Tool for sustainable mentoring to work organisations

MeMoRe

TOOLKIT

FOR SUSTAINABLE

MENTORING-TO-WORK

ORGANISATIONS

Valérie Carrette


COLOFON

Auteur: Valérie Carrette

Dit project is uitgevoerd met medewerking van: Jo Jespers, Grieke Forceville, Rudi Ceunen

Grafisch vormgeving: Katelijne Heremans - D’sign’D to Connect

Tekstredactie: Damini Purkayastha

Verantwoordelijke Uitgever: John Vanwynsberghe

Dit rapport is tot stand gekomen in het kader van het transnationaal project ‘MeMoRe’.

Dit project wordt gefinancierd door het Europees Sociaal Fonds en de Vlaamse Overheid.

Feedback is welkom

valerie.carrette@hefboom.be

Hefboom

Vooruitgangstraat 333, bus 5

1030 Brussel

hefboom.be

www.memore.be

Copyright © 2019 Hefboom

Niets uit deze uitgave mag worden verveelvoudigd en/of openbaar worden

gemaakt door middel van druk, fotokopie, geluidsband, elektronisch

of op welke wijze dan ook, zonder schriftelijke toestemming.


DANK AAN

Tijdens het ESF-project MeMoRe en de ontwikkeling van het mentoring-naar-NEC

model hebben we in verschillende fases beroep mogen doen op de tijd en expertise

van vele mensen. Op uiteenlopende manieren hebben zij geïnspireerd, kritische vragen

gesteld, suggesties gedaan: Siham Benmammar, Koen De Schepper, Frédéric Simonart,

Cécile Pierrat, Henri Ung, Carola Vogel, Magdalena Nour, Vinzenz Himmighofen.

Uiteraard ook een woord van dank onze transnationale partners met wie we op heel wat

momenten over landsgrenzen heen hebben kunnen leren over mentoring-naar-werk: Peter

De Cuyper, Hanne Vandermeerschen, Damini Purkayastha, Marije Reidsma, Aarnout Lanckriet,

Pascal Debruyne, Aino Malin, Ulla Koukkari-Anttonen, Johanna Moilanen, Carina Grosser-Kaya,

Susana Marquez, Oleg Fedoseev, Birgit Apfelbaum, Robin Radom, Stefan Apitz, Gabriela Galvao.

Dank aan Hefboomcollega’s Jo, Grieke, Rudi, John, Dirk, Danny, Anila,

Tatiana, Lena om mee voor de bedding te zorgen tijdens dit project.


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

TABLE OF CONTENT

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 5

THE TOOLKIT

• Good knowledge of the social problem you address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

• Understand the environment you are working in ................................................................................... 24

• Clear purpose ...................................................................................................................................... 36

• Strong public narrative ......................................................................................................................... 46

• Good governance .................................................................................................................................. 55

• Collaborative leadership ...................................................................................................................... 64

• Organisational structure for effectiveness an agility ............................................................................. 70

• Marketing strategy and communication plan ........................................................................................ 78

• Human resources ................................................................................................................................ 95

• Financial sustainability planning ........................................................................................................ 109

• Financial management & analysis ...................................................................................................... 132

• Operational processes, systems and infrastructure ............................................................................. 145

• Create dynamic partnerships ............................................................................................................. 150

• Quality of mentoring-to-work ............................................................................................................. 164

• Social impact .................................................................................................................................... 166

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

ADDENDUM ............................................................................................................................................... 185

ENDNOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Social impact

4


Introduction

TOOLKIT

INTRODUCTION


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Successful mentoring to work programmes deliver

one-to-one mentoring that benefits not only mentees

and mentors, but also companies and the community.

In the course of the transnational ESF project MeMoRe,

De Cuyper & Vandermeerschen (2018) developed a

clear definition of mentoring to work for migrants and

we learned about what practices (at micro, meso and

macro levels) constitute a well-designed programme

(Purkayastha & De Cuyper, 2019). However, we also

noticed that despite best intentions, mentoring

to work programmes are often not sustainable:

they do not have the ability to weather temporary

challenges, provide quality services in the present and

maintain a solid foundation for their future (MacRae

& Wakeland, 2006, 1). One of the primary reasons

for this is that a majority of the mentoring to work

initiatives are set up on an ad hoc or project basis

and they do not have any prospects of structural

financing (from governments) (Petrovic, 2015).

Mentoring to work programmes starting as a project

Project-based funding has been a driving force for

organisations to experiment, develop new practices,

and initiate new dynamics (Perneel & Wijnen, 2011) in

the field of labour market integration. It helped create

innovative programmes in order to challenge new social

problems. Mentoring to work for migrants and refugees

is a good example of the positive outcome of projectbased

innovation. In the aftermath of the refugee crisis

in Europe in 2015, mentoring to work projects have

been mushrooming, some in partnership with Public

Employment Services, and others as independent,

privately or publicly funded projects. Of these, most

organisations received project-based funding, i.e., for a

limited duration, fee and a fixed programme structure.

In order to support the integration of refugees, local,

national and European governments (e.g. European

Social Fund and AMIF), foundations and philanthropy

initiatives provided financial support to related projects.

Studies have shown that successful labour market

integration is one of the best indicators for integration

in a new society. Thus, several projects working on

labour market integration were well received and

granted funding. While it is a given that project-based

funding is limited, it must also be noted that mentoring

to work initiatives didn’t prepare for a more sustainable

existence either. As a consequence, they last only for

a few years even though they may be successful in

terms of outcomes. The service to mentees often ends

and what has been developed is not anchored in the

organisation where the mentoring initiative mostly is

embedded in. This is a pattern that Petrovic (2015), who

studied mentoring to work initiatives for highly skilled

refugees, noted all over the globe. This also means

that evaluation, if any, is short term and it is hard to

scientifically prove the social impact of mentoring.

Sustainability through a socio entrepreneurial approach

During the MeMoRe project, from 2017 to 2019, we

noticed mentoring to work projects receive recognition

from local, regional and national level organisations

for their results. Furthermore, there is now even a

certain willingness to build partnerships and long-term

associations. However, mentoring to work initiatives that

are completely dependent on project-based funding

remain vulnerable in a societal context that is volatile

and uncertain (Wheatley, 2017). At the same time, there

are mentoring initiatives that have been in existence

for a longer period of time. Some are ‘traditional’

one-on-one mentoring initiatives for (highly qualified)

people with a migration background (e.g. Mittliv,

Sweden). Others are programmes that offer one-onone

mentoring for the labour market integration of

(young) people at a distance from the labour market

Social impact

6


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

(e.g. Nos Quartiers ont des Talents, France and Joblinge,

Germany). One thing these successful programmes

have in common is that they work with a socio

entrepreneurial mindset and act as a social enterprise.

A social enterprise is “a private activity conducted in

the public interest, organized with an entrepreneurial

strategy; but whose main purpose is not the

maximization of profit but the attainment of certain

economic and social goals, and which has the capacity

for bringing innovative solutions to the problems

of social exclusion and unemployment (OESO,

2013)”. A similar approach is adopted by relatively

recent mentoring to work organisations such as

DUO for a JOB in Belgium and Kodiko in France.

A toolbox for reflection on how to

become more sustainable

As a number of mentoring organisations working with

project-based funding and have little or no expertise

in the area of the development of sustainable business

models (MacRae & Wakeland, 2006; National Mentoring

Center, 2008; Bania & Kandalaft, 2013; Petrovic, 2014),

we found it important to develop a tool to help steer

the way. This manual will help organisations reflect

on how they can become more sustainable and more

independent in the (near) future. The tool we have

developed encourages and guides organisations making

a shift from a project-based outlook (also in terms of

organisational culture and personal mindset of the

staff) towards a more socio entrepreneurial approach.

For the development of the tool we

used a variety of methods.

• We analysed a broad spectrum of literature

on social entrepreneurship, with special

attention on the recent research work of

Kathleen Kelly Janus (2017), lecturer at

Stanford University’s Programme on Social

Entrepreneurship. She studied more than 200

high performing social enterprises with the

guiding question ‘what is the key to non-profit

success?’. The results of the study are written

down in the book ‘Social Start-up Success’

with five strategies responsible for the most

successful start-ups: testing ideas, measuring

impact, funding experimentation, leading

collaboratively and telling compelling stories.

• We also assessed existing tools for sustainable

mentoring programmes. MacRae & Wakeland

(2006) did some pioneering work on the topic

in the context of mentoring programmes for

youth. They developed ‘a framework for resource

development planning’ which invited mentoring

initiatives to think critically about their strategies

for resource development planning in order

to become more sustainable. This work has

been developed further by the Mentoring

Partnership of Minnesota and a few other

authors (e.g. Bania & Kandalaft, 2013). Several

aspects in service of building capacity, resource

development and fundraising are addressed.

