Insight Skills Builders - Grammar & Punctuation Book 2 - SAMPLE PAGES

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

Adding prefixes

A prefix is a group of letters placed at the start of a word. The prefix changes the meaning

of the word. Here are some common prefixes:

dis- im- in- mis- re- unnot

not not wrong again not

disconnect impossible inhuman misunderstand repossess uncertain


1 Think of three new words that start with these prefixes.

a disb



insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Student Book 2


c un-

getting hotter

2 Use your knowledge of prefixes to explain each of these words.

a disadvantage

b unavailable

c misbehaving

d renegotiate

e inconsistent



3 Think of a new word that starts with each of these prefixes.

Then use your knowledge of prefixes to explain what it means.

a re-

b pre-

c anti-

© Insight Publications 2014

SkillsBuilders_SB2_GrammarPunctuation_5pp.indd 6

10/03/14 7:05 PM

Using modal verbs

The main modal verbs are:

will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must and ought to.

Modal verbs are important for expressing degrees of certainty.

■ I might go to the movies later on with my friends.

■ You can learn how to do that today.

■ We shouldn’t run in the corridors at school.


1 Choose a correct modal verb to complete each sentence.

a If you do not wear a coat, you

catch a cold.

would / might / can / should


you please close the window for me?

Shall / Should / May / Could


we go to the cinema or stay in tonight?

May / Might / Can / Should

d He

try harder in maths.

ought to / would / may / shall

2 Add a modal verb to complete each sentence.

a This evening, I

stay in and do my homework.

b I

give Sandeep a present at his party tomorrow.

c There

be bigger ramps at the skate park.

d At today’s assembly, we

all sing the school song.

© Insight Publications 2014


insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Student Book 2


SkillsBuilders_SB2_GrammarPunctuation_5pp.indd 9

10/03/14 7:05 PM

Phrases and clauses

Here is a summary of the phrases and clauses you are likely to have met so far.

Type Meaning Example



A group of words that may have

nouns or verbs but does not have

a subject doing a verb.

A group of words that has a

subject doing a verb.

➜➜some funny people

➜➜running up the street

➜➜Eleanor likes dancing

➜➜He paints a picture

Main clause A complete sentence by itself. ➜➜Ben went swimming

➜➜Thomas eats doughnuts



Starts with a conjunction and does

not make sense by itself.

➜➜because Amir likes sport

➜➜although Sarah loves clothes


insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Student Book 2




Adds extra information to the

sentence by modifying or defining

a noun.

You might recall that a subject is the person or thing

performing the action in a clause or sentence.

Milo walks ➼ Milo is the subject.



Underline the subordinate clauses in these sentences.

a After Romi sneezed on the cake, she threw it in the bin.

➜➜The car that is parked next

door is shiny and red.

b Unless Thomas finishes his homework, he will have detention tomorrow.

c The dog chewed on the slipper while Dad slept in his chair.

d Although I was scared, I opened the old wooden door and peeked inside.

e We will win the match if we play our best.


Juan put up his hood because it was raining.

g As she had some free time, Rose thought that she might bake a cake.

© Insight Publications 2014

SkillsBuilders_SB2_GrammarPunctuation_5pp.indd 14

10/03/14 7:06 PM

Direct speech

Direct speech, sometimes referred to as dialogue, is the exact words used by the

speaker. You need to put quotation marks (also known as speech marks) around what

the speaker says.

‘I can’t believe I’m in Year 8,’ said Gabrielle to Chloe.



Tick the sentence that is punctuated correctly.

a ‘Stop it!’ he said. ‘You are hurting my leg!’

b ‘Stop it, he said, you are hurting my leg!’

c Stop it!, he said. ‘you are hurting my leg!’


insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Student Book 2


d ‘Stop it’ he said, ‘you are hurting my leg!’

getting hotter

2 Rewrite these sentences as direct speech. Make sure to use the correct punctuation.

a She told Aisha to go and get her book bag. Aisha refused.

b He told Mum that he had spent all of his pocket money. Mum was annoyed.

c Sebastián told Ellie that he had borrowed her pen. Ellie said that he could keep it.

d Nicholas told Dao that he would play footy with him on the weekend. Dao was pleased.

© Insight Publications 2014

SkillsBuilders_SB2_GrammarPunctuation_5pp.indd 16

10/03/14 7:06 PM

Apostrophes for possession and contraction

Apostrophes can be used to indicate possession or to show contraction.

➜ Possession: An apostrophe can be used to show who or what

something belongs to. For example: ‘the boy’s ball’.

➜ Contraction: Sometimes we shorten words, and in such cases we use an

apostrophe to show where letters have been left out. For example: the

apostrophe in ‘don’t’ indicates the missing letter in ‘do not’.


1 Write the contraction for the underlined words.

a I would go to the party but I am sick.

b Let us see what time the shop closes.

c I do not think I will have enough money.

d I have nearly finished the book I am reading.

getting hotter

2 In these sentences, insert the apostrophe in a

correct place to show possession. Then on the line

below, explain what the apostrophe indicates.

All of the woman’s clothes were hung up neatly.

One woman owns more than one piece of clothing.

a All of the girls coats had fallen onto the floor.

b The boys bike was resting against the apple tree.

c You could see two eggs in the birds nest.

d The childrens lunch boxes were stacked up near the door.

© Insight Publications 2014


insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Student Book 2


SkillsBuilders_SB2_GrammarPunctuation_5pp.indd 17

10/03/14 7:06 PM

Changing verbs into nouns

You can change many verbs to nouns by changing the word ending. Some common

endings of nouns formed from verbs are -tion, -ism, -ment, -ance, -ist, -er, or and -ity.

For example:


to protect




to travel



Changing verbs into nouns is called nominalisation. Nominalisation can make texts

more formal in tone.



Change the following verbs to nouns. There may be more than one possible

answer in some cases.

Verb Noun Verb Noun


to improve

to tour

to dance

to reduce

to operate

to assess

to concentrate

© Insight Publications 2014

to educate

to teach

to locate

to satisfy

to demonstrate

to inform

to clarify

Fill in the noun form of the verb given in brackets in the letter.

Dear Parents,

Our final a

followed by an awards b


a short d

forward to your e


Principal Gower

(assemble) will be held on Friday,

(present). At the

(conclude) of the evening, there will be

(perform) by students. We look



insight Skills Builders: Grammar and Punctuation Student Book 2


SkillsBuilders_SB2_GrammarPunctuation_5pp.indd 41

10/03/14 7:06 PM

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!