atw 2019-05

viktor.frank

atw Vol. 64 (2019) | Issue 5 ı May

| | More than electricity and heat generation: Nuclear powered ice breaker.

of November 21, 1995; Federal Law

No. 3-FZ “On the Radiation Safety of

Population” of January 9, 1996; and,

(3) Federal Law No. 7-FZ “On the

Environmental Protection” of January

10, 2002 [28].

4.1.3 Nuclear Waste

Management

The 2011 Law requires the final

disposal 10 of all legacy 11 and newly

generated domestic radioactive waste.

Additionally, the 2011 Law provides

for creating a state controlled

unified system of radioactive waste

management by establishing a

national operator. The 2011 Law

creates two distinct groups of radioactive

wastes: remov able and special

radioactive wastes, 12

which receive

their classifica tion demarcation by

the federal government taking into

account the technical and operational

limitations involved with nuclear

waste management.

The ‘National Operator for Radioactive

Waste Management’, a federal

entity, has sole responsibility as the

duly authorized agent by the Russian

Federation to carry out activities

relating to final isolation of radioactive

waste and arrangement of

any relevant infrastructure [36].

According to Rosatom, design work is References

complete for a deep waste repository,

with activities in progress for the

implementation of a project that will

“enable [the] final disposal of all

radioactive waste accumulated” [36].

Previously, nuclear waste management

activities involved the injecting

of these low and intermediate level

wastes “into deep-seated reservoir

beds (deep well injection facilities)

located at three sites” [28].

4.1.3.1 Permanent Disposal

Each nuclear power plant has a spent

fuel storage pool. Spent fuel is kept in

the pool for a period of three years.

If necessary, storage time can be

increased to reduce heat generation.

Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is

performed at RT-1 (Mayak). Additionally,

various nuclear power plants

have multifunctional complexes providing

radioactive waste treatment

and pre-treatment. The most probable

media for the final storage and disposal

of high-level waste within Russia

is in crystalline rocks. These

planned repositories “[should] be

sited in seismically stable blocks” and

also areas containing no or limited

mineral resources [37]. Within Russia,

vitrified high-level waste is “stored in

steel containers 60 cm in diameter,

80 cm in height, and 3 cm in thickness”

[37]. Each cask is able to accommodate

three containers.

[27] Nuclear Power in Russia, World Nuclear Association,

http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/countryprofiles/countries-o-s/russia-nuclear-power.aspx,

viewed January 31, 2018.

[28] The Fourth National Report of the Russian Federation,

http://www.rosatom.ru/upload/iblock/8c0/

8c0b6fba95869e6673962ee96f467da2.pdf, viewed April 09, 2018.

[29] Dianina, K 2015, ‘Russian Cultural History Lost and Found’,

Russian Studies In History, 54, 4, pp. 279-285, Academic Search

Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 31 January 2018.

[30] Government of the Russian Federation,

http://www.russianembassy.org/page/government-of-therussian-federation,

viewed April 05, 2018.

[31] ‘Russia,’ CIA Fact book, Central Intelligence Agency,

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/

geos/print_rs.html, viewed April 19, 2018.

[32] Lomovtseva, M, & Henderson, J 2009, ‘Constitutional Justice

in Russia’, Review Of Central & East European Law, 34, 1,

pp. 37-69, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost,

viewed 31 January 2018.

[33] Berdy, MA 2016, ‘On the Take’, Russian Life, 59, 2, p. 26,

Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 19 April 2018.

[34] Ledeneva, AV 2013, ‘Russia’s Practical Norms and Informal

Governance: The Origins of Endemic Corruption’, Social Research,

80, 4, pp. 1135-1162, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost,

viewed 19 April 2018.

[35] Fein, E 2017, ‘Cognition, cultural practices, and the working

of political institutions: An adult developmental perspective on

corruption in Russian history’, Behavioral Development Bulletin,

22, 2, pp. 279-297, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed

31 January 2018.

[36] About Rosatom, http://www.rosatom.ru/en/rosatom-group/

back-end/national-operator-for-radioactive-waste-management/,

viewed April 05, 2018.

[37] Laverov, N, Omel’yanenko, B, & Yudintsev, S 2011,

‘ Crystalline rocks as a medium for nuclear waste disposal’, Russian

Journal Of General Chemistry, 81, 9, pp. 1980-1993, Academic

Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2018.

Authors

Mark Callis Sanders

Sanders Engineering

1350 E. Flamingo Road Ste. 13B

#290

Las Vegas NV 89119

USA

Charlotta E. Sanders

Department of Mechanical

Engineering

University of Nevada

Las Vegas (UNLV)

4505 S. Maryland Pwky

Las Vegas, NV 89154

USA

DECOMMISSIONING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT 269

10 Interestingly, the 2011 Law considers and makes final determination on issues surrounding retrievability of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive

waste. Per Article 3.1. (8) “disposal” is defined as: “the safe holding of radioactive wastes in a radioactive waste disposal site not requiring any

subsequent removal.”

11 Legacy waste is defined per Article 3.1 (1), and consists of such waste created before the promulgation of the 2011 law.

12 The waste categorization description is provided in Article 4 of the 2011 Law.

Decommissioning and Waste Management

A World’s Dilemma ‘Upon Which the Sun Never Sets’: The Nuclear Waste Management Strategy: Russia Part 2 ı Mark Callis Sanders and Charlotta E. Sanders

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