• Learning from the practice of European

mentoring initiatives with a socio entrepreneurial

approach. We made an inventory of European

mentoring-to-work initiatives with refugees and

newcomers as a target group. This inventory

guided us towards a small number of good

practices we could learn from. We further

narrowed down our focus to organisations

that have been in existence for a while, and

have a social entrepreneurial mindset. We

studied their annual reports and websites and

7


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

conducted Skype meetings with most of these

initiatives. The mentoring to work initiatives

we categorize as a social enterprise or acting

from a social entrepreneurial mindset are: Nos

Quartiers ont des Talents (France), Joblinge

(Germany), Mitt Liv (Sweden), and the more

recently established organisations, Duo for

a Job (Belgium) and Kodiko (France). Besides

whatever information these organisations

could share about their business strategies,

we also analysed information that was

publically available – such as their annual

reports and websites. During our project

we have been inspired by some choices

other mentoring to work programmes made

and integrated these learning also in the

toolbox. We will often refer to the practices

of these mentoring to work organisations. You

can read a description of these mentoring

to work initiatives in attachment.

The toolbox consists of 15 dimensions

The toolbox consists of 15 dimensions to reflect

on as a basis for developing a more socio

entrepreneurial approach and become more

sustainable. Every dimension starts with a brief

theoretical explanation, illustrated by some

examples of mentoring to work initiatives and a

toolbox that helps you reflect or develop the first

steps. At the end of each dimension we added a

table for you to gather your insights and where you

can define steps for wiser action. The format of the

tool is based on interactions with practitioners and

thus designed in a way to reflect on things from a

practical point of view, with field-based examples

and suggestions. Finally, the hope of the tool is

that organisations will be able to be sustainable.

The dimensions of the toolbox are:

1. Good knowledge of the social problem you

address. When addressing a social problem it

is of paramount importance to understand its

underlying dynamics. If you want to influence

systems change with your mentoring-to-work

initiative, the most critical task is to identify the

root cause of the social problem and understand

the context in which the social problem manifests.

2. Understand the environment you are working in.

You are not working on an island. Your mentoring

to work initiative is part of a larger, external

environment with which you will interact

continuously. The features of the environment – the

landscape – might change very fast. If you want to

develop a sustainable organisation, than you will

have to have a good knowledge of the environment

you are working in, both external and internal.

3. Clear purpose. It is the first element that should

be made clear in order to make your mentoringto-work

organisation (more) sustainable.

Mentoring initiatives that started with limited

project funding and a short term perspective,

keep their focus often on the ‘what’ and ‘how’

questions. They did not delve into ‘why’ mentoring

is important in their particular environment. It

is a clear answer on the ‘why’ that is important

for funders and partners to have the willingness

to connect and engage with your initiative.

4. Strong public narrative. A public narrative is a

leadership practice of translating values into action.

Social impact

8


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

It is based on the fact that values are experienced

emotionally. As such, they are sources of ends

worthy of action and the capacity for action. It is also

seen as an important competence for fund raising.

5. Good governance. Governance is about the

systems and processes concerned with ensuring

the overall direction, effectiveness, supervision

and accountability of an organisation.

6. Collective leadership. It “takes a village” to

develop. A culture of collective and collaborative

leadership and the development of a social

entrepreneurial mindset of all employees are

also important success factors. What does a

fundamental choice for more collaborative and

‘horizontal’ approaches of organising require?

And what else do we now from research on

mentoring about leadership for sustainability?

7. Organisational structure for effectiveness and

agility. An organisational structure reflects where

the power of influence is located and the channels

through which information and influence flow. A

mentoring-to-work initiative has all the features

of a complex system. What kind of organisational

can be put in place to effective and agile, to

be human-centred and results-oriented?

8. Marketing strategy and communication plan. The

marketing strategy of your mentoring-to-work

organisation defines how you plan to communicate

your value proposition to the target audience.

A value proposition is a promise of value to be

delivered, communicated and acknowledged.

9. Human resources. A marketing strategy

Organisations that make a shift towards a social

entrepreneurial approach also need a human

resources policy that supports this transition.

Employees of such companies are called social

intrapreneurs and they focus on developing or

delivering projects that drive social change in a way

that generates long-term value for their organisation.

If you have worked as a not-for-profit mentoring

initiative, especially if you worked in a hierarchical

way, it might be that social intrapreneurship is a

hidden capacity that has to be unlocked. Hence,

when delivering your mentoring to work your staff

will have to engage for specific tasks and roles.

10. Financial sustainability planning. Mentoring

initiatives must have a clear resource development

plan and budget in which they identify funds

that may support mentoring-to-work staff and

activities and what the expected project funding

possibilities may be in the (near) future. It requires

a lot of time and a high level of persistence, energy

and enthusiasm to seek, secure and maintain

financial resources. It is an ongoing process

which needs a lot of planning. Ideally, you want

to get to a point where you have a good mix of

all types of sources of funding and resources

11. Financial management and analysis. Financial

management is the process of planning, monitoring

and evaluating all financial aspects of your

organisation or enterprise. At its most basic

level it is about anticipating and tracking how

money comes into your organisation (revenues,

funding, investment), how it is invested within

your organisation (operating costs, staff costs,

purchasing assets, …) and how it is invested or

leaves your organisation (paying operating suppliers,

paying staff, purchasing assets, paying investors,

…). It is important to understand that financial

management is about both – the past and the future.

9


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

12. Operational processes. In the early stages of your

mentoring to work initiative your attention for and

investment in efficient and effective operational

structures might have been minimal. Once you

are growing, have a larger amount of mentors

and mentees, more partnerships, more funders

who want you to show them your impact, the

need to have transparent processes, effective

operational systems and structures rises. The

need to document your processes might also rise

because you might have to prove your (social)

impact, you don’t want to lose energy and time at

non efficient procedures, and you want to keep

the quality of your mentoring programme high.

13. Create dynamic partnerships. The integration

of refugees into the European labour market

is a complex social challenge. This requires

cooperation and partnerships among multiple

layers of stakeholders, even if they have different

perspectives and disagree about the causes of

the problem and the best solutions. It requires

working across organisational boundaries, as the

circumstances are beyond the capacity of any

one organisation or sector to respond to. Several

studies on mentoring-to-work find that it is critical

for mentoring to work initiatives to establish

partnerships with other service providers

14. Quality of mentoring. In the context of this

transnational ESF-project MeMoRe we studied what

practices constitute a well-designed programme and

under what conditions and why certain practices

are more significant when it comes to labour market

integration of refugees. We discovered 11 key

dimensions at the macro, meso- and micro-level.

15. Social impact. Are you looking to raise new

funds? Or does your mentoring initiative need to

justify the investment you have already received?

Is it time to communicate in a different way

about your organisation? Do you want to better

understand the outcome of your mentoring

initiative and how you can improve upon it? Are

you looking for ways to better motivate your

staff? These are all reasons to evaluate your

social impact. In addition, the expectation is that

both governments and private financiers will

increasingly expect social enterprises and nonprofit

organisations to be able to demonstrate not

only their results, but also their social impact.

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

10


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

REFERENCES

Literature

• Bania, M. & Kandalaft, A. (2013). Striving for sustainability: six strategies

to guide your efforts. YOUCAN Mentoring Program.

• Kelly Janus, K. (2017). Social Startup Success. How the best non-profits launch,

scale up and make a difference. Da Capo Lifelong Books: New York.

• MacRae, P. & Wakeland, D. (2006). Building a sustainable mentoring program.

A Framework for Resource Development Planning. MRC: Folsom. https://

educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/resources/sustainability.pdf

• OECD/European Union (2013), Policy Brief on Social Entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial activities in

Europe, OECD/European Commission, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

• Perneel, K. & Wijnen, T. (2011). Projectmatig werken in lokale besturen. Brussel: Politeia.

• Petrovic, M. (2015). Mentoring practices in Europe and North America. Strategies for

improving immigrants’ employment outcomes. Brussels: King Baudouin Foundation

• Purkayastha, D. & Decuyper, P. (2019). Best practices and critical success factors in mentoring

to work for refugees and migrants: an evidence-based study. Leuven: HIVA KU Leuven

• Wheatley, M. J. (2017). Who de we choose to be? Facing Reality, Claiming

Leadership, Restoring Sanity. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

11


TOOLKIT


GOOD KNOWLEDGE OF

THE SOCIAL PROBLEM

YOU ADDRESS


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

GOOD KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOCIAL PROBLEM YOU ADDRESS

When addressing a social problem it is of paramount

importance to understand its underlying dynamics.

If you want to influence systems change with your

mentoring-to-work initiative, the most critical task is

to identify the root cause of the social problem and

understand the context in which the social problem

manifests (Abercrombie, Boswell & Thomassoo, 2018).

A feature of most social problems is that they are

complex. The integration of refugees into the labour

market can be seen as a complex social problem.

