Does the task<br />

currently reside on any existing<br />

PM, for example in mechanical,<br />

electrical or instrumentation<br />

PM’s. If so, it needs to be decided<br />

whom does what task to<br />

balance the PM program.<br />

Frequency<br />

Frequency<br />

Unit<br />

Resource<br />

Route<br />

Y or N<br />

Shutdown<br />

Y or N<br />

Existing PM<br />

Y or N<br />

Spare Strategy<br />

Y or N<br />

1 wk Mechanic Y N N Y<br />

1 wk Operator Y N N Y<br />

1 wk Mechanic Y N N Y<br />

1 M Contractor Y N Y Y<br />

6 M Oiler Y Y N Y<br />

1 M Mechanic Y N N Y<br />

1 wk Operator Y N N Y<br />

3 M Mechanic Y Y N Y<br />

3 M Mechanic Y Y N Y<br />

THE SPREADSHEET MAKES IT VERY SIMPLE TO BUILD THE<br />

ACTUAL ROUTES AND CORRESPONDING CHECKLISTS.<br />

• Spare Strategy – Is there a<br />

strategy in place that allows<br />

for the replacement of the<br />

part/component should it be<br />

necessary? If the answer is no,<br />

ask the question, should there<br />

be? This would not normally<br />

be required for any OEC task.<br />

• Reference Document – This<br />

field is to show the location<br />

of any reference documents<br />

that may be in a Technical<br />

Database. IDCONs Condition<br />

Monitoring Standards<br />

are often referenced here. An<br />

example is shown below –<br />

FIFTH – PRODUCE THE PM ROUTES AND<br />

CHECKLISTS<br />

The spreadsheet makes it very simple<br />

to build the actual routes and corresponding<br />

checklists. The data can be<br />

filtered so that it is sorted as desired<br />

and then the routes are created with all<br />

of the tasks for the assets.<br />

Sorting may be by the operating<br />

floor, the area, the equipment, the frequency,<br />

etc. It can be sorted any way<br />

that is desired to see the inspection<br />

points in a list. This can be a very long<br />

list of tasks for the OEC routes, so it<br />

requires a strategy for deploying those<br />

tasks.<br />

For example: The OEC spreadsheet<br />

for Weekly on-the-run tasks has 210<br />

inspection tasks. If this was given to<br />

the operators all at once they might be<br />

overwhelmed. But a strategy to break<br />

it down by day and shift, assuming 3<br />

shifts per day, makes this only 10 tasks<br />

per shift.<br />

Next, address how the tasks will be<br />

communicated to the operators and<br />

how they respond when they have in-<br />

42 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

formation to report back. This may be<br />

communicated on a hard copy form or it<br />

may be addressed with a data-logger. Either<br />

system works but it is a big decision.<br />

For hard copy formats, a “Template”<br />

needs to be created for the checklists.<br />

For a data-logger type system there are<br />

several options. But whichever system<br />

is used, they both need to have a good<br />

way to handle the feedback from the<br />

operators. It is the early detection and<br />

reporting of a problem that is critical.<br />

STEP 2 –<br />

Training Operators<br />

for OEC Routes<br />

Training operators to execute OEC<br />

routes is usually very simple. The main<br />

point of the training is operators understand<br />

the importance of detecting<br />

problems early. And once a problem is<br />

detected, then it must be reported ASAP.<br />

Motor - AC<br />

CMS100R<br />

Condition Monitoring Standards<br />

Basic Principle<br />

FIRST – INSPECTION TOOLS<br />

Depending on where the line was drawn<br />

on what the operators will do on an OEC<br />

route, you might have some inspection<br />

tools involved the need to be procured<br />

and that the end-users, in this case the<br />

operators, are trained how to use them.<br />

The inspection tools normally used in<br />

OEC are a vibration pen and a thermal<br />

recording device. The training on how<br />

to use these devices is usually very simple<br />

and is often provided free from the<br />

OEM when they are purchased. For a<br />

more in-depth Essential Care and Basic<br />

Inspection training, IDCON has training<br />

designed for Operators.<br />

SECOND – RUNNING THE ROUTES<br />

Running the routes is one-on-one training<br />

delivered by the trainer walking the<br />

route with the trainee. It is not only<br />

about how to execute each task listed but<br />

An Alternating Current (AC) motor has two major components, the stator and the rotor (see picture). The stator<br />

