The 508(c)(1)(a) Initiative Workshop

The 508(c)(1)(a) Initiative Workshop

The 508(c)(1)(a) Initiative Workshop


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Turning the Improbable<br />

Into the Exceptional!<br />

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<strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation, Inc.<br />

Helping Individuals, Organizations & Communities<br />

Achieve <strong>The</strong>ir Full Potential<br />

Since its founding in 2003, <strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation has become recognized as an effective<br />

provider of support to those who receive our services, having real impact within the communities<br />

we serve. We are currently engaged in community and faith-based collaborative initiatives,<br />

having the overall objective of eradicating all forms of youth violence and correcting injustices<br />

everywhere. In carrying-out these initiatives, we have adopted the evidence-based strategic<br />

framework developed and implemented by the Office of Juvenile Justice & Delinquency<br />

Prevention (OJJDP).<br />

<strong>The</strong> stated objectives are:<br />

1. Community Mobilization;<br />

2. Social Intervention;<br />

3. Provision of Opportunities;<br />

4. Organizational Change and Development;<br />

5. Suppression [of illegal activities].<br />

Moreover, it is our most fundamental belief that in order to be effective, prevention and<br />

intervention strategies must be Community Specific, Culturally Relevant, Evidence-Based, and<br />

Collaborative. <strong>The</strong> Violence Prevention and Intervention programming we employ in<br />

implementing this community-enhancing framework include the programs further described<br />

throughout our publications, programs and special projects both domestically and<br />

internationally.<br />

www.<strong>The</strong>Advocacy.Foundation<br />

ISBN: ......... ../2017<br />

......... Printed in the USA<br />

Advocacy Foundation Publishers<br />

Philadelphia, PA<br />

(878) 222-0450 | Voice | Data | SMS<br />

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Dedication<br />

______<br />

Every publication in our many series’ is dedicated to everyone, absolutely everyone, who by<br />

virtue of their calling and by Divine inspiration, direction and guidance, is on the battlefield dayafter-day<br />

striving to follow God’s will and purpose for their lives. And this is with particular affinity<br />

for those Spiritual warriors who are being transformed into excellence through daily academic,<br />

professional, familial, and other challenges.<br />

We pray that you will bear in mind:<br />

Matthew 19:26 (NLT)<br />

Jesus looked at them intently and said, “Humanly speaking, it is impossible.<br />

But with God everything is possible.” (Emphasis added)<br />

To all of us who daily look past our circumstances, and naysayers, to what the Lord says we will<br />

accomplish:<br />

Blessings!!<br />

- <strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation, Inc.<br />

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<strong>The</strong> Transformative Justice Project<br />

Eradicating Juvenile Delinquency Requires a Multi-Disciplinary Approach<br />

<strong>The</strong> Juvenile Justice system is incredibly overloaded, and Solutions-Based programs<br />

are woefully underfunded. Our precious children, therefore, particularly young people of<br />

color, often get the “swift” version of justice whenever they come into contact with the<br />

law.<br />

<strong>The</strong> way we accomplish all this is as follows:<br />

Decisions to build prison facilities are often based<br />

on elementary school test results, and our country<br />

incarcerates more of its young than any other<br />

nation on earth. So we at <strong>The</strong> Foundation labor to<br />

pull our young people out of the “school to prison”<br />

pipeline, and we then coordinate the efforts of the<br />

legal, psychological, governmental and<br />

educational professionals needed to bring an end<br />

to delinquency.<br />

We also educate families, police, local businesses,<br />

elected officials, clergy, and schools and other<br />

stakeholders about transforming whole<br />

communities, and we labor to change their thinking<br />

about the causes of delinquency with the goal of<br />

helping them embrace the idea of restoration for<br />

the young people in our care who demonstrate<br />

repentance for their mistakes..<br />

1. We vigorously advocate for charges reductions, wherever possible, in the<br />

adjudicatory (court) process, with the ultimate goal of expungement or pardon, in<br />

order to maximize the chances for our clients to graduate high school and<br />

progress into college, military service or the workforce without the stigma of a<br />

criminal record;<br />

2. We then enroll each young person into an Evidence-Based, Data-Driven<br />

Restorative Justice program designed to facilitate their rehabilitation and<br />

subsequent reintegration back into the community;<br />

3. While those projects are operating, we conduct a wide variety of ComeUnity-<br />

ReEngineering seminars and workshops on topics ranging from Juvenile Justice<br />

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to Parental Rights, to Domestic issues to Police friendly interactions, to mental<br />

health intervention, to CBO and FBO accountability and compliance;<br />

4. Throughout the process, we encourage and maintain frequent personal contact<br />

between all parties;<br />

5 Throughout the process we conduct a continuum of events and fundraisers<br />

designed to facilitate collaboration among professionals and community<br />

stakeholders; and finally<br />

6. 1 We disseminate Quarterly publications, like our e-Advocate series Newsletter<br />

and our e-Advocate Quarterly electronic Magazine to all regular donors in order<br />

to facilitate a lifelong learning process on the ever-evolving developments in the<br />

Justice system.<br />

And in addition to the help we provide for our young clients and their families, we also<br />

facilitate Community Engagement through the Restorative Justice process,<br />

thereby balancing the interests of local businesses, schools, clergy, social assistance<br />

organizations, elected officials, law enforcement entities, and all interested<br />

stakeholders. Through these efforts, relationships are rebuilt & strengthened, local<br />

businesses and communities are enhanced & protected from victimization, young<br />

careers are developed, and our precious young people are kept out of the prison<br />

pipeline.<br />

Additionally, we develop Transformative “Void Resistance” (TVR) initiatives to alleviate<br />

concerns of our successes resulting in economic hardship for those employed by the<br />

penal system.<br />

TVR is an innovative-comprehensive process that works in conjunction with our<br />

Transformative Justice initiatives to transition the original use and purpose of current<br />

systems into positive social impact operations, which systematically retrains current<br />

staff, renovates facilities, creates new employment opportunities, increases salaries and<br />

is data proven to enhance employee’s mental wellbeing and overall quality of life – an<br />

exponential Transformative Social Impact benefit for ALL community stakeholders.<br />

This is a massive undertaking, and we need all the help and financial support you can<br />

give! We plan to help 75 young persons per quarter-year (aggregating to a total of 250<br />

1<br />

In addition to supporting our world-class programming and support services, all regular donors receive our Quarterly e-Newsletter<br />

(<strong>The</strong> e-Advocate), as well as <strong>The</strong> e-Advocate Quarterly Magazine.<br />

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per year) in each jurisdiction we serve) at an average cost of under $2,500 per client,<br />

per year. *<br />

Thank you in advance for your support!<br />

* FYI:<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> national average cost to taxpayers for minimum-security youth incarceration,<br />

is around $43,000.00 per child, per year.<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> average annual cost to taxpayers for maximum-security youth incarceration<br />

is well over $148,000.00 per child, per year.<br />

- (US News and World Report, December 9, 2014);<br />

3. In every jurisdiction in the nation, the Plea Bargain rate is above 99%.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Judicial system engages in a tri-partite balancing task in every single one of these<br />

matters, seeking to balance Rehabilitative Justice with Community Protection and<br />

Judicial Economy, and, although the practitioners work very hard to achieve positive<br />

outcomes, the scales are nowhere near balanced where people of color are involved.<br />

We must reverse this trend, which is right now working very much against the best<br />

interests of our young.<br />

Our young people do not belong behind bars.<br />

- Jack Johnson<br />

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Advocacy Foundation Ministries, Inc.<br />

A <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) Compliant Faith-Based Organization<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a)<br />

Proactive Positioning & Preparation<br />

for Faith-Based Organizations<br />

“Turning the Improbable Into the Exceptional”<br />

Atlanta<br />

Philadelphia<br />

______<br />

Dea. John C. Johnson III, JD<br />

Founding Partner & CEO<br />

Rev. Mark L. Merrill<br />

Partner - Northeast Regional Director<br />

(878) 222-0450<br />

Voice | Data | SMS<br />

www.Advocacy.Foundation<br />

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Biblical Authority<br />

______<br />

Isaiah 50:8<br />

He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? let us stand together: who is<br />

mine adversary? let him come near to me.<br />

5 = GRACE<br />

8 = New Beginning<br />

Ephesians 6:11-13 & Matthew 9:16-17<br />

Put on the full armor of God, so that you may be able to stand up against all the<br />

schemes and the strategies and the deceits of the devil. For our struggle is not against<br />

flesh and blood [contending only with physical opponents], but against the rulers,<br />

against the powers, against the world forces of this [present] darkness, against the<br />

spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly (supernatural) places. <strong>The</strong>refore, put on<br />

the complete armor of God, so that you will be able to [successfully] resist and stand<br />

your ground in the evil day, and having done everything, to stand firm [in your place,<br />

fully prepared, immovable, victorious]…no one puts a piece of unshrunk (new) cloth on<br />

an old garment; for the patch pulls away from the garment, and a worse tear<br />

results. Nor is new wine put into old wineskins; otherwise the wineskins burst, and<br />

the wine spills and the wineskins are ruined. But new wine is put into fresh wineskins,<br />

so both are preserved.”<br />

Acts 1:6-8<br />

So when they had come together, they asked Him repeatedly, “Lord, are You at this<br />

time reestablishing the kingdom and restoring it to Israel?” He said to them, “It is not for<br />

you to know the times or epochs which the Father has fixed by His own authority. But<br />

you will receive power and ability when the Holy Spirit comes upon you; and you will be<br />

My witnesses [to tell people about Me] both in Jerusalem and in all Judea, and Samaria,<br />

and even to the ends of the earth.”<br />

Psalm 91:1<br />

He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High Will remain secure and rest in the shadow<br />

of the Almighty [whose power no enemy can withstand].<br />

Acts 6:10<br />

But they were not able to successfully withstand and cope with the wisdom and the<br />

intelligence [and the power and inspiration] of the Spirit by whom he was speaking.<br />

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Matthew 3:2 (ESV)<br />

2<br />

“Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”<br />

Matthew 4:17<br />

17<br />

From that time Jesus began to preach, saying, “Repent, for the kingdom<br />

of heaven is at hand.”<br />

Mark 1:15<br />

15<br />

and saying, “<strong>The</strong> time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at<br />

hand; [a] repent and believe in the gospel.”<br />

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Table of Contents<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a)<br />

Proactive Positioning & Preparation<br />

for Faith-Based Organizations<br />

Biblical Authority<br />

Day 1<br />

I. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) Faith-Based Organization…..…………………………… 19<br />

Does <strong>The</strong> Church Need to Be 501(c)(3) Approved?<br />

II. <strong>The</strong> Statutes, <strong>The</strong> 15/16 Determination Test and Landmark Cases…. 25<br />

III. Self Organizational-Evaluation(s)…………………………………………. 41<br />

IV. Amended State Filing(s) Exercise………………………………………… 45<br />

Day 2<br />

V. Political Lobbying for Nonprofits and Faith-Based Organizations…. 53<br />

VI. Critical Thinking for Transformative Social Impact……………………. 79<br />

VII. Ongoing Seminars and <strong>Workshop</strong>s………………………………………. 87<br />

________<br />

Attachments<br />

A. Why All Churches Should Be A <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a)<br />

B. IRS Tax Guide for Churches & Religious Organizations<br />

C. Lobbying Rules for Houses of Worship<br />

Copyright © 2003-2019 <strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.<br />

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I. Introduction<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) Faith-Based Organization<br />

Does <strong>The</strong> Church Need to Be 501(c)(3) Approved?<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) Faith Based Organization (FBO) is a religious, nonprofit, tax exempt<br />

organization. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) FBO is separate and distinct from a 501(c)(3) charity and<br />

unincorporated FBO’s. An unincorporated FBO by definition is a First Amendment<br />

Church/Organization.<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is recognized by the Federal Government, by all 50 states and<br />

recognized internationally under the Hague Convention of the United Nations Charter.<br />

Since its inception in 1954 with the Johnson Amendment, the 501(c)(3) has been<br />

promoted and advertised by many as the only option to organizing a FBO. This is<br />

incorrect. Federal law, IRS publications, and court cases all confirm and establish the<br />

rights and protection of the <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) FBO.<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) FBO enjoys a “mandatory exemption” from all the restrictions a<br />

501(c)(3) FBO has including free speech restrictions, IRS reporting requirements,<br />

rules and regulations that the IRS may from time to time prescribe and providing<br />

testimony under oath.<br />

With that being said, a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is a registered state entity just as a 501(c)(3) is a<br />

State and Federal sanctioned entity. Keep this in mind as we proceed further in this<br />

document. A <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is a 501(c)(3) with special exemptions:<br />

A <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) Faith Based Organization is a not-for-profit in the same context as a<br />

501(c)(3). <strong>The</strong> general context of operation for this form of organization is as follows:<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is registered at the state level only. It is exempt from all Federal<br />

filing requirements of the 501(c)(3), including tax returns for the church itself. This<br />

is United States Code 26 <strong>508</strong> and United States Code 26 6033.<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) FBO enjoys a “mandatory exception” from all the restrictions a<br />

501(c)(3) FBO has including free speech restrictions, IRS reporting<br />

requirements, rules and regulations that the IRS may from time to time<br />

prescribe and providing testimony under oath.<br />

3. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is registered as a not-for-profit with the state, and hence<br />

provides for limited liability. While not perfect, and no law is, you do have some<br />

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private asset protection. Under Federal law a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is automatically tax<br />

exempt at the Federal level.<br />

4. Can give tax deductible receipts for donations.<br />

5. Freedom of Speech, as indicated in item 2 above, including, but not limited<br />

to, politics, referendums, initiatives, and candidates.<br />

6. Can ordain and license it’s own leaders.<br />

7. With proper filing with the state, it may receive a sales tax exemption<br />

certificate.<br />

Note: Not all states will allow a <strong>508</strong> to be sales tax exempt. Contact your<br />

Dept. of Revenue for details.<br />

8. Providing the state certificate of organization and state exemption of sales tax<br />

can be proof of exemption from property tax on a church related structure<br />

(This is true for only a single property).<br />

9. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) operating as a church, may or may not have paid employees or<br />

clergy. Best case is to not have payed employees. It is best case to have<br />

clergy who have a secular job to secure their private income. (exception is<br />

listed in Note 9a)<br />

Note 9a: <strong>The</strong>re is an exception to having clergy or persons in the capacity of paid<br />

employees. It is possible to have clergy or employees as “Private Contractors”.<br />

<strong>The</strong> benefit is they are not employees, and the only paperwork required of the<br />

church is to file a 1099 Misc Income Statement. This will still require filing for an<br />

Employer Identification Number (EIN). This is the recommended way to distribute<br />

compensation.<br />

In the case where there is a need for a paid employee, the rules of Employment<br />

Tax in IRS publication 1828 must be met (starting on page 21)<br />

(https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p1828.pdf). This is not the recommended<br />

procedure, see Note 9a.<br />

In the instance of a paid clergy, the Special Rules for Ministers must be met<br />

(starting on page 22) (https://www.irs.gov/pub/irspdf/p1828.pdf). This is not the<br />

recommended procedure, see Note 9a.<br />

In either case, this would REQUIRE the <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) church to file the SS4<br />

Federal form to obtain an Employer Identification Number (EIN). This is a free<br />

filing and can be done online.<br />

10. It is highly recommended that all who wish to form a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) church and<br />

have paid staff or priest (rather than private contractors) that they should read<br />

IRS Publication 1828 in it’s entirety.<br />

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11. It is highly recommended that the clergy, if they perform any counseling or<br />

confession tasks, to take it upon themselves to obtain personal liability insurance.<br />

This is not overly expensive, and is simply good practice. None the less, it is a<br />

personal decision.<br />

How to form a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a)<br />

<strong>The</strong>se are general guidelines of the process. It may vary from state to state. Most of the<br />

information required, including forms, may be obtained from the Secretary of State in<br />

your state of residence.<br />

1. Verify the names of a minimum of three (3) members who will be listed as the<br />

Board of Directors or whatever you may wish to name that board. Some states<br />

may require more.<br />

2. You may or may not write an Affidavit of Intent to create your church. It can be<br />

signed by the board and two or more church members. This can then be<br />

notarized as a legal document. <strong>The</strong>re is much controversy as to whether this is<br />

required (especially for a <strong>508</strong> church).<br />

3. Write your Charter of Operation and Bylaws. Make sure to indicate if the board is<br />

“clergy” led or “board led”. If clergy led, the clergy uses the board ONLY as<br />

advisers. This is not unusual for many smaller church groups. Assign one of the<br />

members as the Secretary/Treasurer. <strong>The</strong> clergy member, who is on the board,<br />

along with the Secretary/Treasurer must sign and cosign this document. Make<br />

sure to state that you are operating as a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a).<br />

4. Obtain the Statement of Resignation of Registered Agent By a Foreign or<br />

Domestic For Profit / Non Profit Corporation from your State Attorney<br />

Generals office or the state website. This person should be someone who will be<br />

with the church for an extended period, and the priest or a board member may be<br />

the best option. <strong>The</strong>re may be a small fee to file this document.<br />

5. Obtain the Articles of Incorporation of a Nonprofit Corporation from your<br />

State Attorney Generals office or the state website. This form MUST be filled out<br />

exact with no errors. If you do create an error, you may be required to submit a<br />

special change form. This form should be signed by the incorporator, in this case<br />

the registered agent. This form may require a filing fee. Be sure that on the form,<br />

it asked for your primary purpose of operation, you will indicate you are operating<br />

as a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a). See Note 1 at the end of this chapter.<br />

6. Make your own copies and send the signed originals of Statement of<br />

Resignation of Registered Agent By a Foreign or Domestic For Profit / Non<br />

Profit Corporation, Articles of Incorporation of a Nonprofit Corporation and<br />

your Charter and Bylaws to your State Attorney Generals Office.<br />

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7. If you desire to have Sales Tax Exemption locate the Sales Tax Exemption<br />

document. <strong>The</strong> Dept. of Revenue may or may not require you send in a 1 year<br />

financial projection of income. <strong>The</strong>re may or may not be a filing fee on this<br />

document. NOTE: Not all states will allow a <strong>508</strong> to be sales tax exempt.<br />

Contact your Dept. of Revenue for details.<br />

8. Make a determination if you need an Employer Identification Number (EIN) from<br />

the Federal Government. It is possible to file the SS4 online with the Federal<br />

Government, and is free. You will only need an EIN if:<br />

a. You pay any employees or clergy; and/or<br />

b. Your bank requires it to open a business account.<br />

You may or may not need to disclose that you are a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a), they may not<br />

understand in many cases what that is. Simply hand them the EIN Number and you<br />

Charter/Bylaws. Banks generally do not, and are not required to, understand the IRS 26<br />

(501/<strong>508</strong>) “exceptions”. <strong>The</strong>re are some that indicate that having the EIN gives more<br />

credibility to the formation and validity of your church. While this may seem appropriate,<br />

the idea of a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is to attempt to be removed from the Federal Government as<br />

much as possible.<br />

9. DO NOT, unless specified by your Secretary of state, fill out a form for a fictitious<br />

name. This is usually reserved for a sole proprietor business.<br />

If in the event you choose to have paid clergy or payed employees, make sure to read<br />

the entire IRS publication 1828 (especially pages 21-22) (https://www.irs.gov/pub/irspdf/p1828.pdf).<br />

You may also wish to visit with a Tax Consultant (CPA) for details.<br />

Please locate the Secretary of State website, or contact their office to determine exactly<br />

what forms they require. <strong>The</strong>y are very helpful once you explain this is a not-for-profit<br />

church filing.<br />

Fees will vary.<br />

In ending, what are the pros and cons of a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) church versus a First<br />

Amendment church:<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) FBO is the best option for a church startup that will have a<br />

physical congregation.<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) FBO is NOT a candidate for a sole proprietorship, such as a<br />

priest who performs only weddings. By definition the <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) should be used<br />

for a church with congregation.<br />

3. <strong>The</strong> First Amendment FBO is best for a sole proprietorship, using the example of<br />

a priest performing only weddings.<br />

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4. <strong>The</strong> First amendment church does work well with a small group, with no intent on<br />

any paid staff, and have no concerns about tithes not being tax deductible.<br />

5. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong> lends itself to a higher level of personal protection regarding liability.<br />

6. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong> may allow for sales tax exemption. NOTE: Not all states will allow a<br />

<strong>508</strong> to be sales tax exempt however. Contact your Dept. of Revenue for<br />

details.<br />

7. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong> will allow for property tax exemption (on the first property). If your church<br />

has a second property or possible support a subordinate “collection” of churches,<br />

filing a 501(c)(3) is also recommended.<br />

NOTE: Not all states will allow a <strong>508</strong> to be property tax exempt. Contact<br />

your Dept. of Revenue for details.<br />

8. <strong>The</strong> First Amendment Church allows for total and complete separation from any<br />

state or federal influence<br />

9. <strong>The</strong> First Amendment Church has no protection against personal liability.<br />

10. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong> makes a legally clean path in case of paid employees.<br />

11. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong> will allow for non church income in some cases, for example, church<br />

related clothing sales, church related bake sales, etc. This is also spelled out in<br />

IRS Publication 1828.<br />

12. <strong>The</strong> <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) establishes the church as a not-for-profit entity, and protects the<br />

church itself from government reporting and taxation. None the less, it does not<br />

protect against the requirement to report income paid to clergy or employees.<br />

Note1: All 50 states allow you to register as a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) Faith Based<br />

Organization or Church. Here is how it works:<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is no such thing as a separate law to form a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a). A <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a) is<br />

actually a 501(c)(3) REGISTERED WITH THE STATE ONLY. You go to their<br />

website, and I assume all allow online filings, and you will go to the link to create<br />

a nonprofit or not-for-profit.<br />

On the Articles of incorporation, you will fill it out exactly as you would a 501(c)(3)<br />

with the organization name. <strong>The</strong>y will ask on the form what your primary<br />

purpose is, simply enter “We are operating as a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a)”. Poof, you<br />

organization is now a <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a). Specify this in your charter/bylaws also.<br />

That is it, you do not need to file for any status to the Federal Government. <strong>The</strong><br />

exception is if you have a paid priest or employees, and that was discussed in<br />

detail earlier in this document.<br />

Now you have the right to file for sales tax exemption and possibly property tax<br />

exemption if you decide to own a physical building.<br />

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Note: Not all states will allow a <strong>508</strong> to be sales tax exempt. Contact<br />

your Dept. of Revenue for details.<br />

Page 24 of 183

II. <strong>The</strong> Statutes,<br />

<strong>The</strong> 15/16 IRS Determination Test<br />

and Landmark Cases<br />

<strong>The</strong> Statutes<br />

26 U.S. Code § 501.Exemption from Tax on Corporations,<br />

Certain Trusts, etc.<br />

(a) Exemption from Taxation An organization described in subsection (c) or (d)<br />

or section 401(a) shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle unless such<br />

exemption is denied under section 502 or 503.<br />

(b) Tax on Unrelated Business Income and Certain Other Activities<br />

An organization exempt from taxation under subsection (a) shall be subject<br />

to tax to the extent provided in parts II, III, and VI of this subchapter, but<br />

