Vol. 7 Issue 2. 2018


The Australian Emergency Services Magazine is a community educational resource dedicated to the recognition and promotion of emergency service personnel, and the awareness of safety measures, for the community, family and individual. We aim to provide relevant and up to date information and advancements within each of the emergency response sectors and first responders.

Autumn 2018 Vol 7

Lest We Forget



23rd May 2018 The Star, Gold Coast



Editor’s Note


Latest Events

Volunteer Week

• ANZDMC Conference

• Emergency Services Games

ANZAC Day - A Sacred tradition

After the Firestorm

Scholarships for Volunteers

Darwin recovery after Cyclone


Emergency Kit Essentials

Body worn cameras help use of

force for police

Family recovery after natural


Triple zero in the digital age

Emergency Contacts

Apps to use in emergency















The Australian Emergency Services Magazine is a community

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way financially supported by or associated with any government or

similar institution. Distributions of the publication is Quarterly and

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whilst every effort is made to ensure that the publication is free of

error and omission, no responsibility or liability will be accepted by

Boothbook Pty Ltd.

Published by Boothbook Media

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Welcome to the Autumn edition

of the Australian Emergency

Services Magazine. As expected the

summer season was unpredictable

and busy and even as I write this the

BOM is saying there may still be the

possibility of another cyclone in the

final week of cyclone season.

The cyclone season for the top end

kept everyone on their toes with

reformations and plenty of rain. The

much needed rain flowing through

the centre now bringing welcome


It certainly caused havoc however

for the northern region with many

parts of the state cut off with road

closures and swollen rivers. Barron

Falls certainly was raging and

smaller catchment areas flowing at

full capacity. Read our article on

Darwin’s recovery after Cyclone

Marcus and what the town has

learned since the devastation of

Cyclone Tracy.

In the south the tragedy of fire

sweeping through our communities

again through the summer months

seems to be a consistent event in our


The residents of Tathra, resilient

though they may be, many lost

everything in a matter of hours with

little to no warning that the fire was

heading their way.

This has brought a sharp focus

from government and emergency

sectors on the response time

and broadcasting of emergency

situations to local residents.

This issue brings you a great article

on when it is safe to return to fire

damaged areas and looking forward

into the digital age in regards to our

emergency response mediums and

the digitalisation of Triple zero.

Don’t forget volunteer week in May,

a time to perhaps begin to volunteer

in your community or celebrate

those who do. And of course

Autumn is the time we remember

the fallen ANZACs. We bring you

a great article on why this is such

a special commemoration each

year and is firmly embedded in our

nations history and hearts.

Happy reading,

Emma Parker




The definition:

Volunteering is time willingly given

for the common good and without

financial gain.’ It is also proven to

improve our health and make us feel

pretty darn good. So why not get

involved in volunteering and be a

part of Volunteer week this year.

National Volunteer Week

(NVW) is the annual celebration

to acknowledge the generous

contribution of our nation’s

volunteers. #NVW2018

From 21–27 May 2018, thousands

of events will be held across

the country to say thank you to

the 6 million Australians who

volunteer their time. The week-long

celebration will include breakfasts,

morning/afternoon teas, and

luncheons, as well as open days,

award ceremonies, picnics, forums

and training sessions.

Volunteering Australia is excited

to announce our new National

Volunteer Week theme:

Give a little. Change a lot.

This years’ theme represents

the millions of volunteers who

make a profound impact in their

communities and on society,

through giving a little time.

Save the date for National Volunteer

Week 2018 – now scheduled for the

fourth week of May, so it no longer

clashes with the Federal Budget.

Support National Volunteer

Week and find out the facts about

volunteering. Did you know

that ‘The State of Volunteering in

Australia Report’ found that 93%

of people saw positive changes as a

result of their volunteering efforts.

Visit the National Volunteer Week

website to get access to resources,

merchandise, news and events. You

can search for volunteering activities

in your local area and be a part of

the change in your community


There is also another Volunteer

event coming up in June. Save

the date for the 17th National

Volunteering Conference. The

Conference will be held from 20-

22 June 2018, at the International

Convention Centre, Sydney.

The 2018 Conference will provide

a forum for not for profit leaders,

managers of volunteers, researchers

and policy contributors to advance

and strengthen the volunteering

sector through knowledge sharing

and discussion. This is Australia’s

premier volunteering leadership

event, uniting the sector to

ignite, invigorate and inspire on

volunteering issues.

For more information visit









The 2018 Australian & New

Zealand Disaster and Emergency

Management Conference

to be held on the 21-22 May at

the Star Gold Coast.

relating to the preparedness for future

disasters, emergencies and hazards and

the ability to recover from them quickly

and efficiently.

The program will include:

Officer and Deputy Director-General

Prevention Division, Department of

Health, Queensland Government

Mr John Yates, Director of Security,

Scentre Group & Westfield Corporation


Now into its seventh year, the

ANZDMC continues to grow in both

size and reputation and this conference

has evolved into the premium event

of its type, facilitating professional

development and the exchange of

current ideas and practices between

emergency and disaster management

practitioners from Australia and New

Zealand and further afield.

The program is intended to provide

all participants with an opportunity to

contribute and learn.

The program will examine what we have

learnt in the past few years and provided

a comprehensive forum to address the

expertise, competencies and systems

• Keynote presentations by renowned


• Concurrent sessions and panel


• Networking function

• Exhibition of leading industry


• Poster presentations

• Access to presenter podcasts and

book of proceedings following the


• Certificate of Attendance which

may be used towards CPD points

Featured speakers at this years

conference include:

Dr Jeannette Young, Chief Health

Dr John Bates, Research Director,

Bushfire & Natural Hazards CRC

Commissioner Katarina Carroll,

Commissioner, Queensland Fire &

Emergency Services (QFES)

Major General Gregory Bilton, AM,

CSC, Deputy Chief of Joint Operations,

Department of Defence – Army

Mr Nev Hyman, Founder and chairman,


For further information on the

conference and venue visit:




The Victoria Police & Emergency Services Games is an annual 10 day

sporting event that attracts competitors from all emergency service sectors

within Victoria. The games give competitors the opportunity to break away

from the stresses of the work environment, meet like minded people and

most importantly have a great time.