Complex problems cannot be answered by linear

thinking. They are characterised by multiple layers

of stakeholders with different perspectives and

disagreements about the causes of the problem

and the best solutions; they require working across

organisational boundaries, as they are beyond the

capacity of one organisation or sector to respond to;

they are also hard because they will not be solved

by our current ways of thinking and working. When

studying a social problem and while finding ways

to address it, Smith (2018) uses design thinking.

Design thinking combines empathy for the problem,

creativity for solutions and rationality for the best fit.

If you have already developed or implemented a

mentoring programme, it remains relevant to take

some time to study how the social problem currently

manifests, what the features of the environment are,

if changes have occurred, and how effective your

programme is in reaching the impact you want. This

can best be addressed as a permanent process of

learning and adapting. It is relevant to make invite

your stakeholders into this process and use facilitation

techniques that value the collective intelligence

of the people involved. This exercise will inform

you whether mentoring-to-work (still) is the best

contribution to support the integration of refugees

into the local labour market and if any adaptations

have to be made to your mentoring-to-work initiative

to be more effective and impactful. It is relevant to

look for existing research on the effectiveness of

the solutions that have already been developed to

answer the question of labour market integration.

How do mentoring-to-work initiatives define their

social problems in public communication?

DUO for a JOB describes the social problem

they address as being the following:

Youth unemployment in the Brussels-Capital

Region remains high (38,3%) in comparison with

the overall rate in other regions (8,5%) in Belgium,

but also compared with other European countries.

The unemployment rate among young people from

immigrant backgrounds is higher than it is among

young people of Belgian origin. This difference

is mainly due to specific difficulties faced by

them while integrating into the labour market.

Focus on refugees. In 2016, 18, 710 people applied

to the Immigration Service for asylum, just under

half as many as in 2015. Afghanistan, Syria and

Iraq remain the three first countries of origin of

asylum seekers, followed by Guinea and Somalia.

The acceptance rate has increased in comparison

with the 2015 rate. The majority of refugees are

men aged between 16 and 30, and hence of an age

to enter the employment and training market.

Social impact

14


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

Older Belgians. At 48,8%, the Belgian employment

rate among people aged 55-64 years is among the

lowest in Europe. Nevertheless, individual interviews

with 300 mentors have strengthened our fundamental

assumptions: while the skills of the over-50s are

under-utilised, the people themselves are keen

to remain active, play a practical role in social

projects and commit to the support of job seekers.

The social problem that Mittliv tackles is:

‘In Sweden, the prevalence of segregated communities

limits career opportunities for immigrants. A

generous refugee policy has resulted in 1.3 million

foreign born residents living in Sweden, with

young immigrant girls facing the highest levels

of joblessness of any demographic in the nation.

Immigrants have gravitated—whether driven

by price considerations, government housing

initiatives, or existing expat communities—toward

the suburbs, reinforcing a segregated society.

Specifically, the government’s low-cost high-rise

housing projects have further exacerbated the issue

of highly concentrated and segregated immigrant

populations; in fact, in the suburbs of Sweden’s most

segregated cities, Goteborg and Malmo, over 80

percent of its residents were born outside Sweden.

The labour market is less accessible to immigrants;

employers take fewer risks in hiring “unknowns.”

Often described as the “invisible wall,” this division

makes employment and integration into the business

world difficult for immigrants. (…) Contacts are

the currency of gaining employment in Sweden;

employers tend to favour familiar names and source

their hiring efforts from within their community.

Some estimate that 90 percent of jobs are secured

through contacts. Heavily segregated immigrant

communities with few contacts and limited CVs lack

access to this close-knit Swedish cultural landscape.

Sweden does not have a strong focus or great love

for entrepreneurship, an area where immigrants

particularly excel. Companies lack access to

immigrant communities. Swedish companies are

faced with a dramatically globalizing world and

are struggling to keep up with the new cultural

arena. Mittliv’s approach allows the immigrant

community to see - and the greater community

to believe - that persons with an immigrant

background can follow their dreams. The programme

focuses on sourcing the most driven persons with

an immigrant background and equipping them

with the tools to function in Swedish society.’

The social problem addressed by the Singa

professional mentoring programme is:

‘Newcomers in Germany who bring professional

education and experience in a certain area usually

have difficulties finding a job that fits their profile.

This has different reasons: the amount of time needed

to learn German, varying occupational profiles and

requirements, unrecognized certificates and many

more. For most of these issues there are public or civil

society organisations that offer advice and assistance.

However, we experience in our daily work that the

problem is more fundamental. People don’t find jobs

according to their professional background if they

don’t know anyone in their field or have access to

institutions, companies, events etc. This situation

makes it very hard to get a first job or even relevant

practical experience in Germany. In sum: Social capital

has a significant effect on professional integration

and you need contacts to locals to build it.’

15


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Joblinge (Kompass) addresses the following social

problem:

‘In hardly any other industrialized country are

opportunities and educational success as dependent

on starting conditions as in Germany. Numerous

studies have confirmed this effect. The goal of

JOBLINGE is to empower young people to close

the gap between their origins and future. It is

paradoxical: despite the fact that the situation in

the German job market is good and companies are

hiring more people, the unemployment rate has

dropped, approximately 40,000 apprenticeships each

year remain vacant, and youth unemployment is

among the lowest in the European Union, Germany

still has more than half a million young people

who can’t take the step from school to vocational

training, who are unemployed or, in measures of

the so-called transitional system, between school

and work. This system costs the government €4.3

billion a year, not including the cost of welfare

benefits. Because the problem persists, those who

fail to complete vocational training when they

are young have four times the risk of long-term

unemployment as adults. Besides the responsibility

for each individual, Germany cannot afford to forgo

the potential of these youths, either economically or

commercially. Due to the demographic changes, there

is already a considerable shortage of skilled workers

in various industries. At the same time, Germany

faces the monumental task of integrating hundreds

of thousands of refugees in society and the labour

market as quickly as possible and without an upper

limit for equal opportunities. Every young person,

regardless of their origins or starting conditions, must

be given the chance to lead a self-determined life.’

Social impact

16


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Questioning the social problem you address and root cause analysis

This tool helps you to reflect and have a conversation with your team and stakeholders on the social

problem you address. Consult your stakeholders or other experts and practitioners in the field

(and beyond) in order to get multiple perspectives on the (evolution of the) social problem.

The better you understand your social problem, the better you will be informed about ways to

address it. It might lead to adaptations in your mentoring-to-work model. Or you might even

conclude that mentoring-to-work is in your context maybe not the most effective solution. Or,

given the complexity of the social problem of labour market integration of refugees, that you

have to work together with other organisations to create the impact you want to have.

The DYI toolkit suggests 5 questions to ask yourself.

• Why is it important?

• Who is it a problem for?

• What social or cultural factors shape the problem?

• What evidence do you have that this is worth the investment you are willing

to make (think about multiple sort of resources or investments)?

• Can you reframe the problem?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

The DYI toolkit provides a useful ‘problem definition’ template and a template for defining the root

causes of the social problem. These templates might be helpful when doing this exercise. /¹

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

17


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Use questions to think and rethink about your social problem and possible solutions / 2

Thoughtful questioning is not about looking for answers, but trying to understand issues from multiple

points of view. Different questions provide different types of information. It is important to frame questions

clearly in order to get the information you want. It is important to ask the right kind of questions – ones

that begin honest dialogue, build connections, and yield different perspectives. At this stage it is good

to engage deeply with the questioning phase of what the social problem looks like and how mentoring

can be an answer for your social problem. You can even question whether it can be an effective answer

for the problem addressed, or whether and how the activities you offer need to be adapted. In this

process you might encounter or rub against power issues, because questions challenge power and some

people or institutions maintain power by refusing to ask and answer questions (Marquardt, 2015).

Use closed questions to understand the context

Closed questions usually call for a specific answer and help to verify evidence and assess

situations and problems that already exist. You can ask questions such as:

• What happened?

• What are the problems?

• When do problems usually occur?

• What works? What resources exist?

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Use open-ended questions to encourage self-reflection and understand assumptions

Open-ended questions encourage people to think more about why things occur the

way they do. These questions begin a process of analysis that may lead to a discussion

of how things might be different. You can ask questions such as:

• Why did this happen?

• How would you solve this problem?

• What might be done instead?

Social impact

18


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Ask probing questions

Sometimes it’s necessary to ask questions that clarify initial answers and further explore

related issues. Questions that ask people to describe or explain their initial responses can

encourage them to share their opinions and ideas. You can ask questions such as:

• Can you say more about that?

• What makes you say that?

• How do you feel about that?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Ask critical questions

Questions can also encourage deeper thinking about situations. Deep thinking challenges

the foundational assumption about why things are the way they are and how things could

or should be. These questions can encourage people to critique assumptions or existing

practices through further discussion or even debate. You can ask questions such as:

• What are the consequences of the current actions?

• Who benefits from the way things are? Who loses?

