light! 004 | The car of the future

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<strong>light</strong>!<br />

by secpho<br />

THE CAR<br />





SMART<br />

SHARED<br />


SAFE<br />

FLYING<br />

#<strong>004</strong> · 2019 · €11.50

LIGHT! <strong>004</strong> | <strong>The</strong> vehicle <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong><br />

©2019 secpho<br />

Publishing<br />

secpho<br />

C/Milà i Fontanals, 14<br />

08012 Barcelona<br />

Tel.: +34 937 833 664 - +34 937 830 254<br />

www.secpho.org<br />

info@secpho.org<br />

Twitter: @SECPhO<br />

Instagram: @secpho_cluster<br />

Director<br />

Sergio Sáez<br />

Chief Editor<br />

Rosa M. Sánchez<br />

Art direction<br />

Carla Barceló<br />

Communication and advertising<br />

Andrea Sevilla<br />

Contents<br />

Volkswagen Navarre<br />

Nissan<br />

Álex Turpin · secpho<br />

Mikel Gómez · CEIT-IK4<br />

Creu Ibáñez · KDPOF<br />

Michele Manca · LEITAT<br />

Demetrio López · Alter Technology<br />

Rodrigo Linares · NIT<br />

Antonio Sánchez · ASORCAD<br />

Javier Bezares · BCB<br />

Ambroise Vandewynckèle, Patricia Blanco · AIMEN<br />

Mikel Bengoa · COHERENT | ROFIN<br />

Víctor Blanco · LASER 2000<br />

Marta Ávila · ALBA Synchrotron<br />

Translation<br />

Welocalize Life Sciences<br />

Dept. <strong>of</strong> Administration<br />

Mar Fernández<br />

Printer<br />

Novoprint<br />

Printed in Spain, June 2019<br />

Legal deposit: B-16984-2019<br />

ISSN 2604-9910 (digital edition)<br />

2 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

Editorial<br />

We have dreamed up <strong>the</strong> vehicle <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong> drawing on suggestions<br />

from both <strong>the</strong> small and large screen. In <strong>the</strong> 80s, we were excited to see<br />

how Michael Knight, star <strong>of</strong> Knight Rider, fought injustice by driving a<br />

high-tech <strong>car</strong>, <strong>the</strong> so-called KITT (Knight Industries Two Thousand), whose<br />

artificial intelligence made this autonomous vehicle <strong>the</strong> ideal co-pilot.<br />

<strong>The</strong> batmobile also attracted our attention with aerodynamics that imitated<br />

nature (a bat) and enhanced its tremendous speeds. Nature was<br />

also <strong>the</strong> inspiration for <strong>the</strong> gull-wing doors <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> DeLorean DMC-12;<br />

however, it wasn’t its design that fascinated us in Back to <strong>the</strong> Future, but<br />

its function as a time machine capable <strong>of</strong> disappearing in a shower <strong>of</strong><br />

sparks and reappearing amidst blue flashes.<br />

Science fiction has shaped our collective imagination, so that <strong>the</strong> real<br />

revolution <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> automotive industry seems to us to be represented by<br />

flying vehicles traveling through our city skies. And although <strong>the</strong> necessary<br />

technology already exists, regulation is <strong>the</strong> great obstacle for this<br />

innovation to be implemented; <strong>the</strong>refore <strong>the</strong> near <strong>future</strong> <strong>of</strong> this industry<br />

is aimed at providing efficient electric, autonomous and permanently<br />

connected <strong>car</strong>s.<br />

Whe<strong>the</strong>r it parks or lands, <strong>the</strong> vehicle <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong> is intrinsically linked<br />

to photonics. So <strong>the</strong> development strategies <strong>of</strong> automotive companies<br />

now involve <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> increasingly advanced sensors that aid autonomous<br />

driving, sophisticated laser systems and vision cameras that improve<br />

production and highly evolved communication systems that constantly<br />

connect traffic and infrastructure, among o<strong>the</strong>r innovative <strong>light</strong><br />

technologies.<br />

This new edition <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>! will drive you to <strong>the</strong> door <strong>of</strong> Spain’s leading<br />

experts in photonics applied to <strong>the</strong> automotive industry. Let <strong>the</strong>m steer<br />

you in <strong>the</strong> right direction.<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 3

Contents<br />

06<br />


VOLKSWAGEN NAVARRE: Volkswagen Navarre<br />

is opting for <strong>the</strong> latest developments in<br />

machine vision.<br />

34<br />



NIT: I3LASWELD ensures excellence in laser<br />

welding.<br />

08<br />

NISSAN: Nissan opens its innovation ecosystem<br />

to cooperate with all technological talent.<br />

36<br />

ASORCAD:<br />

portable.<br />

Smart manufacturing becomes<br />

10<br />

SECPHO: Photonic technologies drive <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

industry towards a bright <strong>future</strong>.<br />

39<br />

BCB: Leading solutions in <strong>the</strong>rmography, at<br />

<strong>the</strong> service <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Automotive Industry.<br />

18<br />

21<br />

24<br />

27<br />


CEIT: Ultra-short pulse lasers for automotive<br />

applications.<br />

KDPOF: Japanese <strong>car</strong>s surrender to Spanish<br />

plastic optical fibre communication systems.<br />

LEITAT: Smart glass that adapts to solar intensity.<br />

ALTER TECHNOLOGY: Automotive electronic<br />

components: <strong>the</strong> solution in New Space?<br />

43<br />

46<br />

51<br />

54<br />

AIMEN: Developments demanded by <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

industry.<br />

COHERENT | ROFIN: Innovative laser technology<br />

in electric <strong>car</strong> manufacturing.<br />

LASER 2000: High-power blue lasers, disruptive<br />

technology for <strong>the</strong> manufacture <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

vehicle <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong>.<br />

ALBA: <strong>The</strong> role <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alba Synchrotron in automotive<br />

challenges.<br />


<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 5



Volkswagen Navarra<br />

is opting for <strong>the</strong> latest<br />

developments in machine vision<br />

With an investment <strong>of</strong> 1.2 million euros, Volkswagen<br />

Navarre has launched an artificial vision tunnel with cutting-edge<br />

technology. Located in <strong>the</strong> Paint workshop, <strong>the</strong><br />

new installation uses <strong>the</strong> images captured by 30 cameras<br />

and 300,000 leds <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>ing distributed in four arcs to detect<br />

small irregularities in bodywork. <strong>The</strong> artificial vision<br />

tunnel is a pioneer facility for Volkswagen.<br />

All bodywork manufactured and painted in Volkswagen<br />

Navarre passes through <strong>the</strong> new installation, which is 9.5<br />

metres long, 4.1 metres tall and 4.4 metres wide. Each is<br />

examined for 18 seconds inside <strong>the</strong> artificial vision tunnel,<br />

where 5,400 photographs are obtained.<br />

"With <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> powerful ma<strong>the</strong>matical algorithms, <strong>the</strong><br />

computer searches <strong>the</strong> images obtained for possible<br />

imperfections in <strong>the</strong> reflection <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>, which would be<br />

imperfections on <strong>the</strong> bodywork", explains Amaya Novoa<br />

Grijalbo, <strong>of</strong> Paint Planning at Volkswagen Navarre.<br />

Thanks to this new detection system, able to appreciate<br />

details such as a drop <strong>of</strong> water or a fingerprint, paint polishing<br />

operators can see <strong>the</strong> detected imperfections on<br />

a screen, spending less time on <strong>the</strong>ir detection and thus<br />

reducing visual fatigue, which tends to increase with <strong>the</strong><br />

consecutive passage <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong> coloured <strong>car</strong> bodies.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> last six months, this commitment <strong>of</strong> Volkswagen<br />

Navarre to ongoing improvement and quality in <strong>the</strong> painting<br />

process has focused on adjusting all <strong>the</strong> detection<br />

parameters to <strong>the</strong> maximum, correctly defining <strong>the</strong> irregularities<br />

<strong>the</strong> system has to show. "This work requires periods<br />

<strong>of</strong> adjustment, but it is necessary to ensure that <strong>the</strong><br />

tunnel is as efficient as possible," adds Novoa.<br />

Francisco Rodríguez Funes, Paint Manager, explains that<br />

"<strong>the</strong> artificial vision tunnel allows us to increase <strong>the</strong> quality<br />

and capacity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> workshop, and also provides an<br />

opportunity to improve prior processes, as it provides us<br />

with a large quantity <strong>of</strong> information".<br />

6 LIGHT! by secpho<br />

From left to right, in front <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> artificial vision tunnel, Francisco<br />

Rodríguez Funes, Paint Manager; Amaya Novoa Grijalbo, Paint Planning;<br />

and Luis Bacaicoa Fernández, head <strong>of</strong> Production 6 metres<br />


Volkswagen Polo bodywork on its way<br />

through <strong>the</strong> artificial vision tunnel installed<br />

in <strong>the</strong> Paint workshop.<br />

LIGHT! by secpho 7

Nissan opens its innovation ecosystem to<br />

cooperate with technological talent<br />

Nissan Barcelona is opening its innovation ecosystem to<br />

multiple external agents. <strong>The</strong> company is currently collaborating<br />

with more than 230 agents –startups, universities,<br />

technology centres, clusters and investors, among o<strong>the</strong>rs,–<br />

in its industrial operations in Barcelona. This innovation<br />

programme is in line with <strong>the</strong> Nissan Europe strategy, at <strong>the</strong><br />

centre <strong>of</strong> which is <strong>the</strong> Nissan Europe Innovation Lab in Paris.<br />

This ecosystem <strong>of</strong> open innovation and permanent search<br />

for talent is part <strong>of</strong> Nissan's response to market demands and<br />

<strong>the</strong> challenges <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> automotive industry. Nissan is tackling<br />

<strong>the</strong>se challenges, not only from <strong>the</strong> perspective <strong>of</strong> marketing<br />

and sales, but also from <strong>the</strong> point <strong>of</strong> view <strong>of</strong> manufacturing,<br />

<strong>the</strong>reby covering <strong>the</strong> entire process. In this regard, some<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> main aspects <strong>of</strong> Nissan's work at <strong>the</strong> Barcelona plant<br />

seek to respond to challenges such as autonomous driving,<br />

Collaborative robots, 3D printing or<br />

virtual reality are some <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> solutions<br />

that Nissan uses to respond to <strong>the</strong> current<br />

challenges <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> automotive industry.<br />

digital connectivity and <strong>the</strong> growing number <strong>of</strong> zero emission<br />

vehicles. Thus, <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> collaborative robots and<br />

3D printing for some processes, <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> automatic<br />

trolleys (Automated Guided Vehicles -AGV-) to move materials<br />

in its factories, virtual reality and integrated flow<br />

management are just some examples.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Nissan Barcelona innovation ecosystem is committed<br />

to a dynamic and continuously growing environment,<br />

8 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

About Nissan in Spain<br />

ready to connect with <strong>the</strong> most agile and disruptive talent<br />

interested in joining its open innovation strategy.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Nissan Intelligent Mobility vision is already a reality today<br />

through electric vehicles such as <strong>the</strong> e-NV200 100% electric<br />

van and <strong>the</strong> LEAF. This Nissan icon continues to be <strong>the</strong> best<br />

selling electric <strong>car</strong> in <strong>the</strong> world with more than 380,000 units<br />

sold since its global launch in 2010. This Intelligent Mobility<br />

is focused on <strong>the</strong> creation <strong>of</strong> renewable energy and energy<br />

storage solutions, as well as on <strong>the</strong> application <strong>of</strong> Network<br />

Connected Vehicle systems (Vehicle-to-Grid V2G). Undoubtedly,<br />

<strong>the</strong> company's commitment is to invest in new energy<br />

solutions to transform not only <strong>the</strong> way we drive, but also<br />

<strong>the</strong> way we live.<br />

Nissan has five production centres in Spain, in Barcelona,<br />

Ávila and Cantabria, where it manufactures<br />

<strong>the</strong> NV200 van, both <strong>the</strong> combustion engine and<br />

<strong>the</strong> electric version, which is <strong>the</strong> most sold in Europe,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Navara pick-up and <strong>the</strong> NT400/Cabstar<br />

<strong>light</strong>weight truck. It also manufactures components<br />

for several plants <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi<br />

Alliance, has an R&D centre for all <strong>of</strong> Europe,<br />

a distribution hub and a spare parts centre.<br />

Barcelona hosts <strong>the</strong> commercial headquarters for<br />

Spain and Portugal, countries where Nissan leads<br />

electric mobility and <strong>the</strong> crossover segment, and<br />

has a network <strong>of</strong> more than 200 points <strong>of</strong> sale and<br />

after-sales covering <strong>the</strong> entire Iberian Peninsula. In<br />

Spain, Nissan employs 5,000 people.<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 9


SECPHO<br />


Photonic technologies are driving<br />

<strong>the</strong> automotive industry<br />

towards a bright <strong>future</strong><br />

Transportation was one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> great revolutions <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> twentieth<br />

century, completely changing <strong>the</strong> way we move around<br />

our environment. Given <strong>the</strong> great impact that motor vehicles<br />

have had on our lives, <strong>the</strong> automotive industry has always<br />

used <strong>the</strong> latest technological advances to improve both<br />

<strong>the</strong> characteristics <strong>of</strong> vehicles (safety, comfort, connectivity,<br />

efficiency, etc.) and <strong>the</strong>ir production processes. Key in <strong>the</strong><br />

development <strong>of</strong> large numbers <strong>of</strong> monitoring, image and metering<br />

devices, photonic technologies have become part <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> new revolution in <strong>the</strong> automotive industry, from two<br />

very different perspectives: 1) improvement in <strong>the</strong> quality<br />

and monitoring <strong>of</strong> production processes and 2) <strong>the</strong> development<br />

and implementation <strong>of</strong> autonomous, clean and more<br />

comfortable vehicles for <strong>the</strong> driver and passengers.<br />

Regarding improvement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> production chain, photonics<br />

is in an advantageous position compared to o<strong>the</strong>r technologies<br />

in areas such as monitoring <strong>the</strong> quality <strong>of</strong> processes<br />

by means <strong>of</strong> both standard and 3D imaging systems, or <strong>the</strong><br />

design and processing <strong>of</strong> materials by laser. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

hand, one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> challenges in clean vehicles is to create propulsion<br />

systems based on new materials, and to improve <strong>the</strong><br />

current systems for filtering vehicle particles based on fossil<br />

fuels; <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong> as a means <strong>of</strong> analysis is key in all <strong>the</strong>se<br />

challenges. <strong>The</strong> industry is also moving in <strong>the</strong> direction <strong>of</strong><br />

autonomous vehicles, and as smart as possible, for which<br />

<strong>the</strong>y need to use advanced high-speed imaging and data<br />

processing systems.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> photonic technologies most used in <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

industry is laser, especially as a tool for processing<br />

materials, which affects <strong>the</strong> entire vehicle, both exterior<br />

and interior. In particular, one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> current trends is to use<br />

materials that are more <strong>light</strong>weight, while still efficient and<br />

safe, and one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> most innovative approaches is <strong>the</strong> use<br />