ESTA’s World Trade Centre soccer team


Janet Rowe presented with the award by the President of the Victoria Police Games Federation and Victoria Police Deputy Police Commissioner, Andrew Crisp

The games have over forty sporting

events to participate in, ranging from

angling and archery through to AFL9’s

and the gruelling Toughest Competitor

Alive! These games certainly capture

the essence of our emergency services


Last year’s winner of the 2017 Stuart

Taylor Memorial Award, ‘Best

Performance of the Games’ - Janet Rowe

(pictured above) says what she likes

most about the Games is the friendships

that are made, the team spirit and sense

of belonging and community.

This memorial award is given for

excellence not only in the field of

competititon but also for enthusiasm

and willingness to be involved in all

aspects of the Vicotria Police and

Emergency Services Games.


ESTA’s Indoor Cricket Team

Janet, who currently works for ESTA,

has competed in the games for the last

4 years in pool swimming, open water

swimming and water relay. She has

worked in the emergency services sector

for 15 years and was previously in the

military where she used to compete

in internal competitions, such as running. Due to knee

operations from this period in her life Janet chose to take up

the swimming based activities. The games are tailored for all

levels of fitness and interest. Janet would attest to this and

encourages all to participate:

“Don’t let your skill level or fear of not being good enough

hold you back from getting involved in the games. I

quickly felt very comfortable in participating in an

emergency services games. Everyone was so welcoming and


The 2018 games have just recently been held from March

16th to March 25th. We look forward to seeing who the

winner will be this year for ‘Best Performance of the Games’.

For more information head to:


ESTA’s Sean Curtin and Jac Lock. Sean cleaned up with 4 golds in shot put and

discus and Jac took out the gold in 400m, plus 3 silvers in 100m sprint, long

jump and shot put



A Sacred Place


Australia is spending the

extraordinary amount of A$562

million commemorating the

centenary of the first world war between

2014 and 2018 — far more than any

other nation, including the major

combatants. This is compelling proof

we are very attached to the cluster of

beliefs and traditions we call the “Anzac


While we identify Anzac as one of

the most prized components of the

Australian identity in 2017, that has

not always been the case. The values we

associate with Anzac today – mateship,

sacrifice, the birth of the nation – are

not necessarily the qualities that would

have come to mind for an Australian of

the 1920s.

And if you asked a university student

in the 1970s what they thought about

Anzac, they might well have told

you that it was an old-fashioned idea

that glorified war; the sooner it was

forgotten, the better.

The Anzac legend has an oftencontroversial

history. That history began

almost as soon as news of the dawn

landing of the Anzac troops at Gallipoli

on April 25, 1915 reached Australian

In Australian’s Hearts


Newspaper editors, politicians and

leaders of the church readily proclaimed

the charge up the cliffs into Turkish fire

to be Australia’s “baptism of fire” and

“the birth of the nation”.

The more obvious occasion for

Australia’s national birth — the peaceful

act of federation on January 1, 1901 –

lacked the bloody appeal of Gallipoli.

The Australian nation was created

during the age of “New Imperialism”,

when the empires of Europe were

engaged in furious competition for

colonial outposts and the resources and

markets they would bring.

It was a contest that led in 1914 to

the outbreak of the first world war.

According to the chest-beating

nationalism that accompanied and

justified this imperial jostling, war was

the truest test of the character of men

and nations.

Australians felt especially keenly their

lack of bloody initiation (the frontier

wars with Aboriginal peoples did not

count), given our penal past. A good


showing in battle would expunge the

convict stain and prove us worthy

members of the British race.

Even the radical poet Henry Lawson

favoured war as the national midwife

over peaceful federation. “We boast no

more of our bloodless flag, that rose

from a nation’s slime,” he wrote in The

Star of Australasia. Instead, Lawson


The Star of the South shall rise, in the

lurid clouds of war.

The earliest version of the Anzac legend

reflected the society from which it

sprung. It sought both to distinguish

Australians from Britons and earn their


approval. Thus, the original Anzac

legend emphasised the fighting ability

of the Australian soldiers, and their

national distinctiveness.

Unlike the English, we were laconic

and egalitarian. We didn’t stand on

ceremonies like saluting and parading,

but when it came to battle we were

second to none.

None of these comparisons with

Britain indicated disloyalty to the

“mother country”. One of the tenets

of Anzac commemoration remained

our continuing devotion to King and


The Anzac legend became an important

addition to the Australian identity

during the 1920s and 1930s, but it would

be wrong to assume that it enjoyed the

celebratory connotations it does today.

Anzac commemoration had natural

constraints. Sixty thousand Australians

were killed in the war, and 160,000

were recorded officially as wounded.

Australians felt immense pride in the

achievements of their soldiers, but

that pride was tethered to the grief of

those who had witnessed first-hand the

devastating effect of war.

Along with the deep attachment to our

British heritage, female subservience

and sexual abstinence, the Anzac legend

was one of the foundation stones of

Australian society that was upturned by

the generation that grew to maturity in

the 1960s.

Alan Seymour’s 1958 play, The One Day

of the Year, notoriously condemned

Anzac Day as a day of “bloody

wastefulness” perpetuated year after year

by a “screaming tribe of great, stupid,

drunken, vicious, bigoted no-hopers”.

The unpopularity of the Vietnam War

from the mid-1960s greatly exacerbated

anti-Anzac feeling. Later, in the 1970s

and early 1980s, feminist protesters

targeted Anzac Day, condemning

the rape of women in war. For many

among the baby-boomer generation,

war commemoration had become

indistinguishable from the glorification

of war.