creates a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field acts on the rotor, causing it to spin due to the<br />

rotating magnetic torque.<br />

The rotating magnetic field from the stator is produced by the currents that are flowing through the stator<br />

windings. The stator windings have several “poles”. The poles are activated by the current at different times,<br />

causing the magnetic field to move (rotate). The rotor is built of a number of magnets. The rotor magnets react to<br />

the rotating magnetic field, and the rotor starts to rotate with the magnetic field.<br />

Picture Courtesy: Reliance motors<br />

it is more about having an awareness of<br />

everything going on around the person<br />

while running the route. This training<br />

can’t be effectively done in a classroom<br />

environment.<br />

THIRD – REPORT ON FINDINGS<br />

Detecting problems early is the real<br />

pay-off for doing OEC routes. When a<br />

problem is discovered then it must be<br />

reported. There must be a clear line of<br />

communication for getting these problems<br />

in the backlog and in the most efficient<br />

manner possible. The criticality of<br />

this step cannot be overstated.<br />

STEP 3 –<br />

Measuring & Managing<br />

the OEC Route Results<br />

The single most important measurement<br />

of how well the OEC routes are<br />

being executed is measuring the number<br />

of work requests or work notifications<br />

written as a result of the execution of the<br />

OEC routes. And this is not just when a<br />

problem is found that is tied to one of the<br />

OEC tasks. It is the early detection of any<br />

problem reported as a result of executing<br />

an OEC route. Most CMMS systems have<br />

a code that is put on the work request or<br />

work notification when it is created that<br />

signifies that it was created as a result of<br />

an OEC or PM route.<br />

The other KPI that should be measured<br />

is the OEC Route Compliance. It<br />

simply measures if the scheduled routes<br />

are being executed. Some CMMS systems<br />

can measure this for you and in<br />

other systems it may be a manual calculation.<br />

Operations management needs a<br />

workflow in how to manage and measure<br />

OEC. This typically includes a manager’s<br />

meeting where the workflow is agreed<br />

upon followed by on-the-job coaching to<br />

ensure that the practices are followed in<br />

the field.<br />

IDCON INC is a consulting company<br />

specializing in the field of reliability and<br />

maintenance management. IDCON<br />

has been an On-the-Job trainer, coach<br />

and facilitator of the assessment, development<br />

and implementation of PM<br />

programs (Including OEC) for over 40<br />

years worldwide in manufacturing and<br />

processing organizations.<br />

When you are ready to build your<br />

OEC Program and need a partner to help<br />

you focus on the development and implementation<br />

of your program contact<br />

IDCON INC.<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 43


MANAGEMENT<br />

Photos: Shutterstock<br />

How to<br />

Speed Up the<br />

Onboarding<br />

Process for<br />

New Maintenance<br />

Technicians<br />

Are your maintenance responsibilities growing due<br />

to company expansion, or perhaps your senior tech<br />

is retiring soon? Sooner or later, every maintenance<br />

manager must hire new technicians.<br />

BRYAN CHRISTIANSEN,<br />

Founder and CEO at<br />

Limble CMMS<br />

SINCE DOWNTIME is an unwanted consequence<br />

of the onboarding process,<br />

managers are continuously looking for<br />

ways to decrease the loss of productivity<br />

and shorten the time it takes to<br />

ramp up their new hire and get their<br />

productivity level up to par.<br />

There are several ways to circumvent<br />

the inevitable loss of time and<br />

output, and it starts with knowing your<br />

company’s own processes, understanding<br />

your training policies and assessing<br />

the quality of current staff. New team<br />

members will rely on getting the information<br />

they need to understand their<br />

new role and being set on a path to<br />

success.<br />

Even if the new member is coming<br />

from a similar position, there are still<br />

procedures and expectations and that<br />

are unique to your organization that<br />

can make or break your onboarding<br />

process and it could be the difference<br />

between setting up your new techs<br />

for success or NOT.<br />

Once hired, the new team members<br />

should be introduced to how things<br />

are done in the company and taught<br />

the various procedures and processes<br />

within the company. The faster this<br />

