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Skills Builders Grammar & Punctuation Book 1 - SAMPLE PAGES

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4 How to use this book

6 Word classes*

7 Punctuation marks*

8 Using determiners*

9 Choosing appropriate pronouns and nouns*

10 Using apostrophes for contraction*

11 Using apostrophes for possession*

12 Punctuating direct speech*

13 Using conjunctions*

14 Fronted adverbials*

15 Fronted adverbials with commas*

16 Adding -s or -es*

17 Synonyms and antonyms*

18 Using paragraphs to organise ideas*

19 Using prepositional phrases*

20 Assess and review

22 Adding suffixes

24 Adding verb prefixes

26 Phrases and clauses

28 Using modal verbs

30 Adverbials of probability

32 Assess and review

34 Tenses

36 Linking ideas across paragraphs

38 Introducing brackets

39 Using brackets, dashes or commas

40 Using commas to clarify meaning

Contents

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41 Common errors

42 Informal and formal writing

43 Assess and review

A1 Answers (centre pull-out)

* Revision pages


Assess and review

WARMING UP

Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

1

Add a modal verb to complete each of these sentences.

a If it is sunny tomorrow, I

b My homework is due in tomorrow, so I

c When crossing the road, we

d I just

GETTING HOTTER

stop eating the chocolates!

2 Remove the prefix and write the root word. For example:

recycle

a disappoint

b misbehave

c ungrateful

d transparent

e immature

f

submarine

cycle

go to the park with Kadeem.

look both ways.

do it tonight.

3 Add an appropriate prefix to each of the following words in order to create

new words.

a cover

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b use

c happy

d division

e capable

f honest

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© Insight Publications 2014


Assess and review

RED HOT!

4

Add that, which, who or whose to complete these sentences.

a I’ve bought the book

b Our house,

c Was the phone number

d We saw someone

e Your homework,

f

5

6

is on the table.

The film is a story about a boy

parents have left him alone.

you recommended.

is fairly new, has three bedrooms.

you gave me correct?

looked like you.

was very good,

Match the adverbs of probability that have similar meanings.

often

definitely

seldom

maybe

rarely

possibly

certainly

frequently

In the following paragraph, use coloured pencils to draw:

➜ circle the modal verbs

➜ underline the words with prefixes

➜ highlight the adverbials of probability.

My father always says that I should be a writer because I often make up

impossible stories in my head. I'm undecided. I can draw quite well too, so

maybe I will be an artist instead.

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Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

© Insight Publications 2014

33


Tenses

Verbs can be written in the past, present or future tense.

Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

➜ The past tense shows that something has already happened.

➜ The present tense shows that something is happening now.

➜ The future tense shows that something will happen in the future.

WARMING UP

1

2

Complete this table.

Verb Past Present Future

to walk walked walk(s) will walk

to play

to sing

to sleep

sang

Rewrite these sentences using the past tense.

a He cycles to school.

b I drink my coffee with milk.

play(s)

will sleep

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c He will clean the windows.

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© Insight Publications 2014


Tenses

GETTING HOTTER

3 Change these sentences to the future tense.

a She sang in the school choir.

b The teacher marked the books.

c The baby is walking.

When we want to write about something that has happened in the past but we do not

specify the time, we use the present perfect tense.

RED HOT!

4

Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the verb in the present perfect tense.

For example:

Alison’s flight from Australia has landed.

(land)

a The ice in the park

b The police

c Sundus

d It

e My sister

She has not had her breakfast yet.

They have seen the film already.

. (melt)

three men today. (arrest)

a letter to her best friend. (write)

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a great week. (be)

in the garden. (hide)

f Freddie his lunch. (eat)

Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

© Insight Publications 2014

35


Linking ideas across paragraphs

Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

All good pieces of writing are well organised. This means that there is a clear

introduction, paragraphs or sections follow on from one another and there is a

conclusion or ending.

Clear introductions engage the reader’s attention immediately, and punchy endings

leave the reader with something to think about.

WARMING UP

1

a

c

Read each of the following extracts and decide whether it is an introduction (I)

or a conclusion (C).