Myths and legends always reflect the

societies in which they exist. So, we have

seen the Anzac legend bend and sway

to accommodate our contemporary

concerns with diversity and

inclusiveness. Women and non-Anglo

Australians have been increasingly

drawn into the Anzac tent.

The extent to which Aboriginal

Australians have both sought and been

invited to participate has been one

of the noticeable trends of the Anzac

centenary commemorations. Tom

Wright’s play Black Diggers has toured

the country, telling the story of a group

of Aboriginal soldiers who fought

loyally for Australia, only to be relegated

to their lowly status after they returned.

As the centenary of the Gallipoli landing

loomed in 2015, it looked as if Anzac

was becoming the kind of commercially

driven carnival that Easter and

Christmas have morphed into.

Canny business people knew a cash cow

when they saw one. There were Gallipoli

cruises, camps and concerts. Men’s

magazines and merchandisers peddled

Anzac porn (before the Department of

Veterans’ Affairs shut them down). We

even had Gallipoli the Musical.

The most notorious of the “Brandzac”

ventures was Woolworths’ “Fresh in

our Memories” campaign — a public

relations disaster for the ages. Leading

up to Anzac Day in 2015, Woolworths

encouraged people to post images of

those who had been affected by war. At

the bottom of the images, Woolworths’

picture generator inserted the slogan

“Fresh in Our Memories” and the

company’s logo.

The blatant commercial motive drew

an immediate social media backlash,

including a rash of satirical memes.

Woolworths’ blunder was a symptom

of a bigger problem. Perhaps the

public appetite for Anzac had been

overestimated. Amid rumblings about

Gallipoli fatigue, Channels Seven

and Nine scaled back their plans

for coverage of the dawn service in

Gallipoli. Lee Kernaghan’s “Spirit of the

Anzacs” arena spectacular was cancelled

due to poor ticket sales.

Channel Nine’s seven-part TV series,

Gallipoli — predicted to be the “biggest

show on television” in 2015 by network

head David Gyngell — was a spectacular

ratings flop, despite critical acclaim.

Foxtel’s excellent Deadline Gallipoli,

starring Sam Worthington, also failed

to fire.

Anzac commemoration has been

noticeably more muted since 2015.

Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull is less

ready than his predecessor Tony Abbott

to exalt the Anzacs and prime the

nationalist pump. Like his son-in-law

and former army captain, James Brown,

who criticised our “Anzac obsession” in

his book Anzac’s Long Shadow, Turnbull

prefers to emphasise the service and

well-being of contemporary military

personnel and veterans.

Criticisms of the Anzac excess from

commentators including historian

Marilyn Lake, co-author of What’s

Wrong with Anzac?, and David

Stephens at the Honest History group

have arguably helped to temper the

more exuberant rhetoric of politicians

and ambitions of cynical commercial

interests. Stephens has recently coedited

The Honest History Book, which

argues that:

Australia is more than Anzac – and

always has been.

While Australians no longer blink an

eye at the rampant commercialisation

of Easter and Christmas, we have

drawn the line at allowing Anzac to be

surrendered to the profit gods. Does

this mean that Anzac is more sacred to

Australians than the Christian traditions

of Easter and Christmas?

With its invocations to suffering

and sacrifice, its quasi-worship of

long-deceased young men and its

solemn dawn service rites, Anzac

commemoration shares many of the

elements of conventional religion.

The historian Ken Inglis wondered

as long ago as 1960 whether Anzac

functioned as a secular religion in

Australian society. In 2017, I think we

can confidently answer: yes, it does.

Carolyn Holbrook

Alfred Deakin Research Fellow, Deakin University

First published on The Conversation



After the





Australia has a long

history of bushfire

disasters. The loss

of almost 70 homes

in Tathra, New

South Wales, and 18 homes in

southwest Victoria in March has

again reminded us of the risks

and huge personal costs of living

in a fire-prone country. The risk

is increasing as fires the world

over are expanding in every

dimension – in their timing,

with extended seasons of favourable

fire weather, frequency and


Emergency services, communications

and community support during fire

disasters have become increasingly

sophisticated to meet these growing

challenges. An often overlooked aspect

of bushfire management is post-fire

risk. Many people will be returning to

uncertainty. They will need to evaluate

the immediate impacts on their homes

and property, and the implications for

their future.

After the firestorm has passed, the risks

to health remain. These include physical

and chemical hazards associated with

damaged structures, contaminated

air, food and water, and the welldocumented

risks to mental health and

well-being. There are many potential

hazards in burnt properties. Returning

requires caution and preparation.

It is important to check if the relevant

emergency services have declared an

area safe enough to allow residents

to return and to seek guidance. Most

jurisdictions provide resources relevant

to their area. The Western Australian

Department of Fires and Emergency

Services provides particularly

comprehensive information.

When entering a fire-affected property

for the first time, use a face mask and

wear protective clothing, including

sturdy footwear, heavy-duty gloves,

overalls with long sleeves and trousers

– preferably disposable. The best face

masks to use are “P2” masks, available

from hardware stores. Ordinary paper

dust masks, handkerchiefs or bandanas

do not filter out the very fine ash

and dust particles or hazards such as

asbestos fibres. Bring plastic bags big

enough to contain dirty clothing, which

should be removed before entering a


The list of potential hazards includes

falling trees, branches and live power

lines. Leaking gas may produce an

odour or a hissing noise. Septic tanks

can be damaged, leak sewage or

collapse. The tank covers are at ground

level and might not be visible.

Hot embers and smouldering vegetation

can be present and ignite further fires.

If there is a risk of major structural

damage to buildings, a building

inspector should check these before


Fires can release potential toxins

from some building materials. For

example, ash from CCA-treated wood,

commonly used in decking, fencing and

landscaping, is harmful and skin contact

and inhalation should be avoided. It is

recognisable as green-coloured ash.