can happen, the sooner these new<br />

members can become productive and<br />

start actually adding value to the organization.<br />

In this article, we’ll discuss a few<br />

strategies you can use to speed up the<br />

process of onboarding new maintenance<br />

technicians.<br />

44 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


MANAGEMENT<br />

Senior technicians are typically assigned<br />

to take new techs under their wings to<br />

show them the ropes. The best way to<br />

impart best practices to a newly hired<br />

technician is to have them witness policies,<br />

procedures and the job itself in full action.<br />

The mentor system -<br />

Each One Teach One<br />

It is best to keep current staff well versed,<br />

up to speed and properly trained on policies,<br />

procedures and their own job requirements<br />

and responsibilities. This is<br />

especially true when current employees<br />

are tasked with helping new ones settle<br />

in.<br />

Senior technicians are typically assigned<br />

to take new techs under their<br />

wings to show them the ropes. The best<br />

way to impart best practices to a newly<br />

hired technician is to have them witness<br />

policies, procedures and the job itself in<br />

full action.<br />

When learning opportunities are created<br />

in an environment that is forgiving<br />

of mistakes, new techs will be able to<br />

grasp a full understanding and adopt the<br />

correct way to handle situations in the<br />

future. This will quickly bring new technicians<br />

up to speed with their roles while<br />

also helping them forge new relationships<br />

that will assist in their professional<br />

growth, instill confidence in their ability<br />

to perform their job and allow them to<br />

flourish into full functioning technicians.<br />

By pairing newly arrived techs with<br />

senior ones, managers also reduce their<br />

liability and minimize loss of productivity<br />

typically experienced when training<br />

new staff. This is also an opportunity<br />

to review company practices and its effectiveness.<br />

If there are holes in the way<br />

tasks are being executed, what better<br />

way to audit this than while new staff is<br />

being instructed on how and what to do<br />

within a task.<br />

Updating existing written procedures<br />

or even developing instructions for inclusion<br />

in an operating manual may be<br />

the last thing on someone’s mind but<br />

training new technicians will expose<br />

areas that can benefit from being written<br />

and formed into training documents<br />

for future technical onboarding. To take<br />

it a step further, these documents will<br />

become valuable tools when deciding to<br />

automate staff trainings and onboarding<br />

process.<br />

When pairing is done correctly, the<br />

level of productivity from the newly<br />

hired tech will increase exponentially.<br />

What it means to execute a mentor/<br />

mentee pairing correctly will differ from<br />

industry to industry, but a few main areas<br />

are a cornerstone to implementing a<br />

great onboarding foundation:<br />

1. Senior technicians should have<br />

demonstrated knowledge of his/<br />

her role and a history of carrying<br />

out tasks efficiently and to completion.<br />

2. Ensure the senior technician is a<br />

willing teacher capable of exercising<br />

the patience to explain processes<br />

in detail.<br />

3. Written procedures are updated or<br />

can be produced to be provided as<br />

reference materials so new technician<br />

can always go back to review.<br />

This is a critical step to self-sufficiency.<br />

The mentor is the new hire’s go-to person<br />

for understanding the company values,<br />

culture and their way of doing things. By<br />

ensuring that the new employee does<br />

not feel lost or overlooked, you set them<br />

up for success early on and reduce the<br />

chance of losing them to other companies.<br />

When implementing the mentor system<br />

in your team, you should include a<br />

formally documented set of responsibilities<br />

for the mentor, as well as the topics<br />

that they should cover over the first few<br />

weeks or months. It should be interactive,<br />

allowing both the employees to<br />

exchange tips and knowledge, as the new<br />

employee may also have ideas and techniques<br />

that are useful.<br />

The new employee can also give their<br />

feedback on how their onboarding process<br />

is going.<br />

Done right, this system can greatly<br />

speed up how quickly a new employee<br />

gets to the point where they can work<br />

without a special supervision.<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 45