Ask discovery questions

Ultimately, good questions encourage alternative explanations and solutions. These questions invoke the

imagination to envision new possibilities that might otherwise remain unexplored if we start with taken for

granted assumptions about our beliefs what we think we already know. There are no clear questions to encourage

this kind of discovery process. Instead, questioners must listen closely to people’s responses and intentionally

foster positive engagement so that people feel understood and that their ideas matter. In groups, questioners

must pay attention to the dynamics between people and help ease power differentials and make connections

between each contribution. This will help to build a sense of trust and affinity that might lead to new discoveries.

You can:

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

19


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

• Allow people to come up with their own explanations, in their own words and language

• Build on what people say. Use their words rather than reframing what they say into your own preferred terms.

• Reword questions so they empower people rather than assign blame (e.g. Instead of asking, “Why

did this go wrong?” rephrase the question to ask, “What do you think happened and why?”).

• Encourage relationship building so that there are fewer risks for sharing

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Develop personas

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Develop personas to have a more profound knowledge of your target group. It will give you more insight

about whether and how the activities you develop in your mentoring initiative will contribute to the

solution of the social problem you address. It might help you to focus, to develop additional activities or

to decide to collaborate with other actors in order to address the social problem more effectively.

Complete the entire worksheet from the perspective of a particular persona you have in mind. It helps

to give the persona a name and you might also want to add a picture that represents them. You can use

magazines or newspapers to find such a picture. Or you can be creative and draw a picture yourself. You can

make several personas, which represent different perspectives and/or other target groups. Describe the

key characteristics of each persona. It might be helpful to invite other stakeholders already working with

the target group you aim to address, interview members of your target group, organize a focus group, …

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

20


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Name

Picture

Persona of mentee

Story

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

What does the of mentee want?

What are the goals of the mentee?

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Age

Competencies

Talents

Qualifications

Profession (in country of

origin + in host country)

Marital status

Hobbies

Country of origin

Language and level

Social impact

21


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

Who is your target group?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Write down the social problem you address.

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

What are the key learnings?

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

22


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

REFERENCES

Literature

• Abercrombie, Boswell & Thomassoo (2018). Thinking big. How to use theory of change for systems change.

www.thinknpc.org/resource-hub/thinking-big-how-to-use-theory-of-change-for-systems-change/

• Marquardt, M. (2005). Leading with questions: How leaders find the right solutions to

knowing what to ask. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. Westley, F., Zimmerman, B. & Patton,

M. Q. (2006). Getting to maybe: How the world is changed. Vintage Canada.

• Smith, S. (2018). Social Alchemy: Transforming Problems into Ideas that

Change the World. socialimpactarchitects.com/social-alchemy

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Websites

• www.ashoka.org/en/fellow/sofia-appelgren#fellow-accordion

• diytoolkit.org/tools/problem-definition-2/

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.joblinge.de

• singa-deutschland.com

• www.socialinnovationtoolkit.com/question.html

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

23


UNDERSTAND

THE ENVIRONMENT

YOU ARE WORKING IN


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

UNDERSTAND THE ENVIRONMENT YOU ARE WORKING IN

Your mentoring-to-work initiative is not an island. You

are part of a larger, external environment with which

you will interact continuously. The features of the

environment – the landscape – might change very fast.

Currently, several authors speak about a VUCA world:

an environment that is volatile, uncertain, complex

and adaptive (Wheatley, 2017). This is the context

within which (new) mentoring-to-work initiatives

have to work in order to fulfill their purpose. We

see that only a few of the mentoring initiatives that

we learned about survived in the long run. Keeping

an eye on the environment around your mentoring

initiative(s) is crucial in order to navigate towards a

successful future. An evidence-based study within

the transnational ESF-project MeMoRe shows that

the following elements may have a profound impact

on the design and impact of the mentoring initiative:

political context, funding sources of the initiative,

social context (e.g. volunteering culture), labour market

rules and needs (Purkayastha & De Cuyper, 2019).

We highlight another, equally significant element: the

‘internal environment’. This highlights the importance

of knowing yourself. This includes the historical

evolution of your mentoring initiative and/or the

organisation the mentoring initiative is embedded

in and how this influences the challenges of shifting

the mentoring initiative from a project mindset to

a social entrepreneurial mindset (Earl, Carden &

Smutylo, 2004). The shift might be uncomfortable for

some organisations or individuals in organisations

(Abercrombie, Boswell & Thomassoo, 2018). It can

cause fears and trigger past trauma with management,

leaders, employees, and other relevant actors, even

stakeholders that are based in historical evolutions

(Bailleur, 2016). These traumas and fears might

hinder the evolution towards a social entrepreneurial

mindset. We often forget the influence of these

elements in organisational change processes. There

is a growing preference to see organisations less as

machines and more as living systems. When broken,

machines can be fixed. A living system, instead,

needs to be healed when wounded (Bailleur, 2016).

However, most organisations don’t consider these

issues at all. When everything in the organisation

goes well, all is fine and the traumas and triggers

stay under the surface. When things go bad (e.g. you

do not have the impact you want to have, there is a

lack of efficiency and effectivity in how you organize

yourself, …) or when an organisation is challenged to

sail in unknown waters (e.g. making a shift towards a

more entrepreneurial approach), these issues often

arise. We argue that it is good to know what these

challenges are and start to begin working on them in

the good times. Abercrombie, Boswell & Thomassoo

(2018) call this the zone of uncomfortable debate.

It includes having a conversation that addresses

unquestioned assumptions, beliefs, elephants in the

room, suppressed conflicts, major gaps in knowledge.

This sort of attention for the ‘internal environment’

and the preparedness to make a shift towards an

entrepreneurial mindset has not been explored in any

documentation on mentoring-to-work initiatives.

But first things first. In this section, we focus

on how to identify the features of the external

environment of your mentoring programme.

Social impact

25


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

External environment

Analysing and monitoring the external environment

and the social problem you address builds a strong

foundation for being economically sustainable. It

ensures that you design your mentoring-to-work

initiative in such a way that it makes a difference and

has social and societal impact (Abercrombie, Boswell

& Thomassoo, 2018). This analysis can only be done

well if it is shared with other relevant actors in the

environment you work in. When addressing complex

social problems – what mentoring-to-work initiatives

for refugees and newcomers are – it is strongly

recommended that you involve a broad enough range

of stakeholders that are part of your ecosystem and

who might influence your social impact. If the analysis

of the environment is shared, it might not only generate

a connection between your initiative and the other

actors. It might also generate resources to support

your mentoring initiative to make it sustainable.

Start with an extensive analysis of the external

environment by using a tool such as the DESTEP

analysis, and repeat this exercise (a shorter version, if

need be) regularly. This can form part of an important

and often-repeated loop of learning and designing

your mentoring initiative at the processual and

organisational level. Doing so will make it possible to

navigate better and find the right answers at the right

moment. The DESTEP analysis is one method to scan

your environment, it is widely known and easy to use.

We also provide a tool for conducting an ecosystem

analysis, so you can make a more informed decision

regarding which stakeholders you want or need to

involve in your analysis. It might be relevant to first do

the analysis of the external environment with the people

working for the mentoring initiative (esp. including the

‘field workers’ as the coaches of the mentors and the

mentees. They have a lot of field knowledge). That way

you have a first look – from within the organisation –

of the external environment. Then you can make an

ecosystem analysis to know which stakeholders to

involve in the external environment analysis in order to

get a broader view of the opportunities and challenges

in the external environment. Doing this will also give you

information on how well your ‘environmental sensors’

work and if your own external environmental analysis

reflects the environment that your stakeholders see.

By including your stakeholders in this phase, you also

raise awareness among them about your existence, your

intention to evolve and to involve them in this evolution.

This, in turn, generates a new level of cooperation.

We talk more on the issue of cooperation and

partnerships in mentoring initiatives when we address

the creation of dynamic partnerships and cooperation.

An analysis of the external environment and of the

existing ecosystem in this environment can also

inform you about the relevance of your mentoring

initiative and opportunities for further development.

The results might shed light on whether mentoring to

work is the best way to support people at a distance

from the labour market (e.g. people with a migrant

background/refugees) find their way to employment.

MeMoGa mentoring project, which is part of

the MeMoRe project, explains the process and

outcome of their environmental analysis. Below is

an excerpt from a communication in early 2018:

“We’ve finished our visits of mentoring projects and

are still conducting an evaluation of best practices

according to the collected material. We´ve finished

our research about the right area/district where we

will have our pilot phase that will start in August.

We´ve visited six districts and had very interesting

meetings with local integration coordinators,

coordinators of the volunteers, volunteers working

26


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

with refugees, migrant organisations and welfare

organisations. We´ve learned a lot about the labour

market integration of refugees. We´ve explored that

the work of volunteers is very different in each region

in terms of numbers, motivation and issues. Their

connection to local networks is sometimes weaker

or stronger and their motivation differs between the

regions. Since the number of new coming migrants

is decreasing, the number of activists is decreasing

too. Finding new volunteers who can work with

us as mentors in the mentoring process is the

main challenge before starting the pilot phase.”