Houses built before 1990 might have

asbestos cement sheeting and exposure

to asbestos fibres can occur if people

actively disturb ashes. If asbestos is

likely to be present, a licensed asbestos

removalist must do the clean-up work.

Other hazards can come from gas

cylinders, garden chemicals, cleaning

products and other burnt residues.

Smoke might be present in the

area from the recent fires or local

smouldering debris. Smoke is toxic and

can worsen heart and lung problems for

some people.

Those most at risk are children

including unborn babies, the elderly,

smokers and people with heart and lung

diseases, including asthma.

Portable generators are another source

of air pollution. These should always be

used in well-ventilated areas to avoid the

risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Houses, regardless of whether they were

damaged by fire, are likely to have had

a period without power. Once cold or

frozen food has warmed or thawed, it

should be thrown out. Food, drinks or

medicines that have been exposed to

heat, smoke and water damage are also

no longer safe for consumption.

If rainwater tanks are intact and the

water has no abnormal look, smells or

taste, the water should be safe to use,

although it’s wise to boil untreated

water. However, if firefighting foams

or animal carcasses have contaminated

water in a tank it should be drained

and refilled with clean water. It’s also

important to clear the house roof of

carcasses or other contaminants that

could end up in rainwater tanks.

The psychological trauma of

experiencing a fire can be overwhelming

for adults and children alike. It is

possible they are grieving for a spectrum

of losses, including friends and

neighbours, pets and livestock that have

been killed or injured in the fire, loss of

treasured personal effects and even the

wider sense of loss of place that has been

called solastalgia.

While most people do recover from the

traumatic experience, the emotional toll

can be serious and long lasting for some,

with symptoms such as depression,

anxiety, anger, fatigue, nightmares and

difficulty concentrating. It is possible

that people are no longer able to live in

surrounds they once cherished and must

move away.

The onset of mental health issues can

sometimes be delayed months and

even years after the event. Help from a

counsellor or family doctor can manage

and reduce these impacts. Involvement

in community activities and social

connections can help promote resilience

and be protective.

It is important to note that posttraumatic

stress has a more positive

counterpart, post-traumatic growth,

and it is possible that individuals and

communities can become stronger

and more resilient as a consequence

of rebuilding and recovery following a


Prompt rebuilding of community

centres and restoration of community

services and activities are keys to

helping individuals and communities

recover. For this reason firefighters will

prioritise protection of community


Returning to fire-affected areas can be

hazardous and traumatic. Residents

should be prepared and equipped for

protection from potential hazards, and

seek advice from appropriate authorities

such as emergency services, local

councils and public health agencies.

Ongoing social connections and

community support are essential for

reducing the personal and psychological

impacts. This support needs to continue

long after the disaster has been forgotten

by the news media.

In the affected communities in NSW

and Victoria, this work has already

begun. Community meetings are taking

place to start the process of support that

will be crucial in the long journey of

rebuilding lives and communities.

Fay Johnston

Associate Professor, Environmental Epidemiology,

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University

of Tasmania., University of Tasmania

Article first published on ‘The Conversation”





Volunteering: Get the Facts

Business volunteering in the

workplace is increasing, with 63%

of large companies having a

workplace volunteering program,

30% of mid-sized businesses, and

6% of small business.

Almost 90% of large businesses

reported allocating more resources

to volunteering, compared to 10

years ago, and wanted to see

more of their workforce participate

in workplace volunteering.

Almost three-quarters of large

businesses or 72%, indicated they

encouraged employee giving by

allocating paid time for


Those who volunteered (87.4%)

also engaged in charitable






Emergency management volunteers are

encouraged to apply for scholarships

in higher and vocational education.

The scholarships are available to

eligible volunteers to access accredited

vocational and higher education

qualifications in emergency and disaster


The scholarships recognise the complex

service volunteers in the fire, flood,

storm, road rescue, and marine rescue

agencies deliver, and the high-level skills

and leadership required to respond to

emergency situations.

The fund will boost education

development opportunities to ensure

volunteers and their agencies are best

equipped to prepare for and respond

to disasters. Volunteers may receive up

to $12,000 for completing vocational

education and training and up to

$25,000 for higher education.

The Australian Institute for Disaster

Resilience (AIDR) is administering

the scholarship fund on behalf of the

Australian Government. Applications

open on 2 April 2018.

AIDR encourages applications from

Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander

volunteers, and those living in regional

and rural areas.

For more information about the

application process visit the Australian

Institute for Disaster Resilience website

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Darwin paying



the price after



Darwin was directly in the path

of Cyclone Marcus and suffered

severe impacts from wind gusts

up to 130km/hour on Saturday,

March 17. Northern Territory

authorities made no declaration

of emergency, but the Insurance

Council of Australia declared it

a “catastrophe” for the Greater

Darwin region. Marcus is

considered the city’s secondworst

cyclone since Tracy, which

devastated Darwin on Christmas

Eve 1974.

The good news is that no deaths

have been reported. But had it been

a category 4 or 5 cyclone, instead of

category 2, how would the city have


The post-Marcus chaos in Greater

Darwin is not just “a real wake-up call”,

but a typical case of lessons yet to be

learned. For example, large shallowrooted

trees planted after Cyclone Tracy

and overhead power lines brought down

in the cyclone were both hazards that

could have been avoided. Darwin is now

engaged in a long, difficult and costly


Indigenous knowledge as well as the

Bureau of Meteorology’s historical

records confirm that tropical cyclones

are not new to Northern Australia.

According to the BOM:

There are on average 7.7 days per season

when a cyclone exists in the Northern


So was there complacency among

some residents, as emergency services

warned? Did infrastructure providers

underestimate the threat? In hot and

humid weather, over one-third of

Darwin’s population went without

power for several days and safe-to-drink

tap water for 48 hours. Communication

networks were patchy for days.

What was the reluctance in seeking

immediate support from other states

despite banks and insurers considering

this a catastrophe? Was it due to

Commonwealth disregard for the Top

End in general?