<strong>of</strong> multi-material structures. <strong>The</strong> basic idea is to replace part<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> metal compounds used in <strong>the</strong> production processes<br />

with <strong>light</strong>er ones, while maintaining <strong>the</strong> resistance and reliability<br />

standards required by <strong>the</strong> industry, such as <strong>the</strong>rmoplastic<br />

compounds based on <strong>car</strong>bon fibre. In this sense, <strong>the</strong><br />

AIMEN technology centre is involved in <strong>the</strong> ComMunion project,<br />

using laser techniques for both <strong>the</strong> control and precise<br />

monitoring <strong>of</strong> material temperature, and for its high-speed<br />

cleaning and texturing.<br />

Progressing towards cleaner vehicles also requires more efficient<br />

manufacturing processes, in terms <strong>of</strong> energy, reliability<br />

and also speed <strong>of</strong> assembly. This is a perfect fit with <strong>the</strong><br />

opportunities provided by laser technology. <strong>The</strong> problem is<br />

that metal materials absorb very little energy at wavelengths<br />

at which lasers have traditionally performed best (typically<br />

in <strong>the</strong> near infrared with a wavelength <strong>of</strong> λ≈1μm). However,<br />

<strong>the</strong>re are some very attractive proposals for solving this<br />

problem, such as that <strong>car</strong>ried out by Coherent-R<strong>of</strong>in. With<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir FL-ARM system <strong>the</strong>y have redesigned <strong>the</strong> laser beam<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>ile to increase absorption <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> material at <strong>the</strong>se wavelengths<br />

by a controlled increase in its temperature. Ano<strong>the</strong>r<br />

LIGHT! <strong>light</strong>! by by SECPhO secpho 11

current trend to improve <strong>the</strong> efficiency <strong>of</strong> laser welding <strong>of</strong><br />

metal materials is <strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> systems that operate<br />

at short wavelengths (below blue, λ≈0.45μm), where<br />

<strong>the</strong> absorption <strong>of</strong> energy in metals is high and cutting precision<br />

is also greater. In Spain, AIMEN and Laser 2000 are<br />

leading <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> such laser welding technologies for <strong>the</strong><br />

automotive industry. Along <strong>the</strong>se lines, also remarkable is<br />

defect monitoring and laser welding geometry based on<br />

high speed infrared cameras developed (and validated by<br />

leading companies in <strong>the</strong> automotive sector, such as Volvo)<br />

by New Infrared Technologies, in collaboration with AIMEN.<br />

Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is also one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

cross-sectional technologies that has had most applications<br />

in <strong>the</strong> automotive industry, where it has been used<br />

for a long time, especially in prototyping. Although chain<br />

production is not expected to be completely based on 3D<br />

manufacturing in <strong>the</strong> near <strong>future</strong>, <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> this technology<br />

is expected to explode in <strong>the</strong> next few years as a low<br />

cost solution for <strong>the</strong> design and chain production <strong>of</strong> small<br />

parts where precision is <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> essence. In particular, laser<br />

metal deposition (LMD) is <strong>the</strong> standard method adopted by<br />

leading companies such as Volkswagen or Nissan, for both<br />

<strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> prototypes and for chain production.<br />

In order to accelerate <strong>the</strong> implementation <strong>of</strong> this technology,<br />

AIMEN is <strong>car</strong>rying out <strong>the</strong> INTEGRADDE project, with<br />

which it intends to create a control system for <strong>the</strong> parts<br />

produced during <strong>the</strong> entire process.<br />

Despite all <strong>the</strong>se advances in manufacturing processes<br />

and monitoring <strong>the</strong> quality <strong>of</strong> parts, <strong>the</strong>re is always a percentage<br />

<strong>of</strong> error that may require additional monitoring<br />

during <strong>the</strong> manufacturing process. In <strong>the</strong> automotive sector,<br />

a large number <strong>of</strong> metals are used, which are treated<br />

by different heat processes that give <strong>the</strong>m very particular<br />

properties. For this reason, any deviation from <strong>the</strong> expected<br />

temperature standards can ruin a whole part. Although<br />

all production processes are usually monitored by artificial<br />

vision, this does not precisely identify <strong>the</strong> temperature <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> material. Thus, complementary techniques such as <strong>the</strong>rmography<br />

(which analyses <strong>the</strong> temperature <strong>of</strong> a material<br />

at different points by remote measurement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> infrared<br />

radiation emitted) are making <strong>the</strong>ir way into <strong>the</strong> industry.<br />

This is where <strong>the</strong>y have focused part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir efforts at bcb,<br />

where <strong>the</strong>y have created a complete <strong>the</strong>rmographic monitoring<br />

ecosystem, bcbMonitor. Alternatively, in many cases<br />

it is necessary to test manufactured parts in situ, which requires<br />

additional portability and flexibility. In <strong>the</strong> case <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

automobile, it is not always easy to have a 3D measurement<br />

system that shows that parts have been manufactured<br />

without error. For this reason, portable, simple and reliable<br />

solutions are being sought that allow parts to be scanned<br />

in real time, which is what <strong>the</strong>y have done at AsorCad with<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir portable 3D scanning laser system.<br />

Away from <strong>the</strong> assembly line, one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> great revolutions <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> first half <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> 21st century, not only in <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

field but also in terms <strong>of</strong> technology and mobility in general,<br />

is expected to be <strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> autonomous <strong>car</strong>s, capable<br />

<strong>of</strong> navigating without <strong>the</strong> active participation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

driver. This means that <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong>s <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> near <strong>future</strong> must be<br />

equipped with smart vision that makes <strong>the</strong>m capable <strong>of</strong> detecting<br />

and identifying all <strong>the</strong> objects that surround <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

This implies <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> different types <strong>of</strong> sensors and vision<br />

systems, including 3D vision systems, where LiDAR (Light<br />

Detection and Ranging) has positioned itself as <strong>the</strong> best candidate<br />

to be "<strong>the</strong> eyes" <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong>s <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong>. In LiDAR,<br />

a pulsed laser scans <strong>the</strong> scene and, by measuring <strong>the</strong> time<br />

it takes for <strong>the</strong> <strong>light</strong> pulse to be reflected by <strong>the</strong> objects in<br />

<strong>the</strong> scene at different points, <strong>the</strong> 3D image can be reconstructed.<br />

This technology, combined with object identification<br />

algorithms, provides <strong>the</strong> possibility <strong>of</strong> autonomous and<br />

12 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

intelligent automobiles. However, LiDAR loses efficiency in<br />

conditions with bright environmental <strong>light</strong>ing and, in order<br />

to solve this problem, Beamagine have designed a LiDAR<br />

system capable <strong>of</strong> cancelling out ambient <strong>light</strong>, enabling it to<br />

operate at greater distances. In general, <strong>the</strong> LiDAR technology<br />

must be complemented with a large number <strong>of</strong> optical<br />

sensors that provide information about <strong>the</strong> distance to any<br />

obstacle, changing <strong>the</strong> tonality <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> rear-view mirrors in<br />

high ambient <strong>light</strong>, adjusting <strong>the</strong> direction <strong>of</strong> head<strong>light</strong>s, etc.<br />

All <strong>the</strong>se sensors will give rise to a very high flow <strong>of</strong> information,<br />

which must be transmitted at <strong>the</strong> fastest possible<br />

speed, as it is essential to ensure minimal reaction and decision-making<br />

times. <strong>The</strong> fastest physical means <strong>of</strong> communication<br />

available to date is fibre optic, however economic<br />

and resistant fibres are required so that it may be used by <strong>the</strong><br />

automotive sector. This is precisely <strong>the</strong> objective <strong>of</strong> KDPOF,<br />

which has already positioned itself as a leader in <strong>the</strong> sector<br />

thanks to <strong>the</strong> IEEE and JASPAR certifications, which will<br />

enable its communication systems to be assembled in both<br />

Europe and Japan.<br />

<strong>The</strong> current trends in <strong>the</strong> automotive sector seek not only<br />

clean and autonomous vehicles, but also <strong>the</strong> creation <strong>of</strong><br />

spaces where driver and passengers feel comfortable in all<br />

possible situations. One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> options that have been explored<br />

during recent years is to incorporate projection systems<br />

in windscreens, showing any alert, speed, route map,<br />

etc. so that <strong>the</strong> driver does not have to look away from <strong>the</strong><br />

road. If we add to this a system for detection and classification<br />

<strong>of</strong> gestures, we could ensure that it is practically never<br />

necessary to take our hands <strong>of</strong>f <strong>the</strong> steering wheel, thus increasing<br />

<strong>the</strong> safety <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> vehicle.<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>light</strong>ing <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> vehicle also plays a very important role in<br />

<strong>the</strong> comfort <strong>of</strong> passengers. <strong>The</strong>refore, <strong>car</strong>s increasingly incorporate<br />

a greater variety <strong>of</strong> interior <strong>light</strong>ing systems that<br />

adapt to <strong>the</strong> requirements <strong>of</strong> passengers and outdoor <strong>light</strong>ing<br />

conditions. To achieve <strong>the</strong> most natural <strong>light</strong>ing possible,<br />

materials that precisely disseminate <strong>light</strong> are needed and, as<br />

an example, CEIT has been working on <strong>the</strong> design <strong>of</strong> materials<br />

by laser processing to generate zones with different<br />

<strong>light</strong>ing tonalities <strong>The</strong> Leitat Technological Centre seeks to<br />

control <strong>the</strong> amount <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong> entering <strong>the</strong> vehicle, through <strong>the</strong><br />

design <strong>of</strong> smart windows that adapt <strong>the</strong>ir opacity to <strong>the</strong> exterior<br />

conditions and thus prevent <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong> from overheating.<br />

Finally, we must not forget that one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> main sources <strong>of</strong><br />

innovation in <strong>the</strong> industry is <strong>the</strong> design, characterisation and<br />

testing <strong>of</strong> new materials. While many <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tests, such as<br />

mechanical or chemical tests, can be <strong>car</strong>ried out in companies'<br />

own research centres, more precise and detailed tests<br />

require <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> cutting-edge technology. This is precisely<br />

what synchrotron <strong>light</strong>, such as that generated in <strong>the</strong> ALBA<br />

Synchrotron, provides, enabling <strong>the</strong> study <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> behaviour<br />

<strong>of</strong> catalysts for contaminating gases or <strong>the</strong> structure <strong>of</strong> new<br />

materials, for example.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se are some examples <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> implementation <strong>of</strong> photonic<br />

technologies in <strong>the</strong> automotive sector, which represents<br />

10% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> GDP and 19% <strong>of</strong> total exports, and which has always<br />

been an area where Spain has been a leader in <strong>the</strong> sector,<br />

as <strong>the</strong> 2nd largest <strong>car</strong> manufacturer in Europe (source:<br />

InvestSpain). This, toge<strong>the</strong>r with <strong>the</strong> key position <strong>of</strong> photonics<br />

in Spain, ensures a bright <strong>future</strong> for <strong>the</strong> photonic-automotive<br />

alliance in <strong>the</strong> coming years.<br />

In Spain, research centres and companies that are experts<br />

in photonics and are playing a vital role in <strong>the</strong> application <strong>of</strong><br />

photonic solutions for <strong>the</strong> automotive industry can be found<br />

in <strong>the</strong> following areas:<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 13


SECPHO<br />

01<br />

02<br />

Innovative solutions for driving support<br />

Innovative solutions for manufacturing<br />

TRL 5- Technology validated in a relevant environment<br />

(relevant industrial environment in <strong>the</strong> case <strong>of</strong><br />

key enabling technologies -KET-).<br />

<strong>The</strong> following table shows <strong>the</strong> position in <strong>the</strong> value chain<br />

(by TRL) <strong>of</strong> each <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> experts, according to <strong>the</strong>ir capabilities<br />

and technologies applied to <strong>the</strong> four areas. <strong>The</strong> "S" has<br />

also been added to show that it is a service.<br />

In order to show <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> maturity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> technologies<br />

and advances presented here, <strong>the</strong>y have been assigned a<br />

value from 0 to 9 in accordance with <strong>the</strong>ir TRL (Technology<br />

Readiness Level):<br />

TRL 1 - Basic principles studied.<br />

TRL 6- Technology demonstrated in a relevant environment<br />

(relevant industrial environment in <strong>the</strong> case<br />

<strong>of</strong> key enabling technologies -KET-).<br />

TRL 7- Prototype demonstration in an operational environment.<br />

TRL 8- Complete, qualified system.<br />

TRL 9- Actual system tested in an operating environment<br />

(competitive manufacturing in <strong>the</strong> case <strong>of</strong> key<br />

enabling technologies -KET-).<br />

TRL 2- Technological concept formulated.<br />

TRL 3- Experimental pro<strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong> concept.<br />