(notwithstanding parts II, III, and VI of this subchapter) shall be considered<br />

an organization exempt from income taxes for the purpose of any law which<br />

refers to organizations exempt from income taxes.<br />

(c) List of exempt organizations <strong>The</strong> following organizations are referred to in<br />

subsection (a):<br />

(1) Any corporation organized under Act of Congress which is an instrumentality of<br />

the United Statesbut only if such corporation—<br />

(A) is exempt from Federal income taxes—<br />

(i) under such Act as amended and supplemented before July 18, 1984, or<br />

(ii) under this title without regard to any provision of law which is not<br />

contained in this title andwhich is not contained in a revenue Act, or<br />

(B) is described in subsection (l).<br />

(2) Corporations organized for the exclusive purpose of holding title<br />

to property, collecting incometherefrom, and turning over the entire amount<br />

thereof, less expenses, to an organization which itself is exempt under this<br />

section. Rules similar to the rules of subparagraph (G) of paragraph (25) shall<br />

apply for purposes of this paragraph.<br />

Page 25 of 183

(3) Corporations, and any community chest, fund, or foundation,<br />

organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for<br />

public safety, literary, or educational purposes, or to foster national or<br />

international amateur sports competition (but only if no part of its activities involve<br />

the provision of athletic facilities or equipment), or for the prevention of cruelty to<br />

children or animals, no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of<br />

any private shareholder or individual, no substantial part of the activities of which<br />

is carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting, to<br />

influence legislation (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)), and which<br />

does not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distributing of<br />

statements), any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to)<br />

any candidate for public office.<br />

(4)<br />

(A) Civic leagues or organizations not organized for profit but operated<br />

exclusively for the promotion of social welfare, or local associations<br />

of employees, the membership of which is limited to theemployees of a<br />

designated person or persons in a particular municipality, and the net<br />

earnings of which are devoted exclusively to charitable, educational, or<br />

recreational purposes.<br />

(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to an entity unless no part of the net<br />

earnings of such entity inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or<br />

individual.<br />

________<br />

26 U.S. Code § <strong>508</strong>. Special Rules with Respect To Section<br />

501(C)(3) Organizations<br />

(a) New organizations must notify Secretary that they are applying for recognition of<br />

section 501(c)(3) status Except as provided in subsection (c), an organization organized<br />

after October 9, 1969, shall not be treated as an organization described in section<br />

501(c)(3)—<br />

(1) unless it has given notice to the Secretary in such manner as the Secretary<br />

may by regulations prescribe, that it is applying for recognition of such status, or<br />

(2) for any period before the giving of such notice, if such notice is given after the<br />

time prescribed by the Secretary by regulations for giving notice under this<br />

subsection.<br />

(b) Presumption that organizations are private foundations<br />

Page 26 of 183

Except as provided in subsection (c), any organization (including an organization in<br />

existence on October 9, 1969) which is described in section 501(c)(3) and which does<br />

not notify the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may by<br />

regulations prescribe, that it is not a private foundation shall be presumed to be a<br />

private foundation.<br />

(c) Exceptions<br />

(1) Mandatory exceptions Subsections (a) and (b) shall not apply to—<br />

(A) churches, their integrated auxiliaries, and conventions or associations<br />

of churches, or<br />

(B) any organization which is not a private foundation (as defined in<br />

section 509(a)) and the gross receipts of which in each taxable year are<br />

normally not more than $5,000.<br />

(2) Exceptions by regulations <strong>The</strong> Secretary may by regulations exempt (to the<br />

extent and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed in such regulations)<br />

from the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) or both—<br />

(A) educational organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), and<br />

(B) any other class of organizations with respect to which the Secretary<br />

determines that full compliance with the provisions of subsections (a) and<br />

(b) is not necessary to the efficient administration of the provisions of this<br />

title relating to private foundations.<br />

________<br />

<strong>The</strong> 15/16 IRS Determination Test<br />

Applying for 501(c)(3) status is optional for churches, but to not do so can prove to be<br />

costly.<br />

We see in court cases, such as Jack Lane Taylor v. Commissioner, T.C. memo 2000-<br />

17 (Jan. 2000) the burden that is placed on donors of churches without 501(c)(3) status.<br />

If a donor is audited, he/she must establish or prove that the church meets<br />

the requirements and qualifications of a section 501(c)(3) organization.<br />

What a burden for an individual to carry!<br />

For this reason, many donors may choose not to donate to organizations without a<br />

501(c)(3) approval.<br />

Page 27 of 183

In addition, the presumption of tax-exempt status does not exist unless the<br />

church has been officially recognized by the IRS to meet the requirements of<br />

section 501(c)(3).<br />

Churches that have never applied for 501(c)(3) status have not proven they are<br />

compliant with the law. If a church is ever caught functioning outside of the law, the<br />

revocation of its tax exemption will likely go back to the inception date of the church.<br />

In the case of Brach Ministries v. Rossotti, Branch Ministries, a church applied for and<br />

obtained 501(c)(3) exemption. <strong>The</strong> church was later found guilty of intervening in a<br />

political campaign, and its tax-exempt status was revoked.<br />

In this instance, the revocation went back to the beginning of the tax year where it was<br />

found to be out of compliance. Had the church not applied for 501(c)(3) exemption,<br />

it would have likely been deemed a non tax-exempt organization from the<br />

beginning of its existence.<br />

Do you meet the criteria for church status?<br />

Obtaining 501(c)(3) status is one of the most protective steps a church can take, not<br />

only for itself, but also for its donors. For this reason, our NpA Program takes churches<br />

through both processes of incorporation and 501(c)(3) approval.<br />

Some churches come to us years after their first service and already have hundreds of<br />

attendees. Other churches we work with are still in the planning phases or have just<br />

begun meeting in a home with a handful of congregants.<br />

No matter how big or small the church is, the IRS uses the same standards and<br />

criteria when determining whether or not an organization is a church for tax<br />

purposes.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is no official definition of “church” in the tax code. When the IRS examines a<br />

501(c)(3) application for church status, it uses a set of criteria known as the 14/15 Point<br />

Test.<br />

This “test” provides basic guidelines to help the IRS and courts determine which<br />

organizations can be classified as a church for tax purposes. Some of the points are<br />

weighted more heavily than others. <strong>The</strong>se points include:<br />

1. A distinct legal existence - Does your church have its own incorporation and<br />

Federal Employer Identification Number (FEIN)?<br />

2. A definite and distinct ecclesiastical government - Does your church have its<br />

own pastor, minister, or ecclesiastical board?<br />

Page 28 of 183

3. A formal code of doctrine and discipline - Does your church have a set of<br />

doctrines and beliefs that your congregants are expected to follow?<br />

4. Established places of worship - Do your worship services take place in a<br />

stable location, preferably a public facility instead of one’s home?<br />

5. Regular congregations - Do your worship services contain more than 20<br />

people? Are multiple families represented?<br />

6. Regular religious services - Does your church have regularly scheduled<br />

worship services?<br />

Now, there is no set number of “points” that must be met. However, the more points you<br />

are able to meet of the 14/15 Point Test, the better chances you have of your<br />

organization being classified as a church for federal income tax purposes.<br />

3 benefits of incorporating your church now<br />

Perhaps you are only in the beginning stages of starting your church, or maybe you<br />

have not held any official meetings or gatherings, and the idea of taking any official legal<br />

steps has yet to cross your mind.<br />

You are thinking to yourself, “We will get incorporated once our church is more<br />

established.”<br />

To that, I want to give you some benefits of being proactive and establishing your<br />

church corporation sooner rather than later.<br />

Benefit #1: Forming a corporation at the state level establishes a corporate veil that<br />

separates the actions of the corporation from the actions of you and your church<br />

members. Without the corporate veil, members’ personal assets may be at risk in the<br />

instance of a lawsuit.<br />

Benefit #2: Once incorporated, your church can adopt important governing documents<br />

like bylaws, written doctrines, and policies. Likewise, your church’s governing body can<br />

legally ordain ministers and begin functioning in an ecclesiastical manner.<br />

Benefit #3: Once incorporated, you will be able to open a bank account in the church’s<br />

name. This important step will allow you to properly deposit donations and monitor<br />

income and expenses of your church. Keep in mind that most banks will ask for both the<br />

approved articles of incorporation and the FEIN. That number, also known as a Tax ID<br />

Number, can be obtained online from the IRS.<br />

________<br />

Certain characteristics are generally attributed to churches. <strong>The</strong>se attributes of a<br />

church have been developed by the IRS and by court decisions. <strong>The</strong>y include:<br />

Page 29 of 183

• Distinct legal existence<br />

• Recognized creed and form of worship<br />

• Definite and distinct ecclesiastical government<br />

• Formal code of doctrine and discipline<br />

• Distinct religious history<br />

• Membership not associated with any other church or denomination<br />

• Organization of ordained ministers<br />

• Ordained ministers selected after completing prescribed courses of study<br />

• Literature of its own<br />

• Established places of worship<br />

• Regular congregations<br />

• Regular religious services<br />

• Sunday schools for the religious instruction of the young<br />

• Schools for the preparation of its members<br />

<strong>The</strong> IRS generally uses a combination of these characteristics, together with other facts<br />

and circumstances, to determine whether an organization is considered a church for<br />

federal tax purposes.<br />

________<br />

Landmark Cases<br />

Jack Lane Taylor v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo 2000-17 (Jan. 2000)<br />



Docket No. 14021-98. Filed January 18, 2000.<br />

Jack Lane Taylor, pro se.<br />

Russell D. Pinkerton, for respondent.<br />


ARMEN, Special Trial Judge: Respondent determined a deficiency in petitioner's Federal<br />

income tax for the taxable year 1996 in the amount of $1,298. <strong>The</strong> issue for decision is whether<br />

petitioner is entitled to a deduction for a charitable contribution under section 170.1 We hold<br />

that he is not.<br />

Page 30 of 183


Some of the facts have been stipulated, and they are so found. Petitioner resided in<br />

Indianapolis, Indiana, at the time that his petition was filed with the Court. During the year in<br />

issue, petitioner donated $8,647 to the Indianapolis Baptist Temple (IBT). In the previous year,<br />

on May 8, 1995, the Service had determined that IBT no longer qualified as an organization<br />

described in section 170(c)(2) and by Announcement 95-35, 1995-19 I.R.B. 14, deleted IBT<br />

from the list of organizations contributions to which are deductible under section 170.<br />

On his joint 1996 Federal income tax return, petitioner claimed a deduction in the amount of<br />

$8,647 for a charitable contribution. By notice of deficiency, respondent determined that<br />

petitioner was not entitled to any deduction for a charitable contribution because petitioner had<br />

failed to substantiate any such contribution, and further, that IBT was not an organization<br />

described in section 170(c)(2). At trial, respondent conceded the substantiation issue.<br />

1. All section references are to the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and all Rule<br />

references are to the Tax Court Rules of Practice and Procedure.<br />

2. Throughout this opinion we use the words “donation” and “donate” for convenience only<br />

and not to imply any legal conclusion.<br />


Section 170(a) allows as a deduction any charitable contribution, as defined in section 170(c),<br />

that is made during the taxable year. As pertinent here, section 170(c) defines a charitable<br />

contribution as a contribution or gift to or for the use of a corporation, trust, or community chest,<br />

fund, or foundation which is organized and operated exclusively for religious purposes, provided<br />

that none of the net earnings inures to the benefit of any private individual. See sec. 170(c)(2);<br />

see also sec. 501(c)(3). Qualified entities under section 170 are essentially those organizations<br />

that qualify for an exemption from tax under section 501(c)(3). See, e.g., Dew v. Commissioner,<br />

91 T.C. 615, 623 (1988); Kessler v. Commissioner, 87 T.C. 1285, 1288 (1986), affd. without<br />

published opinion 838 F.2d 1215 (6th Cir. 1988).<br />

Deductions are a matter of legislative grace and taxpayers must satisfy the specific<br />

requirements of the deductions they claim. See New Colonial Ice Co. v. Helvering, 292 U.S.<br />

435 (1934). Taxpayers bear the burden of proving their entitlement to the deductions they<br />

claim. See Rule 142(a); INDOPCO, Inc. v. Commissioner, 503 U.S. 79, 84 (1992); Welch v.<br />

Helvering, 290 U.S. 111 (1933); Davis v. Commissioner, 81 T.C. 806, 815 (1983), affd. without<br />

published opinion 767 F.2d 931 (9th Cir. 1985).<br />

<strong>The</strong>se rules apply with equal force to deductions claimed for charitable contributions. See Davis<br />

v. Commissioner, supra. Petitioner concedes that during the year in issue IBT was not an<br />

organization defined in section 501(c)(3) and, by implication, we understand him not to assert<br />

that IBT is an organization defined in section 170(c)(2). Rather, petitioner contends that his<br />

donations to IBT are deductible because IBT is not a “corporation”, but a “church”. As a<br />

church, petitioner contends, IBT is exempt from having to meet the requirements of section<br />

170(c)(2). He relies on section <strong>508</strong>(c)(1) for support for his position.<br />

Section <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(A) provides that churches, their integrated auxiliaries, and conventions or<br />

associations of churches are excepted from the general rule of section <strong>508</strong>(a). Section <strong>508</strong>(a)<br />

Page 31 of 183

provides that organizations described in section 501(c)(3) and organized after October 9, 1969,<br />

are required to apply formally for recognition of their tax-exempt status. Thus, section <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)<br />

simply relieves churches from applying for a favorable determination letter regarding their<br />

exempt status as required by section <strong>508</strong>(a). Nothing in section <strong>508</strong>(c)(1) relieves a church from<br />

having to meet the requirements of section 501(c)(3). 2 In fact, it is clear that when the<br />

Commissioner determines that an organization is not entitled to an exemption as a church, as is<br />

the case for IBT, its contributors must prove the church’s right to an exemption under section<br />

501(c)(3) in order to be entitled to a deduction for their contributions. See Riemers v.<br />

Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 1981-456; Hall v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 1980-576, affd. 676<br />

F.2d 692 (4th Cir. 1982); Brown v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 1980-553; sec. 1.<strong>508</strong>-1(a)(3),<br />

(4), Income Tax Regs.<br />

Petitioner’s position is based on the assertion that IBT was not required to meet the<br />

requirements of sections 170(c)(2) and 501(c)(3), and he did not introduce any evidence at trial<br />

to establish that IBT was an organization defined in those sections.<br />

Having failed to carry his burden of proving that IBT qualifies as a religious organization under<br />

section 170(c)(2), petitioner is not entitled to a charitable contribution deduction for his<br />

donations to IBT. Cf. Hall v. Commissioner, supra. Cf. sec. 7428(c), which validates up to<br />

$1,000 per contributor where the donee has instituted proceedings under sec. 7428 to contest<br />

the revocation of the donee’s status. <strong>The</strong>re is nothing in the record to suggest that this provision<br />

has any application in the present case.<br />

To reflect our disposition of the disputed issue, Decision will be entered for respondent.<br />

________<br />

Branch Ministries v. Rossatti, 211 F. 3d 137 (D.C. Cir. 2000)<br />

United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit.<br />

BRANCH MINISTRIES and Dan Little, Pastor, Appellants, v. Charles O. ROSSOTTI,<br />

Commissioner, Internal Revenue Service, Appellee.<br />

No. 99-5097.<br />

Decided: May 12, 2000<br />

Before SILBERMAN and HENDERSON, Circuit Judges, and BUCKLEY, Senior Circuit<br />

Judge. Mark N. Troobnick, with whom Jay Alan Sekulow and Colby M. May were on the<br />

briefs, argued the cause for appellants. Thomas J. Sawyer, Attorney, U.S. Department<br />

of Justice, with whom Loretta C. Argrett, Assistant Attorney General, and Kenneth L.<br />

Greene, Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, and Wilma A. Lewis, United States<br />

Attorney, were on the brief, argued the cause for appellee. Richard P. Hutchison, Mark<br />

R. Levin and Janet LaRue were on the brief for amici curiae Landmark Legal<br />

Foundation and Family Research Council Ayesha N. Khan,Elliot M. Mincberg and Alma<br />

C. Henderson were on the brief for amici curiae Americans United for Separation of<br />

Church and State and People for the American Way Foundation.<br />

2<br />

Cf. sec. 7491, effective for court proceedings arising in connection with examinations commencing after July 22, 1998.<br />

Page 32 of 183

Four days before the 1992 presidential election, Branch Ministries, a tax-exempt church,<br />

placed full-page advertisements in two newspapers in which it urged Christians not to<br />

vote for then-presidential candidate Bill Clinton because of his positions on certain<br />

moral issues. <strong>The</strong> Internal Revenue Service concluded that the placement of the<br />

advertisements violated the statutory restrictions on organizations exempt from taxation<br />

and, for the first time in its history, it revoked a bona fide church's tax-exempt status<br />

because of its involvement in politics. Branch Ministries and its pastor, Dan Little,<br />

challenge the revocation on the grounds that (1) the Service acted beyond its statutory<br />

authority, (2) the revocation violated its right to the free exercise of religion guaranteed<br />

by the First Amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, and (3) it was the<br />

victim of selective prosecution in violation of the Fifth Amendment. Because these<br />

objections are without merit, we affirm the district court's grant of summary judgment to<br />

the Service.<br />

I. Background<br />

A. Taxation of Churches<br />

<strong>The</strong> Internal Revenue Code (“Code”) exempts certain organizations from taxation,<br />

including those organized and operated for religious purposes, provided that they do not<br />

engage in certain activities, including involvement in “any political campaign on behalf of<br />

(or in opposition to) any candidate for public office.” 26 U.S.C. § 501(a), (c)(3) (1994).<br />

Contributions to such organizations are also deductible from the donating taxpayer's<br />

taxable income. Id. § 170(a). Although most organizations seeking tax-exempt<br />

status are required to apply to the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS” or “Service”) for an<br />

advance determination that they meet the requirements of section 501(c)(3), id. §<br />

<strong>508</strong>(a), a church may simply hold itself out as tax exempt and receive the benefits of<br />

that status without applying for advance recognition from the IRS. Id. § <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(A).<br />

<strong>The</strong> IRS maintains a periodically updated “Publication No. 78,” in which it lists all<br />

organizations that have received a ruling or determination letter confirming the<br />

deductibility of contributions made to them. See Rev. Proc. 82-39, 1982-1 C.B. 759,<br />

§§ 2.01, 2.03. Thus, a listing in that publication will provide donors with advance<br />

assurance that their contributions will be deductible under section 170(a). If a listed<br />

organization has subsequently had its tax-exempt status revoked, contributions that are<br />

made to it by a donor who is unaware of the change in status will generally be treated<br />

as deductible if made on or before the date that the revocation is publicly announced.<br />

Id. § 3.01. Donors to a church that has not received an advance determination of its<br />

tax-exempt status may also deduct their contributions; but in the event of an audit, the<br />

taxpayer will bear the burden of establishing that the church meets the requirements of<br />

section 501(c)(3). See generally id. § 3.04; Rev. Proc. 80-24, 1980-1 C.B. 658, § 6<br />

(discussing taxpayers' obligations in seeking a ruling or determination letter).<br />

<strong>The</strong> unique treatment churches receive in the Internal Revenue Code is further reflected<br />

in special restrictions on the IRS's ability to investigate the tax status of a church. <strong>The</strong><br />

Church Audit Procedures Act (“CAPA”) sets out the circumstances under which the IRS<br />

Page 33 of 183

may initiate an investigation of a church and the procedures it is required to follow in<br />

such an investigation. 26 U.S.C. § 7611. Upon a “ reasonable belief” by a high-level<br />

Treasury official that a church may not be exempt from taxation under section 501, the<br />

IRS may begin a “church tax inquiry.” Id. § 7611(a). A church tax inquiry is defined,<br />

rather circularly, as<br />

any inquiry to a church (other than an examination) to serve as a basis for determining<br />

whether a church-<br />

(A) is exempt from tax under section 501(a) by reason of its status as a church, or<br />

(B) is ․ engaged in activities which may be subject to taxation․<br />

Id. § 7611(h)(2). If the IRS is not able to resolve its concerns through a church tax<br />

inquiry, it may proceed to the second level of investigation: a “church tax examination.”<br />

In such an examination, the IRS may obtain and review the church's records or examine<br />

its activities “to determine whether [the] organization claiming to be a church is a church<br />

for any period.” Id. § 7611(b)(1)(A), (B).<br />

B. Factual and Procedural History<br />

Branch Ministries, Inc. operates the Church at Pierce Creek (“Church”), a Christian<br />

church located in Binghamton, New York. In 1983, the Church requested and received<br />

a letter from the IRS recognizing its tax-exempt status. On October 30, 1992, four<br />

days before the presidential election, the Church placed full-page advertisements in<br />

USA Today and the Washington Times. Each bore the headline “Christians Beware”<br />

and asserted that then-Governor Clinton's positions concerning abortion,<br />

homosexuality, and the distribution of condoms to teenagers in schools violated Biblical<br />

precepts. <strong>The</strong> following appeared at the bottom of each advertisement:<br />

This advertisement was co-sponsored by the Church at Pierce Creek, Daniel J. Little,<br />

Senior Pastor, and by churches and concerned Christians nationwide. Tax-deductible<br />

donations for this advertisement gladly accepted. Make donations to: <strong>The</strong> Church at<br />

Pierce Creek. [mailing address].<br />

Appendix (“App.”) at Tab 5, Ex. E.<br />

<strong>The</strong> advertisements did not go unnoticed. <strong>The</strong>y produced hundreds of contributions to<br />

the Church from across the country and were mentioned in a New York Times article<br />

and an Anthony Lewis column which stated that the sponsors of the advertisement had<br />

almost certainly violated the Internal Revenue Code. Peter Applebome, Religious<br />

Right Intensifies Campaign for Bush, N.Y. Times, Oct. 31, 1992, at A1; Anthony Lewis,<br />

Tax Exempt Politics?, N.Y. Times, Dec. 1, 1992, at A15.<br />

<strong>The</strong> advertisements also came to the attention of the Regional Commissioner of the<br />

IRS, who notified the Church on November 20, 1992 that he had authorized a church<br />

Page 34 of 183

tax inquiry based on “a reasonable belief ․ that you may not be tax-exempt or that you<br />

may be liable for tax” due to political activities and expenditures. Letter from Cornelius<br />

J. Coleman, IRS Regional Commissioner, to <strong>The</strong> Church at Pierce Creek (Nov. 20,<br />

1992), reprinted in App. at Tab 5, Ex. F. <strong>The</strong> Church denied that it had engaged in any<br />

prohibited political activity and declined to provide the IRS with certain information the<br />

Service had requested. On February 11, 1993, the IRS informed the Church that it<br />

was beginning a church tax examination. Following two unproductive meetings<br />

between the parties, the IRS revoked the Church's section 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status<br />

on January 19, 1995, citing the newspaper advertisements as prohibited intervention in<br />

a political campaign.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church and Pastor Little (collectively, “Church”) commenced this lawsuit soon<br />

thereafter. This had the effect of suspending the revocation of the Church's tax<br />

exemption until the district court entered its judgment in this case. See 26 U.S.C. §<br />

7428(c). <strong>The</strong> Church challenged the revocation of its tax-exempt status, alleging that<br />

the IRS had no authority to revoke its tax exemption, that the revocation violated its right<br />

to free speech and to freely exercise its religion under the First Amendment and the<br />

Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, 42 U.S.C. § 2000bb (“RFRA”), and that the<br />

IRS engaged in selective prosecution in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the<br />

Fifth Amendment. After allowing discovery on the Church's selective prosecution<br />

claim, Branch Ministries, Inc. v. Richardson, 970 F.Supp. 11 (D.D.C.1997), the district<br />

court granted summary judgment in favor of the IRS. Branch Ministries v. Rossotti, 40<br />