A few months later:

“In times of the so called ‘migration crisis’, motivation

and engagement has decreased. Volunteers who

wanted to support the first needs of refugees did

not always get the support they needed, and often

they retreated disappointed. We also noticed that

since the start of our project the environment has

become more hostile towards refugees. The media is

dominated by a political discourse that is questioning

if migration in general is wanted and needed. Our

main questions for now are: how can we find and

motivate volunteers to support refugees? What can

we offer to attract volunteers to become mentors?

How can we keep them in the project? What can

we offer mentors to motivate and engage them?”

An external environmental analysis is also used when

organisations want to scale up. Several mentoring to

work in initiatives in Europe are recently scaling up

within their countries (e.g. DUO for a JOB, Joblinge, Mittliv,

Kodiko) and/or have plans to upscale abroad (e.g. DUO

for a JOB). The new areas they work in are chosen after

an in-depth analysis of the environment and what the

social challenge they want to address looks like in that

area. Through this, they can establish whether there

is enough potential to establish a new mentoring to

work division in that area, one that can be economically

sustainable and create a social impact down the line.

An analysis of the internal environment

Also an understanding of the inner context is necessary:

an understanding of who we are in this moment, how we

function, what our impact is. This self-reflection exercise

is not always comfortable (Abercrombie, Boswell &

Thomassoo, 2018). An effective internal assessment

includes input from all viewpoints in the organisation.

Maybe not all employees, but all levels of employees.

Your first step should be to gather input from

throughout the organisation on the issues or challenges

associated with optimizing the organisation, i.e., the

issues that keep the organisation spinning its wheels.

An important measure in an internal analysis is to

determine your organisation’s level of strength and

competency. A strong organisation uses updated

technology systems and equipment to accomplish its

work. Its financial goals are being met and strategic

planning objectives are being accomplished.

An organisation with strong competency also has a solid

brand identity built upon expertise, capabilities and

resources within the organisation.

A weak organisation is one that uses outdated

technology, is lacking in expertise or working

with deficient assets. A well-orchestrated internal

analysis should bring to light any such organisational

weaknesses that exist – areas in need of improvement

and objectives that are not being realized. Once your

analysis has revealed your deficiencies, you can revise

your strategic plan to address and overcome failed

objectives and improve or eliminate weaknesses.

Conducting an internal analysis often

incorporates measures that provide useful

information about your organisation’s strengths,

weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

27


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

HOW TO TOOLBOX

A destep analysis - what are the features of the external

environment of your mentoring programme?

Use the DESTEP method to analyse the external environment together with your team and/or

stakeholders. DESTEP stands for: Demographical, Ecological, Social, Technological, Economical, and

Political features of the environment. In this context it might be relevant to add Education as an important

societal field which might influence your mentoring-to-work initiative. It is useful to involve external

stakeholders as well, as they can bring a new perspective and help identify your blind spots.

Formulate the features of the environment for all these elements. You can provide for each element a large paper

on the wall and ask each participant to write down for each dimension everything they think of on post-its. After

that you ask them to stick the post-its on the white papers on the wall. While doing this, you can already start

clustering. When you have done this you can have a conversation on these elements using the guiding questions.

Demographical:

Ecological:

Financial sustainability planning

Social:

Financial management & analysis

Technological:

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Economical:

Create dynamic partnerships

Political:

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Educational:

Social impact

28


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Guiding questions for a conversation:

• What are the 5 most important opportunities in the environment for your mentoring initiative?

• What are the 5 most important threats in the environment for your mentoring initiative?

• What are the necessary steps you could take to build on the opportunities?

What could be gained by building on the opportunities?

• What are the necessary steps you could take to deal with or avoid

the threats, or at least minimise their impact?

Good governance

An ecosystem analysis / 3

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

In the context of the labour market integration of

people of migrant origin and specifically refugees a

lot of actors are involved: local public employment

agencies, public services for social welfare,

representatives of the public services of the city,

volunteers etc. Mentoring initiatives often address

a social challenge that is not addressed enough

by the traditional actors involved in labour market

integration. This might challenge the way of working

of these actors but also help them open up to

new approaches in dealing with the integration of

newcomers and refugees into the labour market.

That is why it is important to make an analysis of the

ecosystem your mentoring-to-work initiative is part

of. A business ecosystem is a dynamic structure of

interconnected organisations that depend on each

other for mutual survival. Cooperation rather than

competition is the dominant mindset. A well-functioning

ecosystem enables and encourages diverse participants

to interact and co-create in increasingly effective ways.

The participants of an ecosystem share the same

interests and purpose. Individually, each organisation’s

capability set is narrow while collectively the capability

set becomes broader and the social impact that can be

realized will be much higher. A value network analysis

is often used as a methodology for understanding,

using, visualizing, optimizing internal and external

value networks and complex economic ecosystems

(Peppard & Rylander, 2006; Biem & Caswell, 2008).

The methods include visualizing sets of

relationships from a dynamic whole systems

perspective. Robust network analysis approaches

are used for understanding value conversion

of financial and non-financial assets, such as

intellectual capital, into other forms of value.

1. Identify roles

List at least 15 roles played in your organisation’s

ecosystem. Focus on types or roles.

2. Get specific

Write down some specific examples of each role to jog

your thinking when you return to the map in the future.

29


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

3. Begin your ecosystem map by drawing roles

Start by drawing one circle for each role (not for each specific entity)

on your map. Make sure there’s enough room between them. You may

wish to space those that you believe have more interactions closer

together. You can also use post-its so you can easily move them

around, relative to the space you want to leave between them.

4. Tell the story

Tell the story of how roles interact in the ecosystem. Start with the

customer. Who does the customer go to for service? What do they

request? Then what happens? How are the requests fulfilled? Who’s

involved? As you tell the story, draw arrows between entities to show

the flow of transactions through the ecosystem. Since you’re starting

with the customer, the first line should travel from the customer to

another entity. Remember to label lines with their deliverables.

5. Analyse your ecosystem

Look at your ecosystem map and analyse what you

see. If you get stuck, try these questions:

(a) How much reciprocity is there between roles? Are some roles giving

much more than receiving? Are others receiving more than they’re giving?

(b) Do specific roles provide resources, work, and/or sustenance

for others in the ecosystem? How dependent is your company on

these roles? How stable are the companies that fill these roles?

(c) What part does your company play in the ecosystem? Does it

provide a low-cost, commodity service that can easily be replaced

by someone else? Does it fight for limited resources with many

other companies? Does it set the pace for other entities?

6. Use your ecosystem map

Your ecosystem map can be helpful for orienting new employees

to your mentoring-to-work initiative, demonstrating the value

of a potential partnership to others in your mentoring-to-work

initiative or ecosystem, giving you a quick view of the environment

you need to monitor for disruptive changes and opportunities.

30


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

SWOT analysis for the analysis of your internal environment / 4

A SWOT analysis is a common used tool, and proven to be powerful and effective. It helps

you understand what your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are. Inspired by

Cayenne Apps we use an advanced version, so you also learn how these elements interact

with each other and which of them have the biggest impact on your organisation.

1. Make an inventory of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

You don’t have to discuss this with the others. Everyone can add what he or she wants to add,

without judgments or analysis of whether one feature is more important than another.

Collective leadership

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

31


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

2. Ask what are the most important features for each participant

When you have listed all the features in the table, you select which features are the most important. You

can do that by asking the individual participants to give their vote to the three most important features.

After you have done that, you will be able to see what the group finds is important and impactful.

3. What are the most important features for the group?

In the next step you work with these most important features and ask people to rank them.

You can do this by using a ranking system, where people receive each 100 points to hand

out. After ranking the most important features you will see what strengths, opportunities,

weaknesses and threats are perceived as more important or influential than others.

4. What is the relationship between the features you identified as most important

In the last step you define the relationships between the features. For example, you can ask yourself whether

a particular strength allows you to use a particular opportunity or whether it allows you to overcome a

particular threat. This exercise will help you also to define a strategy for the company. A strategy for the

company very often can be extrapolated from the relationships between the elements of the SWOT.

5. Define a strategy for the company

Human Resources

Key elements of our strategy are:

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

32


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

33


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

REFERENCES

Literature

• Abercrombie, Boswell & Thomassoo (2018). Thinking big. How to use theory of change for systems change.

www.thinknpc.org/resource-hub/thinking-big-how-to-use-theory-of-change-for-systems-change/

• Bailleur, Ph. (2016). Trauma in organisaties. Herkennen, aanpakken, voorkomen.

Lannoo Campus: Tielt. Biem, A. & Caswell, N. (2008). A Value Network Model for

Strategic Analysis. Hawaian International Conference on System Science.