TRL 4- Technology validated in <strong>the</strong> laboratory<br />

Álex Turpin<br />

Scientific Consultant<br />


SECTOR<br />





PORT<br />

ALBA<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

ICFO<br />

CVC<br />

KDPOF<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

IMASE-<br />

NIC<br />

CVC<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

IMASE-<br />

NIC<br />

CEIT<br />


CVC<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />



CEIT<br />

BEAMAG-<br />

INE<br />


INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />


CEIT<br />





KDPOF<br />


PONTI<br />

ZABALA<br />


ALTER<br />



FOR<br />


ING<br />

CO-<br />

HER-<br />

ENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />

CO-<br />

HER-<br />

ENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />

CO-<br />

HER-<br />

ENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

CO-<br />

HER-<br />

ENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

IMASE-<br />

NIC<br />

CEIT<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

AIMEN<br />

COHER-<br />

ENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />

IMASE-<br />

NIC<br />

CEIT<br />

CVC<br />

COHER-<br />

ENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

AIMEN<br />

ATRIA<br />



CEIT<br />

INPHO-<br />

TECH<br />

AIMEN<br />

COHER-<br />

ENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />


CEIT<br />

COHERENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />


BCB<br />


LASER 2000<br />

COHERENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />

AMS TECH-<br />


AIMEN<br />

NIT<br />





COHERENT |<br />

ROFIN<br />


ZABALA<br />

PONTI<br />

ALTER<br />


See detail on <strong>the</strong> map <strong>of</strong> photonic experts (page 57)<br />

14 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

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<strong>the</strong> best invention<br />

<strong>of</strong> humanity<br />

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and sharing ideas can<br />

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Support<br />

for driving


CEIT<br />

Ultrashort<br />

pulse lasers<br />

for automotive applications<br />

Many times great innovations happen in <strong>the</strong> smallest <strong>of</strong><br />

details. Details that produce special comfort, that lead to<br />

a better interior or exterior finish or that reduce friction<br />

enough to save on fuel. One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tools being implemented<br />

in industrial production processes (and also in <strong>the</strong> automobile)<br />

is <strong>the</strong> laser tool.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se tools have been used for a long time for welding processes,<br />

but <strong>the</strong>y are increasingly being used in o<strong>the</strong>r industrial<br />

applications: drilling and cutting <strong>of</strong> materials, surface<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmal treatments, control <strong>of</strong> mechanical properties, joining<br />

dissimilar materials, etc.<br />

Within <strong>the</strong> wide variety <strong>of</strong> laser sources available on <strong>the</strong><br />

market, <strong>the</strong> most modern are known as ultrashort or femtosecond<br />

pulse sources. <strong>The</strong> main characteristic <strong>of</strong> processes<br />

with ultrashort pulse is <strong>the</strong> almost zero <strong>the</strong>rmal affectation.<br />

It is in <strong>the</strong> specific case <strong>of</strong> femtosecond pulses, which<br />

have a duration <strong>of</strong> around 10-15 seconds, that this characteristic<br />

manifests itself in all its potential.<br />

<strong>The</strong> energy emitted by <strong>the</strong> laser is transmitted in such a<br />

short space <strong>of</strong> time that it cannot be dissipated from <strong>the</strong><br />

electron network through <strong>the</strong> atoms, thus producing a direct<br />

transition from solid state to gas, that is, sublimation<br />

without producing any <strong>the</strong>rmal change in <strong>the</strong> rest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

material.<br />

<strong>The</strong> main result <strong>of</strong> this ultra-fast process is <strong>the</strong> ability to<br />

perform processes with a very high resolution that could<br />

only be dreamed <strong>of</strong> just a few years ago but is now available<br />

to end users: resolutions in <strong>the</strong> one micrometre range<br />

are achievable in most processes, falling to 0.2 in <strong>the</strong> case<br />

<strong>of</strong> superficial processes.

Ceit has been working on femtosecond lasers for more than<br />

ten years, and specialises in developing industrial applications<br />

that tap into <strong>the</strong> capabilities <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se lasers. In terms<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> automotive sector, here are two specific applications<br />

that we have developed:<br />

01<br />

Modification <strong>of</strong> plastic elements for <strong>the</strong><br />

generation <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>ing effects. Currently, ergonomics<br />

in <strong>the</strong> interior <strong>of</strong> automobiles is<br />

becoming a requirement for all new models that manufacturers<br />

launch on <strong>the</strong> market. As part <strong>of</strong> this drive for ergonomics,<br />

<strong>the</strong> interior <strong>light</strong>ing <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> passenger compartment<br />

is a very demanded effect, since <strong>the</strong> aim is to adapt it to<br />

each type <strong>of</strong> driver, different exterior <strong>light</strong>ing (night vs. day)<br />

or even different areas inside <strong>the</strong> passenger compartment.<br />

In this respect, one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> effects most sought after by manufacturers<br />

is to illuminate <strong>the</strong> interior from <strong>the</strong> ro<strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>car</strong> with diffuse <strong>light</strong>, to generate a sense <strong>of</strong> comfort for all<br />

occupants without adversely affecting driving. This effect<br />

is achieved using <strong>light</strong> sources <strong>of</strong> different colours (usually<br />

LEDs) depending on <strong>the</strong> selected mode (night, day, sports,<br />

comfort, etc.), and projecting it through a sheet <strong>of</strong> transparent<br />

material that diffuses it to specific parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> ceiling.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> case <strong>of</strong> wanting to project <strong>light</strong>s <strong>of</strong> different colours<br />

simultaneously, one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> problems that arises is <strong>the</strong> need<br />

to use different sheets and separate <strong>the</strong>m to ensure that<br />

each colour is used just where it should and nowhere else.<br />

In a sector like <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong> industry where investments are always<br />

very tight, this can represent an unacceptable level <strong>of</strong><br />

spending, yet <strong>the</strong> femtosecond laser can provide an economically<br />

viable solution. By managing to modify <strong>the</strong> interior<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se sheets without affecting <strong>the</strong>ir structural integrity,<br />

it is possible to separate <strong>the</strong>ir different zones by forming internal<br />

barriers to introduce several colours simultaneously.<br />

Alternatively, instead <strong>of</strong> processing <strong>the</strong> sheet to generate<br />

barriers, arbitrary shapes can be generated and, since <strong>the</strong>se<br />

are illuminated on contact with <strong>light</strong>, <strong>the</strong>y can serve as ornamental<br />

motifs that change colour depending on <strong>the</strong> <strong>light</strong><br />

source used.<br />

02<br />

Controlled micro/nanotexturing <strong>of</strong> injection<br />

moulds to generate patterns on <strong>the</strong>ir surface,<br />

which are transmitted to <strong>the</strong> final piece in <strong>the</strong><br />

injection process. Different properties can thus be given to<br />

plastic end pieces, ranging from optical effects (ornamentation)<br />

to properties such as hydrophobicity or anti-fingerprint<br />

effects (oleophobicity).<br />

Iridisations produced by <strong>the</strong> micro/nanostructures generated in a<br />

mould insert processed with femtosecond lasers.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se are just two examples that show <strong>the</strong> potential <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> femtosecond laser and its application in <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

sector. If we also consider that, once <strong>the</strong> initial<br />

investment is made, <strong>the</strong> expense in fungibles, masks and<br />

materials is almost nil, and that this technology respects<br />

<strong>the</strong> environment without needing chemicals or abrasives<br />

like o<strong>the</strong>r alternative technologies do, we believe that in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong> ultrashort pulse lasers will play a leading role<br />

in manufacturing processes in which precision and quality<br />

are <strong>the</strong> key to innovation.<br />

Mikel Gómez<br />

Advanced Manufacturing Group Investigator,<br />

Powder metallurgy and Laser<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 19

Optical Semiconductors for Automotive<br />

Applications<br />

Photodiodes & IR LED’s<br />

Rain & Sun Sensor<br />

3D Sensor<br />

Park Assist or<br />

Gesture Recognition<br />

Ambient Light Sensor<br />

Intelligent Head<strong>light</strong>s<br />

COMFORT &<br />


Si APD & Laser Diode<br />

LIDAR Scanner<br />

Ambient Light<br />

Sensor<br />

Dimming Mirrors<br />

<strong>The</strong>rmopiles<br />

C0 2 Detection<br />

SAFE & GREEN<br />

<strong>The</strong>rmopile Arrays<br />

Occupant Detection &<br />

Auto Climate Control<br />

Smart Sensor<br />

Proximity Switch<br />

including LEDs for HMI<br />

Hamamatsu <strong>of</strong>fers a wide range <strong>of</strong> compact, flexible,<br />

and reliable optical sensors for:<br />

• Information Systems: Such as MOST25 & 150, Car-to-X communication, eg VICS<br />

• Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS): Head-up display (HUD), illumination/RGB colour sensors<br />

for automatic head<strong>light</strong> control, automatic anti-glare mirrors, interior <strong>light</strong>ing control and rain sensing<br />

• Vehicle Safety Systems: Laser radar detection, steering/angle sensing and 3D time-<strong>of</strong>-f<strong>light</strong> imaging<br />

• Automatic Climate Control: Such as Sun load sensing<br />

• Driver Interface: Such as jog dials

KDPOF<br />


Japanese <strong>car</strong>s surrender<br />

to Spanish plastic fibre optic<br />

communication systems<br />

<strong>The</strong> standard designed by KDPOF passes <strong>the</strong> strict tests <strong>of</strong><br />

JASPAR, <strong>the</strong> organisation which includes companies such as<br />

Toyota, Honda and Nissan.<br />

POF<br />

Knowledge Development<br />

To identify <strong>future</strong> challenges for <strong>the</strong> automotive sector<br />

and look for possible solutions in order to standardise<br />

<strong>the</strong>m and mitigate <strong>the</strong> impact <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se problems. This is<br />

<strong>the</strong> goal <strong>of</strong> JASPAR (Japan Automotive S<strong>of</strong>tware Platform<br />

and Architecture), <strong>the</strong> Japanese organisation that represents<br />

more than 220 companies in <strong>the</strong> sector, among<br />

which are <strong>the</strong> main <strong>car</strong> manufacturers and suppliers, such as<br />

Toyota, Honda, Mazda and Nissan, among o<strong>the</strong>rs.<br />

And it is precisely this platform that has just given a great<br />

boost to <strong>the</strong> Spanish company KDPOF (Knowledge Development<br />

for Plastic Optical Fibres), by passing strict operational<br />

performance tests with its patented communication<br />

system for <strong>the</strong> transmission and receipt <strong>of</strong> information at<br />

Gigabit speed.<br />

With <strong>the</strong> KD1053 integrated circuit, <strong>the</strong> Spanish company<br />

that was established in 2010 and just over two years<br />

ago became <strong>the</strong> E<strong>the</strong>rnet standard for plastic fibre optic<br />

according to <strong>the</strong> ETSI (European Telecommunications<br />

Standards Institute) and <strong>the</strong> IEEE (Institute <strong>of</strong> Electrical<br />

and Electronics Engineers), has taken a giant step<br />

in <strong>the</strong> automotive sector, especially in relation to<br />

<strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> connected autonomous vehicles.<br />

This type <strong>of</strong> vehicle, which all makes are<br />

working on, requires an increase in sensors<br />

and connected devices, which is generating<br />

electromagnetic problems that hinder communications<br />

and cause serious inefficiencies.<br />

Plastic fibre optic systems come into play<br />

here: <strong>the</strong>ir use is fundamental to facilitating<br />

<strong>the</strong> connectivity <strong>of</strong> all <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong>'s digital elements.<br />

"<strong>The</strong> KDPOF optical network solution<br />

greatly improves <strong>the</strong> speed <strong>of</strong> automotive<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 21

networks and has gone beyond <strong>the</strong> obsolete protocols <strong>of</strong><br />

previous networks," said Hideki Goto, head <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Next<br />

Generation High-Speed Network working group at JAS-<br />

PAR and a group manager at Toyota.<br />

Goto points out that this technology is <strong>the</strong> "ideal" for <strong>future</strong><br />

network infrastructures in vehicles, as it enables wiring<br />

that can be deployed along with electric wring, as it<br />

does not conduct electricity and, <strong>the</strong>refore, meets <strong>the</strong> prerequisites<br />

related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).<br />

Exam passed<br />

Among <strong>the</strong> numerous tests to which <strong>the</strong> plastic fibre optic<br />

solution <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Spanish company has been subjected,<br />

emission and immunity tests are included to guarantee<br />

that it will not disturb <strong>the</strong> environment with electromagnetic<br />

interference. Likewise, it has also passed different<br />

extreme temperature tests, referring both to <strong>the</strong> plastic<br />

fibre optic standard in <strong>the</strong> automotive sector and that <strong>of</strong><br />

optical connectors pursuant to <strong>the</strong> ISO 21111-4CD standard.<br />

In addition, among <strong>the</strong> tests related to electromagnetic<br />

compatibility, JASPAR has <strong>car</strong>ried out tests on radiated<br />

and conducted emissions (in order to check <strong>the</strong> disturbances<br />

that voltage and current can cause).<br />

Current injection (BCI) tests, and tests on immunity to radiated<br />

radio frequency fields have also been performed,<br />

as well as on electrostatic discharges (ESD) and transient<br />

pulses.<br />

<strong>The</strong> KD1053 solution has met all standards with a considerable<br />

margin. Thus, Hideki Goto is satisfied with <strong>the</strong><br />

results <strong>of</strong> this project, because <strong>the</strong> main objective <strong>of</strong> JAS-<br />

PAR is "to generate an environment that allows <strong>the</strong> Japanese<br />

automotive sector to cooperate and fur<strong>the</strong>r boost<br />

innovation".<br />

Already integrated in <strong>future</strong> models<br />

This acknowledgment by <strong>the</strong> Japanese motor vehicle sector<br />

is added to that <strong>of</strong> a giant, in this case a German multinational.<br />

In just over a year, <strong>the</strong> battery management systems<br />

<strong>of</strong> its hybrid and electric models will already have<br />

KDPOF plastic optical fibre for all its communications.<br />

<strong>The</strong> impulse <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> plastic optical fibre from this Spanish<br />

company is more than type approved and pro<strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong> this, as<br />

Ós<strong>car</strong> Ciordia, its marketing manager, points out, is <strong>the</strong><br />

fact that <strong>the</strong>y are also working with o<strong>the</strong>r OEMs (original<br />

equipment manufacturers), for <strong>future</strong> launches, after<br />

2020.<br />

Creu Ibáñez<br />

Journalist<br />

22 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

L3CAM<br />

Reimagine lidar imaging<br />

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Ipimis auciis popoporen Video dium incla and mo verobse 3D vision ium tem re con Full ti in solid state system<br />

sesseder laturitidin diisqui solutions ditiacrum for ors aur. any kind with high resolution in<br />