MANAGEMENT<br />

Well-Defined Practices<br />

For any onboarding strategy to be effective,<br />

let alone accelerated, it is essential<br />

to have clearly defined Standard<br />

Operating Procedures, including a detailed<br />

procedure for maintenance. The<br />

documentation should outline the who,<br />

where, what and why of daily operations.<br />

This document should answer questions,<br />

provide clarity and lay the framework<br />

of every employees experience at<br />

work. This should serve as a reference<br />

guide that reduces mistakes, eliminates<br />

redundant questions and provides an<br />

opportunity for the technician to operate<br />

independent of others.<br />

To keep current, add the operational<br />

manual review to an annual schedule. As<br />

companies grow and evolve, especially<br />

with the introduction of advanced technology,<br />

the way things and people operate<br />

will change.<br />

For the newcomer, learning how<br />

things should be done becomes a piece<br />

of cake when the right set of rules and<br />

boundaries are clearly defined. Additionally,<br />

the new team members will<br />

learn the level of quality and performance<br />

expected of them.<br />

helpful tutorials, and fast and flexible<br />

customer support. That is why it is worth<br />

taking your time to find a system that is a<br />

good fit for your organization.<br />

ogies of Augmented Reality are helping<br />

to upskill and retrain employees in new<br />

technologies quickly and effectively. By<br />

utilizing AR training tools, employees<br />

have to spend less time in recalling instructions<br />

and to get live guidance from<br />

software, allowing them to learn in an interesting<br />

and engaging way. Augmented<br />

Reality training is proven to make trainees<br />

more efficient and accurate at their<br />

work, leading to improved outcomes in<br />

the company’s product quality and more<br />

cost savings.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Building a team of high-quality maintenance<br />

