www.amnt2019.com #50AMNT 7 – 8 May 2019 Estrel Convention Center Berlin, Germany Who will you meet? AiNT • Alpiq • ASKETA • <strong>atw</strong> • August Alborn • Axpo <strong>Power</strong> • Baltic Scientific Instruments • Berthold Technologies • Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin • BGZ Gesellschaft für Zwischenlagerung • BKW Energie • Blastrac • Brenk Systemplanung • British Embassy • Bundesanstalt für Material<strong>for</strong>schung und -prüfung • Bundesgesellschaft für Endlagerung • Chalmers University of Technology • City of Biblis • Cyprus <strong>International</strong> University • DAHER • DAtF • Department <strong>for</strong> <strong>International</strong> Trade • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung • Deutscher Arbeitgeber Verband • Deutscher Bundestag • Deutsches Museum Munich • Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt • EDF • Eidgenössische Kommission für nukleare Sicherheit • Eidgenössisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat • Elektriciteits- Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland N.V. • Embassy of the Czech Republic • EnBW Kernkraft • Energieanlagen Greifswald • Energus • ENGIE • Enrichment Technology Company • ETH Zürich • European Commission • European <strong>Nuclear</strong> Society • EWN Entsorgungswerk für Nuklearanlagen • Federal Ministry <strong>for</strong> Economic Affairs and Energy • Federal Ministry <strong>for</strong> Environment • FH Aachen • Forschungsinstitut für Kerntechnik und Energiewandlung • Forschungszentrum Jülich • Framatome • Fraunhofer ISE • French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission • FRM II • Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit • GNS Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Service • Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf • Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht • Hochschule für Politik München • Hochschule Zittau/ Görlitz • IAF- Radioökölogie • Imperial College London • INFORUM • Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach • Institut für Festkörper- Kernphysik • <strong>International</strong> Irradiation Association • Joint Research Center • Karlsruher Institute of Technology • Kernkraft Gösgen-Däniken • Kernkraftwerk Biblis • Kernkraftwerk Brunsbüttel • Kernkraftwerk Isar • Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt • Kernkraftwerk Stade • Kompetenzverbund Kerntechnik • Kompetenzzentrum Ost für Kerntechnik • Kraftanlagen Heidelberg • Krantz • KROHNE Messtechnik • KSB • KSG Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft • KTG • LaGuardia & Associates • LTZ- Consulting • Mammoet • Marubeni Utility Services • Materialprüfungsanstalt Universität Stuttgart • Mauell • Ministerium für Energiewende • Mirion Technologies • National Citizens’ Oversight Committee • National Institute <strong>for</strong> Physics and <strong>Nuclear</strong> Engineering • Nawah Energy Company • NKM NOELL Special Cranes • <strong>Nuclear</strong> Energy Agency • <strong>Nuclear</strong> Engineering <strong>International</strong> • <strong>Nuclear</strong> Regulatory Commission • <strong>Nuclear</strong> Veterans • <strong>Nuclear</strong> Waste Management Commission • NUKEM • Nuklear<strong>for</strong>um Schweiz • Orano • Pinsent Masons • PreussenElektra • pro-beam • Reactor Safety Commission • RIS Industrie- und Kraftwerksservice • Rosatom • Roschiwal + Partner Ingenieur • Ruhr-Universität Bochum • RWE • SAT Kerntechnik • Schule für ABC-Abwehr und Gesetzliche Schutzaufgaben • Siemens • Siempelkamp • ŠKODA JS • STEAG Energy Services • Straub Werke • Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Austria • Technische Universität Dresden • Technische Universität Kaiserslautern • Technische Universität München • Tractebel Engineering • TÜV NORD • TÜV SÜD • ÚJV Řež • Uniper • United States <strong>Nuclear</strong> Regulatory Commission • Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf • University of Fukui • University of Stuttgart • University of Technology Slovakia • URENCO • Vattenfall • Verband der TÜV • VGB <strong>Power</strong>Tech • VKTA • VPC • Westinghouse • Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik • Women in <strong>Nuclear</strong> • Wood • World <strong>Nuclear</strong> Association • WTI Wissenschaftlich Technische-Ingenieurberatung • Young Generation Network • Zukunftsinstitut • ZWILAG Register now at › www.amnt2019.com In alphabetical order. Subject to change. Celebrate with us our 50 th anniversary!