<strong>of</strong> autonomous vehicle real time<br />

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tastrum eore cotis vehem ellabem.<br />

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commora? Nam o erte rem dit. Locaetra? Nihilis et vicum<br />

intimmo vit, cultodi, norum interit num fuit.<br />

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nes horum opublium pere et que faudam inu vid ia<br />

vicio vit, quam ent, am prae puliis me num que niquam<br />

re facteritius fur. Hui int.<br />

Ovemus. Cupplic ienteriame moereis facervi veribemurem.<br />

Fuit. Gilissuli cast a vatis cae te facris los, quosses<br />

terfirm ilistrei se aturs reis ve, ne interis ad clut<br />

furidemo itus, nostant, C. Castrist quiu sendiur quo<br />

vidertene con tifectorem cenimus, in sederem ignocati<br />

consulin ne que consus, nonsule simisquost vemustre<br />

coni sa Serudes, me nihi, quidenihi, Catimur, untis hilium<br />

acchilia videndeliis vis. Graed furenat iliceret cer<br />

iam medelin pra atereis vividet iace peri, ur a vis C. Fuiur,<br />

teres hebatuus opone cam<br />

Hit faciaspit hil minum ut exeriorit, nihit fugias eatempo ritatibus milit ut et ma qui delitior sequatus am faccaepratur<br />

min enis sim quos si a sectas exped eatem quae dem iditi deritib ustius volupiendame num reprovid<br />

quamus exped quunte et omnis conet expliquam, sinctorere mi, consedi ut et ommoluptae doluptat.<br />

Perferissim num hilluptate voluptat veliqui tem faceatur, sumquodit volupid endamusa vendebitatin remolup ientibe<br />

aruntia ant intias atiae voloreium voles sequide rchicima quostio expernatur, to is dipiend elicabores atem<br />

eum hillabo. Nam veligen ihiliatianis mi, ulpa et harum aliquis ciamet faccupis rerum, que veliquam volest volorem<br />

fugia seque modis aut ute rerit ut voluptatem quidebi sincto magnimodio. Olore vendernatur?<br />

Contact Voluptae for details: comnimo luptati dempores ut quid quid enis atur, ipit, quatis necusaerum haribus trumquam sam sus<br />

info@beamagine.com<br />

www.beamagine.com<br />

+34 659 706 005<br />

LIGHT! by SECPhO 23<br />

+34 648 773 478


LEITAT<br />

Smart glass<br />

that adapts to solar radiation<br />

Vehicle designers consider it an essential<br />

requirement to ensure an<br />

adequate level <strong>of</strong> comfort inside <strong>the</strong><br />

passenger compartment. For this<br />

purpose, <strong>the</strong>rmal and visual comfort<br />

conditions are particularly relevant. A<br />

clear example is <strong>the</strong> unpleasant situation<br />

when getting into a vehicle that<br />

has been parked in <strong>the</strong> sun for a few<br />

hours; or also, <strong>the</strong> effect <strong>of</strong> glare in<br />

low <strong>light</strong> conditions. <strong>The</strong> market provides<br />

glass for <strong>car</strong>s that is designed as<br />

a compromise between extreme climates,<br />

but that is unable to regulate<br />

<strong>light</strong> and heat intensity in particular<br />

cases.<br />

This problem can be solved thanks to<br />

<strong>the</strong> implementation <strong>of</strong> a new generation<br />

<strong>of</strong> intelligent glass able to automatically<br />

adapt to wea<strong>the</strong>r conditions<br />

and regulate <strong>the</strong> intensity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> solar<br />

radiation that reaches <strong>the</strong> interior.<br />

This glass, technically called "plasmochromic",<br />

is based on <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> a new<br />

technology that enables constant regulation<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> visible and <strong>the</strong>rmal radiation<br />

passing through <strong>the</strong> glass, after<br />

<strong>the</strong> application <strong>of</strong> a small electrical<br />

potential.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se two magnitudes (visible and<br />

infrared <strong>light</strong>) directly affect energy<br />

consumption inside <strong>the</strong> vehicle and<br />

<strong>the</strong> comfort <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> occupants. This<br />

new plasmochromic technology is<br />

based on <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> intelligent nanomaterials<br />

that selectively filter <strong>the</strong><br />

intensity <strong>of</strong> incident radiation after<br />

being interconnected with a sensor<br />

system that constantly determines<br />

solar radiation values, maximising<br />

comfort and minimising energy expenditure.<br />

It is thus possible to regulate<br />

<strong>the</strong> intensity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmal radiation<br />

by letting <strong>the</strong> heat <strong>car</strong>ried by <strong>the</strong> sun's<br />

rays in winter pass through and rejecting<br />

it in <strong>the</strong> summer without compromising<br />

<strong>the</strong> transparency <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> glass.<br />

This functionality is an absolute novelty<br />

in <strong>the</strong> field <strong>of</strong> smart window technologies,<br />

considering that infrared radiation<br />

accounts for 53% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> energy transmitted<br />

by solar rays.<br />

Researchers at <strong>the</strong> LEITAT Technological<br />

Centre, in collaboration with Istituto<br />

Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), are working<br />

on <strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> this technology<br />

in <strong>the</strong> framework <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> SUNDANCING<br />

project, with <strong>the</strong> support <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Regional<br />

Government <strong>of</strong> Catalonia's Agency<br />

for <strong>the</strong> Business Competitiveness (AC-<br />

CIÓ). <strong>The</strong> objective is to develop interfacial<br />

dynamic glass prototypes with IoT<br />

digital control systems. In <strong>the</strong> not so<br />

distant <strong>future</strong>, <strong>car</strong>s will have glass capable<br />

<strong>of</strong> recording <strong>the</strong> changing physiological<br />

demands <strong>of</strong> drivers in real time<br />

and smartly adapting to prevent and reduce<br />

distractions and accidents.<br />

Michele Manca<br />

LEITAT Technological Centre<br />

Energy & Engineering Department<br />

"Plasmochromic" glass prototype<br />

made by LEITAT and IIT researchers<br />

24 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

Connecting Global Competence<br />




Contact: FIRAMUNICH, S. L.<br />

Tel. +34 93 488 1720<br />

info@fi ramunich.com<br />

JUNE 23–27, 2019, MESSE MÜNCHEN<br />

24th International Congress on Photonics in Europe—<br />

collocated with LASER World <strong>of</strong> PHOTONICS 2019<br />




Electronic<br />

components for motor vehicles:<br />

<strong>the</strong> solution in New Space?<br />

<strong>The</strong> space industry is becoming an increasingly competitive<br />

sector, requiring systems with better performance at a<br />

lower cost. This is particularly applicable to small satellites<br />

and what is now known as New Space. This trend has consequences<br />

at all levels <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> production chain, including<br />

<strong>the</strong> selection, acquisition and verification <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> electronic<br />

components used.<br />

<strong>The</strong> certified components available for space applications<br />

are not able to meet <strong>the</strong> needs <strong>of</strong> current missions, ei<strong>the</strong>r<br />

because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir cost or because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir limited availability,<br />

lack <strong>of</strong> new functionalities, degree <strong>of</strong> miniaturisation,<br />

etc. This is especially true for optoelectronic devices for<br />

which <strong>the</strong>re is no space-qualified component, when photonic<br />

technologies are a clear driver <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> new generation<br />

<strong>of</strong> space systems.<br />

Optoelectronic devices (LEDs, photodetectors, fibre optics,<br />

etc.) have not only begun to be used recurrently in space,<br />

but also classic components (such as solar sensors, CMOS<br />

cameras, etc.) are becoming key elements for success <strong>of</strong><br />

various instruments and missions.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are well-known advantages to using <strong>the</strong>se photonic<br />

technologies in space, such as <strong>the</strong> limited generation <strong>of</strong><br />

noise, electromagnetic immunity, mass reduction, greater<br />

bandwidth and great ability to multiplex signals, enabling a<br />

high volume <strong>of</strong> data transmission, etc. Undoubtedly, all this<br />

makes its use very attractive. However, we must first overcome<br />

<strong>the</strong> lack <strong>of</strong> availability <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se qualified components<br />

for this sector.<br />

ALTER TECHNOLOGY GROUP has developed extensive<br />

experience and knowledge in <strong>the</strong> encapsulation<br />

and verification <strong>of</strong> opto-electronic devices,<br />

covering <strong>the</strong> full range <strong>of</strong> technologies and devices,<br />

such as:<br />

• Laser & LEDs 250 to 5000 nm<br />

• Recipient modules (180 to 11000 nm)<br />

• Amplifiers and optical modulators<br />

• Switches and dividers<br />

• Optocouplers and photodiodes<br />

• Multimode and single mode optic fibres<br />

• Liquid crystal devices<br />

• Image sensors<br />

• Optical transceivers<br />

• MOEMS<br />

Likewise, electronic components designed for o<strong>the</strong>r industrial<br />

applications, such as <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong> industry, are beginning<br />

to show high levels <strong>of</strong> reliability when <strong>the</strong>y are<br />

produced in large volumes and when <strong>the</strong>y are subject<br />

to dedicated rating schemes (e.g. AEC Q), and <strong>the</strong>ir use<br />

could be a solution to <strong>the</strong> problems described above for<br />

<strong>the</strong> space sector. However, <strong>the</strong>re is still a significant distance<br />

between space requirements and <strong>the</strong> potential reliable<br />

use <strong>of</strong> parts not designed for this sector.<br />

<strong>The</strong> AEC (www.aecouncil.com) was created in <strong>the</strong> nineties,<br />

as a result <strong>of</strong> several discussions among leading automotive<br />

manufacturers: DELCO Electronics, Chrysler,<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 27

Ford, etc. Its impetus was mainly due to <strong>the</strong> difficulties <strong>the</strong>y<br />

faced in obtaining certified electronic parts to meet <strong>the</strong><br />

needs <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir sector, with <strong>the</strong> aim <strong>of</strong> achieving a common<br />

certification scheme. With <strong>the</strong>se considerations in mind,<br />

<strong>the</strong> AEC Q100 standard (Qualification test for integrated<br />

circuits) was developed, which today involves more than<br />

twenty recognised automotive equipment suppliers and<br />

more than thirty electronic component manufacturers.<br />

<strong>The</strong> qualification flow that was designed is robust and<br />

covers <strong>the</strong> types <strong>of</strong> degradation mechanisms attributable<br />

to components during a standard automotive application.<br />

However, if we compare <strong>the</strong>se requirements with <strong>the</strong> standards<br />

used in Europe for space, <strong>the</strong> ESCC system (www.<br />

escies.org/specfamily/View), <strong>the</strong>re are not only some differences<br />

associated with <strong>the</strong> test flows and sample sizes used,<br />

but also some key differential elements:<br />

<strong>The</strong> "third party" function is missing to manage and<br />

monitor <strong>the</strong> rating process. <strong>The</strong> ratings in <strong>the</strong> ECSS<br />

system are maintained by ESA and several European<br />

space agencies, while <strong>the</strong> AEC rating is conducted directly<br />

by <strong>the</strong> component manufacturers <strong>the</strong>mselves,<br />

<strong>the</strong>re is no external entity to review it.<br />

After completing <strong>the</strong> first AEC qualification, validity<br />

is indefinite with no periodic testing required, while<br />

ESCC qualifications require a maintenance process<br />

and <strong>the</strong> need to perform a significant number <strong>of</strong> periodic<br />

tests, every two years.<br />

<strong>The</strong> AEC system lacks detailed specifications for each<br />

product, as defined and understood in o<strong>the</strong>r specification<br />

systems (ESCC, MIL, etc.), which include detailed<br />

conditions for <strong>the</strong> performance <strong>of</strong> each test,<br />

failure criteria, etc.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> automotive sector, manufacturers have a high<br />

degree <strong>of</strong> freedom to change <strong>the</strong>ir processes and<br />

perform requalification, which does not happen in<br />

<strong>the</strong> space sector.<br />

Batch concept: <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> homogeneity and management<br />

requirements are more relaxed, while batch<br />

definition in <strong>the</strong> ESCC system is very strict, detailed<br />

requirements are applicable to <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> raw materials:<br />

<strong>the</strong> origin <strong>of</strong> wafers, encapsulated batches, manufacturing<br />

and testing, etc.<br />

28 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho



Characterising anti-radiation behaviour, both response<br />

to gamma radiation (TID) and single event effects (SEE)<br />

or displacement damage (DD).<br />

Integrity in vacuum conditions and degassing characteristics.<br />

<strong>The</strong> need to have broader operating temperature ranges,<br />

integrity to <strong>the</strong>rmal cycles, etc.<br />

It does not consider <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> prohibited materials in<br />

space; for example, pure tin, which in certain conditions<br />

can produce tin filaments, a mechanism <strong>of</strong> failure<br />

known to produce short circuits.<br />

We must emphasise <strong>the</strong> importance <strong>of</strong> knowing all fundamental<br />

failure modes that can be suffered by automotive<br />

parts during a space mission, including all pertinent aspects<br />

in <strong>the</strong> test plan, from a radiation test, to <strong>the</strong> verification<br />

<strong>of</strong> degassing levels, or <strong>the</strong> possible presence <strong>of</strong> prohibited<br />

materials, using appropriate inspection techniques: electrical<br />

measurements, X-ray inspection, acoustic verification<br />

(CSAM), electronic microscopy (SEM), EDAX, X-ray fluorescence,<br />

etc.<br />

It should be considered that activities on a component level<br />

must be complemented by and connected with o<strong>the</strong>r actions<br />

that influence <strong>the</strong> reliability <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> final equipment, from <strong>the</strong><br />

design itself (introduction <strong>of</strong> redundancies, etc.), to <strong>the</strong> tests<br />

<strong>car</strong>ried out at higher levels <strong>of</strong> integration.<br />