F.Supp.2d 15 (D.D.C.1999).<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church filed a timely appeal, and we have jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §<br />

1291. We review summary judgment decisions de novo, see Everett v. United States,<br />

158 F.3d 1364, 1367 (D.C.Cir.1998), cert. denied, 526 U.S. 1132, 119 S.Ct. 1807, 143<br />

L.Ed.2d 1010 (1999), and will affirm only if there is no genuine issue as to any material<br />

fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Fed.R.Civ.P.<br />

56(c).<br />

II. Analysis<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church advances a number of arguments in support of its challenges to the<br />

revocation. We examine only those that warrant analysis.<br />

A. <strong>The</strong> Statutory Authority of the IRS<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church argues that, under the Internal Revenue Code, the IRS does not have the<br />

statutory authority to revoke the tax-exempt status of a bona fide church. It reasons as<br />

follows: section 501(c)(3) refers to tax-exempt status for religious organizations, not<br />

churches; section <strong>508</strong>, on the other hand, specifically exempts “churches” from the<br />

requirement of applying for advance recognition of tax-exempt status, id. §<br />

<strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(A); therefore, according to the Church, its tax-exempt status is derived not<br />

from section 501(c)(3), but from the lack of any provision in the Code for the taxation of<br />

churches. <strong>The</strong> Church concludes from this that it is not subject to taxation and that the<br />

Page 35 of 183

IRS is therefore powerless to place conditions upon or to remove its tax-exempt status<br />

as a church.<br />

We find this argument more creative than persuasive. <strong>The</strong> simple answer, of course,<br />

is that whereas not every religious organization is a church, every church is a religious<br />

organization. More to the point, irrespective of whether it was required to do so, the<br />

Church applied to the IRS for an advance determination of its tax-exempt status. <strong>The</strong><br />

IRS granted that recognition and now seeks to withdraw it. CAPA gives the IRS this<br />

power.<br />

That statute, which pertains exclusively to churches, provides authority for revocation of<br />

the tax-exempt status of a church through its references to other sections of the Internal<br />

Revenue Code. <strong>The</strong> section of CAPA entitled “Limitations on revocation of tax-exempt<br />

status, etc.” provides that the Secretary of the Treasury may “determine that an<br />

organization is not a church which [ ] (i) is exempt from taxation by reason of section<br />

501(a), or (ii) is described in section 170(c).” 26 U.S.C. § 7611(d)(1)(A)(i), (ii). Both<br />

of these sections condition tax-exempt status on non-intervention in political campaigns.<br />

Section 501(a) states that “[a]n organization described in subsection (c) ․ shall be<br />

exempt from taxation․” Id. § 501(a). Those described in subsection (c) include<br />

corporations ․ organized and operated exclusively for religious ․ purposes ․ which do[ ]<br />

not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distributing of statements),<br />

any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for public office.<br />

Id. § 501(c)(3). Similarly, section 170(c) allows taxpayers to deduct from their taxable<br />

income donations made to a corporation<br />

organized and operated exclusively for religious ․ purposes ․ which is not disqualified for<br />

tax exemption under section 501(c)(3) by reason of attempting to ․ intervene in<br />

(including the publishing or distributing of statements), any political campaign on behalf<br />

of (or in opposition to) any candidate for public office.<br />

Id. § 170(c)(2)(B), (D).<br />

<strong>The</strong> Code, in short, specifically states that organizations that fail to comply with the<br />

restrictions set forth in section 501(c) are not qualified to receive the tax exemption that<br />

it provides. Having satisfied ourselves that the IRS had the statutory authority to<br />

revoke the Church's tax-exempt status, we now turn to the free exercise challenges.<br />

B. First Amendment Claims and the RFRA<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church claims that the revocation of its exemption violated its right to freely<br />

exercise its religion under both the First Amendment and the RFRA. To sustain its<br />

claim under either the Constitution or the statute, the Church must first establish that its<br />

free exercise right has been substantially burdened. See Jimmy Swaggart Ministries<br />

v. Board of Equalization, 493 U.S. 378, 384-85, 110 S.Ct. 688, 107 L.Ed.2d 796 (1990)<br />

Page 36 of 183

(“Our cases have established that the free exercise inquiry asks whether government<br />

has placed a substantial burden on the observation of a central religious belief or<br />

practice and, if so, whether a compelling governmental interest justifies the burden.”)<br />

(internal quotation marks and brackets omitted); 42 U.S.C. § 2000bb-1(a), (b) (<br />

“Government shall not substantially burden a person's exercise of religion” in the<br />

absence of a compelling government interest that is furthered by the least restrictive<br />

means.). We conclude that the Church has failed to meet this test.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church asserts, first, that a revocation would threaten its existence. See Affidavit<br />

of Dan Little dated July 31, 1995 at 22, reprinted in App. at Tab 8 (“<strong>The</strong> Church at<br />

Pierce Creek will have to close due to the revocation of its tax exempt status, and the<br />

inability of congregants to deduct their contributions from their taxes.”). <strong>The</strong> Church<br />

maintains that a loss of its tax-exempt status will not only make its members reluctant to<br />

contribute the funds essential to its survival, but may obligate the Church itself to pay<br />

taxes.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church appears to assume that the withdrawal of a conditional privilege for<br />

failure to meet the condition is in itself an unconstitutional burden on its free exercise<br />

right. This is true, however, only if the receipt of the privilege (in this case the tax<br />

exemption) is conditioned<br />

upon conduct proscribed by a religious faith, or ․ denie[d] ․ because of conduct<br />

mandated by religious belief, thereby putting substantial pressure on an adherent to<br />

modify his behavior and to violate his beliefs.<br />

Jimmy Swaggart Ministries, 493 U.S. at 391-92, 110 S.Ct. 688 (internal quotation marks<br />

and citation omitted). Although its advertisements reflected its religious convictions on<br />

certain questions of morality, the Church does not maintain that a withdrawal from<br />

electoral politics would violate its beliefs. <strong>The</strong> sole effect of the loss of the tax<br />

exemption will be to decrease the amount of money available to the Church for its<br />

religious practices. <strong>The</strong> Supreme Court has declared, however, that such a burden “is<br />

not constitutionally significant.” Id. at 391, 110 S.Ct. 688; see also Hernandez v.<br />

Commissioner, 490 U.S. 680, 700, 109 S.Ct. 2136, 104 L.Ed.2d 766 (1989) (the<br />

“contention that an incrementally larger tax burden interferes with [ ] religious activities ․<br />

knows no limitation”).<br />

In actual fact, even this burden is overstated. Because of the unique treatment<br />

churches receive under the Internal Revenue Code, the impact of the revocation is likely<br />

to be more symbolic than substantial. As the IRS confirmed at oral argument, if the<br />

Church does not intervene in future political campaigns, it may hold itself out as a<br />

501(c)(3) organization and receive all the benefits of that status. All that will have<br />

been lost, in that event, is the advance assurance of deductibility in the event a donor<br />

should be audited. See 26 U.S.C. § <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(A); Rev. Proc. 82-39 § 2.03.<br />

Contributions will remain tax deductible as long as donors are able to establish that the<br />

Church meets the requirements of section 501(c) (3).<br />

Page 37 of 183

Nor does the revocation necessarily make the Church liable for the payment of taxes.<br />

As the IRS explicitly represented in its brief and reiterated at oral argument, the<br />

revocation of the exemption does not convert bona fide donations into income taxable to<br />

the Church. See 26 U.S.C. § 102 (“Gross income does not include the value of<br />

property acquired by gift․”). Furthermore, we know of no authority, and counsel<br />

provided none, to prevent the Church from reapplying for a prospective determination of<br />

its tax-exempt status and regaining the advance assurance of deductibility-provided, of<br />

course, that it renounces future involvement in political campaigns.<br />

We also reject the Church's argument that it is substantially burdened because it has no<br />

alternate means by which to communicate its sentiments about candidates for public<br />

office. In Regan v. Taxation With Representation, 461 U.S. 540, 552-53, 103 S.Ct.<br />

1997, 76 L.Ed.2d 129 (1983) (Blackmun, J., concurring), three members of the<br />

Supreme Court stated that the availability of such an alternate means of communication<br />

is essential to the constitutionality of section 501(c)(3)'s restrictions on lobbying. <strong>The</strong><br />

Court subsequently confirmed that this was an accurate description of its holding. See<br />

FCC v. League of Women Voters, 468 U.S. 364, 400, 104 S.Ct. 3106, 82 L.Ed.2d 278<br />

(1984). In Regan, the concurring justices noted that “TWR may use its present §<br />

501(c)(3) organization for its nonlobbying activities and may create a § 501(c)(4)<br />

affiliate to pursue its charitable goals through lobbying.” 461 U.S. at 552, 103 S.Ct.<br />

1997.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church has such an avenue available to it. As was the case with TWR, the<br />

Church may form a related organization under section 501(c)(4) of the Code. See 26<br />

U.S.C. § 501(c)(4) (tax exemption for “[c]ivic leagues or organizations not organized for<br />

profit but operated exclusively for the promotion of social welfare”). Such<br />

organizations are exempt from taxation; but unlike their section 501(c)(3) counterparts,<br />

contributions to them are not deductible. See id. § 170(c); see also Regan, 461 U.S.<br />

at 543, 552-53, 103 S.Ct. 1997. Although a section 501(c)(4) organization is also<br />

subject to the ban on intervening in political campaigns, see 26 C.F.R. § 1.501(c)(4)-<br />

1(a)(2)(ii) (1999), it may form a political action committee (“PAC”) that would be free to<br />

participate in political campaigns. Id. § 1.527-6(f), (g) (“[A]n organization described in<br />

section 501(c) that is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) may, [if it is not a<br />

section 501(c)(3) organization], establish and maintain such a separate segregated fund<br />

to receive contributions and make expenditures in a political campaign.”).<br />

At oral argument, counsel for the Church doggedly maintained that there can be no<br />

“Church at Pierce Creek PAC.” True, it may not itself create a PAC; but as we have<br />

pointed out, the Church can initiate a series of steps that will provide an alternate<br />

means of political communication that will satisfy the standards set by the concurring<br />

justices in Regan. Should the Church proceed to do so, however, it must understand<br />

that the related 501(c)(4) organization must be separately incorporated; and it must<br />

maintain records that will demonstrate that tax-deductible contributions to the Church<br />

have not been used to support the political activities conducted by the 501(c)(4)<br />

organization's political action arm. See 26 U.S.C. § 527(f)(3); 26 C.F.R. § 1.527-<br />

6(e), (f).<br />

Page 38 of 183

That the Church cannot use its tax-free dollars to fund such a PAC unquestionably<br />

passes constitutional muster. <strong>The</strong> Supreme Court has consistently held that, absent<br />

invidious discrimination, “Congress has not violated [an organization's] First Amendment<br />

rights by declining to subsidize its First Amendment activities.” Regan, 461 U.S. at<br />

548, 103 S.Ct. 1997; see also Cammarano v. United States, 358 U.S. 498, 513, 79<br />

S.Ct. 524, 3 L.Ed.2d 462 (1959) (“Petitioners are not being denied a tax deduction<br />

because they engage in constitutionally protected activities, but are simply being<br />

required to pay for those activities entirely out of their own pockets, as everyone else<br />

engaging in similar activities is required to do under the provisions of the Internal<br />

Revenue Code.”).<br />

Because the Church has failed to demonstrate that its free exercise rights have been<br />

substantially burdened, we do not reach its arguments that section 501(c)(3) does not<br />

serve a compelling government interest or, if it is indeed compelling, that revocation of<br />

its tax exemption was not the least restrictive means of furthering that interest.<br />

Nor does the Church succeed in its claim that the IRS has violated its First<br />

Amendment free speech rights by engaging in viewpoint discrimination. <strong>The</strong><br />

restrictions imposed by section 501(c)(3) are viewpoint neutral; they prohibit<br />

intervention in favor of all candidates for public office by all tax-exempt organizations,<br />

regardless of candidate, party, or viewpoint. Cf. Regan, 461 U.S. at 550-51, 103 S.Ct.<br />

1997 (upholding denial of tax deduction for lobbying activities, in spite of allowance of<br />

such deduction for veteran's groups).<br />

C. Selective Prosecution (Fifth Amendment)<br />

<strong>The</strong> Church alleges that the IRS violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fifth<br />

Amendment by engaging in selective prosecution. In support of its claim, the Church<br />

has submitted several hundred pages of newspaper excerpts reporting political<br />

campaign activities in, or by the pastors of, other churches that have retained their taxexempt<br />

status. <strong>The</strong>se include reports of explicit endorsements of Democratic<br />

candidates by clergymen as well as many instances in which favored candidates have<br />

been invited to address congregations from the pulpit. <strong>The</strong> Church complains that<br />

despite this widespread and widely reported involvement by other churches in political<br />

campaigns, it is the only one to have ever had its tax-exempt status revoked for<br />

engaging in political activity. It attributes this alleged discrimination to the Service's<br />

political bias.<br />

To establish selective prosecution, the Church must “prove that (1) [it] was singled out<br />

for prosecution from among others similarly situated and (2) that [the] prosecution was<br />

improperly motivated, i.e., based on race, religion or another arbitrary classification.”<br />

United States v. Washington, 705 F.2d 489, 494 (D.C.Cir.1983). This burden is a<br />

demanding one because “in the absence of clear evidence to the contrary, courts<br />

presume that [government prosecutors] have properly discharged their official duties.”<br />

Page 39 of 183

United States v. Armstrong, 517 U.S. 456, 464, 116 S.Ct. 1480, 134 L.Ed.2d 687 (1996)<br />

(internal quotation marks and citation omitted).<br />

At oral argument, counsel for the IRS conceded that if some of the church-sponsored<br />

political activities cited by the Church were accurately reported, they were in violation of<br />

section 501(c)(3) and could have resulted in the revocation of those churches' taxexempt<br />

status. But even if the Service could have revoked their tax exemptions, the<br />

Church has failed to establish selective prosecution because it has failed to<br />

demonstrate that it was similarly situated to any of those other churches. None of the<br />

reported activities involved the placement of advertisements in newspapers with<br />

nationwide circulations opposing a candidate and soliciting tax deductible contributions<br />

to defray their cost. As we have stated,<br />

[i]f ․ there was no one to whom defendant could be compared in order to resolve the<br />

question of [prosecutorial] selection, then it follows that defendant has failed to make<br />

out one of the elements of its case. Discrimination cannot exist in a vacuum; it can be<br />

found only in the unequal treatment of people in similar circumstances.<br />

Attorney Gen. v. Irish People, Inc., 684 F.2d 928, 946 (D.C.Cir.1982); see also United<br />

States v. Hastings, 126 F.3d 310, 315 (4th Cir.1997) ( “[D]efendants are similarly<br />

situated when their circumstances present no distinguishable legitimate prosecutorial<br />

factors that might justify making different prosecutorial decisions with respect to them.”)<br />

(internal quotation marks and citation omitted).<br />

Because the Church has failed to establish that it was singled out for prosecution from<br />

among others who were similarly situated, we need not examine whether the IRS was<br />

improperly motivated in undertaking this prosecution.<br />

III. Conclusion<br />

For the foregoing reasons, we find that the revocation of the Church's tax-exempt status<br />

neither violated the Constitution nor exceeded the IRS's statutory authority. <strong>The</strong><br />

judgment of the district court is therefore<br />

Affirmed.<br />

Opinion for the court filed by Senior Judge bUCKLEY.<br />

…<br />

Page 40 of 183

III. Self Organizational Evaluation(s)<br />

Strategic Triangle Model<br />

Organizational Analysis Models<br />

This model relies on three key calculations to determine the efficiency and effectiveness<br />

of an organization. First, is the value, or mission, that guides the organization. Second,<br />

is operational capacity, the knowledge and capability to carry out the mission. Third, is<br />

legitimacy and support, or the environment, that authorize the value of the organization,<br />

and offer support, (specifically financial support). Using this model, a strategy for an<br />

organization is considered good if these three components are in alignment.<br />

SWOT Model<br />

A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to<br />

evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project or in<br />

a business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a product, place, industry<br />

or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and<br />

identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to<br />

achieve that objective. <strong>The</strong> degree to which the internal environment of the entity<br />

matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit.<br />

Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over<br />

others.<br />

Weaknesses: characteristics that place the business or project at a disadvantage<br />

relative to others<br />

Opportunities: elements that the project could exploit to its advantage<br />

Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or<br />

project<br />

First, the decision makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the<br />

SWOTs. If the objective is not attainable a different objective must be selected and the<br />

process repeated. Users of SWOT analysis need to ask and answer questions that<br />

generate meaningful information for each category (strengths, weaknesses,<br />

opportunities, and threats) to make the analysis useful and find their competitive<br />

advantage.<br />

<strong>The</strong> McKinsey 7S Model<br />

<strong>The</strong> McKinsey 7S Framework emphasizes balancing seven key aspects of an<br />

organization, operating unit, or project. Three of the seven elements—strategy,<br />

structure, and systems—are considered "hard" elements, easily identified, described,<br />

Page 41 of 183

and analyzed. <strong>The</strong> remaining four elements—shared value, staff, skill, and style—are<br />

fluid, difficult to describe, and dependent upon the actors within the organization at any<br />

given time. <strong>The</strong> 7S organizational analysis framework is based on the premise that all<br />

seven elements are interdependent, and must be mutually reinforcing in order to be<br />

successful. Changes in a single element can result in misalignment and dysfunction<br />

throughout the organization, disrupting organizational harmony.<br />

Rational Model<br />

<strong>The</strong> rational model stems from the Frederick W. Taylor's (1911) Structural Perspective.<br />

Taylor was the father of time-and-motion studies and founded an approach he called<br />

"scientific management." It was Taylor's stance that organisations should be as<br />

mechanistic and efficient as possible.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se Scientific Management principles served a valuable purpose for the Ford Motor<br />

Company, where the first American, mass-produced automobiles were being<br />

created. <strong>The</strong> rational model views organizations as a mechanism that is made up of<br />

various parts that can be modified in order to create an output in the shortest amount of<br />

time and without deviation.<br />

Natural System Model<br />

<strong>The</strong> natural system model is in many ways the opposite of the rational model in that it<br />

focuses on the activities that may negatively impact the organization and therefore aims<br />

at maintaining an equilibrium in order to meet its goals. <strong>The</strong> Natural System model<br />

views organizations as an organic organism which is holistically interconnected. <strong>The</strong><br />

parts of the organization are not seen as independent units but rather as a whole that<br />

can orchestrate together to prepare for inevitable change.<br />

Sociotechnical Model<br />

<strong>The</strong> sociotechnical model, also known as Sociotechnical Systems (STS), is an<br />

approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction<br />

between people and technology in workplaces. <strong>The</strong> term also refers to the interaction<br />

between society's complex infrastructures and human behavior. This model identifies<br />

the environment as a key factor that interacts with the organization.<br />

Cognitive Model<br />

Behavior, cognitive, and other personal factors as well as environmental events,<br />

operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bi-directionally. Personal<br />

goals of the managers and staff are seen as assisting in the effort toward organizational<br />

objective attainment. Decision making processes are focused on and specialization is<br />

deemed as important to the flow of information.<br />

Page 42 of 183

Meta Models<br />

Attempts have also been made to put elements of the above models into a kind of metamodel.<br />

Based on a theorized blindness of a single perspective, Lee Bolman and<br />

Terrence Deal have designed a model that splits analysis into four distinct paradigms.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se 'frames' are to be used as a pluralistic model, and therefore allow analysts to<br />

change thinking by re-framing understanding and points of reference.<br />

Structural Frame Here organizations are to be understood by role definitions and clear<br />

hierarchy. Problems come from overlapping responsibilities and unclear instructions.<br />

<strong>The</strong> assumptions are similar to the rational model shown above and Taylorism.<br />

Human Resource Frame According to this frame organizations exist to serve society,<br />

they are places for growth and development. Problems come from when people are not<br />

motivated or trained sufficiently. This is Similar to the Sociotechnical model, or the work<br />

of Daniel Pink.<br />

Political Frame this frame posits that organizations are cutthroat jungles, where only<br />

the strongest survive. Problems come from poor power coalitions or overly centralized<br />

power.<br />

Symbolic Frame This frame supposes that organizations are deeply symbolic and<br />

successful business is about the representation genuine meaning. Problems occur<br />

when actors fail to play their parts.<br />

Bolman and Deal lay out these frames in their book Reframing Organizations: Artistry,<br />

Choice and Leadership the authors also provide many examples of how best to apply<br />

their four frames analysis.<br />

Organizational Network Analysis<br />

Organizational network analysis (ONA) is a method for studying communication within a<br />

formal organization to make invisible patterns of information flow and collaboration in<br />

strategically important groups visible. <strong>The</strong> method is applied by first mapping the<br />

relationships among people, tasks, groups, knowledge and resources of organizational<br />

systems. <strong>The</strong>n, analyzing the collected data with a social network analysis software in<br />

order to find organic clusters, opinion leaders, peripheral and bridging actors, indirect<br />

relations that are otherwise invisible.<br />

________<br />

Organizational Analysis Examples<br />

Reflective Practitioner Model: Washington D.C. School System<br />

In the early 2000s, the Washington D.C. public schools (DCPS) faced an organizational<br />

crisis. D.C. mayor Adrian Fenty sought advice to determine what was the best way to<br />

effectively improve the Washington D.C. public schools. Fenty employed Michelle<br />

Page 43 of 183

Rhee as the DCPS superintendent. Rhee initiated her job by analyzing all the factors<br />

that affected the DCPS. After evaluating all the factors Rhee decided to restructure the<br />

DCPS. Rhee set defined metrics in order to hold teachers accountable and measure<br />

whether they were reaching goals. Rhee wanted to eliminate tenure for teachers in<br />

order to increase teacher accountability. Rhee wanted to increase the DCPS efficiency,<br />

and believed that restructuring the teachers would achieve this. <strong>The</strong> process and results<br />

were controversial but illustrate an organizational approach to overcoming a policy<br />

crisis.<br />

Strategic Triangle Model OK: Casa de Esperanza<br />

In 1982, a group of women formed a shelter in St. Paul, Minnesota to address the<br />

needs of Latina women in the community that were victims of domestic violence. Casa<br />

de Esperanza immediately reached capacity, but the majority of occupants were<br />

Caucasian and African-American women. <strong>The</strong> Board of Directors was surprised to<br />

realize that very few women from the Latina community were utilizing the shelter. Casa<br />

de Esperanza continued to serve women from all backgrounds, and received<br />

government stipends for their work. <strong>The</strong> organization strove to be multicultural, while<br />

also maintaining the same mission of empowering Latinas. Many of the staff members<br />

identified with the mission of helping all women, while the Board of Directors maintained<br />

their stance on specifically helping Latinas.<br />

<strong>The</strong> theoretical model of the, "strategic triangle," can be applied in order to better<br />

understand the organizational challenges of Casa de Esperanza. <strong>The</strong> mission and<br />

capacity of the organization are misaligned due to a few key factors. <strong>The</strong> mission of the<br />

organization is vague and overly broad, which led the staff and Board to develop<br />

opposing views of the mission. Most importantly, they could not agree on who their<br />

target demographic was. <strong>The</strong> organization’s capacity is rooted in helping women from<br />

all backgrounds with a variety of services, while the mission seems to indicate they<br />

serve Latina women predominantly. <strong>The</strong> environment suggests that there is a need<br />

amongst a broader population than just Latina women. In addition, the government is<br />

the main source of funding for the organization and they are failing at financial<br />

sustainability. In order to bring these three components into alignment, the organization<br />

would need to make a clear and specific mission statement, tailor their capacity to reach<br />

that mission, and look for alternate forms of funding. Other recommendations could be<br />

made using the strategic triangle model. <strong>The</strong> model is a useful tool to examine the<br />

organizations in a crisis situation.<br />

Page 44 of 183

IV. Amended State Filing(s)<br />

Exercise<br />

Pennsylvania<br />


How to file a Pennsylvania Corporation Amendment:<br />

To make amendments to your Pennsylvania Corporation, you must provide the<br />

completed Articles of Amendment-Domestic Corporation (DSCB: 15-1915) form to<br />

the Department of State Corporation Bureau by mail or in person. If your amendment<br />

does not fit on the two lines of section 7, attach them as Exhibit A. Include with your<br />

filing, two copies of a completed DSCB: 15-134B, Docketing Statement-Changes.<br />