• Earl, S., Carden, F., Smutylo, T. & Patton, M. (2004). Outcome Mapping:

Building Learning and Reflection into Development Programs.

• Purkayastha, D. & Decuyper, P. (2019). Best practices and critical success factors in mentoring

to work for refugees and migrants: an evidence-based study. Leuven: HIVA KU Leuven.

• Peppard, J., & Rylander, A. (2006). From value chain to value network:: Insights

for mobile operators. European Management Journal, 24, 2, 128-141.

• Wheatley, M. J. (2017). Who de we choose to be? Facing Reality, Claiming

Leadership, Restoring Sanity. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Websites

• betterevaluation.org/en/theme/organizational_performance

• www.cayenneapps.com/blog/2016/07/13/seven-reasons-to-use-swot-in-business/

• partneringresources.com/wp-content/uploads/Tool-Ecosystem-Mapping-Short-Format.pdf

• www.professionalgrowthsystems.com/library-articles/importance-internal-assessment/

• smallbusiness.chron.com/internal-analysis-important-80513.html

• thesystemsthinker.com/acting-and-thinking-systematically

Social impact

34


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.joblinge.de

• www.kodiko.fr

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

35


CLEAR PURPOSE


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

CLEAR PURPOSE

“Why is your mentoring initiative important?” “Why

do you do what you do?” These may sound like

philosophical questions, but defining a strong, shared

purpose for your organisation is much more than an

abstract statement. It is the first element that should

be made clear in order to make your mentoringto-work

organisation (more) sustainable (Margolis,

2018). Several mentoring initiatives that we came

across had started with limited project funding and

a short term perspective. As a consequence, their

focus remained on the ‘what’ and ‘how’ questions

and did not delve into ‘why’ mentoring is important.

A lack of clarity here made it that much more

difficult to secure funding and operational stability

in the long term. In fact, Purkayastha & De Cuyper

(2019) noted that several studies on mentoring

to work programmes for migrants highlight the

importance of a clear purpose and clear goals.

There is a difference between an organisation’s

‘universal purpose’ and its mission or strategy. A

purpose is an organisation’s reason for being – and

it does not change over time although it may inspire

change. Its mission is what they do in order fulfil that

purpose while a strategy is the plan that will result in

that outcome and shorter-term goals. Organisational

values are what will guide the way in which the strategy

and mission are executed. Ernst &Young (EY) (2016, 2)

defines purpose as “an aspirational reason for being

that is grounded in humanity and inspires a call to

action.” It looks at the bigger picture and a longer term

– and it allows an organisation to create value beyond

financial metrics: “By acting on their purpose, companies

can create more value for their shareholders and society

over the long term than by pursuing purely financial

goals or a narrowly defined self-interest” (EY, 2016, 2).

Ernst &Young (2016) wrote a State of the Debate report

on the importance of purpose in organisations. The

report presents insights from two types of sources.

First, a review of more than 150 books, and academic

and mainstream business articles on purpose and

related topics published since 1995; and second

interviews with leading experts and practitioners who

have observed or worked with companies that were

transforming their organisation through purpose. There

highlighted five ways in which purpose can bring greater

strategic impetus and be a guiding force for corporate

transformation and long-term value creation (EY, 2016, 3):

1. Purpose instils strategic clarity

In the face of continuous transformation, intense

competition and rising expectations, executives

describe purpose as a strategic “North Star,” a

guiding light for short-term decisions and longterm

strategy at every level of an organisation. A

clearly articulated purpose can move an organisation

forward, not just in what they do but how they do

it. It helps leaders think about systems holistically,

rather than by silo — a habit that suits today’s flatter,

more global, more diverse and more intrapreneurial

organisations. In intrapreneurial organisations persons

take responsibility to turn an idea into a practice or

product, through assertive risk taking and innovation.

2. Purpose channels innovation

By focusing innovation on a compelling “bigger

picture,” purpose encourages everyone to think

beyond incremental improvement. By offering a longterm

perspective, purpose is an antidote to shorttermism.

It empowers people to look for solutions

37


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

and innovations that will deliver durable value and

returns. At the same time, it sets clear boundaries on

the space the company wants to operate in, keeping

innovative energy focused on what matters. Purpose

is a force for and a response to transformation.

3. Purpose motivates people through meaning,

not fear, thus providing a more effective basis

for driving successful transformation

It clarifies the desired long-term outcome, allowing

people to understand the immediate need for

change rather than feeling alienated by change

that is “imposed” upon them. At the same time,

purpose is also in itself a response to societal

pressures on organisation to transform, to address

global challenges and to take a longer-term, more

comprehensive approach of growth and value.

4. Purpose taps a universal need

Purpose appeals to something fundamental in human

nature. Whatever their motives, most people feel a

need to contribute something to a community, to

feel they are part of society. Traditionally, corporate

culture aims to build a sense of camaraderie against

a common competitor. Fitting in with a group is often

a key motivator. Purpose takes a different stance,

recognizing differences and diversity while uniting

people through a desire to contribute to something

bigger than benchmarking or performance metrics.

5. Purpose builds bridges

Purpose makes it easier for companies to create

alliances. Whether the goal is cross-organisational

or cross-sectoral collaboration companies can

compare their potential for collaboration with a

particular group or another organisation by looking

for common ground in their purposes. Internally, too,

purpose helps individuals and teams to work across

silos in order to pursue a single, compelling aim.

It is important for the sustainability of the mentoringto-work

initiative that the employees find the purpose

inspirational and motivational. An inspiring purpose

can appeal to the passion of people to fully dedicate

themselves and their knowledge, talents and skills

to contribute to the purpose of the programme

(MacRae & Wakeland, 2006). If employees have a clear

understanding of the change the mentoring programme

wants to see in the world, they will be much better

at taking a lead in the roles they have in order to

realise the purpose. When the purpose is clear, it is

easier to attract employees that fit your mentoring

initiative. When the personal and professional

purpose of employees are connected, people work

with their passion and talent, which creates more

dynamism and energy. This driving force pushes the

organisation forward and stimulates creativity and

innovation (Dewulf & Beschuyt, 2014). In mentoringto-work

initiatives that make the transition towards

a social enterprise and a more entrepreneurial

mindset it will be important to work with available

talents as much as possible. In a context with huge

challenges, in this case due to structural barriers in the

labour market integration trajectory of mentees, it is

important to have employees who have enough energy

to help to find (out-the-box) solutions and to equip

mentors and companies to deal with the situation.

Therefore, the purpose should embody the head, heart

and hands of your employees. An organisation creates

an impact if these elements are in line with each

other. When you work fully from a systemic mindset

- think of the ecosystem analysis you conducted –it

is relevant to sense if your purpose also touches the

head, heart and hands of your stakeholders. We posit

38


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

that in the future it will be important for mentoringto-work

initiatives that want to develop towards a

social enterprise to think and work with a systemic

approach. They will be part of a complex adaptive

system, and their purpose will have to be carried out

through the other stakeholders as well (i.e. it should

be a common purpose). Especially for mentoring-towork

initiatives that work with people who are at a

considerable distance from the labour market (e.g.

refugees, newcomers, …), a collaborative approach will

help with sustainability and maximizing impact. In our

analysis of the annual reports of mentoring-to-work

initiatives Nos Quartiers ont des Talents and Joblinge

Kompass we found that they follow a similar approach.

What is the difference between a purpose

and a mission?

Jones (2016) defines the difference as follows:

Purpose

Why we do it

Sharing a dream

Cultural

Aspirational

Instills ownership

Fuels passion

Building a community

Building cathedrals

Creating happiness

Mission

What we do

Operating a organisation

Strategic

Inspirational

Creates buy-in

Provides focus

Building a company

Laying bricks

Parking cars

In the mentoring-to-work initiatives we studied, the

terms ‘purpose and mission are used interchangeably

or, sometimes, both are used in a few sentences.

We give some examples of how mentoring

organisations formulate what they are doing.

Mitt Liv is one of the few projects that

emphasizes a broader social goal:

“Mitt Liv is a social enterprise working for an

inclusive society and a labour market that values

diversity. Being a social enterprise for us, means

that we address societal challenges with innovative

solutions based on profitable business practices”.

Two Belgian mentoring-to-work initiatives mentioned

here, Mentor2Work and DUO for a JOB, have a similar

goal: reducing the distance between employers and

employees with a migrant background and facilitating

the future employment of young people. Mentor2Work

focuses primarily on people with a migrant background:

“Reduce the distance between employers

and potential employees with a migrant

background, through mentoring.”

DUO for a JOB works with youngsters from other

cultures through intergenerational mentoring:

“Through its mentoring programme, DUO for

a JOB encourages an exchange of experience

between generations and cultures thus facilitating

the future employment of young people while

recognising the value of our elders’ experience”

reads the DUO for a JOB mission statement.