<strong>The</strong> added value <strong>of</strong> all <strong>the</strong>se processes is based on adequate<br />

engineering work, an in-depth knowledge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> technologies<br />

to be evaluated, toge<strong>the</strong>r with experience and access<br />

to <strong>the</strong> necessary test methods and inspection techniques.<br />

Once <strong>the</strong> batch has passed <strong>the</strong> planned research and test<br />

activities, it is deemed trustworthy for use in <strong>the</strong> application.<br />

On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand, <strong>the</strong> normal way to acquire parts within<br />

<strong>the</strong> automotive sector is with <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> a PPAP (Production<br />

Part Approval Process). <strong>The</strong> PPAP is a valuable tool for trusting<br />

component suppliers and <strong>the</strong>ir production processes,<br />

but it requires orders <strong>of</strong> large quantities <strong>of</strong> parts, larger than<br />

those needed in <strong>the</strong> space sector, even considering <strong>the</strong> new<br />

needs <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> mega-constellation <strong>of</strong> satellites.<br />

(Top image) Summary <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> measurement bank.<br />

(Image below) Detail <strong>of</strong> an internal visual inspection <strong>of</strong> a semiconductor<br />

laser<br />

In line with <strong>the</strong>se considerations, <strong>the</strong> AEC qualified automotive<br />

components are clearly not a direct replacement for<br />

<strong>the</strong> qualified components for use in space and do not fully<br />

meet <strong>the</strong> sector's demands; however, <strong>the</strong>y remain <strong>of</strong> high<br />

interest and have great potential for use in space, designing<br />

protocols that complement this difference and enabling <strong>the</strong><br />

level <strong>of</strong> confidence required by <strong>the</strong> sector to be reached.<br />

Demetrio López<br />

Innovation Director<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 29

Parts<br />

Engineering<br />

Product<br />

Assurance<br />

Electromagnetic<br />

Compatibility<br />

Radio<br />

Environmental<br />

Electrical<br />

testing<br />

Physical and<br />

mechanical<br />

techniques<br />

Failure<br />

analysis<br />

Environmental<br />

testing<br />

COTS<br />

validation<br />

Radiation<br />

testing<br />

Procurement<br />

CE Marking<br />

Safety<br />

Security<br />

Functional<br />

Wafer processing<br />

Flip chip<br />

Pick and place<br />

Wire bond<br />

Die attach<br />

Encapsulation<br />

Gold stud bumping<br />

Fibre align<br />

Space<br />

Aeronautics<br />

&RPAS<br />

Defence<br />

Telecom<br />

Energy<br />

Railway<br />

Security<br />

and Alarm

Master<br />

in Photonics<br />

"Photonics BCN"<br />

PHOTONICS is one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> disciplines that plays a key<br />

role in 21st century technological development.<br />

Four leading research and academic institutions in<br />

<strong>the</strong> BARCELONA area joined force to <strong>of</strong>fer a comprehensive<br />

MSc in PHOTONICS programme as a combination<br />

<strong>of</strong> basic and advanced elective courses covering<br />

<strong>the</strong> main branches <strong>of</strong> PHOTONICS:<br />

- Basics <strong>of</strong> Photonics<br />

- Quantum Optics and Technology<br />

- Nonlinear and Ultrafast Optics<br />

- Biophotonics and Imaging<br />

- Photonics Materials and Metamaterials<br />

- Nanophotonics<br />

- Optical Engineering<br />

- Photonics Technology<br />

<strong>The</strong> Masters programme aims at educating <strong>future</strong> researchers<br />

in this field and also promoting entrepreneurial<br />

activity in PHOTONICS amongst its students.<br />

Main programme: 60 ECTS (1 academic year)<br />

Classes will begin Autumn 2019<br />

More information at: https://photonics.masters.upc.edu/en<br />

Admissions for 2019 open at: https://photonics.masters.upc.edu/<br />


Solutions<br />

for manufacturing


NIT<br />


ensures excellence<br />

in laser welding<br />

New Infrared Technologies (NIT), in collaboration with <strong>the</strong><br />

AIMEN Technology Centre, has developed <strong>the</strong> I3LASWELD<br />

system for <strong>the</strong> inline quality control <strong>of</strong> laser welding processes,<br />

capable <strong>of</strong> detecting defects in weld seams in real time<br />

and identifying defective parts.<br />

<strong>The</strong> I3LASWELD system (Inline Infrared Imaging Laser Welding<br />

QA) is based on a high speed infrared camera (1 kHz)<br />

manufactured by NIT, opto-mechanically coupled to <strong>the</strong> laser<br />

optics, which continuously monitors <strong>the</strong> geometry <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

melt-pool. <strong>The</strong>se infrared images <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> melt-pool, acquired<br />

coaxially, are processed in real time using powerful algorithms<br />

based on neural networks, which provide information<br />

about <strong>the</strong> areas where <strong>the</strong> defects are concentrated and<br />

thus enable an evaluation <strong>of</strong> final quality (OK / NOK).<br />

<strong>The</strong> I3LASWELD system is compatible with both fixed and<br />

remote welding laser optics, and can be trained to detect<br />

multiple defects in different configurations, process types<br />

(transparency, butt or edge), sheet materials and thicknesses.<br />

As training is based on images <strong>of</strong> real processes, in which<br />

<strong>the</strong> defects to be detected have been forced in a production<br />

scenario, I3LASWELD provides very high defect detection<br />

rates with a success rate <strong>of</strong> more than 99%. Some examples<br />

<strong>of</strong> defects that I3LASWELD is able to detect very accurately<br />

are: lack <strong>of</strong> penetration, lack <strong>of</strong> fusion (false friend), excessive<br />

throat depth and absence <strong>of</strong> bead (discontinuities, pores,<br />

holes), among o<strong>the</strong>rs.<br />

I3LASWELD has been successfully validated in a collaborative<br />

project with VOLVO, in which quality control <strong>of</strong><br />

transparency welds between steel sheets (0.75 mm +<br />

0.70 mm) was <strong>car</strong>ried out to ensure that <strong>the</strong> process met<br />

<strong>the</strong> required standards regarding both depth <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> weld<br />

throat and internal width <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> joint.<br />

Currently, NIT and AIMEN are implementing <strong>the</strong> I3LAS-<br />

WELD system in a GESTAMP production cell, at its<br />

Abrera plant, to detect defects in welds on-<strong>the</strong>-fly using<br />

a remote welding optical scanner, aiming to control <strong>the</strong><br />

quality <strong>of</strong> more than 10,000 weld beads per production<br />

shift. <strong>The</strong> interconnection <strong>of</strong> I3LASWELD with <strong>the</strong> production<br />

quality control system implemented in <strong>the</strong> process<br />

cell will enable immediate performance metrics to be<br />

obtained, providing very accurate and valuable information<br />

to production engineers, in real time.<br />

Rodrigo Linares<br />

Director <strong>of</strong> Business Development<br />

34 34 LIGHT! <strong>light</strong>! by secpho by secpho

LIGHT! by secpho 35



Smart manufacturing<br />

becomes portable<br />

Portability, reliability and simplicity: <strong>the</strong> three attributes<br />

that new technologies have been providing to<br />

engineers and manufacturers in <strong>the</strong>ir daily work. Now,<br />

<strong>the</strong>se technologies are doing <strong>the</strong> same thing in <strong>the</strong><br />

field <strong>of</strong> metrology, inspection and quality control.<br />

It used to be common to see technicians working in<br />

closed metrology laboratories, sealed and away from<br />

<strong>the</strong> workshop. That is now ancient history. <strong>The</strong> new<br />

portable laser 3D scanners and portable optical coordinate<br />

measuring machines (CMM) are able to provide<br />

<strong>the</strong> most reliable metrology data for inspection<br />

and quality control anywhere, and in <strong>the</strong> working conditions<br />

<strong>of</strong> any workshop.<br />

In metrology, <strong>the</strong> great innovation has been <strong>the</strong> incorporation<br />

<strong>of</strong> coordinate optical measurement devices<br />

and fully portable 3D laser scanners. Extremely<br />

manageable and comfortable to use, <strong>the</strong>y <strong>of</strong>fer precision<br />

metrology without being affected by <strong>the</strong> environment.<br />

<strong>The</strong> part to be measured can be in movement,<br />

because <strong>the</strong> scanner or CMM can move during measurement.<br />

It does not matter if <strong>the</strong>re are vibrations,<br />

changes in temperature, or <strong>light</strong>. <strong>The</strong>se characteristics<br />

mean that measurements can be made in <strong>the</strong> workshop<br />

itself, on <strong>the</strong> production line, at <strong>the</strong> customer's<br />

house or outdoors. It doesn't matter. <strong>The</strong> accuracy <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> measurements will not be altered in any case.<br />

36 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho



<strong>The</strong> new range <strong>of</strong> fully portable optical metrology systems from<br />

Creaform available from AsorCAD Engineering.<br />

<strong>The</strong> new generation <strong>of</strong> portable CMM scanners and systems<br />

<strong>of</strong>fers five major advances that make <strong>the</strong>m <strong>the</strong> ultimate<br />

solution for metrologists and manufacturers around<br />

<strong>the</strong> world:<br />

Dynamic references that turn <strong>the</strong> scanner or <strong>the</strong><br />

CMM system into devices that are unaffected by<br />

involuntary movements or <strong>the</strong> vibrations and disturbances<br />

that are typical <strong>of</strong> a workshop.<br />

Automatic alignment that eliminates <strong>the</strong> errors inherent<br />

in <strong>the</strong> manual alignment process.<br />

Smart measurement, a process that optimises data<br />

and ensures <strong>the</strong> highest level <strong>of</strong> accuracy.<br />

Easy calibration in situ that can be performed by a<br />

non-specialised operator in less than 5 minutes.<br />

Wireless, with strong, low-cost targets, which reduces<br />

<strong>the</strong> complexity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> measurement process, maintaining<br />

its accuracy.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se five advances provide unquestionable business benefits:<br />

faster measurements that speed up time to market and<br />

ensure quality in each phase <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> product's life cycle management.<br />

<strong>The</strong> need for fast, reliable and portable measurement systems<br />

is growing in industrial development and production,<br />

especially in metrology, quality control and inspection.<br />

<strong>The</strong> greatest impact is being seen in <strong>the</strong> most common type<br />

<strong>of</strong> quality control: <strong>the</strong> inspection <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> parts produced. Portable<br />

optical technologies are allowing companies to integrate<br />

quality control and inspection <strong>of</strong> parts into <strong>the</strong> same<br />

production process, saving both time and money.<br />

In addition to <strong>the</strong> inspection <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> parts produced, <strong>the</strong> new<br />

portable 3D scanners and portable CMM optical systems are<br />

used in an increasingly wide variety <strong>of</strong> quality control applications,<br />

in almost all types <strong>of</strong> industry.<br />

Antonio Sánchez<br />

CEO<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 37



AsorCAD Engineering | info@asorcad.es<br />

C / Comte de Montemolín, 8<br />

08150 Parets del Vallès (Barcelona)<br />

+34 935707782<br />


Cutting-edge solutions<br />

in <strong>the</strong>rmography, at <strong>the</strong> service<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Automotive Industry<br />

<strong>The</strong> automotive industry is one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> most important economic<br />

sectors in <strong>the</strong> world. Quality standards are increasingly<br />

high, along with <strong>the</strong> demand for production, which is<br />

why many <strong>car</strong> manufacturers use <strong>the</strong>rmal imaging cameras<br />

for quality control.<br />

<strong>The</strong>rmography is a fundamental tool for inspecting, checking<br />

and improving processes. In addition to being reliable tools<br />

which don’t need contact, <strong>the</strong>rmographic cameras provide<br />

temperature measurements <strong>of</strong> an entire area, instead <strong>of</strong><br />

specific points. Using <strong>the</strong> temperature map and using image<br />

processing algorithms it is possible to determine error zones<br />

<strong>The</strong>rmal radiation is present in all processes,<br />

so analysing and recording it is<br />

<strong>of</strong> key importance.<br />

due to lack <strong>of</strong> material input, welding points that are burnt<br />

or too cold, etc.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> automotive sector, <strong>the</strong>rmography can be used in multiple<br />

applications, some <strong>of</strong> which are described below:<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 39


BCB<br />

Process and quality control<br />

Process control involves measuring <strong>the</strong> temperature<br />

and identifying <strong>the</strong> shape <strong>of</strong> certain products in a production<br />

line, so that <strong>the</strong>y conform to specifications.<br />

Artificial vision can detect a production problem, but<br />

not <strong>the</strong>rmal irregularities. Indeed, <strong>the</strong>rmography provides<br />

much more information to production specialists<br />

and decision makers, adding a new dimension to<br />

computer vision.<br />

Many automobile manufacturers use <strong>the</strong>rmographic<br />

cameras for quality control. New vehicles undergo<br />

a multitude <strong>of</strong> tests for this purpose. Typical applications<br />

include inspection <strong>of</strong> rear window heating,<br />

heated seats, exhaust covers, air conditioning outlets,<br />

etc. <strong>The</strong>rmography is essential in durability and<br />

validation tests.<br />

Hot forming stamping<br />

and forging<br />

<strong>The</strong> hot forming process is based on combining a<br />

deformation operation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> base material (sheet<br />

or billet) at high temperature with subsequent<br />

quenching treatment. While hot, <strong>the</strong> material is<br />

more ductile and <strong>the</strong> piece is deformed with smaller<br />

forces. Subsequent rapid cooling gives it its highstrength<br />

martensitic structure. <strong>The</strong> microstructure<br />

and final properties <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> manufactured part are<br />

strictly linked to a good control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> temperatures,<br />

times and deformations applied.<br />

Large temperature differences in <strong>the</strong> part or in <strong>the</strong><br />

die during <strong>the</strong> process lead to <strong>the</strong> appearance <strong>of</strong><br />

non-homogeneous deformations that can put <strong>the</strong><br />

manufactured part out <strong>of</strong> tolerance. To avoid this,<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmal monitoring <strong>of</strong> hot forming cycles is required<br />

to evaluate <strong>the</strong> evolution <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> temperature<br />

in <strong>the</strong> part before and after deformation, as well as<br />

<strong>the</strong> correct cooling <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> die.<br />