There have been at least two opposing

views on the impact of the cyclone.

The first is a more optimistic one,

largely because no one got killed or

seriously injured. Community members

spontaneously helped one another in the

immediate aftermath.

On this view, although preparedness

might have varied, people in general

were prepared. Power outages for a few

days were a “first world problem”. Most

households were ready, for example, to

use camping gas cookers.

Volunteers visited and helped vulnerable

groups such as aged and sick people.

Emergency responders, defence staff

and infrastructure restoration teams are

working tirelessly to return the city to



On the other hand, Marcus uprooted

thousands of trees across Greater

Darwin, mostly African mahoganies,

which were planted for revegetation

after Tracy.

Around 25,800 of about 60,000

properties across Greater Darwin were

cut off from power. Even after a week

many are still living in darkness. Power

outages had cascading effects: traffic

signals weren’t working for days at many

places and food was left to rot in the


Water was cut off in places. For about

48 hours people were urged to boil

tap water before drinking, cooking or

brushing teeth. The Health Department

issued a warning about melioidosis,

a life-threatening disease spread by

contact with soil, mud and surface


Fallen trees blocked many roads and

caused mild to severe damage to

residential, commercial and public

premises. Outdoor areas were cordoned

off for safety.

Educational institutions were closed

for at least a day. People who didn’t

own a car or were unable to drive were

disadvantaged for almost three days

until public transport was running


At several locations, tree branches are

still hanging dangerously over roads,

pavements, parks and roofs. Anywhere

in the city or suburbs, you see major

and minor roads, parks and beachfronts

dotted with uprooted trees and fallen

branches. The roadside piles of logs and

green waste are likely to remain there

for some time, as their removal is not an

“emergency priority”.

What does a city do with so much


Waste facilities are struggling to cope.

The morning after the cyclone, vehicles

queued for hours at the green waste

facility. It is yet to be ascertained if

arrangements can be made to manage

the huge quantities of green waste.

United Nations Environment Program

(UNEP) guidelines note that waste

debris presents opportunities as “either a

source of income or as a reconstruction

material, and [can] reduce burdens on

natural resources that might otherwise

be harvested for reconstruction”.

An evaluation of green waste would help

understand its recovery value. Research

suggests that disaster waste management

can account for 5–10% of the total

recovery costs, often exceeding that of

health care and education.

In October 2004, a typhoon devastated

Toyooka in Japan, producing 45,000

tonnes of waste – 1.5 years of the

city’s usual waste production. The

2011 tsunami in Japan produced

the equivalent of of 9 years’ worth

of municipal solid waste in Iwate

prefecture and 14 years’ worth in Miyagi


Local government is considering

removing mahogany trees, which were

introduced after Tracy, because of their

fast growth and the expansive shade

their dense canopies provide.

Globally, environmental dimensions of

disasters are less recognised compared

with social and economic dimensions.

However, the loss of dense trees and the

valuable ecosystem services these offer

calls for environmental recovery to be a

priority as well.


A 2013 study reveals that large sums

of taxpayers’ money is typically spent

following disasters, whereas increasing

pre-disaster investments can achieve

cost savings and resilience.

As an example, the territory government

is offering relief payments between

A$250 and A$650 for households that

were without power for 72 hours or

more. The importance of putting power

lines underground was recognised

more than a decade ago but the work is

incomplete due to lack of political will.

This is the time to ask questions such

as: what will be the scale of devastation

and cost and duration of recovery if a

category 4 or 5 cyclone hits Darwin?

The next cyclone after Marcus, Nora,

was expected to be a category 4 storm

but was downgraded to category 3 when

it hit the western coast of Cape York on

March 25.

Why not prioritise transformation of

critical infrastructure, such as shifting

all power lines underground? What role

can cost-benefit analysis play to achieve

resilience to category 4 or 5 cyclones

and other natural disasters?

More broadly, how can we learn from

the past? What are the new lessons we

can take forward from Cyclone Marcus?

And how do we inspire a city to work

towards creating “Resilient Darwin’”?

Akhilesh Surjan

Deepika Mathur

Jonatan A Lassa

Supriya Mathew

Charles Darwin University

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Our clients come from both the private and public sectors, across Victoria and interstate. They range

from individuals needing bushfire assessments for their properties, to private land developers and

government agencies such as local governments and environmental agencies requiring strategic planning


Some well known Music Festival

events and other community

icons such as Royal Botanic

Gardens have taken advantage

of our expertise in bushfire and

emergency management over the


Ecotide have the capability

and experience to undertake

event bushfire and emergency

plans for music festivals and

events throughout Victoria. Our

Event Bushfire & Emergency

Management Plans (EMP)

optimises the chance that your

bushfire risk is reduced, and the

appropriate event emergency plan

procedures are in place.

Event Emergency Plans - Bushfire

Emergency Management Plans

Events may include:

Music festivals

Sporting events

Cultural festivals


The EMP will:

• Incorporate a risk management

approach in accordance with


• Detailed treatments to mitigate or

minimise the risks

• A prioritised works plan for

treatment implementation

• Simple to follow triggers and

responses in a bushfire emergency

Ecotide’s previous work has included

Lorne’s Falls Festival, Meredith and

Golden Plains Music festivals, all

of which required robust bushfire

emergency management planning to

assure event overseers that it

could safely be operated, and to

ensure that patrons of festival

would be kept safer in a bushfire


The Meredith Music Festival,

one of Victoria’s iconic music

festivals, depended upon an

Ecotide Emergency Management

Plan to prepare and organise the

emergency management and

operations of the event. The plan

has helped to reduce risks and

maximise safety for the patrons

of the event, which is critical for

a festival held during December

within the Fire Danger Period.






All householders need to

know where your

Emergency Kit is kept.