Kodiko has a clearly defined mission, which is to provide

refugees individual and collective guidance in order

to support their integration into the labour market:

“Contribuer à accompagner les réfugiés statutaires

désireux de s’intégrer professionnellement à travers

Social impact

39


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

un programme d’accompagnement individuel et collectif

en lien avec des entreprises partenaires. Transmettre

des codes professionnels et culturels aux professionnels

en activité et professionnels réfugiés arrivant sur notre

territoire; permettre une autonomisation de la personne,

une structuration de son réseau professionnel, etc.“ / 5

Joblinge aims to mobilize social powers and to bundle

different competencies to give unemployed youth

the opportunity to earn their own apprenticeship

or job. Joblinge Kompass, which is aimed at young

refugees, adds another aspect to their mission,

which is to step in “as early as possible”:

“Joblinge mobilizes the strongest social powers and

bundles different competencies to give unemployed

youths the opportunity to earn their own apprenticeship

or job” or “…to qualify young refugees and integrate

them into the labour market as early as possible.”

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

40


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Finding your Organisational Ikigai

In the process of reflecting on your purpose it might be helpful

to use the ‘Organisational Ikigai’ canvas. Ikigai is a Japanese

word whose meaning translates roughly to a reason for being,

encompassing joy, a sense of purpose and meaning and a

feeling of well-being. The word derives from iki, meaning life

and kai, meaning the realisation of hopes and expectations.

The Ikigai is often used on the personal level. We suggest that

the Ikigai can easily be translated to an organisation as well.

When you find your Ikigai as an organisation – although this

can also be temporally depending on e.g. societal evolutions

– you will have a strong base for becoming more sustainable.

When you find your Ikigai, your organisation will do the

right amount of efforts to reach the most optimal results.

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

41


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Your organisational Ikigai

What does society need?

What is the tension

we sense?

What are we good at?

What feels most

relevant?

What creates a

momentum (to act)

towards the future?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Where do we feel

the energy?

PASSION

MISSION

What has to change to

improve our IKIGAI?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Where do we feel

the energy?

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

What actions

can we take?

What

are we

good

at?

IKIGAI

What

does

society

need?

What kind of support

do we need?

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

What can we do

for others?

PROFESSION

What do we get

paid for?

VOCATION

How do we relate

to others?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

42


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Formulate a clear purpose

When you have found your organisational

Ikigai, you will have a clear view on your

purpose. Now it is relevant to write your

purpose down in one sentence. Some experts

suggest that your purpose may consist of only

8 words.

Questions you can ask yourself, when

formulating your purpose are:

• Is the purpose a reflection of a

shared dream for society?

• Does the purpose answer the question:

“why is mentoring-to-work important?”

• Does the purpose speak to the

aspirations of your employees

and stakeholders?

• Is the purpose creating a connection?

• Is the purpose broad enough

in scope to allow for future

opportunities and change?

• Is the purpose brief in length

so employees and stakeholders

will remember it?

• Does your purpose instil ownership?

• Does your purpose fuels passion and

does it speak to the head, heart and

hands of employees and stakeholders?

Our purpose is:

Social impact

43


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

44


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

REFERENCES

Literature

• Dewulf, L. & Beschuyt, P. (2014). Mijn baas kiest voor mijn talent. LannooCampus: Leuven.

• Ernst &Young (EY) (2016). The state of the debate on purpose in business.

www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ey-the-state-of-the-debate-on-purpose-inbusiness/%24FILE/ey-the-state-of-the-debate-on-purpose-in-business.pdf

• Jones, B. (2016). The Difference Between Purpose and Mission.

hbr.org/sponsored/2016/02/the-difference-between-purpose-and-mission

• MacRae & Wakeland (2006), Building a sustainable mentoring program. A Framework for Resource

Development Planning. MRC: Folsom.

educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/resources/sustainability.pdf

• Margolis (2018) Purpose of an organisation?

sheilamargolis.com/core-culture-and-five-ps/the-five-ps-and-organizational-alignment/purpose/

• Purkayastha, D. & Decuyper, P. (2019). Best practices and critical success factors in mentoring

to work for refugees and migrants: an evidence-based study. Leuven: HIVA KU Leuven.

Websites

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.kodiko.fr

• www.minderhedenforum.be/mentor2work

• mittliv.com/om-oss/om-mitt-liv

• www.nqt.fr/

• www.valuescentre.com

Social impact

45


STRONG PUBLIC

NARRATIVE


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

STRONG PUBLIC NARRATIVE

A public narrative is a leadership practice of

translating values into action. It is based on the fact

that values are experienced emotionally. Narrative

is the discursive means we use to access values that

equip us with the courage to make choices under

conditions of uncertainty, to exercise agency.

A story is constructed of a plot, character, and moral.

A plot is initiated by a challenge that confronts a

character with a choice, which, in turn, yields an

outcome. Because we identify empathetically with

the character, we experience the emotional content

of the moment — the values in play, not simply

the ideas. Narratives become sources of learning,

not only for the head, but also for the heart.

Public narrative links the three elements of self, us,

and now: why I am called, why we are called, and why

we are called to act now. This public narrative work is

an effort to tell a story that involves the head AND the

heart AND moves people to use their hands and feet in

action. The key to public narrative is understanding that

values inspire action through emotion (Ganz, 2011).

Following Ganz (2011), the process of creating your

public narrative is fluid and iterative and can start

at any place. Once you develop your story of self,

story of us, and story of now, you’ll want to go back

to the beginning to clarify the links between them.

A “story of self” tells why we have been called to serve.

The story of self expresses the values or experiences

that call each person to take leadership. A “story of

us” communicates the values and experiences that a

community, organisation, group or campaign shares,

and what capacity or resources that community of “us”

has to accomplish its goals. Just as with a person, the

key is choice points in the life of the community and/

or those moments that express the values, experiences,

past challenges and resources of the community or “us”

that will take action. A “story of now” communicates the

urgent challenge we are called upon to face now and

what action we are being called to take. The story of now

articulates the urgent challenge in specific detail. It also

includes a description of the path we can take to achieve

goals relative to the mission – the unique strategy or

set of ideas that will help us to overcome the challenge

we face and succeed. The story of now includes an

“ask” that summons the audience to a specific action

they can do to achieve our collective mission.

Finally, the story lays out in detail a vision for the

potential outcome we could achieve if our strategy

succeeds. Finally, you integrate these three stories,

looking for the link between them – the place where

they overlap – to help explain why you are called to this

work, why we are called to act with you, and why we

are called to act now. This means being very selective

about the story you tell—for example not trying to tell

your whole biography when you tell your story of self.

The art of storytelling is increasingly seen

as an important competence for fundraising.

For example, Professor Jennifer McCrea at

Harvard University integrates “crafting a strong

public narrative” in her course on “exponential

fundraising”. Telling a personal story also creates

a personal connection with the audience.

“Many social entrepreneurs are hesitant to talk about

themselves and their personal journeys because

they feel that promoting the mission shouldn’t

47


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

be about them; it should be about the cause. But

opening up about ourselves, being vulnerable

and telling our story, and importantly, why we

became devoted to the cause, creates a personal

connection with our audience.” (Kelly-Janus, 2017)

The story of Edwin Blmqvist, Foreninger Nydansker

The idea to start a mentoring programme arose

after Edvin Blmqvist had taken immigrants into

internship in Haldor Topsoe, where he was personnel

manager. He did this in cooperation with the Danish

Refugee Council. Some of them were afterwards

employed in the company, and others got jobs

elsewhere and move on in the way. In collaboration

with two other business people - the auditor Niels

Ole Ellegaard and Torben Lund - Edvin Blomqvist

wanted to help more immigrants into work. Edvin

knew people who had sought hundreds of jobs

and never gotten anything. Intelligent people from

Kabul or Iran, for example, who had to go and

clean up or raise their welfare. But he found it

was hard to convince the business community.

It was a heavy task. Why would companies take a

chance with someone who may not be fluent in

Danish? There were also many anxiety neurosis

in relation to whether the new employee would

create problems in the workplace. Therefore, there

was need for an association that could guide the

employer. The most energy at the beginning went

to giving presentations, attending conferences

and sending information out. It was important

to influence public debate in a positive direction

and that companies had relevant knowledge

and insight into the experiences of others.

Mentoring-to-work organisations use also the power

of storytelling towards their mentors and mentees. On

their websites, in their annual reports, in videos when

they present their mentoring initiative to an audience, …

Some mentoring initiatives gather also stories of the

partners and stakeholders they work with, but this is

much less common and explored than engaging mentors

and mentees. It could also be relevant to gather stories

from the employers where the mentees have found work.

This requires keeping in touch with mentees on the

longer term. These stories would bring new perspectives

on the sustainability of employment towards mentoring

can contribute. It would bring also a more systemic

perspective on the impact of mentoring to work. It

creates also the possibility to enlighten the kind of

mindset that is needed on the employers side to develop

a trajectory towards sustainable employment and learn

us what is necessary to create the social impact we want.