Quality control for <strong>car</strong><br />

components<br />

A reduction in <strong>the</strong> failure rate <strong>of</strong> electronic vehicle<br />

components is essential. <strong>The</strong> only way to guarantee<br />

this reduction is to check each component individually<br />

<strong>the</strong>reby <strong>of</strong>fering 100% guaranteed quality control.<br />

<strong>The</strong>rmography allows electronic component<br />

manufacturers to detect hot spots, which is an indication<br />

<strong>of</strong> defective products.<br />

Additive manufacturing<br />

Also known as 3D printing, it allows you to create<br />

pieces directly from a digital model without <strong>the</strong> need<br />

for traditional subtractive machining tools and with<br />

minimal geometric limitations. Heat is an integral part<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> additive manufacturing process and needs to<br />

be monitored to detect phenomena that have a direct<br />

effect on both <strong>the</strong> dimensional and mechanical<br />

quality and performance <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> final product. <strong>The</strong><br />

diagnosis <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmal stress or distortions using typical<br />

contact sensors such as <strong>the</strong>rmocouples, RTDs<br />

or <strong>the</strong>rmistors, is complicated or even impossible.<br />

<strong>The</strong>rmographic cameras help to study <strong>the</strong> process<br />

and its <strong>the</strong>rmal properties, correlating temperatures<br />

measured during <strong>the</strong> process with quality parameters<br />

for <strong>the</strong> finished product. With <strong>the</strong> help <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmography<br />

it is possible to identify porosity, delamination,<br />

retraction, poor surface finish or dimensional defects.<br />

Comparison <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmal dissipation between electronic circuits<br />

40 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

BCB<br />


<strong>The</strong>rmal treatments for monitoring <strong>the</strong><br />

manufacture <strong>of</strong> metal parts<br />

Heat treatment is used to alter <strong>the</strong> chemical and<br />

physical properties <strong>of</strong> manufactured metal parts, and<br />

is capable <strong>of</strong> monitoring <strong>the</strong>ir hardness or lack <strong>the</strong>re<strong>of</strong>.<br />

A case in which <strong>the</strong>rmography can be really useful is<br />

in <strong>the</strong> casting processes <strong>of</strong> steel mills, both in continuous<br />

and mould casting. For iron part manufacturers<br />

in <strong>the</strong> automotive sector, knowledge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> temperature<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> iron in <strong>the</strong> casting furnace is fundamental,<br />

as <strong>the</strong> filling temperature <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> mould must be very<br />

precise to achieve <strong>the</strong> desired physical properties in<br />

<strong>the</strong> part.<br />

Currently, temperature control in this type <strong>of</strong> process<br />

is <strong>car</strong>ried out with probes or rods introduced into <strong>the</strong><br />

liquid metal bath, which have considerable <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

inertia, and can overheat when <strong>the</strong> process starts<br />

from a cold state. So <strong>the</strong> temperature obtained differs<br />

from that <strong>of</strong> emptying, which happens 5 to 10<br />

minutes later. However, with <strong>the</strong>rmographic cameras<br />

we obtain instant measurements during <strong>the</strong> pouring<br />

process, which enables us to operate with a much<br />

greater reaction margin and forego <strong>the</strong> need for<br />

probes.<br />

Measurement by <strong>the</strong>rmography is not only capable<br />

<strong>of</strong> measuring up to 1700°C (<strong>the</strong> pouring point for<br />

certain metals), but also <strong>of</strong> making this measurement<br />

as safely as possible, at a distance and without needing<br />

to intervene in <strong>the</strong> process. Repeatability and<br />

measurement quality is also high.<br />

In addition, with a <strong>the</strong>rmography system it is possible<br />

to add functionalities, such as detecting in real<br />

time when <strong>the</strong> slag appears in <strong>the</strong> steel stream in<br />

pot filling, to stop it before it falls from <strong>the</strong> bucket.<br />

A distinction is made by emissivity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> slag against<br />

steel, signalling <strong>the</strong> slag with red iso<strong>the</strong>rm.<br />

(Top image) Traditional measurement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> temperature <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> emptying<br />

oven. (Bottom image) Measurement by <strong>the</strong>rmography.<br />

bcb has developed a series <strong>of</strong> solutions aimed at <strong>the</strong> process<br />

control, traceability and quality management <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

manufactured product. bcbMonitor® is a family <strong>of</strong> products<br />

that integrates multiple combinations <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmographic<br />

sensors, image management s<strong>of</strong>tware and additional<br />

elements on a single platform, to build a complete<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmographic monitoring solution adapted to <strong>the</strong> needs<br />

<strong>of</strong> each particular application. It is also possible to define<br />

regions <strong>of</strong> interest, record <strong>the</strong>ir evolution over time, programme<br />

<strong>the</strong> selective recording <strong>of</strong> images or videos with<br />

radiometric data, configure alarms, etc.... and communicate<br />

using <strong>the</strong> appropriate protocol (MODBUS/TCP-IP,<br />

EIP or o<strong>the</strong>rs) with <strong>the</strong> process control system.<br />

Javier Bezares<br />

Founder & CEO<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 41

cbMonitor<br />

Process supervision<br />

in <strong>the</strong> automotive industry<br />

TESTING:<br />

• Permeability<br />

• Heating system<br />

• Motors<br />

QUALITY:<br />

• Heat seal<br />

• Cavities and defects<br />

• Leaks<br />

• Vinyl and windscreen<br />


• Welding<br />

• Ongoing control<br />

• Maintenance <strong>of</strong> critical equipment<br />

R&D:<br />

• Design based on <strong>the</strong>rmal distribution<br />

• Temperature-deformation ratio<br />

• Yield<br />

• High speed<br />

bcb<br />

C/Fernando el Católico, 11<br />

28015 Madrid<br />

Tel. (+34) 91 758 00 50<br />

info@bcb.es<br />

www.bcb.es<br />

bcb Mexico<br />

C Homero 538-303<br />

Col. Polanco V<br />

Del. Miguel Hidalgo<br />

11560 México DF, México<br />

Tel. (+52) 55-91 83 05 47<br />

info@bcbmex.com<br />

www.bcbmex.com<br />

Authorised Distributor:

Developments demanded<br />

by <strong>the</strong> automotive industry<br />

<strong>The</strong> automotive sector faces <strong>the</strong> most disruptive changes <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> last few decades. Changes that affect <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong> itself, including<br />

weight reduction by <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> innovative materials<br />

and multi-material structures. And changes that affect <strong>the</strong><br />

factory <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong>, promoted by <strong>the</strong> incorporation <strong>of</strong> new<br />

manufacturing technologies such as collaborative robotics,<br />

additive manufacturing and <strong>the</strong> digitisation <strong>of</strong> industrial<br />

processes.<br />

Since it was established, AIMEN Technology Centre has<br />

been collaborating with <strong>the</strong> automotive industry in <strong>the</strong> provision<br />

<strong>of</strong> innovative solutions. Currently <strong>the</strong>re are several<br />

initiatives involving photonic technologies that <strong>the</strong> Centre<br />

is developing in collaboration with this sector:<br />

ComMunion<br />

In <strong>the</strong> field <strong>of</strong> composite materials and multi-material structures<br />

we can high<strong>light</strong> <strong>the</strong> European initiative entitled Com-<br />

Munion, led by AIMEN, where photonics play an important<br />

role in applications related to <strong>the</strong> monitoring and control <strong>of</strong><br />

processes and <strong>the</strong> preparation <strong>of</strong> surfaces by laser texturing.<br />

<strong>The</strong> objective <strong>of</strong> ComMunion is to develop a novel solution<br />

for manufacturing multi-material metal/<strong>car</strong>bon fibre <strong>the</strong>rmoplastic<br />

composite 3D components in a productive and<br />

cost-efficient way for <strong>the</strong> whole value chain <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

industry. <strong>The</strong> system developed within <strong>the</strong> framework<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> project will be implemented in Autotech Engineering,<br />

a project partner, where <strong>the</strong> new hybrid metal-composite<br />

components will be manufactured and <strong>the</strong> novel system will<br />

be tested.<br />


Additive manufacturing <strong>of</strong> both polymer and metal components<br />

are <strong>the</strong> focus <strong>of</strong> much <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Centre's current research.<br />

An example is INTEGRADDE; a European initiative<br />

also led by AIMEN, which will revolutionise 3D printing <strong>of</strong><br />

metal components in <strong>the</strong> European industry.<br />

INTEGRADDE will develop a strategy <strong>of</strong> continuous and<br />

integral control <strong>of</strong> additive manufacturing processes, from<br />

product design to final verification.<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 43


AIMEN<br />

PHENOmenon<br />

Meanwhile, in <strong>the</strong> field <strong>of</strong> laser microprocessing, <strong>the</strong><br />

PHENOmenon initiative will develop new technology for<br />

manufacturing optics and holographic products in an economical<br />

and customised way for high-efficiency <strong>light</strong>ing,<br />

safety, aerospace applications or 3D visualisation.<br />

<strong>The</strong> project will focus on <strong>the</strong> additive manufacturing, based<br />

on direct energy deposition processes, <strong>of</strong> medium/large<br />

metal parts for multiple industrial applications, including <strong>the</strong><br />

automotive sector.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Slovenian partner CORDA will focus on <strong>the</strong> repair <strong>of</strong><br />

stamping moulds used in <strong>the</strong> manufacture <strong>of</strong> automotive<br />

components using LMD-powder.<br />


Ano<strong>the</strong>r ongoing project within <strong>the</strong> field <strong>of</strong> laser technology<br />

application, and in particular <strong>the</strong> shaping <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> laser<br />

beam, is CUSTODIAN, a European initiative that seeks to<br />

develop a laser device which is adaptable to each application<br />

in order to achieve faultless processing. It is based on a<br />

methodology that includes determining <strong>the</strong> optimal <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

cycle for each material/application, developing a photonic<br />

system that emits a reconfigurable laser beam that enables<br />

reproduction <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> optimal <strong>the</strong>rmal cycle and <strong>the</strong> design <strong>of</strong><br />

a real-time monitoring and control system. This will enable<br />

any laser process to be designed exactly in accordance with<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmal transformation required by <strong>the</strong> material, which<br />

will benefit productivity, quality and cost reduction.<br />

Holograms can be defined as photographs <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> transmission<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong> itself. Using lasers, this <strong>light</strong> can be reconstructed<br />

making it appear to represent a three-dimensional<br />

object. In addition to 3D images, holographic<br />

technology can be used to create ultra-thin, ultra-<strong>light</strong><br />

optical lenses and systems with a quality far superior<br />

to that <strong>of</strong> conventional glass lenses. It can also provide<br />

unique characteristics, thanks to <strong>the</strong> precise control <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>light</strong>: anti-fog vision, extreme concentration <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>, or<br />

absence <strong>of</strong> chromatic aberrations and defects. All this<br />

opens <strong>the</strong> door to ultra-miniaturised devices for surveillance,<br />

medicine, solar cell concentrators or more efficient<br />

forms <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>ing. PSA France, one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> project partners,<br />

is studying <strong>the</strong> possibility <strong>of</strong> using <strong>the</strong> technologies developed<br />

within <strong>the</strong> framework <strong>of</strong> this initiative to design<br />

new methods <strong>of</strong> interaction between vehicle and driver.<br />

In addition to <strong>the</strong>se projects, AIMEN currently maintains<br />

strategic research alliances with large companies in <strong>the</strong><br />

automotive sector. This is <strong>the</strong> case <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> JOINTS4.0 initiative,<br />

set up with GKN Driveline Vigo, through which<br />

new technologies are being developed for <strong>the</strong> sustainable<br />

and high-performance manufacture <strong>of</strong> automotive transmission<br />

components. Likewise, DIGI4AUT, <strong>the</strong> alliance<br />

with <strong>the</strong> COPO Group, is pursuing <strong>the</strong> development and<br />

implementation <strong>of</strong> digital technologies to establish a new<br />

advanced, agile and flexible factory concept, adapted to<br />

<strong>the</strong> manufacture <strong>of</strong> components for <strong>the</strong> interior <strong>of</strong> vehicles.<br />

+ info: www.aimen.es<br />

Ambroise Vandewynckèle<br />

R&D Manager<br />

Patricia Blanco<br />

Communication & Marketing<br />

One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> industrial applications contemplated in <strong>the</strong><br />

framework <strong>of</strong> this project is laser welding in <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

sector, which will be tested by <strong>the</strong> Magneti Marelli company.<br />

44 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho



Innovative laser technology<br />

in electric <strong>car</strong> manufacturing<br />


Compared to petrol and diesel powered vehicles,<br />

electric <strong>car</strong> technology (emobility) is in its infancy<br />

(for example, in performance and range) and is,<br />

<strong>the</strong>refore, technically much more dynamic. This<br />

means that <strong>the</strong> metal parts and <strong>the</strong> metals <strong>the</strong>mselves<br />

are being applied in new ways and/or being<br />

pushed to new limits. But, at <strong>the</strong> same time, vehicle<br />

manufacturers and lower-tier suppliers are only<br />

willing to adopt manufacturing technologies that<br />

are scalable and highly pr<strong>of</strong>itable. All <strong>the</strong>se reasons<br />

favour lasers over many o<strong>the</strong>r methods for welding,<br />

cutting, hardening, wire welding and o<strong>the</strong>r applications,<br />

since lasers <strong>of</strong>fer non-contact, wear-free,<br />

consistent and high-speed processing. However,<br />

<strong>the</strong> demands for delivery <strong>of</strong> advanced functionality<br />

components <strong>of</strong>ten exceed conventional laser processing.<br />

In this article, we analyse two innovations<br />

in laser welding specifically aimed at automotive<br />

electric mobility components.<br />

A key stage in <strong>the</strong> production <strong>of</strong> lithium ion batteries used<br />

in electric vehicles is <strong>the</strong> welding <strong>of</strong> battery boxes. It is essential<br />

that this weld is totally hermetic during <strong>the</strong> entire<br />

useful life <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> component. In particular, this seal must<br />

prevent moisture infiltration because water reacts strongly<br />

with lithium, creating gas and pressure that could destroy<br />

<strong>the</strong> device. In addition, <strong>the</strong> welding process itself should not<br />

cause splashing, since metal particles (as well as moisture)<br />

can create internal leakage currents that could short-circuit<br />

<strong>the</strong> battery. Finally, and from <strong>the</strong> mechanical point <strong>of</strong><br />

view, <strong>the</strong> welding must be strong enough to withstand <strong>the</strong><br />

vibrations from <strong>the</strong> road surface, or even <strong>the</strong> shock from a<br />

collision.<br />

<strong>The</strong> sealing <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> aluminium battery box has traditionally<br />

been done with laser conduction welding because <strong>the</strong><br />

battery walls are thin (



has shown that <strong>the</strong> proper approach to <strong>the</strong> problem is to use<br />

a Gaussian central distribution point, surrounded by ano<strong>the</strong>r<br />

concentric ring <strong>of</strong> laser <strong>light</strong>.<br />

This unusual configuration is achieved using <strong>the</strong> adjustable<br />

ring mode fibre laser (FL-ARM) from Coherent’s HighLight<br />

series. <strong>The</strong> beam transport fibre <strong>of</strong> this laser includes a conventional<br />

circular core surrounded by ano<strong>the</strong>r fibre core <strong>of</strong><br />

annular cross section.<br />

Coherent supplies FL-ARM systems with output powers<br />

ranging from 2.5 kW to 10 kW. <strong>The</strong> power in <strong>the</strong> centre and<br />