Can you re-state the initial articles instead of filing an amendment?<br />

Yes but it is more expensive to do so.<br />

Are there any specifics you can or can’t include with a Pennsylvania Corporation<br />

amendment?<br />

No.<br />

How much does a Pennsylvania Corporation amendment cost?<br />

To amend your Pennsylvania corporation, there is a $70.00 filing fee required.<br />

Expedited service within 1 day is available for an additional $70.00 fee with an<br />

accompanying cover letter that highlights the request for expedited processing.<br />

How long does it take the state to process a Pennsylvania Corporation<br />

amendment?<br />

Normal Processing: 3-5 working days, plus additional time for return mailing.<br />

In Person Processing: 3-5 working days, plus additional time for return mailing.<br />

Expedite Processing: 1 day, plus additional time for return mailing notice.<br />

How will the corporation amendment be returned?<br />

You will receive a confirmation of processing notice by mail.<br />

What state agency do you file an amendment with?<br />

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Pennsylvania Department of State<br />

Corporation Bureau<br />

PO Box 8722<br />

Harrisburg, PA 17105-8722<br />

Phone: (717) 787-1057<br />

Website: http://www.dos.state.pa.us<br />

Can you change the Pennsylvania Corporation members or managers on an<br />

amendment?<br />

Yes.<br />

Can you change the Pennsylvania registered agent on the amendment?<br />

No. To change your Pennsylvania registered agent, you will need to provide the<br />

completed Statement of Change of Registered Office form, to the Department of<br />

State Corporation Bureau by mail or in person. <strong>The</strong>re is a $70.00 filing fee for<br />

processing that form. <strong>The</strong> registered office provider does not sign this form. An<br />

officer of the corporation needs to sign it.<br />

Can you change the principal office address and/or the mailing address on a<br />

corporation amendment?<br />

Yes.<br />

Page 46 of 183

New Jersey<br />


How to amend New Jersey Certificate of Incorporation:<br />

Filing corporate amendments in New Jersey is complicated by the fact that you can<br />

submit several different forms to make changes to your New Jersey corporation. <strong>The</strong><br />

division provides three different amendment forms for domestic corporations. You are<br />

not required to use the New Jersey Division of Revenue forms to amend your<br />

certificate of incorporation. You may draft your own amendment. However, the division<br />

recommends using their forms because if the filing does not include all the required<br />

information, it will be rejected.<br />

• C-102, Certificate of Amendment by Incorporator(s) is for profit and nonprofit<br />

corporations that have not yet held an organizational meeting of the first board of<br />

directors or trustees.<br />

• C-102A, Certificate of Amendment by Shareholders(s) is for profit<br />

corporations. C-102B, Certificate of Amendment by Members or Trustees is for<br />

nonprofit corporations.<br />

• Another option is to file one of the forms included in the New Jersey Business<br />

Registration Packet. <strong>The</strong>se forms are also available on the Division of Revenue<br />

website (see link below). <strong>The</strong> Business Entity Amendment Filing form (page 39)<br />

can be used to change numbered articles in the original certificate of any entity.<br />

How do I actually file the amendment form with the New Jersey Division of<br />

Revenue?<br />

You can submit the amendment form by mail, fax, or in person. <strong>The</strong>re are specific<br />

filing instructions for each option. You should always include a filing coversheet.<br />

Mail or in person<br />

You may submit the amendment to the Division of Revenue by regular mail, USPS<br />

overnight, express mail, courier, or in person. You need submit the original<br />

amendment and a duplicate.<br />

<strong>The</strong> filing cover letter must include:<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> name of firm or individual submitting the amendment;<br />

2. Payment method:<br />

• Credit card, number, cardholder name, billing address,<br />

• Division of Revenue depository account number, or<br />

• Check;<br />

Page 47 of 183

3. Description of the filing (“Certificate of Amendment”);<br />

4. If filing in person, choose expedited or same day processing;<br />

5. <strong>The</strong> entity’s name;<br />

6. <strong>The</strong> entity’s business ID; and<br />

7. Return instructions:<br />

8.<br />

• Include a return address for mailed documents, or<br />

• If you delivered documents by express or courier and you want them<br />

returned that way, include completed air bill<br />

Checks should be payable to the Treasurer, State of New Jersey. <strong>The</strong> Division of<br />

Revenue does not accept cash.<br />

Fax<br />

Complete the amendment form, prepare a fax coversheet and fax your form to the<br />

division. Your fax coversheet must be entitled DIVISION OF REVENUE FACSIMILE<br />


<strong>The</strong> fax filing coversheet needs to include:<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> name of the firm or individual filing the form;<br />

2. Date of submission;<br />

3. Method of payment:<br />

• Visa, MasterCard, or Discover Card number, name, address, and<br />

expiration; or<br />

• Division of Revenue depository account number;<br />

4. Description of the service requested;<br />

5. Choice of expedited or same day service;<br />

6. Business name;<br />

7. Total number of pages (including coversheet); and<br />

8. Fax number to fax filed documents back to<br />

Fax the form and the coversheet to the New Jersey Division of Revenue at 609-984-<br />

6851.<br />

If your document is accepted, it will be stamped “filed” and faxed back to the filer with<br />

a receipt. If it is rejected, the unfiled document will be returned with a rejection notice<br />

and the fee is refunded.<br />

Can you re-state the initial certificate instead of filing an amendment?<br />

Yes. You would file Restated Certificate form to restate or restate and amend the<br />

certificate of incorporation. For profit corporations would file form C-100A Restated<br />

Certificate of Incorporation. <strong>The</strong>re are two pages required to restate the certificate.<br />

Make sure you submit both pages to the Division of Revenue.<br />

Page 48 of 183

<strong>The</strong> filing fee for a restated certificate is $75.<br />

Are there any specifics you can or can’t include with a New Jersey corporation<br />

amendment?<br />

You can change your business name and change your New Jersey registered agent<br />

information. You also can change any other original articles.<br />

How much does a New Jersey corporation amendment cost?<br />

<strong>The</strong> certificate of amendment filing fee is $75.<br />

If you file over-the-counter, there is an additional $15 fee for 8.5 business hour<br />

expedited service.<br />

If you fax the certificate of amendment, you pay the filing fee, an expedite fee, and a<br />

$1 per page fax back fee for returning filed documents. <strong>The</strong> additional expedite fee for<br />

8.5 business hour processing is $15. <strong>The</strong> expedite fee for same day processing of<br />

faxed documents is $50<br />

How long does it take the state to process a New Jersey corporation amendment?<br />

Mailing documents is the slowest way to file with the Division of Revenue. Expect 3-10<br />

business days for Division of Revenue processing plus 3-6 days mail time each way.<br />

Include a self addressed stamped envelope to minimize processing time.<br />

Over the counter filings are processed in 8.5 business hours. Fax filing is also<br />

expedited. You can choose 8.5 business hour or same day processing. Documents<br />

submitted for same day processing by 12:30 done by 5:00 (on business days).<br />

How will the New Jersey corporation amendment be returned?<br />

Mailed documents are mailed to the registered office address. If you request that<br />

documents be mailed to a different address, (on a self-addressed envelope or cover<br />

letter) the division of revenue will send documents to that address.<br />

If you select expedited processing, you can include instructions as to how you would<br />

like the filing returned to you. You may choose to have expedited documents picked<br />

up by a courier or express mail service if you include a package and air bill.<br />

Page 49 of 183

What state agency do you file an amendment with?<br />

Mail or USPS overnight:<br />

New Jersey Division of Revenue<br />

Corporate Filing<br />

PO Box 308<br />

Trenton, NJ 08625-0308<br />

Over the counter, express mail, or courier:<br />

33 West State Street, 5th Floor<br />

Trenton, NJ 08608-1214<br />

Phone: (609)292-9292<br />

Fax filings: (609) 984-6851<br />

Can you change the New Jersey corporation officers or directors on an<br />

amendment?<br />

Yes you can file an amendment to the article of the certificate that lists officers and<br />

directors.<br />

You will have to list the corporations officers and directors in the annual report.<br />

Can you change the New Jersey registered agent on the amendment?<br />

Yes. You can change the corporation’ registered agent when you file an amendment.<br />

You can also change the New Jersey registered agent when you file the New Jersey<br />

corporation annual report.<br />

Can you change the principal office address and/or the mailing address on an<br />

corporation amendment?<br />

Yes. You can change the corporations principal address when you file an amendment.<br />

You can also change the principal address on the corporations annual report.<br />

New Jersey Division of Revenue forms<br />

New Jersey Business Registration Package<br />

Page 50 of 183

Delaware<br />


How to file a Delaware Corporation Amendment:<br />

To make amendments to your Delaware Stock Corporation, you submit the completed<br />

State of Delaware Certificate of Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation form to the<br />

Department of State by mail, fax or in person, along with the filing fee and the Filing<br />

Cover Memo. Non-stock corporations use a separate amendment form.<br />

If you are amending more than one article, you may attach a list of the articles being<br />

amended with the amendments stated.<br />

Can you restate the initial articles instead of filing an amendment?<br />

Yes. <strong>The</strong> filing fee for a restated certificate is $194 without amendments. If you wish to<br />

re-state the initial articles you must draft your own restated articles. <strong>The</strong>re is no form<br />

available for restated articles.<br />

Are there any specifics you can or can’t include with a Delaware Corporation<br />

amendment?<br />

<strong>The</strong> original articles of incorporation may be amended as desired; however, if you<br />

wish to change your original registered agent, you are required to use the Statement<br />

of Agent Change form.<br />

How much does a Delaware Corporation amendment cost?<br />

To amend your corporation in Delaware, there is a $194 filing fee required. You may<br />

request expedited processing for an additional $1000 for one-hour service, $500 for<br />

two-hour service, $200 for same day service, or within 24 working hours for an<br />

additional $100 fee.<br />

How long does it take the state to process a Delaware Corporation amendment?<br />

Normal processing in Delaware is approximately two to three weeks. You may request<br />

expedited service with processing from 24 hours to one hour.<br />

How will the corporation amendment be returned?<br />

You will receive a confirmation copy of your filing by the return service method that<br />

you indicate on your Filing Cover Memo.<br />

Page 51 of 183

What state agency do you file an amendment with?<br />

Delaware Department of State<br />

Division of Corporations<br />

John G. Townsend Building<br />

401 Federal Street – Suite 4<br />

Dover, DE 19901<br />

Phone: (302)739-3073<br />

Fax: (302)739-3812<br />

Email: corp@delaware.gov<br />

Website: http://www.corp.delaware.gov<br />

Can you change the Delaware Corporation officers or directors on an<br />

amendment?<br />

You do not list corporate officers on a Delaware Certificate of Incorporation. You may<br />

change your officers on your annual report that you file online every year prior to<br />

March 1st.<br />

Can you change the Delaware registered agent on the amendment?<br />

You are not able to change your Delaware registered agent on the Amendment form.<br />

You will need to provide the completed Certificate of Change of Agent form and fee, to<br />

the Department of State.<br />

Can you change the principal office address and/or the mailing address on a<br />

corporation amendment?<br />

<strong>The</strong> Delaware Department of State does not keep principal office or mailing address<br />

information on file.<br />

Page 52 of 183

V. Political Lobbying for Nonprofits<br />

and Faith-Based Organizations<br />

“Churches” (which is how the Internal Revenue Code describes all houses<br />

of worship, including churches, temples, synagogues, and mosques), as<br />

with all other public charities, can lobby. Federal tax law draws a<br />

distinction between activities intended to influence public policy, and<br />

campaigning for a specific candidate. Campaigning for a candidate is<br />

strictly prohibited, while influencing the passage of legislation is allowed.<br />

- See AFJ’s “Election Checklist for Houses of Worship” for more information on<br />

what churches can and cannot do in the context of elections.<br />

________<br />

Lobbying in the United States<br />

describes paid activity in which special<br />

interests hire well-connected<br />

professional advocates, often lawyers,<br />

to argue for specific legislation in<br />

decision-making bodies such as the<br />

United States Congress. It is a highly<br />

controversial phenomenon, often seen<br />

in a negative light by journalists and the<br />

American public. While lobbying is<br />

subject to extensive and often complex<br />

rules which, if not followed, can lead to<br />

penalties including jail, the activity of<br />

lobbying has been interpreted by court<br />

rulings as free speech and is therefore<br />

protected by the Constitution. Since the<br />

1970s, lobbying activity has grown<br />

immensely in terms of the numbers of<br />

lobbyists and the size of lobbying<br />

budgets, and has become the focus of<br />

much criticism of American governance.<br />

Since lobbying rules require extensive<br />

disclosure, there is a large amount of<br />

information in the public sphere about<br />

which entities lobby, how, at whom, and<br />

for how much. <strong>The</strong> current pattern<br />

suggests much lobbying is done by<br />

corporations although a wide variety of<br />

coalitions representing diverse groups is<br />

possible. Lobbying happens at every<br />

level of government, including federal,<br />

state, county, municipal, and even local<br />

governments. In Washington, lobbying<br />

usually targets congresspersons,<br />

although there have been efforts to<br />

influence executive agency officials as<br />

well as Supreme Court appointments. It<br />

has been the subject of academic<br />

inquiry in various fields, including law,<br />

public policy, and economics. While the<br />

number of lobbyists in Washington is<br />

over twelve thousand, those with real<br />

clout number in the dozens, and a small<br />

group of firms handles much of lobbying<br />

in terms of expenditures. A report in <strong>The</strong><br />

Nation in 2014 suggested that while the<br />

number of 12,281 registered lobbyists<br />

was a decrease since 2002, lobbying<br />

activity was increasing and "going<br />

underground" as lobbyists use<br />

"increasingly sophisticated strategies" to<br />

obscure their activity. Analyst James<br />

Thurber estimated that the actual<br />

number of working lobbyists was close<br />

to 100,000 and the industry brings in $9<br />

billion annually.<br />

Page 53 of 183

Political scientist Thomas R. Dye once<br />

said that politics is about battling over<br />

scarce governmental resources: who<br />

gets them, where, when, why and how.<br />

Since government makes the rules in a<br />

complex economy such as the United<br />

States, it is logical that various<br />

organizations, businesses, individuals,<br />

nonprofits, trade groups, religions,<br />

charities and others—which are affected<br />

by these rules—will exert as much<br />

influence as they can to have rulings<br />

favorable to their cause. And the battling<br />

for influence has happened in every<br />

organized society since the beginning of<br />

civilization, whether it was Ancient<br />

Athens, Florence during the time of the<br />

Medici, Late Imperial China, and the<br />

present-day United States. Modern-day<br />

lobbyists in one sense are like the<br />

courtiers of the Ancien Régime. If voting<br />

is a general way for a public to control a<br />

government, lobbying is a more specific,<br />

targeted effort, focused on a narrower<br />

set of issues.<br />

<strong>The</strong> term lobby has etymological roots in<br />

the physical structure of the British<br />

Parliament, in which there was an<br />

intermediary covered room outside the<br />

main hall. People pushing an agenda<br />

would try to meet with members of<br />

Parliament in this room, and they came<br />

to be known, by metonymy, as lobbyists,<br />

although one account in 1890<br />

suggested that the application of the<br />

word "lobby" is American and that the<br />

term is not used as much in Britain.<br />

<strong>The</strong> term lobbying in everyday parlance<br />

can describe a wide variety of activities,<br />

and in its general sense, suggests<br />

advocacy, advertising, or promoting a<br />

cause. In this sense, anybody who tries<br />

to influence any political position can be<br />

thought of as "lobbying", and sometimes<br />

the term is used in this loose sense. A<br />

person who writes a letter to a<br />

congressperson, or even questions a<br />

candidate at a political meeting, could<br />

be construed as being a lobbyist.<br />

However, the term "lobbying" generally<br />

means a paid activity with the purpose<br />

of attempting to "influence or sway" a<br />

public official - including bureaucrats<br />

and elected officials - towards a desired<br />

specific action often relating to specific<br />

legislation. If advocacy is disseminating<br />

information, including attempts to<br />

persuade public officials as well as the<br />

public and media to promote the cause<br />

of something and support it, then when<br />

this activity becomes focused on<br />

specific legislation, either in support or<br />

in opposition, then it crosses the line<br />

from advocacy and becomes lobbying.<br />

This is the usual sense of the term<br />

"lobbying." One account suggested that<br />

much of the activity of nonprofits was<br />

not lobbying per se, since it usually did<br />

not mean changes in legislation.<br />

A lobbyist, according to the legal sense<br />

of the word, is a professional, often a<br />

lawyer. Lobbyists are intermediaries<br />

between client organizations and<br />

lawmakers: they explain to legislators<br />

what their organizations want, and they<br />

explain to their clients what obstacles<br />

elected officials face. One definition of a<br />

lobbyist is someone "employed to<br />

persuade legislators to pass legislation<br />

that will help the lobbyist's employer."<br />

Many lobbyists work in lobbying firms or<br />

law firms, some of which retain clients<br />

outside lobbying. Others work for<br />

advocacy groups, trade associations,<br />

companies, and state and local<br />

governments. Lobbyists can be one type<br />

of government official, such as a<br />

governor of a state, who presses<br />

Page 54 of 183

officials in Washington for specific<br />

legislation. A lobbyist may put together a<br />

diverse coalition of organizations and<br />

people, sometimes including lawmakers<br />

and corporations, and the whole effort<br />

may be considered to be a lobby; for<br />

example, in the abortion issue, there is a<br />

"pro-choice lobby" and a "pro-life lobby".<br />

An estimate from 2007 reported that<br />

more than 15,000 federal lobbyists were<br />

based in Washington, DC; another<br />

estimate from 2011 suggested that the<br />

count of registered lobbyists who have<br />

actually lobbied was closer to 12,000.<br />

While numbers like these suggest that<br />

lobbying is a widespread activity, most<br />

accounts suggest that the Washington<br />

lobbying industry is an exclusive one run<br />

by a few well-connected firms and<br />

players, with serious barriers to entry for<br />

firms wanting to get into the lobbying<br />

business, since it requires them to have<br />

been "roaming the halls of Congress for<br />

years and years."<br />

Different Types of Lobbying<br />

<strong>The</strong> Focus of Lobbying Efforts<br />

Generally, lobbyists focus on trying to<br />

persuade decision-makers: Congress,<br />

executive branch agencies such as the<br />

Treasury Department and the Securities<br />

and Exchange Commission, the<br />

Supreme Court, state governments<br />

(including governors). Federal agencies<br />

have been targeted by lobbyists since<br />

they write industry-specific rules;<br />

accordingly, interest groups spend<br />

"massive sums of money" trying to<br />

persuade them to make so-called<br />

"carve-outs" or try to block specific<br />

provisions from being enacted. A large<br />

fraction of overall lobbying is focused on<br />

only a few sets of issues, according to<br />

one report. It is possible for one level of<br />

government to lobby another level; for<br />

example, the District of Columbia has<br />

been lobbying Congress and the<br />

President for greater power, including<br />

possible statehood or voting<br />

representation in Congress; one<br />

assessment in 2011 suggested that the<br />

district needed to rethink its lobbying<br />

strategy, since its past efforts have only<br />

had "mixed results". Many executive<br />

branch agencies have the power to write<br />

specific rules and are a target of<br />

lobbying. Federal agencies such as the<br />

State Department make rules such as<br />

giving aid money to countries such as<br />

Egypt, and in one example, an<br />

Egyptian-American businessman named<br />

Kais Menoufy organized a lobby to try to<br />

halt U.S. aid to Egypt. Since the<br />

Supreme Court has the power of judicial<br />

review and can render a congressional<br />

law unconstitutional, it has great power<br />

to influence the course of American life.<br />

For example, in the Roe v. Wade<br />

decision, it ruled on the legality of<br />

abortion. A variety of forces use<br />

lobbying tactics to pressure the court to<br />

overturn this decision.<br />

Lobbyists represent their clients' or<br />

organizations' interests in state capitols.<br />

An example is a former school<br />

superintendent who has been lobbying<br />

state legislatures in California, Michigan<br />

and Nevada to overhaul teacher<br />

evaluations, and trying to end the "Last<br />

In, First Out" teacher hiring processes;<br />

according to one report, Michelle Rhee<br />

Page 55 of 183

is becoming a "political force." State<br />

governments can be lobbied by groups<br />

which represent other governments<br />

within the state, such as a city authority;<br />

for example, the cities of Tallahassee<br />

and St. Petersburg lobbied the Florida<br />

legislature using paid lobbyists to<br />

represent the city's interests. <strong>The</strong>re is<br />

lobbying activity at the county and<br />

municipal levels, especially in larger<br />

cities and populous counties. For<br />

example, officials within the city<br />

government of Chicago called aldermen<br />

became lobbyists after serving in<br />

municipal government, following a oneyear<br />

period required by city ethics rules<br />

to abstain from lobbying.<br />

Paid Versus Free Lobbying<br />

While the bulk of lobbying happens by<br />

business and professional interests who<br />

hire paid professionals, some lobbyists<br />

represent non-profits pro-bono for<br />

issues in which they are personally<br />

interested. Pro bono publico clients offer<br />

activities to meet and socialize with local<br />

legislators at events like fundraisers and<br />

awards ceremonies.<br />

Single Issue vs<br />

Multiple Issue Lobbying<br />

Lobbies which push for a single issue<br />

have grown in importance during the<br />

past twenty years, according to one<br />

source. Corporations generally would be<br />

considered as single issue lobbies. If a<br />

corporation wishes to change public<br />

policy, or to influence legislation which<br />

impacts its success as a business, it<br />

may use lobbying as a "primary avenue"<br />

for this purpose. One research study<br />

suggested that single issue lobbies<br />

often operate in different kinds of<br />

institutional venues, sometimes bringing<br />

the same message to different groups.<br />

Lobbies which represent groups such as<br />

labor unions, business organizations,<br />

trade associations and such are<br />

sometimes considered to be multiple<br />

issue lobbies, and to succeed they must<br />

be somewhat more flexible politically<br />

and be willing to accept compromise.<br />

Inside vs Outside Lobbying<br />

• Inside lobbying, or sometimes<br />

called direct lobbying, describes<br />

efforts by lobbyists to influence<br />

legislation or rule-making directly<br />

by contacting legislators and their<br />

assistants, sometimes called<br />

staffers or aides.<br />

• Outside lobbying, or sometimes<br />

indirect lobbying, includes<br />

attempts by interest group<br />

leaders to mobilize citizens<br />

outside the policymaking<br />

community, perhaps by public<br />

relations methods or advertising,<br />

to prompt them to pressure public<br />

officials within the policymaking<br />

community. One example of an<br />

outside lobbying effort is a film<br />

entitled InJustice, made by a<br />

group promoting lawsuit reform.<br />

Page 56 of 183

Key Players<br />

Lobbyists<br />

<strong>The</strong> number of registered Washington lobbyists is substantial. In 2009, the Washington<br />