technicians is no easy feat.<br />

Delivering consistent performance and<br />

keeping employees motivated starts with<br />

an effective onboarding process that sets<br />

your maintenance technician on a path<br />

to success. To stay competitive in the<br />

current market, new maintenance technicians<br />

need to be brought up to speed<br />

and made productive as soon as possible.<br />

To ensure equipment is properly<br />

inspected and maintained, and failure<br />

rates are kept low, the new technicians<br />

need to understand the company policies<br />

and maintenance processes.<br />

DELIVERING CONSISTENT PERFORMANCE AND<br />

KEEPING EMPLOYEES MOTIVATED STARTS WITH<br />

AN EFFECTIVE ONBOARDING PROCESS.<br />

Having simple to use<br />

maintenance software<br />

If you are a step above the rest and you<br />

have taken steps to fully automate your<br />

operation or you are just thinking about<br />

it, ensure that your software can provide<br />

you with the functions needed to run<br />

your full operation.<br />

The software that your company uses<br />

for maintenance, whether it is developed<br />

in-house, or an off-the-shelf product, is<br />

central to your company’s operations.<br />

Over time, it becomes a repository of not<br />

just maintenance data, but can be moulded<br />

to reflect the business processes.<br />

Since your team members will be<br />

using this software on a daily basis, it is<br />

essential that they learn how to use it<br />

properly.<br />

If you are using a CMMS, ensure that<br />

it is intuitive, user-friendly and simple<br />

to use, so that your new technicians will<br />

have an easier time learning it. You do<br />

not want to end up in a situation where<br />

your new technicians spend more time<br />

logging their work or finding asset information<br />

than they are doing actual maintenance<br />

work.<br />

Good maintenance software should<br />

follow industry standard terminology,<br />

have an easy to use User Interface, a few<br />

On-the-Job training<br />

One of the most effective methods to accelerating<br />

your technician’s onboarding<br />

is to offer them on-the-job training. This<br />

not only makes them more productive<br />

faster, they also feel more valued, and remain<br />

engaged with the company.<br />

The training can either be provided<br />

by professional third-party trainers or by<br />

an experienced member of your maintenance<br />

team. This can also be a good<br />

time to assess your team’s learning needs<br />

and update the training curriculum as<br />

required.<br />

In the world of industrial construction<br />

and maintenance, the new technol-<br />

To foster a better learning environment<br />

and boost the pace of learning the<br />

ropes for your new maintenance techs,<br />

you can utilize the strategies outlined in<br />

this article, such as on the job training,<br />

having a simple to learn Maintenance<br />

Software, documenting well-defined<br />

processes and implementing a mentor<br />

system.<br />

46 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


The The The Uptimization Experts.<br />

What does<br />

DOWNTIME<br />

mean to you?<br />

marshallinstitute.com<br />

marshallinstitute.com


ASSET MANAGEMEMT<br />

How to Choose the<br />

Maintenance Strategy<br />

that Best Suits Your<br />

Company’s Needs?<br />

Corrective,<br />

Preventive,<br />

Reality-Based,<br />

Predictive<br />

and Prescriptive:<br />

The Right<br />

Maintenance<br />

Routine Does<br />

Matter A Lot<br />

RALITSA PEYCHEVA,<br />

technical content<br />

manager at<br />

Mobility Work<br />

IN THE FAST-PACED time of edge computing,<br />

machine learning and artificial intelligence,<br />

the industrial sector is constantly<br />

exposed to new maintenance trends.<br />

The evolution of maintenance routines<br />

is unsparingly reshaping the industrial<br />

world with one main objective: to impact<br />

plant’s profitability in the best possible<br />

way depending on company’s budget,<br />

size and industry.<br />

And even though some business owners<br />

have forgotten reactive and corrective<br />

interventions long ago and are continuously<br />

investing in new equipment to<br />

follow predictive and even prescriptive<br />

trends, others are still struggling to<br />

establish timely scheduled preventive<br />

plans. The decision which maintenance<br />

approach to follow is strictly individual<br />

and depends a lot on the company’s financial<br />

capability, ability and culture.<br />

Nowadays there are 5 common maintenance<br />

types and each of them features<br />

certain advantages and disadvantages.<br />

1. The Corrective / Reactive<br />

Maintenance Approach<br />

Corrective doesn’t replace reactive actions,<br />

but they are often put together<br />

because of their “unplanned, sporadic”<br />

nature and their objective to isolate and<br />

rectify a fault so that the failed equipment,<br />

machine, or system can be restored<br />

to its normal operable state. Corrective<br />

maintenance is carried out after<br />

failure detection, whilst reactive maintenance<br />

is performed after a breakdown<br />

so an asset can perform its intended<br />

function.<br />

The main advantages of this type of<br />

maintenance are the low short-term<br />

costs and the minimal planning required.<br />

However, in the long term, corrective<br />