<strong>the</strong> ring can be adjusted independently, on demand, within a<br />

range <strong>of</strong> 1% to 100% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> nominal maximum output. <strong>The</strong><br />

core and ring beams can even be independently modulated,<br />

at repetition rates <strong>of</strong> up to 5 kHz.<br />

With this configuration, <strong>the</strong>re is a virtually limitless number<br />

<strong>of</strong> possible combinations in terms <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> power ratio <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

inner beam to <strong>the</strong> outer beam. However, all <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se can<br />

be broadly grouped in <strong>the</strong> configurations shown in Figure 1.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se basic patterns can be varied to <strong>of</strong>fer a wide range <strong>of</strong><br />

processing characteristics to optimally serve a diverse set <strong>of</strong><br />

applications.<br />

For fibre laser welding <strong>of</strong> aluminium, one challenge has<br />

been that <strong>the</strong> material has a relatively low absorption in<br />

<strong>the</strong> near infrared. Small unpredictable variations in absorption<br />

cause <strong>the</strong> depth <strong>of</strong> penetration to vary, resulting in<br />

uneven welding.<br />

To address this, and to provide sufficiently precise control<br />

as required by <strong>the</strong> key-hole welding <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> aluminium battery<br />

boxes, <strong>the</strong> FL-ARM beam is configured with power in<br />

both <strong>the</strong> centre and <strong>the</strong> ring. Using this particular power<br />

configuration, <strong>the</strong> leading edge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> ring beam raises <strong>the</strong><br />

temperature <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> aluminium enough to increase its absorption<br />

at <strong>the</strong> laser wavelength. Subsequently, <strong>the</strong> laser<br />

beam <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> nucleus creates <strong>the</strong> key-hole, which is now<br />

very stable due to preheating. <strong>The</strong> back edge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> ring<br />

keeps <strong>the</strong> fusion pool open long enough to allow <strong>the</strong> gas<br />

to escape. Because <strong>the</strong> key-hole is stable and <strong>the</strong> material<br />

does not solidify so quickly, <strong>the</strong> whole process is more<br />

consistent and <strong>the</strong> process window is larger. <strong>The</strong> final result<br />

is a uniform and constant penetration <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> material<br />

and welds <strong>of</strong> higher quality, without splashes or porosity.<br />

Basic FL-ARM Focused<br />

Spot Power Patterns<br />

Equal power in<br />

centre and ring<br />

Higher power in<br />

ring than centre<br />

Higher power in<br />

centre than ring<br />

Power in centre<br />

only<br />

Power in ring<br />

only<br />

Figure 1. Five <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basic patterns<br />

<strong>of</strong> power distribution in <strong>the</strong><br />

focused laser beam.




F2<br />

F3<br />

Ano<strong>the</strong>r demanding challenge in <strong>the</strong> production <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> electric<br />

<strong>car</strong> is <strong>the</strong> welding <strong>of</strong> copper coil pins in <strong>the</strong> stator <strong>of</strong> an<br />

electric motor. <strong>The</strong>se rigid pins (called 'hairpins' due to <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

'u' shape) replace <strong>the</strong> copper wire windings that are traditionally<br />

used in an electric motor. Because <strong>the</strong>y are much<br />

stiffer than cables, <strong>the</strong>ir orientation in <strong>the</strong> motor can be<br />

controlled more precisely, which ultimately results in better<br />

heat management and higher motor performance.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> assembly process, <strong>the</strong> individual pins are first loaded<br />

into <strong>the</strong> stator slots. <strong>The</strong>n, <strong>the</strong> ends <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> adjacent pins<br />

are welded toge<strong>the</strong>r to electrically connect <strong>the</strong>m. When <strong>the</strong><br />

entire engine is finished, all <strong>the</strong> pins will act as a single long,<br />

twisted conductor, like <strong>the</strong> windings <strong>of</strong> a conventional electric<br />

motor.<br />

<strong>The</strong> two key imperatives <strong>of</strong> this process are that <strong>the</strong> weld<br />

maintains <strong>the</strong> correct mechanical alignment <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> pins and<br />

that it does not produce any defect (inclusions). <strong>The</strong> alignment<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> pins is important because <strong>the</strong> exact shape <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> winding directly affects <strong>the</strong> efficiency <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> motor. Defects<br />

must be avoided because <strong>the</strong>y increase <strong>the</strong> resistance<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> final winding, which reduces its electrical efficiency<br />

and can also decrease <strong>the</strong> mechanical strength <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> assembly.<br />

Coherent | ROFIN has developed a method based on fibre<br />

laser to perform pin welding that achieves all <strong>the</strong>se objectives.<br />

<strong>The</strong> first key element <strong>of</strong> this process, which is based<br />

on a standard fibre laser from <strong>the</strong> HighLightTM series, involves<br />

<strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> so-called 'beam oscillation'. In this case,<br />

<strong>the</strong> size <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> beam focused on <strong>the</strong> work surface is deliberately<br />

smaller than <strong>the</strong> total area to be welded. However,<br />

<strong>the</strong> position <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> place is quickly scanned (oscillation) to<br />

cover <strong>the</strong> entire area.<br />

As with <strong>the</strong> FL-ARM laser, <strong>the</strong> advantage <strong>of</strong> beam oscillation<br />

is that it allows more precise control over <strong>the</strong> temperature<br />

dynamics <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fusion pool. By moving <strong>the</strong> beam<br />

quickly and repeatedly over <strong>the</strong> part, and not allowing it to<br />

stop anywhere, it essentially preheats <strong>the</strong> part in a very controlled<br />

manner, instead <strong>of</strong> discharging all <strong>the</strong> power at once.<br />

All this stabilizes <strong>the</strong> melting bath, reducing splashes, defects<br />

and <strong>the</strong> porosity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> weld compared to traditional<br />

methods <strong>of</strong> laser welding.<br />

F4<br />

Figure 2. Cross section <strong>of</strong> a weld <strong>of</strong> two pieces <strong>of</strong> aluminium <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Series<br />

5000 <strong>of</strong> 1.6 mm thickness that shows deep penetration without<br />

pores or splashes. Figure 3. Longitudinal cross section along a 20 mm<br />

weld bead showing uniform penetration. Figure 4. Unprocessed copper<br />

stator.<br />

Coherent | ROFIN also <strong>of</strong>fers practical tools related to processes<br />

that improve laser welding results in a production<br />

environment. <strong>The</strong> company can supply a laser welding subsystem<br />

that includes an artificial vision system to control <strong>the</strong><br />

relative position <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> focused laser beam and <strong>the</strong> tips <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> pins.<br />

You can watch videos <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se processes at https://www.<br />

youtube.com/watch?v=csUUZouasKU<br />

In conclusion, developing and implementing a successful laser<br />

production process involves exploring a portfolio <strong>of</strong> parameters,<br />

configurations and techniques that will ultimately<br />

<strong>of</strong>fer <strong>the</strong> best welding results. Coherent | ROFIN has both<br />

<strong>the</strong> experience and <strong>the</strong> resources to perform <strong>the</strong> development<br />

work required to identify <strong>the</strong>se various elements. In<br />

addition, Coherent | ROFIN can integrate all <strong>the</strong> required<br />

functionality (beam oscillation, FL-ARM adjustable mode<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>iles, process monitoring, etc.) into a single subsystem,<br />

which is controlled through a graphical user interface (GUI).<br />

<strong>The</strong> ability to acquire a complete and integrated laser welding<br />

system, instead <strong>of</strong> using part assembly, eliminates much<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> uncertainty that can occur when an integrator assembles<br />

a system and finds that several elements do not work<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r successfully.<br />

Mikel Bengoa<br />

Team Leader High Power Laser Source Sales Europe<br />

Frank Gäbler<br />

Director <strong>of</strong> Marketing<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 49



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High-performance<br />

blue lasers,<br />

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il im velique nis experspercia que sin nus et optiam a consero<br />

quo ent<br />

Disruptive technology for <strong>the</strong> manufacture<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> vehicle <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong><br />

Globally, China has clearly positioned itself in <strong>the</strong> lead regarding<br />

<strong>the</strong> volume <strong>of</strong> production <strong>of</strong> electric <strong>car</strong>s, with a<br />

market share <strong>of</strong> 2.2% and annual production <strong>of</strong> close to<br />

600,000 units; triple that <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> United States. <strong>The</strong> number<br />

<strong>of</strong> electric vehicles on <strong>the</strong> road has already exceeded<br />

3 million, 40% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m in China.<br />

16 countries, among which are <strong>the</strong> 7 largest economies<br />

in <strong>the</strong> world - <strong>the</strong> United States, China, Japan, Germany,<br />

<strong>the</strong> United Kingdom, India and France - currently participate<br />

in <strong>the</strong> EVI - Electric Vehicles Initiative, <strong>the</strong> mission<br />

<strong>of</strong> which is to accelerate <strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> electric<br />

vehicles. <strong>The</strong> objective <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> EV30@30 campaign is to<br />

achieve a market share <strong>of</strong> at least 30% <strong>of</strong> all vehicles sold<br />

by 2030, considering that <strong>the</strong> electrification <strong>of</strong> transport<br />

will help facilitate <strong>the</strong> transition to a "clean" energy system.<br />

According to <strong>the</strong> EV30@30 scenario, around 220<br />

million electric vehicles would be on our roads by 2030.<br />

Measures adopted by different governments include measures<br />

to promote R&D and improve productive processes<br />

and capacities, facilitating <strong>the</strong> adoption <strong>of</strong> technologies that<br />

contribute to electromobility.<br />

<strong>The</strong> percentage <strong>of</strong> electrical and electronic components in an<br />

electric vehicle is much higher than in a <strong>car</strong> with an internal<br />

combustion engine - a not insignificant figure: motors, batteries,<br />

wiring, complex electronic systems with sensors and<br />

actuators... And each component and each element within<br />

<strong>the</strong>se components needs to be mounted with <strong>the</strong> greatest<br />

mechanical and electrical reliability, with process qualities<br />

and speeds unprecedented in some traditional technologies.<br />

Laser technologies have become an essential tool in numerous<br />

manufacturing processes in <strong>the</strong> automotive industry,<br />

<strong>of</strong>fering product and process qualities that until a few years<br />

ago were unattainable using conventional technologies. In<br />

<strong>the</strong> field <strong>of</strong> welding, lasers have replaced resistance welding,<br />

arc welding, ultrasonic welding and o<strong>the</strong>r traditional joining<br />

processes in numerous applications.<br />

But lasers also have <strong>the</strong>ir limitations. One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se limitations<br />

is that traditional industrial lasers operate at infrared<br />

wavelengths, for which <strong>the</strong> absorptivity <strong>of</strong> non-ferrous metals,<br />

and especially copper, is very small. It was necessary to<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 51


develop a laser with a wavelength for which said absorptivity<br />

was sufficient to guarantee quality welding, with a<br />

process speed suitable for high manufacturing volumes.<br />

And that wavelength is in <strong>the</strong> range <strong>of</strong> 450nm - blue <strong>light</strong>.<br />

Copper absorbs less than 5% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> radiation emitted by<br />

an infrared laser. This low absorption is not only a problem<br />

in terms <strong>of</strong> energy efficiency, but <strong>the</strong> excess energy<br />

required to start laser welding makes part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> metal<br />

evaporate from <strong>the</strong> weld pool (which absorbs more energy<br />

than <strong>the</strong> base metal), generating bubbles that give rise to<br />

splashes and pores in <strong>the</strong> weld. <strong>The</strong> blue wavelength has<br />

absorption levels more than ten times higher than infrared<br />

and, no less important, <strong>the</strong> energy required to maintain<br />

<strong>the</strong> weld is similar to that required to start it. In practical<br />

terms, this translates into splash and pore-free welding, a<br />

stable process that is much faster than can be achieved<br />

with infrared lasers.<br />

70 μm thick 130 W<br />

125 μm thick 130 W<br />

254 μm thick 275 W<br />

500 μm thick<br />

500 μm thick 500 W<br />

1000 μm thick 600 W<br />

Examples <strong>of</strong> blue laser welding<br />

with different thicknesses <strong>of</strong> copper.<br />

<strong>The</strong> advantages <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> blue wavelength had been known<br />

for decades, but nobody had managed to develop a<br />

high-power industrial laser at this wavelength. In 2017,<br />

NUBURU® launched its first high-performance blue laser,<br />

<strong>the</strong> AO-150 (150 W), which was followed in December<br />

2018 by <strong>the</strong> AO-500 (500 W), with new models in development.<br />