I am writing this letter

to complain about the

service we experienced

last night at your

restaurant.

Do you find yourself stepping in

chewing gum while out walking?

If you do, you may be interested

to read on and discover why the

government may ban chewing

gum this year.

b


As I said earlier, my

suggestions for how to spend

the gardening budget will

benefit everybody.

d

I and the rest of

the school council

look forward to

your response to

the above points.

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36

© Insight Publications 2014


Linking ideas across paragraphs

Connectives can be grouped into different types according to their function in

the sentence.

To add more

information

➜➜in addition

➜➜in the same way

➜➜furthermore

➜➜similarly

To offer a

contrast

➜➜but

GETTING HOTTER

➜➜however

➜➜although

➜➜in contrast

To explain a point

➜➜besides

➜➜a result of this

➜➜therefore

➜➜consequently

2 Complete each sentence using a connective from the table above.

a Year 7 students were supposed to go swimming

b

the coach did not turn up.

c ‘You have not handed your homework in again,

you have a detention.’

d The service in the restaurant was not good enough.

RED HOT!

3

To sequence

➜➜first

➜➜then

➜➜after that

➜➜finally

the race was over and the athletes could relax.

to this, the food was also cold.

Write a paragraph on any topic containing two conntectives from the table above.

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Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

© Insight Publications 2014

37


Introducing brackets

Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

Brackets are sometimes called parentheses, and the information in brackets is

called parenthesis.

Brackets show information that is additional to the main text.

WARMING UP

*

Last Friday (the first day

of the school holidays),

we went swimming.

World War II (1939–45)

is a significant event in

history from which the

whole world has learnt.

Use brackets to punctuate the following sentences.

a She whispered to Luke her younger brother that she was scared.

b I broke both bones radius and ulna in my arm.

c My birthday 19 November is my favourite day of the year.

d His footy team Collingwood were in the final again.

This is additional

information about Friday.

The rest of the sentence

makes complete sense

without the information

in brackets.

Dates, dimensions and

definitions can also be

placed in brackets. As

with the first example,

the sentence also makes

sense without reading the

information in brackets.

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e He suffered from triskaidekaphobia fear of the number thirteen.

f

She was as tall as basketballer Liz Cambage 203 centimetres.

g Her favourite actress Cate Blanchett was nominated for an Oscar.

h We put our food scraps mainly fruit peel and potato skins into our compost bin.

i

Nyla her best friend was moving away.

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© Insight Publications 2014


Using brackets, dashes or commas

Parenthesis can be written in brackets, between commas or between dashes.

➜ Ben Lyons ( who lives in Perth ) is an amazing footballer.

➜ Ben Lyons , who lives in Perth , is an amazing footballer.

➜ Ben Lyons – who lives in Perth – is an amazing footballer.

WARMING UP

1 Add brackets, dashes or commas to these sentences to enclose the extra

information or definitions.

a Cameron’s mum Emma Morris is a primary-school teacher.

b The head teacher paid a significant amount of money more than $15,000

for new school windows.

c The Eiffel Tower in Paris France is 324 metres tall.

d The football coach who was new to the area got

lost on the way to the match.

e The runners which were striped with blue and

silver were very expensive.

2 Write three original sentences with extra information

contained in the punctuation given below.

a

b

c

(brackets)

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(dashes)

(commas)

Builders

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

© Insight Publications 2014

39


Answers

insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Book 1

Word classes (page 6)

Nouns: Spain, Rihanna, car, greed Adjectives: pretty, cute, gentle, hilarious

Verbs: drank, play, jog, persuade Adverbs: outside, tomorrow, slowly, angrily

Punctuation marks (page 7)

a) How did you know how to do that? b) Give it to me!

c) Don’t you have the car keys? d) I have a sandwich in my lunch box.

e) Why did he throw the ball? f) Hey, I’m calling you!

g) I have two pet rabbits. h) Wait! i) What time should we meet?

j) Why? k) Stop! l) Can I ask you a question?

m) This is incredible! n) Let me explain how it works.

Using determiners (page 8)

A school is a place where teachers teach and children learn.