and reactive maintenance actions result<br />

in unplanned additional costs, production<br />

delay and asset’s lifetime decrease.<br />

Therefore, this strategy is recommended<br />

for equipment which importance is very<br />

low and has no effect on production failures.<br />

This means that if a certain piece of<br />

equipment requires a higher investment<br />

for preventive maintenance than the<br />

48 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMEMT<br />

costs needed for repair in case of failure,<br />

then corrective maintenance is the best<br />

solution.<br />

2. Preventive Maintenance<br />

By performing periodic maintenance<br />

check-ups, this timely based approach<br />

prevents machine failures before they<br />

occur. Preventive maintenance keeps<br />

assets more efficient and allows them<br />

to operate longer, avoiding unforeseen<br />

breakdowns in the production line. Even<br />

though preventive maintenance might<br />

seem at the beginning costly and timeconsuming,<br />

it pays back by reducing the<br />

number of major breakdowns as well as<br />

the equipment’s downtime. Some professionals<br />

are blaming this approach for<br />

its “over-maintenance”, since sometimes<br />

equipment might not need to be checked<br />

as often as planned. In this case, the<br />

maintenance manager can simply adapt<br />

the schedule accordingly.<br />

On the one hand, preventive maintenance<br />

can be mandatory, defined in the<br />

contract, law or by any regulation. For<br />

example, the law requires the inspection<br />

and maintenance of certain machines.<br />

These machines must therefore be<br />

inspected and maintained. Client insurance<br />

companies generally require mandatory<br />

preventive maintenance.<br />

On the other hand, discretionary preventive<br />

maintenance is not a mandatory<br />

activity and relies on profits and losses<br />

and the company freely decides when to<br />

conduct preventive maintenance.<br />

Fault prevention is irreplaceable<br />

when chasing production deadlines and<br />

tight schedules. Preventive maintenance<br />

is used to maximize assets’ useful life<br />

and minimize costs by reducing reactive<br />

maintenance actions through the performance<br />

of regular inspections, lubrication,<br />

cleaning, oil changes, adjustments,<br />

repairs, and partial or complete replacement<br />

of periodically scheduled parts.<br />

In order to make fault detection easier<br />

THE EVOLUTION OF<br />

MAINTENANCE ROUTINES IS<br />

UNSPARINGLY RESHAPING<br />

THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD.<br />

and faster, the complete understanding<br />

of failures and their cause is essential.<br />

Keeping this in mind, professionals can<br />

use the right tools with the right frequency<br />

without spending too much time<br />

and efforts.<br />

3. Predictive Maintenance<br />

Predictive maintenance is a conditionbased<br />

process, forecasting when an<br />

equipment failure can occur and warning<br />

the maintenance manager. This is<br />

achieved through monitoring the condition<br />

of the equipment and performing<br />

maintenance in advance. Some examples<br />

of equipment monitoring methods include:<br />

• Vibration analysis: vibrations can<br />

detect machine failures and determine<br />

equipment status to schedule<br />

maintenance.<br />

• Infrared thermography: infrared<br />

cameras can detect if a piece of<br />

equipment has an unusually high<br />

temperature.<br />

• Acoustic analysis: this analysis is<br />

performed using sonic or ultrasonic<br />

tests to detect liquid or gas<br />

leaks.<br />

• Analysis of the oil: by analyzing<br />

the oil condition, we can see the<br />

particle size and thus know the<br />

state of the equipment.<br />

In the context of digitalization and the<br />

Internet of Things (IoT), a lot has been<br />

said, done and improved in the field<br />

of predictive maintenance routines<br />

recently. Banned by many business<br />

owners only a year ago because of its<br />

high costs, predictive maintenance is<br />

about to become largely spread since<br />

many producers launched sensors at<br />

affordable prices. Furthermore, when<br />

predictive maintenance is working effectively<br />

as a maintenance strategy,<br />

then it is only performed on machines<br />

1/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 49


ASSET MANAGEMEMT<br />

when required and it brings several cost<br />

savings by:<br />

• minimizing the time, the equipment<br />

is being maintained,<br />

• minimizing production hours lost<br />

to maintenance and<br />

• minimizing cost for spare parts<br />

and supplies.<br />

However, many of the condition-monitoring<br />

techniques still remain expensive<br />

and require additional workforce.<br />

4. Reliability-Centered<br />

Maintenance<br />

The reliability-centered maintenance<br />

approach is a corporate-level maintenance<br />

strategy aiming at optimizing the<br />

maintenance program of a company or<br />

facility by maintaining the function of<br />

the system and recognizing the failure<br />

that affects the function of the system.<br />

The result of a successful RCM program<br />

is the definition and implementation of<br />

a specific maintenance strategy on the<br />

most critical assets of the facility. Costeffective<br />

maintenance techniques can be<br />

thus identified and later on adopted to<br />