Post estimated that there were 13,700 registered lobbyists, describing the nation's<br />

Capitol as "teeming with lobbyists.". In 2011, <strong>The</strong> Guardian estimated that in addition to<br />

the approximately 13,000 registered lobbyists, thousands more unregistered lobbyists<br />

could exist in Washington. <strong>The</strong> ratio of lobbyists employed by the healthcare industry,<br />

compared with every elected politician, was six to one, according to one account.<br />

Nevertheless, the numbers of lobbyists actively engaged in lobbying is considerably<br />

less, and the ones occupied with lobbying full-time and making significant money is<br />

even less.<br />

• Law firms. Several law firms, including Patton Boggs, Akin Gump and Holland & Knight, had sizable<br />

departments devoted to so-called "government relations". One account suggested that the lobbying arms of<br />

these law firms were not held as separate subsidiaries, but that the law practices involved in government<br />

lobbying were integrated into the overall framework of the law firm. A benefit to an integrated arrangement<br />

was that the law firm and the lobbying department could "share and refer clients back and forth". Holland &<br />

Knight earned $13.9 million from lobbying revenue in 2011. One law firm employs so-called "power brokers"<br />

including former Treasury department officials such as Marti Thomas, and former presidential advisers such<br />

as Daniel Meyer. <strong>The</strong>re was a report that two law firms were treating their lobbying groups as separate<br />

business units, and giving the non-lawyer lobbyists an equity stake in the firm.<br />

• Lobbying firms. <strong>The</strong>se firms usually have some lawyers in them, and are often founded by former<br />

congressional staffers, legislators, or other politicians. Some lobbying groups have been bought by large<br />

advertising conglomerates.<br />

Corporations<br />

Corporations which lobby actively tend to be few in number, large, and often sell to the<br />

government. Most corporations do not hire lobbyists. One study found that the actual<br />

number of firms which do lobbying regularly is fewer than 300, and that the percent of<br />

firms engaged in lobbying was 10% from 1998–2006, and that they were "mainly large,<br />

rich firms getting in on the fun." <strong>The</strong>se firms hired lobbyists year after year, and there<br />

was not much evidence of other large firms taking much interest in lobbying.<br />

Corporations considering lobbying run into substantial barriers to entry: corporations<br />

have to research the relevant laws about lobbying, hire lobbying firms, and cultivate<br />

influential people and make connections. When an issue regarding a change in<br />

immigration policy arose, large corporations currently lobbying switched focus<br />

somewhat to take account of the new regulatory world, but new corporations—even<br />

ones likely to be affected by any possible rulings on immigration—stayed out of the<br />

lobbying fray, according to the study.<br />

Still, of all the entities doing lobbying in Washington, the biggest overall spenders are, in<br />

fact, corporations. In the first decade of the 2000s, the most lucrative clients for Gerald<br />

Cassidy's lobbying firm were corporations, displacing fees from the appropriations<br />

Page 57 of 183

usiness. Wall Street lobbyists and the financial industry spent upwards of $100 million<br />

in one year to "court regulators and lawmakers", particularly since they were "finalizing<br />

new regulations for lending, trading and debit card fees." One academic analysis in<br />

1987 found that firms were more likely to spend on lobbying if they were both large and<br />

concerned about "adverse financial statement consequences" if they did not lobby. Big<br />

banks were "prolific spenders" on lobbying; JPMorgan Chase has an in-house team of<br />

lobbyists who spent $3.3 million in 2010; the American Bankers Association spent $4.6<br />

million on lobbying; an organization representing 100 of the nation's largest financial<br />

firms called the Financial Services Roundtable spent heavily as well. A trade group<br />

representing Hedge Funds spent more than $1 million in one quarter trying to influence<br />

the government about financial regulations, including an effort to try to change a rule<br />

that might demand greater disclosure requirements for funds. Amazon.com spent<br />

$450,000 in one quarter lobbying about a possible online sales tax as well as rules<br />

about data protection and privacy. Corporations which sell substantially to the<br />

government tend to be active lobbiers. For example, aircraft manufacturer Boeing,<br />

which has sizeable defense contracts, pours "millions into lobbying":<br />

Boeing Co. is one of the most influential companies in airline manufacturing and has<br />

continually shown its influence in lobbying Congress ... Between January and<br />

September, Boeing spent a total of $12 million lobbying according to research by the<br />

Center for Responsive Politics. Additionally, Boeing has its own political action<br />

committee, which donated more than $2.2 million to federal candidates during the 2010<br />

Page 58 of 183

election cycle. Of that sum, 53 percent went to Democrats. ...Through September,<br />

Boeing's PAC has donated $748,000 to federal politicians.<br />

—Chicago Sun-Times quoting OpenSecrets.org, 2011<br />

Unions<br />

One report suggested the United Food & Commercial Workers International Union<br />

spent $80,000 lobbying the federal government on issues relating to "the tax code, food<br />

safety, immigration reform and other issues."<br />

Other Players<br />

Other possible players in the lobbying arena are those who might influence legislation:<br />

House & Senate colleagues, public opinion in the district, the White House, party<br />

leaders, union leaders, and other influential persons and groups. Interest groups are<br />

often thought of as "nonparty organizations" which regularly try to change or influence<br />

government decision-making.<br />

Lobbying Methods and Techniques<br />

Lobbying has much in common with highly people-intensive businesses such as<br />

management consulting and public relations, but with a political and legal sensibility.<br />

Like lawmakers, many lobbyists are lawyers, and the persons they are trying to<br />

influence have the duty of writing laws. That the disciplines of law and lobbying are<br />

intertwined could be seen in the case of a Texas lawyer who had been seeking<br />

compensation for his unfairly imprisoned client; since his exonerated-prisoner client had<br />

trouble paying the legal expenses, the lawyer lobbied the Texas state legislature to<br />

raise the state's payment for unfairly imprisoned prisoners from $50,000 per year to<br />

$80,000 per year; it succeeded, making it possible for his newly freed client to pay the<br />

lawyer's fees.<br />

Well-connected lobbyists work in Washington for years, know the issues, are highly<br />

skilled advocates, and have cultivated close connections with members of Congress,<br />

regulators, specialists, and others. <strong>The</strong>y understand strategy and have excellent<br />

communication skills; many are well suited to be able to choose which clients they<br />

would like to represent. Lobbyists patiently cultivate networks of powerful people, over<br />

many years, trying to build trust and maintain confidence and friendships. When a client<br />

hires them to push a specific issue or agenda, they usually form coalitions to exert<br />

political pressure. Lobbying, as a result, depends on trying to be flexible to new<br />

opportunities, but at the same time, to act as an agent for a client. As one lobbyist put it:<br />

It's my job to advance the interests of my association or client. Period.<br />

—comment by a lobbyist<br />

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Access is important and often means a one-on-one meeting with a legislator. Getting<br />

access can sometimes be difficult, but there are various avenues: email, personal<br />

letters, phone calls, face-to-face meetings, meals, get-togethers, and even chasing after<br />

congresspersons in the Capitol building:<br />

My style of lobbying is not to have big formal meetings, but to catch<br />

members on the fly as they're walking between the House and the office<br />

buildings.<br />

—Lobbyist, commenting on access<br />

When getting access is difficult, there are ways to wear down the walls surrounding a<br />

legislator. Jack Abramoff explained:<br />

Access is vital in lobbying. If you can't get in your door, you can't make<br />

your case. Here we had a hostile senator, whose staff was hostile, and we<br />

had to get in. So that's the lobbyist safe-cracker method: throw<br />

fundraisers, raise money, and become a big donor.<br />

—Lobbyist Jack Abramoff in 2011<br />

Lobbyists often assist congresspersons with campaign finance by arranging fundraisers,<br />

assembling PACs, and seeking donations from other clients. Many lobbyists become<br />

campaign treasurers and fundraisers for congresspersons. This helps incumbent<br />

members cope with the substantial amounts of time required to raise money for<br />

reelection bids; one estimate was that congresspersons had to spend a third of their<br />

working hours on fundraising activity. PACs are fairly easy to set up; it requires a lawyer<br />

and about $300, roughly. An even steeper possible reward which can be used in<br />

exchange for favors is the lure of a high-paying job as a lobbyist; according to Jack<br />

Abramoff, one of the best ways to "get what he wanted" was to offer a high-ranking<br />

congressional aide a high-paying job after they decided to leave public office. When<br />

such a promise of future employment was accepted, according to Abramoff, "we owned<br />

them". This helped the lobbying firm exert influence on that particular congressperson<br />

by going through the staff member or aide. At the same time, it is hard for outside<br />

observers to argue that a particular decision, such as hiring a former staffer into a<br />

lobbying position, was purely as a reward for some past political decision, since staffers<br />

often have valuable connections and policy experience needed by lobbying firms.<br />

Research economist Mirko Draca suggested that hiring a staffer was an ideal way for a<br />

lobbying firm to try to sway their old bosses—a congressperson—in the future.<br />

Lobbyists, according to several sources, strive for communications which are clear,<br />

straightforward, and direct. In a one-on-one meeting with a lobbyist, it helps to<br />

understand precisely what goal is wanted. A lobbyist wants action on a bill; a legislator<br />

wants to be re-elected. <strong>The</strong> idea is to persuade a legislator that what the lobbyist wants<br />

is good public policy. Lobbyists often urge lawmakers to try to persuade other<br />

lawmakers to approve a bill.<br />

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Still, persuasion is a subtle business, requiring a deft touch, and carelessness can<br />

boomerang. In one instance of a public relations reversal, a lobbying initiative by the<br />

Cassidy firm which targeted Senator Robert C. Byrd blew up when the Cassidy-Byrd<br />

connection was published in the Washington Post; this resulted in a furious Byrd<br />

reversing his previous pro-Cassidy position and throwing a "theatrical temper tantrum"<br />

regarding an $18 million facility. Byrd denounced "lobbyists who collect exorbitant fees<br />

to create projects and have them earmarked in appropriation bills... for the benefit of<br />

their clients."<br />

Since it often takes a long time to build the network of relationships within the lobbying<br />

industry, ethical interpersonal dealings are important. A maxim in the industry is for<br />

lobbyists to be truthful with people they are trying to persuade; one lobbyist described it<br />

this way: "what you've basically got is your word and reputation". An untruth, a lie is too<br />

risky to the successful development of a long-term relationship and the potential gain is<br />

not worth the risk. One report suggested that below-the-belt tactics generally do not<br />

work. One account suggest that groping for "personal dirt" on opponents was<br />

counterproductive since it would undermine respect for the lobbyist and their clients.<br />

And, by reverse logic, if an untruth is told by an opponent or opposing lobby, then it<br />

makes sense to publicize it. But the general code among lobbyists is that<br />

unsubstantiated claims are bad business. Even worse is planting an informant in an<br />

opponent's camp, since if this subterfuge is ever discovered, it will boomerang<br />

negatively in a hundred ways, and credibility will drop to zero. <strong>The</strong> importance of<br />

personal relationships in lobbying can be seen in the state of Illinois, in which father-son<br />

ties helped push a smart-grid energy bill, although there were accusations of favoritism.<br />

And there is anecdotal evidence that a business firm seeking to profitably influence<br />

legislation has to pay particular attention to which lobbyist it hires.<br />

Strategic considerations for lobbyists, trying to influence legislation, include "locating a<br />

power base" or a constituency logically predisposed to support a given policy. Timing,<br />

as well, is usually important, in the sense of knowing when to propose a certain action<br />

and having a big-picture view of the possible sequence of desired actions. Strategic<br />

lobbying tries to estimate the possible responses of different groups to a possible lobby<br />

approach; one study suggested that the "expectations of opposition from other<br />

interests" was a key factor helping to determine how a lobby should operate.<br />

Increasingly, lobbyists seek to put together coalitions and use outside lobbying by<br />

swaying public opinion. Bigger, more diverse and deep pocketed coalitions tend to be<br />

more effective in outside lobbying, and the "strength in numbers" principle often applies.<br />

Interest groups try to build "sustainable coalitions of similarly situated individual<br />

organizations in pursuit of like-minded goals". According to one study, it is often difficult<br />

for a lobbyist to influence a staff member in Congress directly, since staffers tend to be<br />

well-informed and subject to views from competing interests. As an indirect tactic,<br />

lobbyists can try to manipulate public opinion which, in turn, can sometimes exert<br />

pressure on congresspersons. Activities for these purposes include trying to use the<br />

mass media, cultivating contacts with reporters and editors, encouraging them to write<br />

editorials and cover stories to influence public opinion, which may have the secondary<br />

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effect of influencing Congress. According to analyst Ken Kollman, it is easier to sway<br />

public opinion than a congressional staff member since it is possible to bombard the<br />

public with "half-truths, distortion, scare tactics, and misinformation." Kollman suggests<br />

there should be two goals: (1) communicate that there is public support behind an issue<br />

to policymakers and (2) increase public support for the issue among constituents.<br />

Kollman suggested outside lobbying was a "powerful tool" for interest group leaders. In<br />

a sense, using these criteria, one could consider James Madison as having engaged in<br />

outside lobbying, since after the Constitution was proposed, he wrote many of the 85<br />

newspaper editorials arguing for people to support the Constitution, and these writings<br />

later became the Federalist Papers. As a result of this "lobbying" effort, the Constitution<br />

was ratified, although there were narrow margins of victory in four of the state<br />

legislatures. Lobbying today generally requires mounting a coordinated campaign, using<br />

targeted blitzes of telephone calls, letters, emails to congressional lawmakers, marches<br />

down the Washington Mall, bus caravans, and such, and these are often put together by<br />

lobbyists who coordinate a variety of interest group leaders to unite behind a hopefully<br />

simple easy-to-grasp and persuasive message.<br />

It is important for lobbyists to follow rules governing lobbying behavior. <strong>The</strong>se can be<br />

difficult and complex, take time to learn, require full disclosure, and mistakes can land a<br />

lobbyist in serious legal trouble.<br />

Gifts for congresspersons and staffers can be problematic, since anything of sizeable<br />

value must be disclosed and generally such gifts are illegal. Failure to observe gift<br />

restrictions was one factor which caused lobbyist Jack Abramoff to eventually plead<br />

guilty to a "raft of federal corruption charges" and led to convictions for 20 lobbyists and<br />

public officials, including congressperson Bob Ney and Bush deputy interior secretary<br />

Stephen Griles. Generally gifts to congresspersons or their staffs or federal officials are<br />

not allowed, but with a few exceptions: books are permitted, provided that the inside<br />

cover is inscribed with the congressperson's name and the name of one's organization.<br />

Gifts under $5 are allowed. Another exception is awards, so it is permitted to give a<br />

congressperson a plaque thanking him or her for support on a given issue. Cash gifts<br />

payable by check can only be made to campaign committees, not to a candidate<br />

personally or to his or her staff; it is not permitted to give cash or stock.<br />

Wealthy lobbyists often encourage other lobbying clients to donate to a particular cause,<br />

in the hope that favors will be returned at a later date. Lobbyist Gerald Cassidy<br />

encouraged other clients to give for causes dear to a particular client engaged in a<br />

current lobbying effort. Some lobbyists give their own money: Cassidy reportedly<br />

donated a million dollars on one project, according to one report, which noted that<br />

Cassidy's firm received "many times that much in fees from their clients" paid in monthly<br />

retainers. And their clients, in turn, had received "hundreds of millions in earmarked<br />

appropriations" and benefits worth "hundreds of millions more".<br />

<strong>The</strong> dynamics of the lobbying world make it fairly easy for a semi-skilled operator to<br />

defraud a client. This is essentially what happened in the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying<br />

scandal. <strong>The</strong>re was a concerned client—in this case, an Indian casino—worried about<br />

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possible ill-effects of legislation on its gambling business; and there were lobbyists such<br />

as Jack Abramoff who knew how to exploit these fears. <strong>The</strong> lobbyists actively lobbied<br />

against their own casino-client as a way to ratchet up their fears of adverse legislation<br />

as well as stoke possible future contributions; the lobbyists committed other violations<br />

such as grossly overbilling their clients as well as violating rules about giving gifts to<br />

congresspersons. Numerous persons went to jail after the scandal. <strong>The</strong> following are<br />

factors which can make fraud a fairly easy-to-do activity: that lobbyists are paid only to<br />

try to influence decision-makers, and may or may not succeed, making it hard to tell if a<br />

lobbyist did actual work; that much of what happens regarding interpersonal relations is<br />

obscure despite rather strict disclosure and transparency requirements; that there are<br />

sizable monies involved—factors such as these almost guarantee that there will be<br />

future scandals involving fraudulent lobbying activity, according to one assessment. A<br />

fraud similar to Abramoff's was perpetrated in Maryland by lobbyist Gerald E. Evans,<br />

who was convicted of mail and wire fraud in 2000 in a case involving falsely creating a<br />

"fictitious legislative threat" against a client, and then billing the client to work against<br />

this supposed threat.<br />

Lobbyists routinely monitor how congressional officials vote, sometimes checking the<br />

past voting records of congresspersons. One report suggested that reforms requiring<br />

"publicly recorded committee votes" led to more information about how<br />

congresspersons voted, but instead of becoming a valuable resource for the news<br />

media or voters, the information helped lobbyists monitor congressional voting patterns.<br />

As a general rule, lawmakers must vote as a particular interest group wishes them to<br />

vote, or risk losing support.<br />

Strategy usually dictates targeting specific office holders. On the state level, one study<br />

suggested that much of the lobbying activity targeted the offices of governors as well as<br />

state-level executive bureaucrats; state lobbying was an "intensely personal game" with<br />

face-to-face contact being required for important decisions.<br />

Lobbying can be a counteractive response to the lobbying efforts of others. One study<br />

suggested this was particularly true for battles surrounding possible decisions by the<br />

Supreme Court which is considered as a "battleground for public policy" in which<br />

differing groups try to "etch their policy preferences into law". Sometimes there are<br />

lobbying efforts to slow or derail other legislative processes; for example, when the FDA<br />

began considering a cheaper generic version of the costly anti-clotting drug Lovenox,<br />

the French pharmaceutical firm Sanofi "sprang into action to try and slow the process."<br />

Lobbyists are often assembled in anticipation of a potential takeover bid, particularly<br />

when there are large high-profile companies, or a large foreign company involved, and<br />

substantial concern that the takeover may be blocked by regulatory authorities.<br />

An example may illustrate. <strong>The</strong> company Tyco had learned that there had been<br />

discussion about a possible new tax provision that might have cost it $4 billion overall.<br />

So the firm hired Jack Abramoff and paid him a retainer of $100,000 a month. He<br />

assembled dozens of lobbyists with connections to key congressional committees with<br />

the ultimate objective being to influence powerful Senator Charles Grassley. Abramoff<br />

Page 63 of 183

egan with a fundraising effort to round up "every check" possible. He sought funds<br />

from his other lobbying clients:<br />

I had my clients understand that just as other clients who had nothing to<br />

do with them, would step up and give contributions to congressmen they<br />

needed to have some sway with, so similarly they needed to do the<br />

same. I went to every client I could, and rounded up every check we<br />

could for him.<br />

—Lobbyist Jack Abramoff in 2011<br />

Educators & Advisors<br />

Since government has<br />

grown increasingly<br />

complex, having to<br />

deal with new<br />

technologies, the task<br />

of writing rules has<br />

become more<br />

complex.<br />

"Government has<br />

grown so complex that<br />

it is a virtual certainty<br />

that more than one<br />

agency would be<br />

affected by any piece<br />

of legislation,"<br />

according to one view.<br />

Lobbyists, therefore,<br />

spend considerable<br />

time learning the ins and outs of issues, and can use their expertise to educate<br />

lawmakers and help them cope with difficult issues. Lobbyists' knowledge has been<br />

considered to be an intellectual subsidy for lawmakers. Some lobbyists become<br />

specialists with expertise in a particular set of issues, although one study suggested that<br />

of two competing criteria for lobbyists—expertise or access—that access was far more<br />

important.<br />

Lobby groups and their members sometimes also write legislation and whip bills, and in<br />

these instances, it is helpful to have lawyers skilled in writing legislation to assist with<br />

these efforts. It is often necessary to research relevant laws and issues beforehand. In<br />

many instances lobbyists write the actual text of the proposed law, and hire lawyers to<br />