<strong>atw</strong> Vol. 64 (2019) | Issue 4 ı April EPR – No Swan Song Dear reader, At the end of last year, the EPR was already the subject of this editorial. In the course of 2018, the first EPR to be commissioned worldwide was Taishan, China, one of five Generation III+ nuclear power plants commissioned. Another identical unit is about to be completed during 2019. Generation III+ reactors combine the technically wellengineered and successful concepts of power reactor developments of the 1970s to 1990s with additional safety features and economic improvements. The EPR, originally known as the “European Pressurized Reactor”, today known as the “Evolutionary <strong>Power</strong> Reactor”, is the most powerful nuclear and power plant in the world. It is the consistent result of a successful collaboration of thousands of employees from all areas of science and technology and companies from several countries. The EPR has its origins in the successful construction lines <strong>for</strong> pressurized water reactors of the then French Framatome and German Siemens/KWU. Both nuclear power plant manufacturers, including predecessor companies, had built and commissioned around 100 light water reactors since the 1960s. On the part of Siemens/KWU, the Konvoi plants, Emsland, Isar 2 and Neckar westheim II, which were build between 1982 and 1988/89, in some cases even with a shorter construction period than planned, deserve particular mention. On the Framatome side, the N4 plants in Civaux and Chooz with a gross electrical output of 1561 MW <strong>for</strong>med a cornerstone of reactor development. In the mid-1990s, when the expansion programmes <strong>for</strong> nuclear power plants in Western countries were virtually completed <strong>for</strong> the time being due to the saturation of the generation market and the deliberate influence of political interest groups on the public debate surrounding the energy industry, the idea of designing a reactor concept <strong>for</strong> the 21 st century in a Franco-German cooperation took shape. Framatome and Siemens as manufacturer as well as EDF and the companies operating the German nuclear power plants agreed to develop the “Basic Design” <strong>for</strong> the EPR. The EPR reached its first milestones in Finland and France in 2005 and 2007 with the launch of the Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects. Germany had ceased to be a location with the signing of the 2001 nuclear consensus agreement. It should not be overlooked that project risks and cost increases <strong>for</strong> these two plants turned out to be much higher than expected during the approval phases. The extent to which individual, location-dependent reasons have to be taken into account cannot currently be estimated. It should also not be overlooked that the Taishan project in China was started four years later and is now in commercial operation after 9 years of construction, ahead of the plants in Olkiluoto and Flamanville. Considerable construction delays seem to be developing into a cultural problem in western industrial countries. consumption, this is about 17 % lower than with other nuclear fuel strategies to date. pp Space requirement: The space requirement <strong>for</strong> the entire power plant is around 1250 square meters per megawatt and thus 150 times lower than <strong>for</strong> freestanding photovoltaic plants. Technology pp Technically projected operating life: 60 years, today common <strong>for</strong> existing plants with originally planned operating lives of 30 to 40 years, i.e. with prospects <strong>for</strong> operation beyond that. pp The reactor core has a volume of roughly 50 cubic metres, which is comparable to the volume of a 40-foot sea container; in other words, the reactor core continuously generates electricity <strong>for</strong> the supply of an EU budget in about 15 cubic centimetres. Safety and security pp Four independent systems ensure safe operation and also protection in exceptional situations such as earthquakes and floods, including beyond-design-basis events. pp The core damage frequency <strong>for</strong> the EPR is in the range of approx. 10 -7 and thus more than a power of ten, i.e. a factor of 10 lower than that recommended by the <strong>International</strong> Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) <strong>for</strong> new plants. pp A core catcher provides additional protection <strong>for</strong> the foundation of the reactor building and would stabilise it in the reactor building in the event of a core meltdown. pp An internal spraying system is an additional measure to ensure the long-term integrity of the reactor building in case of accidents. Honour to whom honour is due: The EPR, a joint European development project on the way to late, but not too late, international success – also beyond the year 2022: according to the current announcement of the French President Emmanuel Macron, a decision is to be made around the year 2022 as to whether further new nuclear power plants should be built in France on the basis of the EPR, the German-French cooperation. 183 EDITORIAL Some key figures on the concept of the EPR reactor: Resources pp Avoidance of around 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year (related to the electricity mix of countries using nuclear energy worldwide) and avoidance of further emissions via air and water. pp Electricity supply to around 3 million households (with average EU consumption). pp Uranium requirement of around 20 tonnes of enriched nuclear fuel per year. In terms of natural uranium Christopher Weßelmann – Editor in Chief – Editorial EPR – No Swan Song