improve the reliability of the facility as a<br />

whole.<br />

And even though RCM (reliabilitycentered<br />

maintenance) does not really<br />

consider additional costs of ownership,<br />

implementing it undoubtedly increases<br />

equipment availability, and reduces<br />

maintenance and resource costs.<br />

5. Prescriptive Maintenance<br />

Prescriptive analytics are at the heart<br />

of prescriptive maintenance, which is<br />

for now the last level in the evolution of<br />

all known maintenance routines. Compared<br />

to predictive practices, instead<br />

of only predicting a failure, predictive<br />

maintenance is “prescribing” an outcome-focused<br />

behaviour for operations<br />

and maintenance based on the prescriptive<br />

analytics. It is important to mention<br />

that this type of maintenance is still in<br />

its infancy but many ingenious business<br />

owners are considering its potential to<br />

become the next big thing in reliability<br />

and maintenance best practice.<br />

However, even for organizations with<br />

well-established predictive maintenance<br />

routines, the leap towards prescriptive<br />

programs may still be difficult mainly<br />

because of the cost for new hardware<br />

and software and workforce, regulations<br />

on specific machines, the company’s<br />

culture and the management’s long-held<br />

beliefs.<br />

Which maintenance strategy to choose?<br />

Here is a brief overview of all above-mentioned maintenance strategies:<br />

Strategy Summary Setup cost Advantages<br />

Reactive<br />

Preventive<br />

Predictive<br />

RCM<br />

Prescriptive<br />

Repair after a breakdown<br />

or failure has occurred<br />

Maintenance is<br />

scheduled in advance<br />

Maintenance based on<br />

equipment condition<br />

Investigate failure mode and failure<br />

consequences to determine the best<br />

strategy<br />

Prescribe machines a certain operational<br />

and maintenance behavior based on<br />

detailed analytics<br />

Even though predictive and prescriptive<br />

approaches have a huge potential and are<br />

rather the strategies corresponding the most<br />

to today’s digitalization trends, preventive<br />

maintenance remains the mostly spread<br />

maintenance program. This is mainly due to<br />

its largely appreciated advantages as:<br />

REDUCED PRODUCTION DOWNTIME<br />

When the problem occurs, it can be quickly<br />

resolved because the worker knows what<br />

to do and what spare part to replace, which<br />

will reduce the time needed to detect the<br />

problem.<br />

REDUCED BREAKDOWNS<br />

With preventive maintenance, the equipment<br />

will be regularly maintained within<br />

the given deadlines so that it is in the best<br />

conditions.<br />

COST SAVINGS<br />

Preventive maintenance reduces the frequency<br />

of breakdowns, which means<br />

reduced production stops and more financial<br />

benefits.<br />

IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY<br />

Reduced equipment downtime results in<br />

increased plant’s productivity and machine<br />

availability.<br />

ELIMINATE AMBIGUITY IN MAINTENANCE<br />

TASKS<br />

Preventive maintenance reduces the risk of<br />

unnecessary repairs and creates a system<br />

to use the right tool for the right task.<br />

EXTENDED EQUIPMENT LIFE<br />

Preventive maintenance improves equipment<br />

performance and increases product<br />

quality because machines are well maintained,<br />

and equipment is performing well.<br />

Low<br />

Average<br />

High<br />

High<br />

High<br />

The best strategy for<br />

low-priority equipment<br />

Best strategy to implement without<br />

any required expertise.<br />

Timely based condition monitoring<br />

provides many insights into asset’s<br />

behaviour<br />

Provides the most effective<br />

scheduled maintenance<br />

Substantial cost savings and highly<br />

effective scheduled maintenance.<br />

IMPROVED CUSTOMER SERVICE AND<br />

REPUTATION<br />

A successful preventive maintenance program<br />

contributes to reliable delivery time,<br />

good production quality and thus improves<br />

the reputation of the company.<br />

REDUCED ENERGY WASTE<br />

Preventive maintenance lowers the cost of<br />

energy because well-maintained equipment<br />

generally requires less electricity or fuel to<br />

operate.<br />

IMPROVED FACILITY SECURITY<br />

Equipment breakdowns can have disastrous<br />

consequences. Properly maintained<br />

equipment will improve the safety of workers,<br />

as well as of those working around the<br />

equipment, so that well-maintained equipment<br />

create a safer work environment.<br />

The most important thing to remember<br />

when looking for the right maintenance<br />

strategy is the problem that you have to<br />

solve. This will help you find and implement<br />

the right solution and finally sustain<br />

winning results.<br />

Predictive and prescriptive maintenance<br />

strategies have a powerful potential, but<br />

their implementation might be difficult if<br />

you don’t have an established successful<br />

preventive maintenance program yet. After<br />

all, there is no wrong or right approach<br />

to maintenance; you simply must choose<br />

what’s feasible for your company in order<br />

to achieve the best possible results.<br />

50 maintworld 1/<strong>2019</strong>


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