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Adding prefixes

A prefix is a group of letters placed at the start of a word. The prefix changes the meaning

of the word. Here are some common prefixes:

dis- im- in- mis- re- unnot

not not wrong again not

disconnect impossible inhuman misunderstand repossess uncertain

WARMING UP

1 Think of three new words that start with these prefixes.

a disb

mis-

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c un-

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2 Use your knowledge of prefixes to explain each of these words.

a disadvantage

b unavailable

c misbehaving

d renegotiate

e inconsistent

f

immature

3 Think of a new word that starts with each of these prefixes.

Then use your knowledge of prefixes to explain what it means.

a re-

b pre-

c anti-

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Using modal verbs

The main modal verbs are:

will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must and ought to.

Modal verbs are important for expressing degrees of certainty.

■ I might go to the movies later on with my friends.

■ You can learn how to do that today.

■ We shouldn’t run in the corridors at school.

WARMING UP

1 Choose a correct modal verb to complete each sentence.

a If you do not wear a coat, you

catch a cold.

would / might / can / should

b

you please close the window for me?

Shall / Should / May / Could

c

we go to the cinema or stay in tonight?

May / Might / Can / Should

d He

try harder in maths.

ought to / would / may / shall

2 Add a modal verb to complete each sentence.

a This evening, I

stay in and do my homework.

b I

give Sandeep a present at his party tomorrow.

c There

be bigger ramps at the skate park.

d At today’s assembly, we

all sing the school song.

© Insight Publications 2014

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Phrases and clauses

Here is a summary of the phrases and clauses you are likely to have met so far.

Type Meaning Example

Phrase

Clause

A group of words that may have

nouns or verbs but does not have

a subject doing a verb.

A group of words that has a

subject doing a verb.

➜➜some funny people

➜➜running up the street

➜➜Eleanor likes dancing

➜➜He paints a picture

Main clause A complete sentence by itself. ➜➜Ben went swimming

➜➜Thomas eats doughnuts

Subordinate

clause

Starts with a conjunction and does

not make sense by itself.

➜➜because Amir likes sport

➜➜although Sarah loves clothes

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Relative

clause

Adds extra information to the

sentence by modifying or defining

a noun.

You might recall that a subject is the person or thing

performing the action in a clause or sentence.

Milo walks ➼ Milo is the subject.

WARMING UP

*

Underline the subordinate clauses in these sentences.

a After Romi sneezed on the cake, she threw it in the bin.

➜➜The car that is parked next

door is shiny and red.

b Unless Thomas finishes his homework, he will have detention tomorrow.

c The dog chewed on the slipper while Dad slept in his chair.

d Although I was scared, I opened the old wooden door and peeked inside.

e We will win the match if we play our best.

f

Juan put up his hood because it was raining.

g As she had some free time, Rose thought that she might bake a cake.

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Direct speech

Direct speech, sometimes referred to as dialogue, is the exact words used by the

speaker. You need to put quotation marks (also known as speech marks) around what

the speaker says.

‘I can’t believe I’m in Year 8,’ said Gabrielle to Chloe.

WARMING UP

1

Tick the sentence that is punctuated correctly.

a ‘Stop it!’ he said. ‘You are hurting my leg!’

b ‘Stop it, he said, you are hurting my leg!’

c Stop it!, he said. ‘you are hurting my leg!’

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d ‘Stop it’ he said, ‘you are hurting my leg!’

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2 Rewrite these sentences as direct speech. Make sure to use the correct punctuation.

a She told Aisha to go and get her book bag. Aisha refused.

b He told Mum that he had spent all of his pocket money. Mum was annoyed.

c Sebastián told Ellie that he had borrowed her pen. Ellie said that he could keep it.

d Nicholas told Dao that he would play footy with him on the weekend. Dao was pleased.

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Apostrophes for possession and contraction

Apostrophes can be used to indicate possession or to show contraction.

➜ Possession: An apostrophe can be used to show who or what

something belongs to. For example: ‘the boy’s ball’.

➜ Contraction: Sometimes we shorten words, and in such cases we use an

apostrophe to show where letters have been left out. For example: the

apostrophe in ‘don’t’ indicates the missing letter in ‘do not’.

WARMING UP

1 Write the contraction for the underlined words.

a I would go to the party but I am sick.

b Let us see what time the shop closes.

c I do not think I will have enough money.

d I have nearly finished the book I am reading.

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2 In these sentences, insert the apostrophe in a

correct place to show possession. Then on the line

below, explain what the apostrophe indicates.

All of the woman’s clothes were hung up neatly.

One woman owns more than one piece of clothing.

a All of the girls coats had fallen onto the floor.

b The boys bike was resting against the apple tree.

c You could see two eggs in the birds nest.

d The childrens lunch boxes were stacked up near the door.

© Insight Publications 2014

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Changing verbs into nouns

You can change many verbs to nouns by changing the word ending. Some common

endings of nouns formed from verbs are -tion, -ism, -ment, -ance, -ist, -er, or and -ity.

For example:

verb

to protect

noun

protection

verb

to travel

noun

traveller

Changing verbs into nouns is called nominalisation. Nominalisation can make texts

more formal in tone.

WARMING UP

1

Change the following verbs to nouns. There may be more than one possible

answer in some cases.

Verb Noun Verb Noun

2

to improve

to tour

to dance

to reduce

to operate

to assess

to concentrate

© Insight Publications 2014

to educate

to teach

to locate

to satisfy

to demonstrate

to inform

to clarify

Fill in the noun form of the verb given in brackets in the letter.

Dear Parents,

Our final a

followed by an awards b

c

a short d

forward to your e

Sincerely,

Principal Gower

(assemble) will be held on Friday,

(present). At the

(conclude) of the evening, there will be

(perform) by students. We look

(attend).

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