On this page is a list of items which should be in your

kit at all times. There is also a list of extra items which

if you do not keep at all times you should add to your

kit during storm or cyclone season.




and update the contents

of your kit regularly, to

ensure everything is in

working order and has

not expired.


your Emergency Kit

with all householders

and make sure everyone

knows what to do in an





Range of non-perishable



food items

Bottled water

First Aid Kit and manual

Essential medications,

prescriptions and dosage

Toilet paper



Personal hygiene items


Flashlight/torch with

extra batteries

Battery powered lantern

Battery powered radio with

extra batteries

Traditional wired telephone

Prepaid wired telephone

Prepaid phone cards and

coins for phone calls



Warm jumper, waterproof

jacket, hat and gloves

for everyone

Closed-toed shoes or

boots for everyone


Whistle, utility knife,

duct/masking tape


Plastic garbage bags, ties

Safety glasses and sun glasses.


Special items for infants

(nappies, formula etc)

Special items needed by

elderly or people with

special needs

Spare house and car keys

Pet food, water and

other animal needs


Keep original or certified copies of

these documents in your Emergency


Scan copies of them and save the

files on a USB memory stick or CD

to include in your kit. Keep all these

items in sealed plastic bags.

Insurance papers for your

house and contents, cars

and for valuable items

Inventory of valuable

household goods

Wills and life insurance documents

House deeds/mortgage documents

Birth and marriage certificates

Passports/visa details

Stocks and bonds

Medicare, pension cards,

immunisation records

Bank account and credit card details

A back-up copy of important

computer files

Household Emergency Plan with

emergency contact numbers





Three days supply of non-perishable food - can opener, cooking gear, plates, utensils

Water purification tablets

Extra supplies of medication and sanitary supplies

Wide masking tape for windows

Tent or tarpaulin


Spare clothes

Portable stove with fuel

Spare batteries

Esky or gas/battery powered refrigerator


Body-worn camera

reduces police use of



Professional policing is one of the

great inventions of modernity.

Police are there to help people

feel safe. A police force is therefore a

vital institution in the realisation of

the fundamental democratic values of

freedom, security, safety and justice.

But, from time to time, incidents occur

that cause the public to challenge these

fundamental assumptions.

In light of the disturbing footage that

has emerged this week from CCTV

cameras showing Victoria Police

officers engaging in violent interactions

with members of the public (one, a

mentally ill pensioner who had refused

to comply with a request regarding

his welfare; the other, a robber armed

with a pair of scissors who was being

apprehended at the scene), questions

arise again about the police use of force

and accountability mechanisms that are

designed to prevent incidents such as


First, we need to acknowledge that

police in Australia are generally held

in high regard by the public. The

Productivity Commission reported

in 2016-17 that, nationally, 73.4% of

the adult Australian population were

“satisfied” or “very satisfied” with the

services provided by police.

The proportion was higher (83.6%) for

those who had had contact with police.

Of those, 76.1% of people “agreed” or

“strongly agreed” that police treat people

“fairly and equally”, and 86.6% of people

“agreed” or “strongly agreed” that police

perform their job professionally.

But this confidence is significantly

diminished when footage emerges

of police using what appears to be

excessive force, and even more so when

their notes of a particular incident do

not match the evidence provided by the


All this may change if body-worn

cameras (BWCs) are made compulsory

for all frontline officers. Victoria Police

is about to move in this direction.

Will this revolutionise the way police

behave, and the way the public engages

with them?

In 2015, former New South Wales Police

commissioner Andrew Scipione thought

only good could come of such an

initiative. He argued that BWCs would

keep police and the people they deal

with accountable.

He is not alone in thinking this way.

Research in the US has found that police

commands generally are of the view that

their officers will be more reluctant to

use excessive force in encounters with

the public if they are wearing BWCs.

A study in Florida found that the public,

too, thinks highly of BWCs, especially

in their ability to place a check on the

police use of force, and to enhance the

collection of evidence.

Let’s examine these assertions.

Over the last decade, most jurisdictions

in Australia have trialled BWCs with

frontline police officers. The results have

been largely positive: the NSW trial, for

example, was deemed “a great success”.

But the general consensus among

academics who have studied the

phenomenon is that BWCs are not the

key to reducing police use of excessive

force. A very useful analysis of the

international evidence concluded that

the presence of BWCs had no overall

effect on police use of force.

Indeed, when officers had the power

to choose to turn cameras off and

on, use of force rates were higher.

Also, researchers reported higher

rates of assaults on police presenting

with BWCs, which suggests that

their presence may actually provoke

aggressive conduct from the public

rather than calm it down.

But these same researchers also

concluded, in a related study, that BWCs

can reduce police use of force when an

officer’s discretion to turn cameras on or

off is minimised. They write:

BWCs ought to be switched on and

the recording announced to suspects

at early stages of police–public


While the risks and stresses placed on

police make criticism of them often

appear churlish, the clear implication of

the many inquiries into the conduct of

police is that they must be closely and

constantly monitored. The delegation of

authority to police to assess their own

use of force is no longer something that

can be applied solely on trust.

So will the drive to equip Australian

frontline police officers with compulsory

BWCs improve policing? Probably.

For a start, gathering evidence will

be considerably speedier and more

accurate in most circumstances.

The cameras will need to be operational

in all interactions and the rules

concerning turning them on and off

will need to be clear and well-regulated.

Recall, for example, that the camera

worn by American police officer

Mohamed Noor at the time of the

shooting of Australian woman Justine

Damond had not been activated.

But this is only the start. What also must

be determined, among other things, are

the protocols associated with the privacy

of those filmed, and with accessing and

storing the recorded material, ensuring

that it is tamper-proof, and warranting

that it will be available when requested

under Freedom of Information


And it should not be forgotten that true

police accountability is located in the

way operational codes are observed,

the practices of the relevant internal

and external review bodies, and in the

culture of every police organisation.