"get the language down pat"—an omission in wording or an unclear phrase may open<br />

up a loophole for opponents to wrangle over for years. And lobbyists can often advise a<br />

lawmaker on how to navigate the approval process.<br />

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Lobbying firms can serve as mentors and guides. For example, after months of<br />

protesting by the Occupy Wall Street, one lobbying firm prepared a memo to its clients<br />

warning that Republicans may "turn on big banks, at least in public" which may have the<br />

effect of "altering the political ground for years to come." Here are parts of the memo<br />

which were broadcast on the MSNBC network.<br />

Leading Democratic party strategists have begun to openly discuss the benefits of embracing<br />

the growing and increasingly organized Occupy Wall Street (OWS) movement ... This would<br />

mean more than just short-term discomfort for<br />

Wall Street firms. If vilifying the leading<br />

companies of this sector is allowed to become<br />

an unchallenged centerpiece of a coordinated<br />

Democratic campaign, it has the potential to<br />

have very long-lasting political, policy and<br />

financial impacts on the companies in the center<br />

of the bullseye. ... the bigger concern should be<br />

that Republicans will no longer defend Wall<br />

Street companies...<br />

—Clark, Lytle, Geduldig, Cranford, law/lobbying<br />

firm, to a Wall Street client<br />

Effectiveness<br />

<strong>The</strong> general consensus view is that<br />

lobbying generally works overall in<br />

achieving sought-after results for clients,<br />

particularly since it has become so<br />

prevalent with substantial and growing<br />

budgets, although there are dissenting<br />

views. A study by the investmentresearch<br />

firm Strategas which was cited<br />

in <strong>The</strong> Economist and the Washington<br />

Post compared the 50 firms that spent<br />

the most on lobbying relative to their<br />

assets, and compared their financial<br />

performance against that of the S&P<br />

500 in the stock market; the study<br />

concluded that spending on lobbying<br />

was a "spectacular investment" yielding<br />

"blistering" returns comparable to a<br />

high-flying hedge fund, even despite the<br />

financial downturn of the past few years.<br />

A 2009 study by University of Kansas<br />

professor Raquel Meyer Alexander<br />

suggested that lobbying brought a<br />

substantial return on investment. A 2011<br />

meta-analysis of previous research<br />

findings found a positive correlation<br />

between corporate political activity and<br />

firm performance.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is widespread agreement that a<br />

key ingredient in effective lobbying is<br />

money. This view is shared by players in<br />

the lobbying industry.<br />

Deep pockets speak; the money<br />

trumps it all.<br />

—Anonymous lobbyist, 2002<br />

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Still, effectiveness can vary depending<br />

on the situational context. One view is<br />

that large multiple-issue lobbies tend to<br />

be effective in getting results for their<br />

clients if they are sophisticated,<br />

managed by a legislative director<br />

familiar with the art of compromise, and<br />

play "political hardball". But if such<br />

lobbies became too big, such as large<br />

industrial trade organizations, they<br />

became harder to control, often leading<br />

to lackluster results. A study in 2001<br />

which compared lobbying activity in USstyle<br />

congressional against Europeanstyle<br />

parliamentary systems, found that<br />

in congressional systems there was an<br />

advantage favoring the "agendasetters",<br />

but that in both systems,<br />

"lobbying has a marked effect on<br />

policies". One report suggested that the<br />

1,000 registered lobbyists in California<br />

were highly influential such that they<br />

were called the Third House.<br />

Studies of lobbying by academics in<br />

previous decades painted a picture of<br />

lobbying being an ineffectual activity,<br />

although many of these studies were<br />

done before lobbying became prevalent<br />

in American politics. A study in 1963 by<br />

Bauer, Pool, & Dexter suggested<br />

lobbyists were mostly "impotent" in<br />

exerting influence. Studies in the early<br />

1990s suggested that lobbying exerted<br />

influence only "marginally", although it<br />

suggested that when lobbying activity<br />

did achieve political impacts, that the<br />

results of the political choices were<br />

sufficient to justify the expenditure on<br />

lobbying. A fairly recent study in 2009 is<br />

that Washington lobbies are "far less<br />

influential than political rhetoric<br />

suggests", and that most lobbying<br />

campaigns do not change any views<br />

and that there was a strong<br />

entrenchment of the status quo. But it<br />

depends on what is seen as "effective",<br />

since many lobbying battles result in a<br />

stalemate, since powerful interests<br />

battle, and in many cases, merely<br />

keeping the "status quo" could be seen<br />

as a victory of sorts. What happens<br />

often is that varying coalitions find<br />

themselves in "diametrical opposition to<br />

each other" and that stalemates result.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is anecdotal evidence from<br />

numerous newspaper accounts of<br />

different groups battling that lobbying<br />

activity usually achieves results. For<br />

example, the Obama administration<br />

pledged to stop for-profit colleges from<br />

"luring students with false promises", but<br />

with this threat, the lobbying industry<br />

sprang into action with a $16 million<br />

campaign, and their efforts succeeded<br />

in watering down the proposed<br />

restrictions.<br />

How did the lobbying campaign<br />

succeed? Actions taken included:<br />

1. Spent $16 million;<br />

2. Hired "all-star list" of prominent<br />

players including Democrats<br />

with White House ties;<br />

3. Plotted strategy;<br />

4. Worked with "fund-raising<br />

bundler" Jamie Rubin, a former<br />

Obama communications<br />

director;<br />

5. Won support from influential<br />

people<br />

including<br />

congressperson-turned-lobbyist<br />

Dick Gephardt, senator-turnedlobbyist<br />

John Breaux, lobbyist<br />

Tony Podesta, Washington Post<br />

CEO Donald E. Graham,<br />

education entrepreneur and<br />

University of Phoenix founder<br />

John Sperling, others;<br />

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6. Key leaders made "impassioned<br />

appeals";<br />

7. Mobilization effort produced<br />

90,000 public documents to the<br />

Education department<br />

advocating against changes.<br />

And sometimes merely keeping the<br />

status quo could be seen as a victory.<br />

When gridlock led to the supposed<br />

supercommittee solution, numerous<br />

lobbyists from all parts of the political<br />

spectrum worked hard, and a stalemate<br />

resulted, but with each side defended<br />

their own special interests. And while<br />

money is an important variable, it is one<br />

among many variables, and there have<br />

been instances in which huge sums<br />

have been spent on lobbying only to<br />

have the result backfire. One report<br />

suggested that the communications firm<br />

AT&T failed to achieve substantial<br />

results from its lobbying efforts in 2011,<br />

since government antitrust officials<br />

rejected its plan to acquire rival T-<br />

Mobile.<br />

Lobbying is a practical necessity for<br />

firms that "live and die" by government<br />

decisions, such as large government<br />

contractors such as Boeing. A study<br />

done in 2006 by Bloomberg News<br />

suggested that lobbying was a "sound<br />

money-making strategy" for the 20<br />

largest federal contractors. <strong>The</strong> largest<br />

contractor, Lockheed Martin<br />

Corporation, received almost $40 billion<br />

in federal contracts in 2003-4, and spent<br />

$16 million on lobbying expenses and<br />

campaign donations. For each dollar of<br />

lobbying investment, the firm received<br />

$2,517 in revenues, according to the<br />

report. When the lobbying firm Cassidy<br />

& Associates began achieving results<br />

with earmarks for colleges and<br />

universities and medical centers, new<br />

lobbying firms rose to compete with<br />

them to win "earmarks of their own", a<br />

clear sign that the lobbying was<br />

exceedingly effective.<br />

Controversy<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is general consensus that lobbying<br />

has been a significant corrupting influence<br />

in American politics, although criticism is<br />

not universal, and there have been<br />

arguments put forward to suggest that the<br />

system is working properly.<br />

Unfavorable Image<br />

Generally the image of lobbyists and<br />

lobbying in the public sphere is not a<br />

positive one, although this is not a universal<br />

sentiment. Lobbyists have been described<br />

as a "hired gun" without principles or<br />

positions. Scandals involving lobbying have<br />

helped taint the image of the profession,<br />

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such as ones involving Jack Abramoff, Randy "Duke" Cunningham, and Bob Ney and<br />

others, and which featured words such as "bribery", "lobbyist", "member of Congress"<br />

and "prison" tending to appear together in the same articles. Negative publicity can sully<br />

lobbying's image to a great extent: high-profile cases of lobbying fraud such as<br />

Abramoff's; dubious father-son exchange-of-favors ties; public officials such as Newt<br />

Gingrich being accused and then denying accusations of having done lobbying and<br />

earning $1.6 million from "strategic advice". <strong>The</strong>re are a variety of reasons why lobbying<br />

has acquired a negative image in public consciousness. While there is much disclosure,<br />

much of it happens in hard-to-disclose personal meetings, and the resulting secrecy and<br />

confidentiality can serve to lower lobbying's status.<br />

Revolving door<br />

Since the 1980s, congresspersons and staffers have been "going downtown"—<br />

becoming lobbyists—and the big draw is money. <strong>The</strong> "lucrative world of K Street"<br />

means that former congresspersons with even "modest seniority" can move into jobs<br />

paying $1 million or more annually, without including bonuses for bringing in new<br />

clients. <strong>The</strong> general concern of this revolving-door activity is that elected officials—<br />

persons who were supposed to represent the interests of citizens—have instead<br />

become entangled with the big-money interests of for-profit corporations and interest<br />

groups with narrow concerns, and that public officials have been taken over by private<br />

interests.<br />

In July 2005, Public Citizen published a report entitled "<strong>The</strong> Journey from<br />

Congress to K Street": the report analyzed hundreds of lobbyist registration<br />

documents filed in compliance with <strong>The</strong> Lobbying Disclosure Act and <strong>The</strong><br />

Foreign Agents Registration Act among other sources. It found that since<br />

1998, 43 percent of the 198 members of Congress who left government to join<br />

private life have registered to lobby. A similar report from the Center for Responsive<br />

Politics found 370 former members were in the "influence-peddling business", with 285<br />

officially registered as federal lobbyists, and 85 others who were described as providing<br />

"strategic advice" or "public relations" to corporate clients. <strong>The</strong> Washington Post<br />

described these results as reflecting the "sea [of] change that has occurred in<br />

lawmakers' attitudes toward lobbying in recent years." <strong>The</strong> report included a case study<br />

of one particularly successful lobbyist, Bob Livingston, who stepped down as Speakerelect<br />

and resigned his seat in 1999. In the six years since his resignation, <strong>The</strong><br />

Livingston Group grew into the 12th largest non-law lobbying firm, earning nearly $40<br />

million by the end of 2004. During roughly the same time period, Livingston, his wife,<br />

and his two political action committees (PACs) contributed over $500,000 to the<br />

campaign funds of various candidates.<br />

Numerous reports chronicle the revolving door phenomenon. A 2011 estimate<br />

suggested that nearly 5,400 former congressional staffers had become federal<br />

lobbyists over a ten-year period, and 400 lawmakers made a similar jump. It is a<br />

"symbiotic relationship" in the sense that lobbying firms can exploit the "experience and<br />

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connections gleaned from working inside the legislative process", and lawmakers find a<br />

"ready pool of experienced talent." <strong>The</strong>re is movement in the other direction as well: one<br />

report found that 605 former lobbyists had taken jobs working for lawmakers over a tenyear<br />

period. A study by the London School of Economics found 1,113 lobbyists who had<br />

formerly worked in lawmakers' offices. <strong>The</strong> lobbying option is a way for staffers and<br />

lawmakers to "cash in on their experience", according to one view. Before the 1980s,<br />

staffers and aides worked many years for congresspersons, sometimes decades, and<br />

tended to stay in their jobs; now, with the lure of higher-paying lobbying jobs, many<br />

would quit their posts after a few years at most to "go downtown."<br />

And it is not just staffers, but lawmakers as well, including high-profile ones such as<br />

congressperson Richard Gephardt. He represented a "working-class" district in<br />

Missouri for many years but after leaving Congress, he became a lobbyist. In<br />

2007, he began his own lobbying firm called "Gephardt Government Affairs<br />

Group" and in 2010 it was earning close to $7 million in revenues with clients<br />

including Goldman Sachs, Boeing, Visa Inc., Ameren Corporation, and Waste<br />

Management Inc.<br />

Senators Robert Bennett and Byron Dorgan became lobbyists too. Mississippi governor<br />

Haley Barbour became a lobbyist. In 2010, former representative Billy Tauzin earned<br />

$11 million running the drug industry's lobbying organization. called the Pharmaceutical<br />

Research and Manufacturers of America. Many former representatives earned over $1<br />

million in one year, including James Greenwood and Daniel Glickman.<br />

Insider's game<br />

A similar concern voiced by critics of lobbying is that Washington politics has become<br />

dominated by elites, and that it is an "insider's game" excluding regular citizens and<br />

which favors entrenched firms. Individuals generally can not afford to lobby, and critics<br />

question whether corporations with "deeper pockets" should have greater power than<br />

regular persons. In this view, the system favors the rich, such that the "rich have gotten<br />

richer, the weak weaker", admits lobbyist Gerald Cassidy. <strong>The</strong>re is concern that those<br />

having more money and better political connections can exert more influence than<br />

others. However, analyst Barry Hessenius made a case that the excessive for-profit<br />

lobbying could be counteracted if there were more efforts to increase nonprofit lobbying<br />

and boost their effectiveness. <strong>The</strong>re is so much money that it has been described as a<br />

"flood" that has a "corrupting influence", so that the United States appears to be<br />

"awash" in interest groups. If coalitions of different forces battle in the political arena for<br />

favorable treatment and better rules and tax breaks, it can be seen as fair if both sides<br />

have equal resources and try to fight for their interests as best they can. Gerald Cassidy<br />

said:<br />

In a lot of areas, the stakes are between big companies, and it's hard to argue that one solution<br />

is better than another solution with regard to the consumer's interest ... <strong>The</strong> issue ... is whether<br />

Company A's solution, or Company B's solution, based on their technology or their footprint, is<br />

the right one.<br />

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—Lobbyist Gerald Cassidy<br />

A related but slightly different criticism is that the problem with lobbying as it exists<br />

today is that it creates an "inequity of access to the decision-making process". As a<br />

result, important needs get left out of the political evaluation, such that there are no antihunger<br />

lobbies or lobbies seeking serious solutions to the problem of poverty. Nonprofit<br />

advocacy has been "conspicuously absent" from lobbying efforts, according to one<br />

view. Critics suggest that when a powerful coalition battles a less powerful one, or one<br />

which is poorly connected or underfunded, the result may be seen as unfair and<br />

potentially harmful for the entire society. <strong>The</strong> increasing number of former lawmakers<br />

becoming lobbyists has led Senator Russ Feingold (D-WI) to propose paring back the<br />

many Capitol Hill privileges enjoyed by former senators and representatives. His plan<br />

would deprive lawmakers-turned-lobbyists of privileges such as unfettered access to<br />

otherwise "members only" areas such as the House and Senate floors and the House<br />

gym.<br />

Reform<br />

Critics suggest that Congress has the<br />

power to fix itself, but is reluctant to<br />

sacrifice money and power. One report<br />

suggested that those in control had an<br />

"unbroken record of finding ways to<br />

navigate around reform laws or turn<br />

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egulatory standards to their own<br />

advantage."<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are counterarguments that the<br />

system is working as it should, despite<br />

being rather messy. According to this<br />

line of argument, the Madisonian view of<br />

politics—in which factions were<br />

supposed to compete with other<br />

factions—is working exactly as it should.<br />

Competing factions, or in this case,<br />

competing interest groups, square off.<br />

Battling happens within the federal<br />

government, but instead of by settling<br />

arguments by elections, arguments are<br />

settled by powerful interest groups<br />

fighting each other, often financially.<br />

And it might appear to members of<br />

groups which lost in a lobbying battle<br />

that the reason for their loss was that<br />

the other side lobbied unfairly using<br />

more money. <strong>The</strong>re are numerous<br />

instances in which opposed lobbies<br />

stalemate, and instances in which these<br />

stalemates have been seen as a<br />

positive result. And sometimes powerful<br />

financial interests lose the battle.<br />

Lobbying brings valuable information to<br />

policymakers, according to another<br />

argument in favor of lobbying. Since<br />

lobbyists often become highly<br />

knowledgeable about a specific issue by<br />

studying it in depth over years, they can<br />

bring considerable expertise to help<br />

legislators avoid errors as well as grasp<br />

the nuances of complex issues. This<br />

information can also help Congress<br />

oversee numerous federal agencies<br />

which often regulate complex industries<br />

and issue highly detailed and specific<br />

rulings. Accordingly, it is difficult for<br />

Congress to keep track of what these<br />

agencies do. It has been argued that<br />

lobbyists can help Congress monitor this<br />

activity by possibly raising "red flags"<br />

about proposed administrative rulings.<br />

Further, congresspersons can quickly<br />

gauge where they stand about a<br />

proposed administrative ruling simply by<br />

seeing which lobbying groups support<br />

the proposal, and which oppose it.<br />

Another argument in support of lobbying<br />

is that different interest groups and<br />

lobbyists, while trying to build coalitions<br />

and win support, often amend or soften<br />

or change their positions in this process,<br />

and that interest groups and lobbyists<br />

regulate each other, in a sense.<br />

But a more general sentiment<br />

supporting the lobbying arrangement is<br />

that every citizen can be construed as<br />

being "represented" by dozens of<br />

special interests:<br />

Every citizen is a special interest...<br />

Blacks, consumers, teachers, prochoicers,<br />

gun control advocates,<br />

handicapped people, aliens, exporters,<br />

and salesmen -- are all special interests...<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is not an American today who is not<br />

represented (whether he or she knows it<br />

or not) by at least a dozen special interest<br />

groups. ... One person's special interest is<br />

another person's despotism...<br />

—Donald E. deKieffer, <strong>The</strong> Citizen's<br />

Guide to Lobbying Congress, 2007<br />

If powerful groups such as the oil<br />

industry succeed in winning a battle in<br />

government, consumers who drive gaspowered<br />

cars stand to benefit a little bit,<br />

according to this view. Even readers of<br />

Wikipedia could be conceived as being<br />

a special interest and represented by<br />

various lobbies. For example,<br />

opponents of the Stop Online Piracy Act<br />

believed that the act might restrict sites<br />

such as Wikipedia; on January 18,<br />

2012, as a form of protest and as a way<br />

to encourage readers and contributors<br />

of Wikipedia to write their<br />

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congresspersons, the online<br />

encyclopedia was "blacked out for a day<br />

as part of an effort to lobby the<br />

government.<br />

Another view in support of lobbying is<br />

that it serves a helpful purpose as<br />

helping guard against extremism.<br />

According to this view, lobbying adds<br />

"built-in delays" and permits and<br />

encourages opposing lobbies to battle.<br />

In the battling, possibly damaging<br />

decrees and incorrect decisions are<br />

stymied by seemingly unhelpful delays<br />

and waits.<br />

A slightly different view is that lobbying<br />

is no different from other professions:<br />

Lobbying is no more perfect than is the practice<br />

of law or the practice of medicine.<br />

—Lobbyist Gerald S. J. Cassidy, 2007<br />

<strong>The</strong> Lobbying Disclosure Act<br />

<strong>The</strong> Lobbying and Disclosure Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. § 1601) was<br />

legislation aimed at bringing a level of accountability to federal lobbying<br />

practices in the United States. <strong>The</strong> law was amended substantially by<br />

the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007. Under<br />

provisions which took effect on January 1, 2006, lobbyists are required<br />

to register with the Clerk of the House of Representatives and the<br />

Secretary of the Senate. Anyone failing to do so is punishable by a civil<br />

fine of up to $50,000. <strong>The</strong> clerk and secretary must refer any acts of<br />

non-compliance to the United States Attorney for the District of Columbia.<br />

<strong>The</strong> LDA defines a number of provisions attempting to maintain a degree of<br />

transparency in the activities of lobbyists. <strong>The</strong> legislation defines a client as "any person<br />

or entity that employs or retains another person for financial or other compensation to<br />

conduct lobbying activities on behalf of that person or entity. A person or entity whose<br />

employees act as lobbyists on its own behalf is both a client and an employer of such<br />

employees". <strong>The</strong> legislation also includes lobbyists that are affected: "<strong>The</strong> term<br />

"lobbyist" means any individual who is employed or retained by a client for financial or<br />

other compensation for services that include more than one lobbying contact, other than<br />

an individual whose lobbying activities constitute less than 20 percent of the time<br />

engaged in the services provided by such individual to that client over a six-month<br />

period". Also included in the legislation are the definitions of what actions must be<br />

disclosed which includes lobbying to certain members of the Executive Branch who are<br />

included on specific payrolls. Also included are members of Congress.<br />

Loopholes<br />

<strong>The</strong> legislation does not include those lobbyists whose "activities constitute less than 20<br />

percent of the time engaged in services", thus failing to regulate grassroots (small<br />

donors) lobbying. <strong>The</strong> LDA includes a number of other "thresholds" that define what<br />

must be recorded. Any organization that contributes more than $10,000 towards<br />

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lobbying activities must also be registered. Amounts even slightly below this threshold<br />

are exempt from reporting. <strong>The</strong> outline for registration includes "name, address,<br />

business telephone number, and principal place of business of the registrant, and a<br />

general description of its business or activities", as well as for the client. <strong>The</strong> register<br />

must also include a statement of what issues the registrant expects to lobby or what<br />

may have already been lobbied.<br />

After recording, the records are maintained by the Clerk of the House and the Secretary<br />

of the Senate. Due to severe understaffing, these two offices are unable to check for<br />

illegal activities or corrupt practices, which is the most glaring shortcoming of the<br />

legislation.<br />

During a hearing before the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, Senator<br />

Christopher Dodd stated that “[s]".Θ< the Office of Public Records has referred over<br />

2,000 cases to the Department of Justice, and nothing’s been heard from them again”.<br />

Disclosure and Domestic Regulations<br />

Generally, the United States requires systematic disclosure of lobbying, and it may be<br />

one of the few countries to have such extensive requirements. Disclosure in one sense<br />

allows lobbyists and public officials to justify their actions under the banner of openness<br />

and with full compliance of the law. <strong>The</strong> rules often specify how much a lobbyist can<br />

spend on specific activities, and how to report expenses; many of the laws and<br />

guidelines are specified in the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995. Transparency and<br />

disclosure requirements mean that there are volumes of statistics available for all kinds<br />

of analyses—by journalists, by the public, by rival lobbying efforts. Researchers can<br />

subdivide lobbying expenditures by numerous breakdowns, such as by contributions<br />

from energy companies.<br />

Sometimes defining clearly who is a "lobbyist" and what precisely are lobbying activities<br />

can be difficult. According to the Lobbying Disclosure Act, several authorized definitions<br />

include:<br />

• Lobbying activities means "lobbying contacts and efforts in support of such<br />

contacts, including preparation and planning activities, research and other<br />

background work that is intended, at the time it is performed, for use in contacts,<br />

and coordination with the lobbying activities of others."<br />

• Lobbying contact means "any oral or written communication (including an<br />

electronic communication) to a covered executive branch official or a covered<br />

legislative branch official".<br />

Still, distinguishing lobbyists from a strategic adviser can be difficult, since the duties of<br />

each can often overlap and are hard to define precisely. <strong>The</strong>re have been issues raised<br />

about what constitutes the difference between a lobbyist and a bundler; one report<br />

described bundlers as "supporters who contribute their own money to his campaign and<br />

solicit it from others", and there was a question whether such persons were really<br />

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lobbyists involved with raising campaign monies for the election of Barack Obama, and<br />

whether Obama had broken his own pledge not to receive money from lobbyists. <strong>The</strong><br />

legal ramifications of lobbying are further intertangled with aspects of campaign finance<br />

reform, since lobbyists often spend time seeking donations for the reelection efforts of<br />

congresspersons; sorting out these issues can pose ethical challenges.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are numerous regulations governing the practice of lobbying, often ones requiring<br />

transparency and disclosure. People paid to lobby must register with the secretary of<br />

the Senate and the clerk of the House of Representatives within 45 days of contacting a<br />

legislator for the first time, or 45 days after being employed. An exception is that<br />

lobbyists who earn less than $3,000 per client for each fiscal quarter, or whose total<br />

lobbying expenses are less than $11,500 each quarter, do not need to register. Parttime<br />

lobbyists are exempt from registering unless they spend more than 20% of their<br />

working hours doing lobbying activities in any quarter. If lobbyists have two or more<br />

contacts with a legislator as a lobbyist, then they must register. Requirements for<br />

registering also apply to companies that specialize in lobbying, or ones that have an inhouse<br />

lobbyist, particularly if they spend more than $11,500 on lobbying. Generally,<br />

nonprofit organizations, other than churches, are exempt from registering if they hire an<br />

outside lobbying firm. Filing must be made each quarter, and a separate file is needed<br />

for each of the lobbyist's clients, and include information such as the name and title of<br />

the client, an estimate of lobbying expenses, and an estimate of income the lobbyist<br />

achieved after doing the lobbying.<br />

States, in addition, are moving in the direction of greater disclosure and transparency<br />

regarding lobbying activities. California has an online database called Cal-Access<br />

although there were reports that it has been underfunded. Money collected from<br />

registration fees are often used to pay for the disclosure services such as Cal-Access.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re were complaints in Illinois that the disclosure requirements were often not<br />

rigorous enough and allowed lobbyists to work "without public notice" and with possible<br />

"conflicts of interest". Many local municipalities are requiring legislative agents register<br />

as lobbyists to represent the interests of clients to local city council members such as in<br />

the swing state of Ohio cities such as Columbus and Cincinnati.<br />

Laws requiring disclosure have been more prevalent in the twentieth century. In 1946,<br />

there was a so-called "sunshine law" requiring lobbyists to disclose what they were<br />

doing, on whose behalf, and how much they received in payment. <strong>The</strong> resulting Federal<br />

Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946 governed lobbying rules up until 1995 when the<br />

Lobbying Disclosure Act replaced it. <strong>The</strong> Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, later<br />

amended in 2002 as the McCain Feingold Act, had rules governing campaign<br />

contributions. Each branch of Congress has rules as well. Legislation generally requires<br />

reports containing an accounting of major expenditures as well as legislation that was<br />

influenced; the wording of some of the pertinent laws can be found in 2 U.S.C. ch. 26.<br />