<strong>The</strong> AO® series lasers combine <strong>the</strong> output <strong>of</strong> dozens <strong>of</strong><br />

gallium nitride (GaN) laser diodes in a single beam and<br />

couple that beam to an optical fibre, 200 μm in <strong>the</strong> case<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> AO-150, and 400 μm for <strong>the</strong> AO-500, with a highly<br />

symmetrical and high-brightness beam. This high energy<br />

density makes <strong>the</strong> lasers developed by NUBURU® <strong>the</strong><br />

most efficient. <strong>The</strong> stability <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se lasers and <strong>the</strong>ir large<br />

process windows enable pore and splash-free welding in<br />

<strong>the</strong> three available operating modes: conduction, transition<br />

and keyhole.<br />

Among <strong>the</strong> multiple applications <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> blue laser in <strong>the</strong><br />

automotive industry, it is worth high<strong>light</strong>ing a particularly<br />

critical one: <strong>the</strong> welding <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> layers <strong>of</strong> thin sheets <strong>of</strong><br />

copper used in <strong>the</strong> electrodes <strong>of</strong> Ion-Lithium batteries. <strong>The</strong><br />

greater <strong>the</strong> number <strong>of</strong> sheets, <strong>the</strong> greater <strong>the</strong> capacity for<br />

energy storage. <strong>The</strong> use <strong>of</strong> blue laser in <strong>the</strong>se welds allows<br />

a greater concentration <strong>of</strong> sheets, welded without pores<br />

or splashes and with very short welding times, and subsequent<br />

economic savings. Blue lasers weld copper joints<br />

with flexibility, speed, and unrivalled quality, which makes<br />

<strong>the</strong>m a very attractive option to improve productivity in<br />

vehicle component manufacturing.<br />

<strong>The</strong> tendency towards <strong>the</strong> greater concentration <strong>of</strong> electrical<br />

and electronic elements in increasingly reduced<br />

spaces requires a perfect weld seal quality, without pores<br />

that degrade <strong>the</strong> conductivity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> joint, impurities, or<br />

projections that can cause short circuits. <strong>The</strong> advantages<br />

<strong>of</strong> blue laser over o<strong>the</strong>r technologies such as infrared laser<br />

or ultrasonic welding are evident, and rapid implementation<br />

<strong>of</strong> this technology is expected in <strong>the</strong> next few years in<br />

<strong>the</strong> manufacture <strong>of</strong> automotive components.<br />

Víctor Blanco<br />

Business Unit Director<br />

www.laser2000.es<br />

Jean-Michel Pelaprat<br />

NUBURU<br />

www.nuburu.net<br />

52 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

High-Performance Blue Lasers (450 nm)<br />

AO-150 | 150W - fibre 200 μm<br />

AO-500 | 500W - fibre 400 μm<br />

Distributor in Europe:<br />

• Laser equipment<br />

• Laser safety<br />

• Optics & Optomechanics<br />

• Lasers and <strong>light</strong> sources for<br />

science, industry and R&D<br />

• Instrumentation<br />

• Artificial vision<br />

• Cameras<br />

• Fibre Optics and Networks<br />




<strong>The</strong> role <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> ALBA Synchrotron<br />

in relation to challenges<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong> industry<br />

<strong>The</strong> ALBA Synchrotron is <strong>the</strong> only synchrotron <strong>light</strong> source that exists in Spain; a <strong>light</strong> that is different due to its high brightness<br />

and intensity. It is for this reason that measurements with synchrotron <strong>light</strong> require less time, are more accurate than laboratory-based<br />

methods and, in general, are not destructive. This makes it suitable for observing <strong>the</strong> structure and properties <strong>of</strong> a<br />

great number <strong>of</strong> materials, including those used in vehicles, on a micro and nanoscopic scale.<br />

<strong>The</strong> ALBA Synchrotron can be <strong>of</strong> great help in relation to <strong>the</strong> challenges facing <strong>the</strong> automotive industry, such as how to achieve:<br />

More durable batteries for hybrid and<br />

electric vehicles<br />

Batteries with greater storage capacity plus rapid and efficient<br />

energy release are a major challenge for <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

sector. Improving <strong>the</strong> different materials that make up<br />

battery components (anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, etc.) is<br />

essential for increasing <strong>the</strong>ir performance. <strong>The</strong> ALBA Synchrotron<br />

is a great specialist in <strong>the</strong> study <strong>of</strong> batteries, both<br />

in-situ and in <strong>the</strong> different phases <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> battery's useful life<br />

and during <strong>the</strong> charging process.<br />

New stronger yet more <strong>light</strong>weight<br />

materials, such as steel or plastics<br />

Making <strong>car</strong> materials more <strong>light</strong>weight helps reduce fuel consumption;<br />

<strong>the</strong>y should also be stronger to improve <strong>the</strong> impact<br />

<strong>of</strong> deformation and increase safety. <strong>The</strong> properties <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se<br />

materials are strongly correlated to <strong>the</strong>ir structure, so <strong>the</strong> synchrotron<br />

techniques that characterise micro and nanoscopic<br />

structure are <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> utmost importance for <strong>the</strong>ir improvement.<br />

54 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho



More efficient catalytic converters to<br />

reduce <strong>the</strong> emission <strong>of</strong> pollutants<br />

<strong>The</strong> exhaust pipe catalytic converters on vehicles lose efficiency as<br />

<strong>the</strong>y age due to sintering (aggregation <strong>of</strong> catalytic nanoparticles),<br />

which causes a loss <strong>of</strong> active surface. Synchrotron techniques enable<br />

<strong>the</strong> study <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> mechanism and behaviour <strong>of</strong> catalytic materials<br />

during activation and while catalytic reactions take place in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>car</strong>, which enables us to improve <strong>the</strong>ir properties and efficiency,<br />

while making <strong>the</strong>m more durable.<br />

Materials for vehicles<br />

driven by hydrogen<br />

<strong>The</strong> success <strong>of</strong> this type <strong>of</strong> vehicle depends to a<br />

large extent on <strong>the</strong> ability to obtain <strong>light</strong>weight,<br />

compact and safe hydrogen storage devices for<br />

adequate amounts <strong>of</strong> hydrogen. <strong>The</strong> Synchrotron<br />

has studied different materials for such purposes<br />

with <strong>the</strong> aim <strong>of</strong> finding solutions applicable on an<br />

industrial scale.<br />

<strong>The</strong> information obtained in a synchrotron<br />

installation helps to develop new<br />

processes, characterise material in situ,<br />

improve its properties and reduce costs.<br />

Please contact us (industrial<strong>of</strong>fice@<br />

cells.es) if you believe that <strong>the</strong> ALBA<br />

synchrotron could be helpful for your<br />

company.<br />

Marta Ávila<br />

Industrial Office Researcher






Custom projects<br />

We provide "know-how"<br />

and innovation<br />

We provide solutions<br />

and pr<strong>of</strong>itability<br />

Tel. (+34) 93 861 13 20<br />

export@micrauto.es<br />

Ctra. Valldoriolf, KM. 0,189 08430<br />

La Roca del Vallès (Barcelona) SPAIN

Automotive<br />






Laser processes in polymers for <strong>light</strong>ing and interior design. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

More efficient catalytic converters to reduce pollutant emission.<br />

New, <strong>light</strong>er and more resistant materials such as steel or plastic.<br />

More durable batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles.<br />

Materials for vehicles powered by hydrogen.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> prototypes for custom lidar images.<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> lidar systems for real-time 3D image without moving<br />

parts, with high spatial resolution, immunity to solar radiation and <strong>the</strong><br />

ability to coregister multiple image modes.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> 2D images.<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> 3D images.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> a broadband image sensor for <strong>the</strong> implementation <strong>of</strong> an<br />

autonomous driving system for all wea<strong>the</strong>r conditions<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

58 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho



Camera in <strong>car</strong>d format and OEM for driving assistance and driver monitoring.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> artificial intelligence systems for autonomous driving.<br />

CARLA: open-source simulation platform with different digital assets that<br />

acts as a support tool in <strong>the</strong> development, training and validation <strong>of</strong> autonomous<br />

driving systems.<br />

SYNTHIA: Data-set formed <strong>of</strong> a large set <strong>of</strong> syn<strong>the</strong>tic images, generated<br />

from videogame environments, with automatic annotations <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> different<br />

objects that make up <strong>the</strong> scene, in order to efficiently feed <strong>the</strong> learning<br />

systems <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>future</strong> autonomous vehicle so that it can understand, and<br />

react to, <strong>the</strong> environment.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

POF<br />

Knowledge Development<br />

Intra-vehicular optical communications.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Designs and manufactures customised sensors for use in <strong>car</strong>s (colour,<br />

blind angle, Lidar, communications).<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Comprehensive photonic circuit development services for multiple applications,<br />

laser radar (LIDAR) for autonomous driving vehicles, photonic<br />

sensors or integrated optical transmitters/receivers.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> systems that improve <strong>the</strong> comfort <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> vehicle: components<br />

that reduce vibration, electrical systems that hold doors, sensors<br />

that avoid impacts against obstacles, etc.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 59



Permanent control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> operation <strong>of</strong> electric vehicles through <strong>the</strong><br />

use <strong>of</strong> distributed fibre optic sensors and special optical fibres.<br />

Real-time monitoring <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> state <strong>of</strong> composite structural elements<br />

through <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> integrated fibres and distributed fibre optic sensors.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Laser texturing and design and functional microstructuring for<br />

moulds: decorative texturing <strong>of</strong> all types, microstructuring for <strong>light</strong><br />

guidance, texturing for controlled <strong>light</strong> dissemination, texturing and<br />

micromachining <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>ing prototypes.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Encapsulation service and verification <strong>of</strong> opto-electronic devices. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

60 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho




Laser processes for manufacturing parts, textures and finishes.<br />

Laser processes in polymers and interior design.<br />

Laser processes for <strong>the</strong> manufacture <strong>of</strong> embedded sensors.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Distributors and integrators <strong>of</strong> 3D scanning systems in metrology grade<br />

for interiors and exteriors, even in automated production processes, implemented<br />

in almost all automotive manufacturers and suppliers.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9<br />

S<br />

3D scanning with portable laser devices for quality control, metrology<br />

and reverse engineering.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>rmographic solutions for continuous and online<br />

monitoring <strong>of</strong> critical equipment and processes.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Confocal chromatic sensor for surface inspection, contact-free optical<br />

rugosimeter.<br />

Detection <strong>of</strong> defects <strong>of</strong> painted products by industrial vision with high<br />

redundancy.<br />

Laser protection cabins and enclosures customised for production line<br />

or R&D.<br />

Measurement and inspection systems for screens and displays.<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Advanced inspection systems through artificial vision. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

<strong>light</strong>! by secpho 61



High-performance blue laser for <strong>the</strong> processing <strong>of</strong> copper, copper<br />

alloys and o<strong>the</strong>r metals, applicable in new Li-Ion batteries and o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

electrical and electronic systems <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> vehicle.<br />

Peak and femtosecond lasers for material microprocessing.<br />

Accessories and components <strong>of</strong> laser systems.<br />

Laser safety systems and equipment: cabins, panels, curtains, windows,<br />

glasses, interlock, signalling.<br />

Colorimeters and luminance, illuminance and flicker meters.<br />

Laser <strong>light</strong>ing systems and structured <strong>light</strong> sources for <strong>the</strong> detection<br />

<strong>of</strong> defects through artificial vision.<br />

SWIR <strong>the</strong>rmal cameras.<br />

Cameras and auxiliary systems for artificial vision.<br />

Ultra-short pulse lasers for material microprocessing.<br />

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Laser cut.<br />

Welding <strong>of</strong> metals by laser.<br />

Polymer welding by laser.<br />

Laser marking and engraving.<br />

Laser hardening and tempering.<br />

Additive laser manufacturing.<br />

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Permanent control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> operation <strong>of</strong> electric vehicles through <strong>the</strong><br />

use <strong>of</strong> distributed fibre optic sensors and special optical fibres.<br />

Real-time monitoring <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> state <strong>of</strong> composite structural elements<br />

through <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> integrated fibres and distributed fibre optic sensors.<br />

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Lenses for laser heads <strong>of</strong> vehicle head<strong>light</strong>s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

62 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho



Additive manufacturing technologies for metal parts.<br />

"Ad hoc" photonic devices for manufacture with zero defects.<br />

High performance laser welding solutions.<br />

Microdrilling <strong>of</strong> metal components with thicknesses <strong>of</strong> less than 1 mm.<br />

Manufacture <strong>of</strong> functional surfaces.<br />

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Industrial solutions based on infrared technology for monitoring, quality<br />

control and real-time control <strong>of</strong> laser processes (welding, overlay, additive<br />

manufacturing, cutting, etc.).<br />

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Laster texturing, design and functional microstructuring <strong>of</strong> moulds: decorative<br />

texturing, microstructuring for <strong>light</strong> guiding, texturing for controlled<br />

<strong>light</strong> dissemination, texturing and microproduction <strong>of</strong> <strong>light</strong>ing prototypes.<br />

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Development <strong>of</strong> customised systems based on artificial vision specialising<br />

in <strong>the</strong> field <strong>of</strong> 3D reconstruction focused on dimensional control,<br />

quality control and optimisation <strong>of</strong> production processes.<br />

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Designs and manufactures equipment parts for inspection (colour, X-ray).<br />

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Solutions based on artificial vision, robotics and artificial intelligence for<br />

industrial automation. Application integration to automate tasks and improve<br />

<strong>the</strong> ergonomics <strong>of</strong> workstations. Examples: vision-guided robotics<br />

for pre-assemblies and picking <strong>of</strong> parts with complex or variable geometries,<br />

chaotic piking, defect and intruder detection, character reading,<br />

metrology.<br />

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Artificial intelligence systems applied to artificial vision for classifying objects<br />

and reading characters. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

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Development <strong>of</strong> 2D images.<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> 3D images.<br />

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Encapsulation service and verification <strong>of</strong> opto-electronic devices. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Manufacture <strong>of</strong> a low-weight, airtight battery box for electric vehicles.<br />

Hot stamping technologies and multi-material solutions to achieve <strong>light</strong>er<br />

body and chassis components with high impact resistance.<br />

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Advice, protection and defence <strong>of</strong> industrial and intellectual property 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S<br />

Comprehensive service in <strong>the</strong> management <strong>of</strong> financial and fiscal aid<br />

to boost R&D projects and improve competitiveness.<br />

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64 <strong>light</strong>! by secpho

3D Printing

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