The new visibility provided by BWCs

will add a layer of transparency to

police activities. But this alone will not

be, and cannot be, the driver of greater


Rick Sarre

Adjunct Professor of Law and Criminal


University of South Australia

Article originally published on The









t’s normal for families to have difficulties

after a disaster. Sometimes it might not

be clear how problems are connected

with the disaster, especially if they

emerge long after the event.

Most families can become stronger

following a crisis, but first you need to

understand and deal with any issues.

Below are some common reactions a

family may experience after a disaster.

They can be immediate, or happen in

the medium term or long term.

Immediate effects

Some reactions may happen

immediately after the disaster and

continue for a few weeks.

• Afraid for each other’s safety away

from home.

• Nightmares or fear that another

disaster will occur.

• Anger about the fear and distress

the disaster has caused. Sometimes

this is directed at another family

member or at people outside the


• Loss of trust and confidence in

themselves and other people.

• Emotional turmoil, anger, guilt,

sadness, unpredictable behaviour or

unreasonable reactions.

• Insecurity in children shown

through behaviour such as bed

wetting, changes in eating and

sleeping habits or reverting to

behaviour they have outgrown.

• Difficulty communicating because

family members don’t know what

to say to each other or don’t feel like




Medium term effects

Changes which are not obviously related

to the disaster can happen weeks or

months after the event.

• Spouses/parents may be irritable

or intolerant, leading to friction

and misunderstanding between

themselves and their children.

• Children and teenagers can begin to

seek attention or act disobediently,

which usually means they are

anxious or fearful.

• Family members’ feelings for each

other may change as they become

more detached or preoccupied with

their own problems and reactions.

• Family members may try too hard

to help others and ignore their own


• Family members’ work or school

performance and concentration

levels may suffer.

• Spouses’ sexual relationship may


• Family members may lose interest

in leisure, recreation, sport or social


• Teenagers may look outside the

family for emotional support.

• Immediate post disaster responses

may continue or appear for the first


Long term effects

Sometimes problems become evident

for the first time, months or years after

the event, and often appear as everyday


• Memories of the disaster may come

back if family members are involved

in another crisis.

• Family members often need to

go over the events—perhaps

for months or years—to better

understand what has happened.

• People may find future disasters

harder to handle, particularly when

similar feelings occur.

• Family members may hide painful

feelings until things have returned

to normal, and only then show their


• Immediate or medium term effects

may occur as delayed reactions or

may become habits.

You should consider any major change

or problem in a family or for individuals

could be related to the disaster, even if it

happens a few years later.

These problems are all normal reactions

to an event that has affected the whole

family. A few ways to help your family

recover after a disaster include:

• Keep communicating—talk about

what is happening, how you each

feel and you need from each other

to avoid feeling alone, isolated and


• Share information—children,

teenagers and toddlers know

something is going on and the

reality is easier to deal with than the


• Do things together—make time for


• Keep family roles clear —don’t

let children to take on too much

responsibility for too long.

Understand if a family member

can’t fulfil their role and talk about

how they will resume it when they

are ready.

• Be active—tackle problems, seek

help, seek information and don’t let

issues develop.

• Look back—consider how everyone

has changed since the disaster.

Look for the ways it has influenced

everyone for better or worse.

• Express emotions—support

distressed family members and

give them time to understand their


• Seek external support—keep in

contact with support groups, other

family, friends, neighbours and

workmates. Make sure your family

doesn’t become isolated.

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You may need help if:

• communication in the family is breaking down

• parents don’t understand their children’s (or each

other’s) behaviour

• things aren’t improving over time

• a family member’s physical or emotional health is


• family members don’t enjoy being together.

If you’re concerned about yourself, your spouse, children or

parents talk to your general practitioner (GP), community

health centre or community mental health service.

Some GPs have additional training and expertise in mental

health. Search for a GP online or phone beyondblue on 1300

224 636.

Call a phone counselling service to talk about your feelings

and get information and advice.

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Ivano Bongiovanni

University of Glasgow

Originally published on The Conversation

Imagine you’re camping in the

Australian outback. Your friend falls and

breaks a leg, and you call Triple Zero

(000) – but you’re panicking, and can’t

remember which roads you took to the

rocky outcrop where the accident took


Getting help in this sort of situation may

soon be simpler, with Apple recently

announcing that the iOS 11.3 update

(available in coming months) will

support Advanced Mobile Location

technology (AML). With AML, when

an emergency call is made from a

mobile phone, the location of the caller

is automatically sent to the emergency

communication operator.

But one vital step is missing for this to

work in Australia. AML also has to be

supported by the operator that manages

the emergency communication service

in that country. At the moment, this

happens only in United Kingdom,

Estonia, Lithuania, Austria, Iceland,

Belgium, Ireland, Finland and New


In June 2017, the Australian government

announced that a request for tender

will be issued to deliver a new Triple

Zero (000) service (Telstra has been the

service provider since 1961).

This new service will need to support

location-based data, with AML

indicated as the preferred solution.


Further, the government indicated

that the new service will need to be

flexible enough to support alternative

technologies in the future.

The timing of the tender process

is currently not clear. Still, Apple’s

announcement means that the majority

of mobile phones around the world will

have AML by default – news welcomed

with enthusiasm by emergency

communication professionals.

Close to 100% of Android phone users

already have a similar setup, with AML

capability automatically incorporated

from July 2016 (from their Gingerbread

version onwards). Android’s AML is

called Emergency Location Service, or


Research by the Australian

Communications and Media Authority

shows that in Australia in 2017, around

70% of emergency calls came from

mobile phones, with 14% of Australians

making at least one call to Triple Zero

(000) between January and June 2017.

To dispatch the appropriate emergency

services (Police, Fire or Ambulance),

the emergency operator has to know the

caller’s location with an appropriate level

of accuracy.

This can be problematic, especially

in a situation of extreme distress, and

when the caller is unfamiliar with their

surroundings – for example, in a remote

area or where a street number is not

immediately visible.