Lobbying law is a constantly evolving field; the American Bar Association published a<br />

book of guidelines in 2009 with over 800 pages. <strong>The</strong> laws are often rather specific, and<br />

when not observed, can lead to serious trouble. Failing to file a quarterly report, or<br />

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knowingly filing an incorrect report, or failing to correct an incorrect report, can lead to<br />

fines up to $200,000 and imprisonment up to five years. Penalties can apply to lobbyists<br />

who fail to list gifts made to a legislator. In other situations, the punishment can be light:<br />

for example, Congressional aide-turned-lobbyist Fraser Verrusio spent a few hours in<br />

jail after pleading guilty to report taking a client to a World Series baseball game and<br />

failing to report it. Tax rules can apply to lobbying. In one situation, the charity Hawaii<br />

Family Forum risked losing its tax-exempt status after it had engaged in lobbying<br />

activity; federal tax law requires charities such as that one to limit their lobbying to 20%<br />

of their overall expenditures or else be eligible for being taxed like a for-profit<br />

corporation.<br />

Lobbyists sometimes support rules requiring greater transparency and disclosure:<br />

Our profession is at a critical point where we can either embrace the constructive changes and<br />

reforms by Congress or we can seek out loopholes and continue the slippery slide into history<br />

along side the ranks of snake oil salesmen.<br />

—Lobbyist Gerald S. J. Cassidy, 2007<br />

Scandals can spur impetus towards greater regulation as well. <strong>The</strong> Jack Abramoff<br />

Indian lobbying scandal, which started in the 1990s and led to a guilt plea in 2006,<br />

inspired the 'Legislative Transparency and Accountability Act of 2006' (S. 2349).<br />

According to Time Magazine the Senate bill:<br />

1. barred lobbyists themselves from buying gifts and meals for legislators, but left a<br />

loophole in which firms and organizations represented by those lobbyists could<br />

still dole out gifts and perks;<br />

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2. allowed privately funded trips if lawmakers got prior approval from a<br />

commissioned ethics committee;<br />

3. required lobbyists to file frequent and detailed activity reports and have them<br />

posted publicly. <strong>The</strong> bill was approved in 2006 by a 90-8 vote.<br />

In 1995, the 104th Congress tried to reform Lobbying by passing the Lobbying<br />

Disclosure Act of 1995 which defines and requires lobbyists who are compensated for<br />

their actions to register with congressional officials. <strong>The</strong> legislation was later amended<br />

by the Lobbying Disclosure Technical Amendments Act of 1998. <strong>The</strong>re were<br />

subsequent modifications leading to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act<br />

of 2007. <strong>The</strong> Lobbying Transparency and Accountability Act of 2006 (H.R. 4975)<br />

legislation modified Senate rules, although some senators and a coalition of goodgovernment<br />

groups assailed the bill as being too weak. <strong>The</strong> Honest Leadership and<br />

Open Government Act of 2007 was a comprehensive ethics and lobbying reform bill,<br />

(H.R. 2316), which passed in 2007 in the House and Congress by a large majority. A<br />

parallel Senate version of the legislation, (S. 1), passed in 2007 by a nearly unanimous<br />

vote. After the House & Senate resolved their differences and passed an amended<br />

revision, President Bush signed the enrolled bill into law (Pub.L. 110–81).<br />

Some states have considered banning government employees permanently from<br />

lobbying on issues they had worked on. For example, there was a proposal along these<br />

lines to prevent county employees in Maryland from ever lobbying on issues they had<br />

worked on. <strong>The</strong> proposal insisted that county officials post financial disclosures as well<br />

as prohibit gifts from contractors.<br />

Jack Abramoff, emerging from prison, has spoken publicly about lobbying. In his view,<br />

regulations designed to rein in the excesses of lobbying have not been effective, and<br />

that reforms and regulations have not cleaned up the system "at all". Abramoff said<br />

lobbyists could "find a way around just about any reform Congress enacted", and gave<br />

an example:<br />

You can't take a congressman to lunch for $25 and buy him a hamburger or a steak or<br />

something like that ... But you can take him to a fund-raising lunch and not only buy him that<br />

steak, but give him $25,000 extra and call it a fund-raiser -- and have all the same access and<br />

all the same interactions with that congressman.<br />

—Jack Abramoff, commenting on 60 Minutes, according to CNN<br />

A similar view suggested that lobbying reform efforts have been "fought tooth and nail to<br />

prevent its passage" since the people with the power to reform would curtail their own<br />

powers and income flows.<br />

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US v. Harriss<br />

347 U.S. 612 (1954)<br />

United States v. Harriss, 347 U.S. 612 (1954), was a U.S. Supreme Court case<br />

applied directly to the Regulation of Lobbying Act.<br />

Lobbyists challenged the Regulation of Lobbying Act for being unconstitutionally vague<br />

and unclear. In Harriss, the Supreme Court responded by upholding the act's<br />

constitutionality, but also by narrowing the scope and application of the act.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Court ruled that the act applies only to paid lobbyists who directly communicate<br />

with members of Congress on pending or proposed federal legislation. This means that<br />

lobbyists who visit with congressional staff members rather than members of Congress<br />

themselves are not considered lobbyists. In addition, the act covers only attempts to<br />

influence the passage or defeat of legislation in Congress, and excludes other<br />

congressional activities. Further, the act applies to and restricts only individuals who<br />

spend at least half of their time lobbying.<br />

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…<br />

Page 78 of 183

VI. Critical Thinking<br />

for Transformative Social Impact<br />

Paradigm Shifting<br />

and Change Management<br />

Critical Thinking<br />

Disciplined thinking that is clear, rational,<br />

open-minded, and informed by evidence.<br />

- Dictionary.com<br />

________<br />

<strong>The</strong> National Council for Excellence in<br />

Critical Thinking defines it as the<br />

intellectually disciplined process of actively<br />

and skillfully conceptualizing, applying,<br />

analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating<br />

information gathered from, or generated by,<br />

observation, experience, reflection,<br />

reasoning, or communication, as a guide to<br />

belief and action.<br />

Critical thinking is a rich concept that has<br />

been developing throughout the past 2500<br />

years. <strong>The</strong> term "Critical Thinking" has its<br />

roots in the mid-late 20th century. [<strong>The</strong>re<br />

are] overlapping definitions [that] form a<br />

substantive, trans-disciplinary conception of<br />

critical thinking.<br />

Critical Thinking as Defined by<br />

<strong>The</strong> National Council for Excellence in<br />

Critical Thinking (1987)<br />

A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual<br />

International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform (Summer 1987)<br />

Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully<br />

conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information<br />

gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or<br />

communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on<br />

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universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy,<br />

precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and<br />

fairness.<br />

It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all<br />

reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical<br />

grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences;<br />

objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of reference.<br />

Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and<br />

purposes — is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them:<br />

scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking,<br />

economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking.<br />

Critical thinking can be seen as having two components:<br />

1. A set of information and belief generating and processing skills, and<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide<br />

behavior.<br />

It is thus to be contrasted with:<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> mere acquisition and retention of information alone, because it involves a<br />

particular way in which information is sought and treated;<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> mere possession of a set of skills, because it involves the continual use of them;<br />

and<br />

3. <strong>The</strong> mere use of those skills ("as an exercise") without acceptance of their results.<br />

Critical thinking varies according to the motivation underlying it. When grounded in<br />

selfish motives, it is often manifested in the skillful manipulation of ideas in service of<br />

one’s own, or one's groups’, vested interest. As such it is typically intellectually flawed,<br />

however pragmatically successful it might be. When grounded in fair-mindedness and<br />

intellectual integrity, it is typically of a higher order intellectually, though subject to the<br />

charge of "idealism" by those habituated to its selfish use.<br />

Critical thinking of any kind is never universal in any individual; everyone is subject to<br />

episodes of undisciplined or irrational thought. Its quality is therefore typically a matter<br />

of degree and dependent on, among other things, the quality and depth of experience in<br />

a given domain of thinking or with respect to a particular class of questions. No one is a<br />

critical thinker through-and-through, but only to such-and-such a degree, with<br />

such-and-such insights and blind spots, subject to such-and-such tendencies<br />

towards self-delusion.<br />

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For this reason, the development of critical thinking skills and dispositions is a life-long<br />

endeavor.<br />

Another Brief Conceptualization of Critical Thinking<br />

Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the<br />

highest level of quality in a fair-minded way.<br />

People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathically.<br />

<strong>The</strong>y are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left<br />

unchecked. <strong>The</strong>y strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric<br />

tendencies. <strong>The</strong>y use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers – concepts and<br />

principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve thinking. <strong>The</strong>y work<br />

diligently to develop the intellectual virtues of intellectual integrity, intellectual humility,<br />

intellectual civility, intellectual empathy, intellectual sense of justice and confidence in<br />

reason. <strong>The</strong>y realize that no matter how skilled they are as thinkers, they can always<br />

improve their reasoning abilities and they will at times fall prey to mistakes in reasoning,<br />

human irrationality, prejudices, biases, distortions, uncritically accepted social rules and<br />

taboos, self-interest, and vested interest. <strong>The</strong>y strive to improve the world in whatever<br />

ways they can and contribute to a more rational, civilized society. At the same time,<br />

they recognize the complexities often inherent in doing so. <strong>The</strong>y avoid thinking<br />

simplistically about complicated issues and strive to appropriately consider the rights and<br />

needs of relevant others. <strong>The</strong>y recognize the complexities in developing as thinkers,<br />

and commit themselves to life-long practice toward self-improvement. <strong>The</strong>y embody the<br />

Socratic principle: <strong>The</strong> unexamined life is not worth living , because they realize that<br />

many unexamined lives together result in an uncritical, unjust, dangerous world.<br />

Why Critical Thinking?<br />

<strong>The</strong> Problem<br />

- Linda Elder, September, 2007<br />

Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is<br />

biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life<br />

and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our<br />

thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in<br />

thought, however, must be systematically cultivated.<br />

A Definition<br />

Critical thinking is that mode of thinking - about any subject, content, or problem - in<br />

which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of<br />

the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Result<br />

A well cultivated critical thinker:<br />

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• Raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely;<br />

• Gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it<br />

effectively comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them<br />

against relevant criteria and standards;<br />

• Thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and<br />

• Assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical<br />

consequences; and<br />

• Communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex<br />

problems.<br />

Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and selfcorrective<br />

thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and<br />

mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem solving<br />

abilities and a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.<br />

- Richard Paul and Linda Elder: <strong>The</strong> Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and<br />

Tools<br />

Foundation for Critical Thinking Press, 2008<br />

Critical Thinking Defined<br />

by Edward Glaser<br />

In a seminal study on critical thinking and education in 1941, Edward Glaser defines<br />

critical thinking as follows “<strong>The</strong> ability to think critically, as conceived in this volume,<br />

involves three things:<br />

1. An attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and<br />

subjects that come within the range of one's experiences;<br />

2. Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning; and<br />

3. Some skill in applying those methods.<br />

Critical thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of<br />

knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to<br />

which it tends. It also generally requires ability to recognize problems, to find workable<br />

means for meeting those problems, to gather and marshal pertinent information, to<br />

recognize unstated assumptions and values, to comprehend and use language with<br />

accuracy, clarity, and discrimination, to interpret data, to appraise evidence and<br />

evaluate arguments, to recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical<br />

relationships between propositions, to draw warranted conclusions and generalizations,<br />

to put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives, to reconstruct<br />

Page 82 of 183

one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience, and to render accurate<br />

judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life.<br />

- Edward M. Glaser, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking,<br />

Teacher’s College, Columbia University, 1941)<br />

________<br />

Inner-Cities Strategic<br />

Revitalization Planning<br />

Revitalization<br />

Neighborhood Revitalization starts at the<br />

grassroots level — with people in the<br />

community determining the goals for their<br />

neighborhood.<br />

______<br />

It is defined as the process of making<br />

something grow, develop, or become<br />

successful again (e.g. A new indoor<br />

sports arena has played a key role in the<br />

revitalization of its neighborhood).<br />

- Cambridge Dictionaries Online<br />

“Neighborhood Revitalization is the<br />

way of the future and is an essential<br />

element of [our] work. By focusing on<br />

entire neighborhoods, we can greatly<br />

increase our impact.”<br />

— Jonathan Reckford, CEO,<br />

Habitat for Humanity International<br />

Revitalization of Our Inner-Cities Can Transform Our Culture<br />

- by Scruffus<br />

“It is only when the basic needs are met that culture can thrive. Revitalization of our<br />

inner-cities is the innovation that will allow for maximum cultural growth in this country.<br />

Making sure that all Americans have access to opportunity and technology will ensure<br />

future generations of city dwellers do not live in poverty. By investing in these areas,<br />

developers and businesses are investing in the base of this country. Music, art and the<br />

sciences require a healthy, vibrant, and supportive community and the work being done<br />

to rebuild our inner cities is essential to our culture[s] as a whole.”<br />

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Spanning the Delaware River, the “Trenton Makes” Bridge in giant neon red letters<br />

proclaims to all, "Trenton Makes, <strong>The</strong> World Takes.". Hearkening back to the time<br />

when Trenton was a center of manufacture, these days the sign seems a bit of an<br />

anachronism. Trenton and many other American cities have decayed to the point that<br />

they are shells of their former selves. Businesses and people slowly disappeared from<br />

American cities over the decades since the sixties. No longer centers of thriving<br />

industry, they are now crime-ridden, politically corrupt, and decaying. Despite this, cities<br />

are now the focus of revitalization efforts. If done properly, revitalization can be a way to<br />

alleviate the poverty and crime suffered in many American inner cities. Revitalization is<br />

a recent innovation that takes advantage of the existing enterprise and infrastructure in<br />

cities and tries to bring value back to the community there. Efforts to revitalize cities<br />

meet with varied success.<br />

It is important to elevate the standard of living for the existing community, not<br />

just shove it aside in the pursuit of a gentrified city. Giving the existing people a<br />

chance at independence raises the standard of living for all residents in the city<br />

and preserves the rich heritage and character of the city.<br />

In the effort to attract people back to the cities, revitalization increases the<br />

independence of all Americans, utilizes existing infrastructure, and encourages cultural<br />

growth.<br />

One cannot speak of a city's and a people's<br />

independence without speaking of their economic<br />

independence. <strong>The</strong> ability of people to obtain jobs<br />

and meet their basic needs is a huge determinant<br />

of how well that people's culture will flourish. It is<br />

difficult to pursue the arts or education if one is<br />

impoverished. <strong>The</strong> rebuilding of inner cities can<br />

raise the quality of life for many Americans by<br />

bringing businesses that provide jobs and<br />

opportunity back to the cities. Also, a city that has<br />

a thriving business community has a healthy tax<br />

base to support its public education system. <strong>The</strong><br />

public school is an integral part of revitalization.<br />

Providing students with a high-quality, technologybased<br />

education prepares them to become<br />

successful, contributing citizens. Inner city school<br />

systems are notorious for their high dropout rates<br />

and general difficulty in producing good students.<br />

By revitalizing inner cities, parents are given<br />

access to jobs and can provide a better home environment for their children.<br />

<strong>The</strong> use of existing infrastructure in revitalization efforts reduces suburban sprawl.<br />

Areas that were long ago developed for housing and business are made attractive<br />

through remodeling, which is less costly and environmentally destructive than building<br />

new homes in the suburbs. Encouraging city living also encourages use of mass transit<br />

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systems, decreasing reliance on the automobile. Our current culture is very much<br />

entwined with the automobile. Reduction of our reliance on automobiles is beneficial in<br />

reducing pollutants. Additionally, inner cities have often been characterized as food<br />

deserts, where nutritious, low-cost food is difficult to find because large supermarkets<br />

refuse to build there. Hopefully with the influx of jobs and money to the cities,<br />

supermarkets will follow. Bringing new life to cities will definitely improve the options<br />

available to all residents there.<br />

Cities are where culture, technology and the arts can flourish. <strong>The</strong> exchange of ideas<br />

and open-mindedness to these ideas occurs because of the cosmopolitan nature of<br />

cities. By renewing interest in our cities, we can create dynamic centers of innovation<br />

and technology that are not found in our suburbs. Suburban living has long been cliched<br />

to have sapped the creativity and vitality from our society. <strong>The</strong>re is a grain of truth to<br />

this. Suburbanites often do not meet their neighbors and spend a great deal of time<br />

driving to their destinations. Urban areas, by design, force people to interact with their<br />

surroundings. It is this interaction that allows the acceptance of new ideas that build up<br />

culture.<br />

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Page 86 of 183

VII. Ongoing Seminars<br />

and <strong>Workshop</strong>s<br />

<strong>The</strong> Transformative Justice Project<br />

1. Building Resilient Youth – A Multidisciplinary Approach<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> BRY-AMA PowerPoint<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> All-Sports Ministries of …<br />

3. <strong>The</strong> Community Engagement Strategy<br />

4. Critical Thinking for Transformative Justice<br />

5. <strong>The</strong> Economic Impact of Social Programs Development<br />

6. Culturally Relevant Programming<br />

7. Inner-Cities Strategic Revitalization Planning<br />

8. Train Police Friendly<br />

9. Strategic Housing Revitalization<br />

10. Solutions for Homelessness<br />

11. Financial Literacy<br />

12. Concentrated Poverty<br />

13. <strong>The</strong> Effects of De-Industrialization in the US<br />

14. <strong>The</strong> Jobs Training, Educational Redevelopment & Economic Emancipation<br />

<strong>Initiative</strong><br />

15. <strong>The</strong> Second Chance Project<br />

16. <strong>The</strong> Mental Health Group<br />

17. <strong>The</strong> Opioid Crisis in America Series<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation Opioid <strong>Initiative</strong> Partnership (Working Binder)<br />

2. Evidence-Based Solutions at <strong>The</strong> Grassroots Level<br />

3. <strong>The</strong> Drug Culture in <strong>The</strong> US<br />

4. Drug Abuse Among Veterans<br />

5. Drug Abuse Among America’s Teens<br />

6. Alcoholism<br />

7. <strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of Opioid Addiction in America<br />

18. <strong>The</strong> 21st Century Charter Schools <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

19. <strong>The</strong> Adversity/ Advantage Series:<br />

a) <strong>The</strong> Gift of Adversity<br />

b) Overcoming Dyslexia<br />

c) <strong>The</strong> Gift of Hypersensitivity<br />

d) <strong>The</strong> Advantages of An Attention Deficit<br />

e) <strong>The</strong> Gift of Introspection<br />

f) <strong>The</strong> Gift of Introversion<br />

Page 87 of 183

g) <strong>The</strong> Gift of Spirituality<br />

h) <strong>The</strong> Gift of Transformation<br />

20. <strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of Homelessness in America<br />

21. Cultural Transformation<br />

22. Gentrification<br />

23. Environmental Racism<br />

24. Generational Progression<br />

25. Predatory Lending<br />

26. Hidden Unemployment<br />

27. Slavery in <strong>The</strong> 21st Century<br />

28. Debt Reduction & Debt Relief<br />

29. <strong>The</strong> Uniform Code of Military Justice<br />

30. Wills, Trusts and Estates<br />

<strong>The</strong> ComeUnity ReEngineering Project<br />

1. C.I.A. (Community Intelligence & Application)<br />

1. Know Now Technologies<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> Regional Education Training and Resource Complex (RETRC)<br />

3. <strong>The</strong> ComeUnity Bridge<br />

4. <strong>The</strong> Triangular Resolution Model<br />

5. F.A.C.E. (Fiduciary Accountability assuring the Capacity to perform Efficiently)<br />

6. <strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation Balanced Home Mortgage <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

7. ComeUnity Capacity-Building<br />

<strong>The</strong> Nonprofit Advisors Group<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> 501(c)(3) Acquisition Process<br />

2. Staff & Management Leadership ReEngineering (Change Management)<br />

3. Organizational & Professional Development<br />

4. <strong>The</strong> Economic Empowerment Emancipation Project<br />

5. Evidence-Based Programs Development<br />

6. <strong>The</strong> Inner Circle<br />

7. <strong>The</strong> Board of Directors<br />

8. <strong>The</strong> Advisory Council<br />

9. Strategic Planning<br />

10. Budgeting<br />

11. Fundraising<br />

a) <strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation Endowments <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

b) CROWDFUNDING (for Nonprofits)<br />

c) <strong>The</strong> US Stock Market<br />

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d) Mass Media for Nonprofits<br />

e) Social Media for Nonprofits<br />

f) UBIT Sustainability <strong>Initiative</strong>s<br />

12. Social Entrepreneurship<br />

13. Social Impact Investing<br />

14. Data-Driven Resource Allocation<br />

15. Nonprofit Confidentiality In <strong>The</strong> Age of Big Data)<br />

16. Community Collaboration<br />

17. Culturally-Relevant Programming<br />

18. Evidence-Based Criteria Training<br />

a) Evidence-Based Programming<br />

b) Evidence-Based Program Application Processing<br />

19. Social Media Development (for Nonprofits)<br />

20. Structuring Subsidiary Entities<br />

21. Social Equity Planning<br />

22. Succession Planning<br />

23. Property Acquisition for Organizational Sustainability<br />

24. Investing for Organizational Sustainability<br />

25. <strong>The</strong> Nonprofit Incubator: for Transformative Social Impact<br />

26. Accountability<br />

27. Nonprofit Transparency<br />

28. Nonprofit Organizational Assessment<br />

29. Organizational Dysfunction<br />

30. <strong>The</strong> Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002<br />

31. Nonprofit Marketing<br />

32. Community Policing<br />

<strong>The</strong> Adolescent Law Group<br />

1. Representation of Juveniles<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> Juvenile Justice Legislative Reform <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

3. <strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of Legal Decision-Making<br />

4. <strong>The</strong> Landmark Cases In US Juvenile Justice<br />

a. Pennsylvania<br />

b. New Jersey<br />

c. Georgia<br />

5. Unjust Legal Reasoning<br />

6. Opportunity (Disenfranchised) Youth<br />

7. Interpreting the Facts – Blame Remover<br />

8. <strong>The</strong> First Amendment Project<br />

9. <strong>The</strong> Second Amendment Project (Gun Control)<br />

10. <strong>The</strong> Fourth Amendment Project<br />

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11. <strong>The</strong> Sixth Amendment Project (Right to Competent Counsel)<br />

12. <strong>The</strong> Eighth Amendment Project (Cruel and Unusual Punishment)<br />

13. Literacy-Based Prison Construction<br />

14. Children of Incarcerated Parents<br />

15. African-American Youth in <strong>The</strong> Juvenile Justice System<br />

16. Latino and Hispanic Youth in <strong>The</strong> Juvenile Justice System<br />

17. Native-American Youth in <strong>The</strong> Juvenile Justice System<br />

18. Racial Profiling<br />

19. Prison-Based Gerrymandering<br />

20. Gang Deconstruction<br />

21. Expungements & Pardons<br />

22. Barriers to Reducing Confinement<br />

23. ReEngineering Juvenile Justice<br />

24. Lobbying for Nonprofits<br />

25. Judicial ReEngineering<br />

26. Alternative Legal Solutions<br />

27. Law for <strong>The</strong> Poor<br />

28. Case Law, Statutory Law, Municipal Ordinances & Policy<br />

29. Organized Crime In <strong>The</strong> New Millennium<br />

30. Judicial Mistakes<br />

<strong>The</strong> Collaborative US/ International<br />

1. Caribbean Direct Investing<br />

a. <strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation Coalition for Drug-Free Communities<br />

b. <strong>The</strong> EB-5 Investors Immigration Project<br />

c. International Labor Relations<br />

d. Collaborative Economics and Leveraging<br />

e. Mass Collaboration<br />

2. <strong>The</strong> NuVision Consulting Group<br />

3. Institutional Racism<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Law Firm Academy<br />

1. <strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Foundations of US Law & Government<br />