All schools are committed to children making progress.

Some schools have a school uniform but others do not.

My school, which I began to attend when I was eleven, is in the city.

Some schools have canteens, while others do not.

All schools have a principal.

Choosing appropriate pronouns and nouns (page 9)

a) his b) She c) me / him / her d) his e) her

Using apostrophes for contraction (page 10)

1

I’m

I am

couldn’t

could not

I’ll

I will

isn’t

is not

could’ve

could have

aren’t

are not

they’re

they are

weren’t

were not

2 a) aren’t b) It’s c) he’d d) should’ve/could’ve

Using apostrophes for possession (page 11)

a) one boy owns more than one coat b) more than one child owns more than one pen

c) one man owns one bag d) more than one fairy owns more than one wing

e) one teacher owns more than one boot f) one baby owns one toy

g) more than one friend shares one secret h) one car has more than one wheel

i) more than one girl is hosting one party

Punctuating direct speech (page 12)

Talia was shopping with her best friend, Naomi, when a dazzling ring caught their eyes.

‘Wow!‘ exclaimed Talia. ‘Look at that, Naomi. Isn’t it beautiful?‘

Naomi moved closer to the diamond ring, which displayed the price tag $1800.

‘Talia, have you seen the price? We’d better go to another shop!‘

‘I suppose you are right, Naomi,‘ Talia muttered.

As the girls left the jewellery shop, they made an agreement that one day they

would each own a ring just like the one in the window.

Using conjunctions (page 13)

a) and b) before / and c) As / Since d) If e) or f) Although

g) unless / until h) but i) because / as j) since

Fronted adverbials (page 14)

Immediately,

After a while,

In conclusion,

the team did play better in the second half.

Year 7 students work extremely hard.

we grew bored with the game.

In fact, the summer fete raised a grand total of $1000.

On the other hand,

Generally,

Previously,

Similarly,

he ran from the forest fire.

Khartik also learns the drums.

tomatoes are a fruit, not a vegetable.

she’d been driven to school, but now she caught the bus.

Fronted adverbials with commas (page 15)

1 Answers will vary. Here are some sample answers.

a) In the centre of Sydney, it is always very busy.

b) When I was young, I liked playing with my sister.

c) As you already know, the football match is tomorrow.

d) In Ancient Egypt, there were many slaves.

2 Answers will vary. Here are some sample answers.

a) Some day , b) Previously , c) Suddenly, d) Similarly,

Adding -s or -es (page 16)

a) Sarah put the glasses on the table. b) Ravi took his books back to the library.

c) Luke played football with his friends. d) Claire took the boxes upstairs.

e) The children played football in the park.

Synonyms and antonyms (page 17)

1 Answers will vary. Here are some sample answers.

a) quick, speedy, swift, rapid, brisk, hasty, accelerated

b) unsure, hesitant, anxious, worried, agitated, apprehensive

c) enthusiastic, eager, exuberant, worked up, energised

d) attractive, pretty, handsome, good-looking, stunning

e) mad, cross, irate, furious, enraged, hostile, enraged, livid

2 Answers will vary. Here are some sample answers.

a) reassuring, calming, comforting, relaxing, soothing

b) normal, ordinary, average, standard, regular, typical

c) ordinary, terrible, horrible, boring, dull, unexciting

d) attractive, pretty, handsome, good-looking, stunning

e) old, ancient, ageing, tired, worn out, old-fashioned

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Using paragraphs to organise ideas (page 18)

Answers will vary. Here is a sample answer.

P: Schools are places that students go to be educated.

E: All school-age children in Australia are required to go to school.

E: School has not always been compulsory in Australia. Before 1880, there was

no law requiring children to go to school. In 1880, a law was passed that

made attendance at school mandatory for children.

Using prepositional phrases (page 19)

a) The wolf under the bridge was howling / Under the bridge, the wolf was howling.

b) The man was shouting in the van. c) The koala in the tree was eating gum leaves.

d) The girl in the yard was skipping. e) The actor inthe new film played a villain.

A2

© Insight Publications 2014

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