To tackle this issue, in 2015 the Push

Mobile Location Identification (Push

MoLI) was introduced in Australia.

This system identifies the caller’s

location based on the proximity to

telecommunications cellular towers and

automatically sends it to the operator.

However, the Push MoLI only provides

an area within which the caller is

located. The accuracy of location largely

depends on the proximity to, and the

number of, nearby cell towers. In remote

regions, such area can have a radius of

up to 100 kilometres.

To address such issues, in 2014

Australia’s Triple Zero Awareness

Group launched Emergency+. Once

downloaded, the app uses a mobile

phone’s internal GPS to calculate

latitude and longitude and show

them on the screen. When prompted,

the emergency caller can read

their coordinates to the operator.

Emergency+ has already exceeded 1

million downloads.

Nonetheless, some limitations have

been highlighted. As of June 2017,

15.45 million Australian adults owned

a smartphone, which indicates that, at

best, not more than 6.5% of them have

the app.

Also, the process of reading one’s

latitude and longitude introduces

chances of human error, either by the


caller or the operator. Further, some

users may be unfamiliar with spelling

their coordinates from a mobile app

(e.g. the elderly). AML is intended to

address these issues.

The future of emergency

communication is expected to be

digital-friendly, flexible and diversified.

We can already see public

acknowledgement of the growing

importance of digital technologies for

emergency communications. In the

UK, the Merseyside Police has recently

launched an initiative for citizens to

report non-urgent crimes through social


However, it has been pointed out that

social media should not be considered

a replacement for more traditional

(and sometimes reliable) forms of


The National Emergency

Communication Working Group

- Australia and New Zealand

(NECWG-A/NZ) consists of Australia

and New Zealand representatives from

emergency service organisations, public

safety organisations, emergency call

persons (the initial triage points for

emergency callers, currently Telstra in

Australia and Spark in New Zealand)

and carrier representatives.

In 2014, NECWG-A/NZ produced the

Next Generation Triple Zero Strategy

(NG000). This document describes a

vision for a Next Generation Emergency

Call Service enabling:

(…) any person requiring emergency

assistance to use any device anywhere

anytime to connect to emergency


The vision consists of a multichannel

approach, with inter-operable systems

(allowing the different emergency

agencies to be connected upon a

single request) and that enables digital


Being proactive rather than reactive

is another focus for future Triple Zero

(000) and emergency communications.

This idea was described in a recent

report from NECWG-A/NZ working

with the Chair in Digital Economy at

QUT and Pricewaterhouse Coopers.

The emergency communication centre

envisaged in this report uses data

coming in from different sources (calls,

videos, SMS, social media, sensors, etc.)

and converts them into information

used to prepare for, and possibly

prevent, future emergencies. It has a

constant presence of staff members

from different emergency service and

public safety organisations, with profiles

ranging from data analysts to robotics

experts and more.

NECWG-A/NZ is currently working on

a roadmap to guide future development

across three key aspects of emergency

management: response, preparedness,

and prevention.

The Triple Zero (000) emergency service

has saved the lives of many Australians.

With the advent of digital technologies,

it is now ready for its “Next Generation”.

AML is the next step to accomplish.

Beyond, lie numerous possibilities for

a proactive emergency communication



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Police - Fire - Ambulance Triple Zero (000) 112 From Mobiles www.triplezero.gov.au

State Emergency Service (SES) 132 500


General Warnings 1900 969 922 www.bom.gov.au

Cyclone Warnings 1300 659 212 www.bom.gov.au/cyclone

Coastal Marine Warnings 1300 360 427 www.bom.gov.au/marine

Tsunami Threat Information 1300TSUNAMI www.bom.gov.au/tsunami


ABC Local Radio

ABC Local Radio Frequency Finder

Commercial Radio Australia





Standard Emergency Warning Signal (SEWS)


Health & Hospitals 13HEALTH www.health.gov.au

Road Closures 13 19 40 seek local/state road closure info


Energex 13 19 62 www.energex.com.au

Ergon 13 16 70 www.ergon.com.au


Telstra 132 203 www.telstra.com.au

Optus 13 13 44 www.optus.com.au


Wildlife Hotline 1300 130 372

RSPCA 1300 852 188

Disease Watch Hotline 1800 675 888

Lost/Missing Animals

Local RSPCA website










Fires Near Me App - Developed by the NSW Rural Fire Service it will

provide information about bushfires from participating fire agencies across

Australia. The app finds your location using a map and will give relevant information

around you. It also allows you to choose a location. The app also

provides information on total fire bans.

The Emergency+ app is a free app developed by Australia’s emergency

services and their Government and industry partners.

The app uses GPS functionality built into smart phones to help a Triple Zero

(000) caller provide critical location details required to mobilise emergency


Emergency AUS App - delivers warning and incident information issued

by official agencies across Australia. Providing you with real-time access to

official warnings, incident reports and public Sensory Observations to aid

in better decision making during emergencies and disasters. By bringing

together emergency information from over 25 emergency service agencies

and accessing observations submitted by the public

Triple Zero Kids Challenge App - Start playing and learn about what happens

when you call Triple 000. The online game is designed for children of

kindergarten and primary school age and consists of a number of safety scenarios.

The game is available in seven languages including English, Arabic,

Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai, Hindi and Dinka.

THE inviTaTion for frEE

brEasT scrEEning

noW covErs WomEn

UP T0 74

Early detection saves lives. If you’re aged 50-74 you should

be screened every two years. If you’re over 75, talk to your GP

to find out if breast screening is right for you.



australia.gov.au/breastscreen Call 13 20 50





Volunteering: Get the Facts

The State of Volunteering in

Australia report found that 93%

of people saw positive changes

as a result of their volunteering


Volunteers are inspired to be

involved in volunteering as it

allows them to give something

back to the community.

Volunteers are driven to volunteer

to make a difference.

Volunteers are motivated to

volunteer by a personal belief in

a cause or issue.



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