2. God’s Will and <strong>The</strong> 21st Century Democratic Process<br />

3. <strong>The</strong> Diversity of <strong>The</strong>ology<br />

4. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> Model Criminal Code<br />

5. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> ABA’s Tort Reform Model<br />

6. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> ABA’s Contracts Reform <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

7. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> ABA’s Property Law Review<br />

8. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> United States Constitution<br />

9. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application for Juvenile Justice Reform<br />

10. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application for Tort Reform<br />

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11. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to Contemporary Legal Process<br />

12. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> Uniform Commercial Code<br />

13. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> Law of Property<br />

14. <strong>The</strong> Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> Canons of Ethics<br />

15. Biblical Law and Justice<br />

16. Biblically Responsible Investing<br />

17. Spiritual Rights<br />

18. Acquiesce to Righteousness<br />

19. <strong>The</strong> Ripple Effects of Ministry<br />

Legal Missions International<br />

1. Domestic<br />

2. Foreign<br />

3. International Law & Justice<br />

4. International Criminal Procedure<br />

5. <strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ology of Missions<br />

6. International Legal Evangelism: Intelligence, Reconnaissance & Missions<br />

7. <strong>The</strong> Law of War<br />

8. Conflicts to Watch in <strong>The</strong> New Millennium<br />

9. International Hotspots<br />

10. International Cyber Terrorism<br />

11. Brexit<br />

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Notes<br />

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Attachment A<br />

Why All Churches<br />

Should Be A <strong>508</strong>(c)(1)(a)<br />

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Attachment B<br />

IRS Tax Guide for Churches &<br />

Religious Organizations<br />

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Attachment C<br />

Lobbying Rules for Houses of Worship<br />

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Advocacy Foundation Publishers<br />

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Advocacy Foundation Publishers<br />

<strong>The</strong> e-Advocate Quarterly<br />

Page 159 of 183

Issue Title Quarterly<br />

Vol. I 2015 <strong>The</strong> Fundamentals<br />

I<br />

<strong>The</strong> ComeUnity ReEngineering<br />

Project <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

Q-1 2015<br />

II <strong>The</strong> Adolescent Law Group Q-2 2015<br />

III<br />

Landmark Cases in US<br />

Juvenile Justice (PA)<br />

Q-3 2015<br />

IV <strong>The</strong> First Amendment Project Q-4 2015<br />

Vol. II 2016 Strategic Development<br />

V <strong>The</strong> Fourth Amendment Project Q-1 2016<br />

VI<br />

Landmark Cases in US<br />

Juvenile Justice (NJ)<br />

Q-2 2016<br />

VII Youth Court Q-3 2016<br />

VIII<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of Legal<br />

Decision-Making<br />

Q-4 2016<br />

Vol. III 2017 Sustainability<br />

IX <strong>The</strong> Sixth Amendment Project Q-1 2017<br />

X<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Foundations of<br />

US Law & Government<br />

Q-2 2017<br />

XI <strong>The</strong> Eighth Amendment Project Q-3 2017<br />

XII<br />

<strong>The</strong> EB-5 Investor<br />

Immigration Project*<br />

Q-4 2017<br />

Vol. IV 2018 Collaboration<br />

XIII Strategic Planning Q-1 2018<br />

XIV<br />

<strong>The</strong> Juvenile Justice<br />

Legislative Reform <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

Q-2 2018<br />

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XV<br />

XVI<br />

<strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation Coalition<br />

for Drug-Free Communities<br />

Landmark Cases in US<br />

Juvenile Justice (GA)<br />

Q-3 2018<br />

Q-4 2018<br />

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Issue Title Quarterly<br />

Vol. V 2019 Organizational Development<br />

XVII <strong>The</strong> Board of Directors Q-1 2019<br />

XVIII <strong>The</strong> Inner Circle Q-2 2019<br />

XIX Staff & Management Q-3 2019<br />

XX Succession Planning Q-4 2019<br />

XXI <strong>The</strong> Budget* Bonus #1<br />

XXII Data-Driven Resource Allocation* Bonus #2<br />

Vol. VI 2020 Missions<br />

XXIII Critical Thinking Q-1 2020<br />

XXIV<br />

<strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation<br />

Endowments <strong>Initiative</strong> Project<br />

Q-2 2020<br />

XXV International Labor Relations Q-3 2020<br />

XXVI Immigration Q-4 2020<br />

Vol. VII 2021 Community Engagement<br />

XXVII<br />

<strong>The</strong> 21 st Century Charter Schools<br />

<strong>Initiative</strong><br />

Q-1 2021<br />

XXVIII <strong>The</strong> All-Sports Ministry @ ... Q-2 2021<br />

XXIX Lobbying for Nonprofits Q-3 2021<br />

XXX<br />

XXXI<br />

Advocacy Foundation Missions -<br />

Domestic<br />

Advocacy Foundation Missions -<br />

International<br />

Q-4 2021<br />

Bonus<br />

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Vol. VIII<br />

2022 ComeUnity ReEngineering<br />

XXXII<br />

<strong>The</strong> Creative & Fine Arts Ministry<br />

@ <strong>The</strong> Foundation<br />

Q-1 2022<br />

XXXIII <strong>The</strong> Advisory Council & Committees Q-2 2022<br />

XXXIV<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Origins<br />

of Contemporary Judicial Process<br />

Q-3 2022<br />

XXXV <strong>The</strong> Second Chance Ministry @ ... Q-4 2022<br />

Vol. IX 2023 Legal Reformation<br />

XXXVI <strong>The</strong> Fifth Amendment Project Q-1 2023<br />

XXXVII <strong>The</strong> Judicial Re-Engineering <strong>Initiative</strong> Q-2 2023<br />


<strong>The</strong> Inner-Cities Strategic<br />

Revitalization <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

Q-3 2023<br />

XXXVIX Habeas Corpus Q-4 2023<br />

Vol. X 2024 ComeUnity Development<br />

XXXVX<br />

<strong>The</strong> Inner-City Strategic<br />

Revitalization Plan<br />

Q-1 2024<br />

XXXVXI <strong>The</strong> Mentoring <strong>Initiative</strong> Q-2 2024<br />

XXXVXII <strong>The</strong> Violence Prevention Framework Q-3 2024<br />

XXXVXIII <strong>The</strong> Fatherhood <strong>Initiative</strong> Q-4 2024<br />

Vol. XI 2025 Public Interest<br />

XXXVXIV Public Interest Law Q-1 2025<br />

L (50) Spiritual Resource Development Q-2 2025<br />

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LI<br />

Nonprofit Confidentiality<br />

In <strong>The</strong> Age of Big Data<br />

Q-3 2025<br />

LII Interpreting <strong>The</strong> Facts Q-4 2025<br />

Vol. XII 2026 Poverty In America<br />

LIII<br />

American Poverty<br />

In <strong>The</strong> New Millennium<br />

Q-1 2026<br />

LIV Outcome-Based Thinking Q-2 2026<br />

LV Transformational Social Leadership Q-3 2026<br />

LVI <strong>The</strong> Cycle of Poverty Q-4 2026<br />

Vol. XIII 2027 Raising Awareness<br />

LVII ReEngineering Juvenile Justice Q-1 2027<br />

LVIII Corporations Q-2 2027<br />

LVIX <strong>The</strong> Prison Industrial Complex Q-3 2027<br />

LX Restoration of Rights Q-4 2027<br />

Vol. XIV 2028 Culturally Relevant Programming<br />

LXI Community Culture Q-1 2028<br />

LXII Corporate Culture Q-2 2028<br />

LXIII Strategic Cultural Planning Q-3 2028<br />

LXIV<br />

<strong>The</strong> Cross-Sector/ Coordinated<br />

Service Approach to Delinquency<br />

Prevention<br />

Q-4 2028<br />

Page 164 of 183

Vol. XV 2029 Inner-Cities Revitalization<br />

LXIV<br />

LXV<br />

LXVI<br />

Part I – Strategic Housing<br />

Revitalization<br />

(<strong>The</strong> Twenty Percent Profit Margin)<br />

Part II – Jobs Training, Educational<br />

Redevelopment<br />

and Economic Empowerment<br />

Part III - Financial Literacy<br />

and Sustainability<br />

Q-1 2029<br />

Q-2 2029<br />

Q-3 2029<br />

LXVII Part IV – Solutions for Homelessness Q-4 2029<br />

LXVIII<br />

<strong>The</strong> Strategic Home Mortgage<br />

<strong>Initiative</strong><br />

Bonus<br />

Vol. XVI 2030 Sustainability<br />

LXVIII Social Program Sustainability Q-1 2030<br />

LXIX<br />

<strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation<br />

Endowments <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

Q-2 2030<br />

LXX Capital Gains Q-3 2030<br />

LXXI Sustainability Investments Q-4 2030<br />

Vol. XVII 2031 <strong>The</strong> Justice Series<br />

LXXII Distributive Justice Q-1 2031<br />

LXXIII Retributive Justice Q-2 2031<br />

LXXIV Procedural Justice Q-3 2031<br />

LXXV (75) Restorative Justice Q-4 2031<br />

LXXVI Unjust Legal Reasoning Bonus<br />

Page 165 of 183

Vol. XVIII 2032 Public Policy<br />

LXXVII Public Interest Law Q-1 2032<br />

LXXVIII Reforming Public Policy Q-2 2032<br />

LXXVIX ... Q-3 2032<br />

LXXVX ... Q-4 2032<br />

Page 166 of 183

<strong>The</strong> e-Advocate Monthly Review<br />

2018<br />

Transformational Problem Solving January 2018<br />

<strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation February 2018<br />

Opioid <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

Native-American Youth March 2018<br />

In the Juvenile Justice System<br />

Barriers to Reducing Confinement April 2018<br />

Latino and Hispanic Youth May 2018<br />

In the Juvenile Justice System<br />

Social Entrepreneurship June 2018<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of<br />

Homelessness in America S.Ed – June 2018<br />

African-American Youth July 2018<br />

In the Juvenile Justice System<br />

Gang Deconstruction August 2018<br />

Social Impact Investing September 2018<br />

Opportunity Youth: October 2018<br />

Disenfranchised Young People<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economic Impact of Social November 2018<br />

of Social Programs Development<br />

Gun Control December 2018<br />

2019<br />

<strong>The</strong> U.S. Stock Market January 2019<br />

Prison-Based Gerrymandering February 2019<br />

Literacy-Based Prison Construction March 2019<br />

Children of Incarcerated Parents April 2019<br />

Page 167 of 183

African-American Youth in <strong>The</strong> May 2019<br />

Juvenile Justice System<br />

Racial Profiling June 2019<br />

Mass Collaboration July 2019<br />

Concentrated Poverty August 2019<br />

De-Industrialization September 2019<br />

Overcoming Dyslexia October 2019<br />

Overcoming Attention Deficit November 2019<br />

<strong>The</strong> Gift of Adversity December 2019<br />

2020<br />

<strong>The</strong> Gift of Hypersensitivity January 2020<br />

<strong>The</strong> Gift of Introspection February 2020<br />

<strong>The</strong> Gift of Introversion March 2020<br />

<strong>The</strong> Gift of Spirituality April 2020<br />

<strong>The</strong> Gift of Transformation May 2020<br />

Property Acquisition for<br />

Organizational Sustainability June 2020<br />

Investing for Organizational<br />

Sustainability July 2020<br />

Biblical Law & Justice TLFA August 2020<br />

Gentrification AF September 2020<br />

Environmental Racism NpA October 2020<br />

Law for <strong>The</strong> Poor AF November 2020<br />

…<br />

Page 168 of 183

2021<br />

Biblically Responsible Investing TLFA – January 2021<br />

International Criminal Procedure LMI – February 2021<br />

Spiritual Rights TLFA – March 2021<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ology of Missions TLFA – April 2021<br />

Legal Evangelism, Intelligence,<br />

Reconnaissance & Missions LMI – May 2021<br />

<strong>The</strong> Law of War LMI – June 2021<br />

Generational Progression AF – July 2021<br />

…<br />

Page 169 of 183

<strong>The</strong> e-Advocate Quarterly<br />

Special Editions<br />

Crowdfunding Winter-Spring 2017<br />

Social Media for Nonprofits October 2017<br />

Mass Media for Nonprofits November 2017<br />

<strong>The</strong> Opioid Crisis in America: January 2018<br />

Issues in Pain Management<br />

<strong>The</strong> Opioid Crisis in America: February 2018<br />

<strong>The</strong> Drug Culture in the U.S.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Opioid Crisis in America: March 2018<br />

Drug Abuse Among Veterans<br />

<strong>The</strong> Opioid Crisis in America: April 2018<br />

Drug Abuse Among America’s<br />

Teens<br />

<strong>The</strong> Opioid Crisis in America: May 2018<br />

Alcoholism<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of June 2018<br />

Homelessness in <strong>The</strong> US<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of July 2018<br />

Opioid Addiction in America<br />

Page 170 of 183

<strong>The</strong> e-Advocate Journal<br />

of <strong>The</strong>ological Jurisprudence<br />

Vol. I - 2017<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Origins of Contemporary Judicial Process<br />

Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> Model Criminal Code<br />

Scriptural Application for Tort Reform<br />

Scriptural Application to Juvenile Justice Reformation<br />

Vol. II - 2018<br />

Scriptural Application for <strong>The</strong> Canons of Ethics<br />

Scriptural Application to Contracts Reform<br />

& <strong>The</strong> Uniform Commercial Code<br />

Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> Law of Property<br />

Scriptural Application to <strong>The</strong> Law of Evidence<br />

Page 171 of 183

Page 172 of 183

Legal Missions International<br />

Page 173 of 183

Issue Title Quarterly<br />

Vol. I 2015<br />

I<br />

II<br />

God’s Will and <strong>The</strong> 21 st Century<br />

Democratic Process<br />

<strong>The</strong> Community<br />

Engagement Strategy<br />

Q-1 2015<br />

Q-2 2015<br />

III Foreign Policy Q-3 2015<br />

IV<br />

Public Interest Law<br />

in <strong>The</strong> New Millennium<br />

Q-4 2015<br />

Vol. II 2016<br />

V Ethiopia Q-1 2016<br />

VI Zimbabwe Q-2 2016<br />

VII Jamaica Q-3 2016<br />

VIII Brazil Q-4 2016<br />

Vol. III 2017<br />

IX India Q-1 2017<br />

X Suriname Q-2 2017<br />

XI <strong>The</strong> Caribbean Q-3 2017<br />

XII United States/ Estados Unidos Q-4 2017<br />

Vol. IV 2018<br />

XIII Cuba Q-1 2018<br />

XIV Guinea Q-2 2018<br />

XV Indonesia Q-3 2018<br />

XVI Sri Lanka Q-4 2018<br />

Page 174 of 183

Vol. V 2019<br />

XVII Russia Q-1 2019<br />

XVIII Australia Q-2 2019<br />

XIV South Korea Q-3 2019<br />

XV Puerto Rico Q-4 2019<br />

Issue Title Quarterly<br />

Vol. VI 2020<br />

XVI Trinidad & Tobago Q-1 2020<br />

XVII Egypt Q-2 2020<br />

XVIII Sierra Leone Q-3 2020<br />

XIX South Africa Q-4 2020<br />

XX Israel Bonus<br />

Vol. VII 2021<br />

XXI Haiti Q-1 2021<br />

XXII Peru Q-2 2021<br />

XXIII Costa Rica Q-3 2021<br />

XXIV China Q-4 2021<br />

XXV Japan Bonus<br />

Vol VIII 2022<br />

XXVI Chile Q-1 2022<br />

Page 175 of 183

<strong>The</strong> e-Advocate Juvenile Justice Report<br />

______<br />

Vol. I – Juvenile Delinquency in <strong>The</strong> US<br />

Vol. II. – <strong>The</strong> Prison Industrial Complex<br />

Vol. III – Restorative/ Transformative Justice<br />

Vol. IV – <strong>The</strong> Sixth Amendment Right to <strong>The</strong> Effective Assistance of Counsel<br />

Vol. V – <strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Foundations of Juvenile Justice<br />

Vol. VI – Collaborating to Eradicate Juvenile Delinquency<br />

Page 176 of 183

<strong>The</strong> e-Advocate Newsletter<br />

Genesis of <strong>The</strong> Problem<br />

Family Structure<br />

Societal Influences<br />

Evidence-Based Programming<br />

Strengthening Assets v. Eliminating Deficits<br />

2012 - Juvenile Delinquency in <strong>The</strong> US<br />

Introduction/Ideology/Key Values<br />

Philosophy/Application & Practice<br />

Expungement & Pardons<br />

Pardons & Clemency<br />

Examples/Best Practices<br />

2013 - Restorative Justice in <strong>The</strong> US<br />

2014 - <strong>The</strong> Prison Industrial Complex<br />

25% of the World's Inmates Are In the US<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economics of Prison Enterprise<br />

<strong>The</strong> Federal Bureau of Prisons<br />

<strong>The</strong> After-Effects of Incarceration/Individual/Societal<br />

<strong>The</strong> Fourth Amendment Project<br />

<strong>The</strong> Sixth Amendment Project<br />

<strong>The</strong> Eighth Amendment Project<br />

<strong>The</strong> Adolescent Law Group<br />

2015 - US Constitutional Issues In <strong>The</strong> New Millennium<br />

Page 177 of 183

2018 - <strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Law Firm Academy<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>The</strong>ological Foundations of US Law & Government<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economic Consequences of Legal Decision-Making<br />

<strong>The</strong> Juvenile Justice Legislative Reform <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> EB-5 International Investors <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

2017 - Organizational Development<br />

<strong>The</strong> Board of Directors<br />

<strong>The</strong> Inner Circle<br />

Staff & Management<br />

Succession Planning<br />

Bonus #1 <strong>The</strong> Budget<br />

Bonus #2 Data-Driven Resource Allocation<br />

2018 - Sustainability<br />

<strong>The</strong> Data-Driven Resource Allocation Process<br />

<strong>The</strong> Quality Assurance <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation Endowments <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> Community Engagement Strategy<br />

2019 - Collaboration<br />

Critical Thinking for Transformative Justice<br />

International Labor Relations<br />

Immigration<br />

God's Will & <strong>The</strong> 21st Century Democratic Process<br />

<strong>The</strong> Community Engagement Strategy<br />

<strong>The</strong> 21st Century Charter Schools <strong>Initiative</strong><br />

2020 - Community Engagement<br />

Page 178 of 183

Extras<br />

<strong>The</strong> Nonprofit Advisors Group Newsletters<br />

<strong>The</strong> 501(c)(3) Acquisition Process<br />

<strong>The</strong> Board of Directors<br />

<strong>The</strong> Gladiator Mentality<br />

Strategic Planning<br />

Fundraising<br />

501(c)(3) Reinstatements<br />

<strong>The</strong> Collaborative US/ International Newsletters<br />

How You Think Is Everything<br />

<strong>The</strong> Reciprocal Nature of Business Relationships<br />

Accelerate Your Professional Development<br />

<strong>The</strong> Competitive Nature of Grant Writing<br />

Assessing <strong>The</strong> Risks<br />

Page 179 of 183

Page 180 of 183

About <strong>The</strong> Author<br />

John C (Jack) Johnson III<br />

Founder & CEO<br />

Jack was educated at Temple University, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Rutgers<br />

Law School, in Camden, New Jersey. In 1999, he moved to Atlanta, Georgia to pursue<br />

greater opportunities to provide Advocacy and Preventive Programmatic services for atrisk/<br />

at-promise young persons, their families, and Justice Professionals embedded in the<br />

Juvenile Justice process in order to help facilitate its transcendence into the 21 st Century.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re, along with a small group of community and faith-based professionals, “<strong>The</strong> Advocacy Foundation, Inc." was conceived<br />

and developed over roughly a thirteen year period, originally chartered as a Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Educational<br />

Support Services organization consisting of Mentoring, Tutoring, Counseling, Character Development, Community Change<br />

Management, Practitioner Re-Education & Training, and a host of related components.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Foundation’s Overarching Mission is “To help Individuals, Organizations, & Communities Achieve <strong>The</strong>ir Full Potential”, by<br />

implementing a wide array of evidence-based proactive multi-disciplinary "Restorative & Transformative Justice" programs &<br />

projects currently throughout the northeast, southeast, and western international-waters regions, providing prevention and support<br />

services to at-risk/ at-promise youth, to young adults, to their families, and to Social Service, Justice and Mental<br />

Health professionals” everywhere. <strong>The</strong> Foundation has since relocated its headquarters to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and been<br />

expanded to include a three-tier mission.<br />

In addition to his work with the Foundation, Jack also served as an Adjunct Professor of Law & Business at National-Louis<br />

University of Atlanta (where he taught Political Science, Business & Legal Ethics, Labor & Employment Relations, and Critical<br />

Thinking courses to undergraduate and graduate level students). Jack has also served as Board President for a host of wellestablished<br />

and up & coming nonprofit organizations throughout the region, including “Visions Unlimited Community<br />

Development Systems, Inc.”, a multi-million dollar, award-winning, Violence Prevention and Gang Intervention Social Service<br />

organization in Atlanta, as well as Vice-Chair of the Georgia/ Metropolitan Atlanta Violence Prevention Partnership, a state-wide<br />

300 organizational member, violence prevention group led by the Morehouse School of Medicine, Emory University and <strong>The</strong><br />

Original, Atlanta-Based, Martin Luther King Center.<br />

Attorney Johnson’s prior accomplishments include a wide-array of Professional Legal practice areas, including Private Firm,<br />

Corporate and Government postings, just about all of which yielded significant professional awards & accolades, the history and<br />

chronology of which are available for review online. Throughout his career, Jack has served a wide variety of for-profit<br />

corporations, law firms, and nonprofit organizations as Board Chairman, Secretary, Associate, and General Counsel since 1990.<br />

www.<strong>The</strong>AdvocacyFoundation.org<br />

Clayton County Youth Services Partnership, Inc. – Chair; Georgia Violence Prevention Partnership, Inc – Vice Chair; Fayette<br />

County NAACP - Legal Redress Committee Chairman; Clayton County Fatherhood <strong>Initiative</strong> Partnership – Principal<br />

Investigator; Morehouse School of Medicine School of Community Health Feasibility Study - Steering Committee; Atlanta<br />

Violence Prevention Capacity Building Project – Project Partner; Clayton County Minister’s Conference, President 2006-2007;<br />

Liberty In Life Ministries, Inc. – Board Secretary; Young Adults Talk, Inc. – Board of Directors; ROYAL, Inc - Board of<br />

Directors; Temple University Alumni Association; Rutgers Law School Alumni Association; Sertoma International; Our<br />

Common Welfare Board of Directors – President)2003-2005; River’s Edge Elementary School PTA (Co-President); Summerhill<br />

Community Ministries; Outstanding Young Men of America; Employee of the Year; Academic All-American - Basketball;<br />

Church Trustee.<br />

Page 181 of 183

www.<strong>The</strong>AdvocacyFoundation.org<br />

Page 182 of 183

Page 183 of 183

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