Social impact

48


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Creating a compelling story

Kelly Janus (2017) proposes the following questions you can ask yourself regarding the creation of compelling

stories. We adapted the questions a little for mentoring-to-work initiatives.

Story of self

Strong public narrative

Good governance

What is the key message your mentoring-to-work initiative wants to convey?

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Story of us

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

What is the story of self that connects you to a cause and creates intimacy with your audience?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

49


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Story of now

What is the story of us that connects the audience to the cause?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

What are we called for?

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What are we called for?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

50


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Creating opportunities to craft and tell stories

What opportunities do you create for your...

Clear purpose

... employees to practice their

own stories?

... mentors and mentees

to create their stories?

... partners and stakeholders

to tell stories on behalf of

your mentoring initiative?

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

When mentors, mentees, partners and stakeholders tell stories, do you work with them

to help them practice in a way that is respectful and honours their story?

Social impact

51


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Tips for an elevator pitch

When meeting politician, funders, stakeholders you often have only a small window of opportunity

to present yourself. Crafting an elevator pitch can help you to present who you are and what you

are doing. An elevator pitch is restricted to 30 – 60 seconds; the time it takes to ride an elevator.

The purpose of an elevator pitch is to describe your mentoring-to-work initiative so compelling

that the person you’re with wants to hear more, even after the elevator ride is over.

Smith (2016) developed 6 elements – 6 C’s – to craft your elevator pitch.

Make it compelling

share your passion for the cause. You may have a personal story. Use a story that lights you up when you tell it.

Customize your story: if you know your audience, design something that will connect with their interests. The goal is

to create a positive connection based on similar interests. If you do not know your audience, you might want to ask

them questions. “What issue are you most passionate about?” and find a way to connect your cause to their passion.

Keep it concise: your pitch should be short, no longer than 60 seconds. Engage people

in the conversation. Don’t share everything, but focus on one thing.

Be clear: practice your pitch as if you are speaking to your family.

Be credible: use data, results and stories that is memorable and clearly supports your case.

Close with an invitation: share what you need in an interested way that doesn’t feel transactional.

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Write down your elevator pitch:

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

52


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

53


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

REFERENCES

Literature

• Kelly Janus, K. (2017). Social Startup Success. How the best nonprofits launch,

scale up and make a difference. Da Capo Lifelong Books: New York.

• Ganz, M. (2011). Public Narrative, Collective Action, and Power. In: Accountability Through Public Opinion: From

Inertia to Public Action, eds. Sina Odugbemi and Taeku Lee, pp. 273-289. The World Bank: Washington D.C.

• Smith, S. (2016). Are You Elevator-Ready? The 6 Cs for a Dynamite Nonprofit Pitch.

socialimpactarchitects.com/are-you-elevator-ready-6-cs-for-a-dynamite-nonprofit-pitch/

Websites

• www.foreningen-nydansker.dk/historie

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

54


GOOD GOVERNANCE


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Governance is about the systems and processes

concerned with ensuring the overall direction,

effectiveness, supervision and accountability of

an organisation. One of the formal elements of

governance that organisations need to have in place

is a board of directors. A board is a legal body which

is responsible for overseeing the governance of a

commercial or social venture. Members of this body

can be called trustees, directors, board members,

governors or committee members. The all refer to the

same thing (School for Social Entrepreneurs, 2019).

In traditional, hierarchical organisations with formal

organisational structures, the board of directors

is the body that takes most of the strategic and

sometimes operational decisions. In more horizontal

organisations the strategy, supervision, effectiveness

and accountability is much more participatory and

happens on the work floor. It is much closer to the

operational processes where value is created. In new

mentoring initiatives we often see this horizontal

approach in the initial years of the organisation.

Once they begin to scale up structures become more

formal and are instituted more firmly in place. This

section deals with a formal structure of governance.

Good governance ensures compliance with law and

regulation, that an organisation is well run and

that problems are identified early and dealt with

appropriately. Depending on the structure and setting

of the mentoring programme, there should be either a

formal board of directors or an advisory committee that

approves programme plans, provides input and feedback

on programme decisions, and offers general oversight

and leadership to the programme (Garringer et.al., 2015).

Even if you are not legally required to have a board you

might decide that having a board will be beneficial to

your organisation. One of the main benefits is that it will

allow you to recruit people with additional skills and

experience to provide guidance and strategic direction

for your organisation. It is important to think about the

pros and cons before deciding on whether to assemble

a board (School for Social Entrepreneurs, 2019).

A board should (School for Social Entrepreneurs, 2019):

• help you decide on your organisational aims

and ensure you remain true to this purpose;

work with you to decide on strategic

direction and operational plans,

• ensure you have enough money to fulfil your

obligations and that you are spending it wisely,

• check that you follow the law e.g.

you prepare your accounts properly

and adhere to employment law,

• ensure you meet the conditions you set for

yourselves at the beginning (generally written

down as the “Memorandum and Articles” at

the time your legal structure was set up) and

• help you develop strategy, identify risk and

adjust your aims as circumstances change. It is a

good practice to have experienced people from

a range of backgrounds as board members.

Social impact

56


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

In particular you should look for people who are:

• genuinely interested in what you are doing,

• supportive of the organisation and

what you are trying to achieve,

• objective and able to help you

get new perspectives,

• willing to give you access to their

expertise, contacts and wisdom,

• able to critique and challenge you

in a way that helps you grow.

The board is not set in stone, and as the enterprise

grows and changes you will need to change the

composition of the board to meet new challenges

and bring in fresh ideas, experience and expertise

(Mola, 2019). What you need should be determined by

undertaking a skills audit of your board on a regular

basis. Review whether existing skills and expertise are

sufficient to meet the anticipated growth, needs and

challenges of the enterprise over the next year. As you

grow and your organisation becomes more complex.

As a consequence it may be necessary to increase the

size of your board so that it can reflect the necessary

range of skills and expertise (Mola, 2019). Expertise in

scaling the organisation or scaling impact, for instance,

might be considerably relevant to add. It may also

be worth considering inviting new board members

who bring credibility with stakeholders and funders

rather than those who fill a particular skills gap. This

could include recruitment from the local community,

beneficiary groups, employees and local politicians.

All mentoring initiatives that we consider sustainable

or highly likely to become sustainable have a formal

board of directors or a non-formal advisory committee.

These committees/boards comprise members who

have significant expertise in conducting business

and can open up their network in case the need for

new funding arises. They can also offer support and

advice, working, as it were, as mentors for the funders

of the mentoring-to-work initiative. The latter is

created by stakeholders for different perspectives and

feedback on the mentoring programme. For instance,

in mentoring for youth programmes the advisory board

often includes youngsters and volunteers. However,

in mentoring-to-work programmes for refugees we

didn’t come across any mentoring programmes that

involve former mentors and mentees in their advisory

committees. Such a platform is highly recommended

as the feedback from former participants can help

strengthen the design of the mentoring programme.

It might even be useful and effective to evaluate,

build and co-create the programme together.

The composition of the board of directors of mentoringto-work

organisations is very diverse and also

depends on the legislation of the country and on the

company form one chooses. Some of the mentoring

organisations have a small board with only the funders

as members (e.g. DUO for a JOB, Connect2Work) or

with the funders and a few experts (e.g. Mittliv). Other

mentoring organisations choose a large and diverse

board and some even have honorary board members

(e.g. NQT). Nos Quartiers ont des talents (NQT) has

developed an ecosystem out of a broad and diverse

partnership which reflects diversity and is able to

mobilise financial resources. Hence, NQT has an

active board with members who can be divided into

5 sections: Enterprises (includes representatives of

multinationals); Local authorities; Institutions of Higher

Education; Young Graduates and a section of other

active members. Hence, it is not always necessary to

have a board of directors with a lot of members, but

Social impact

57


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

you do need a network of experts and stakeholders

that support you and whom you can consult. You need

an effective board that is agile, knows how to value

diversity and have constructive conversations, and

knows how to make effective decisions in the short

term that support a sustainable future. Board conflict

can be disabling for an organisation and disastrous

for its prospects. So ensure that technical skills and

experience on the board are balanced with soft skills

such as social and communication skills (Mola, 2019).

Mola (2019) describes what a recruitment procedure

for new board members might look like. Once you

know what you are looking for, document it in a ‘job

description’, setting out roles and responsibilities,

time commitment and pay, if any. Recruiting new

board members may be done in a number of ways.

It could be done informally through word of mouth

and tapping into networks. Or you may come across

potential board members that you feel will meet your

requirements through your day-to-day work. You can

also advertise board member vacancies on your web

site and in newsletters. When you meet someone whom

you believe may be a good recruit, try to get them

interested in your business, keep in touch with them,

ask about their background and experience to find out

their whether they have the skills that you are looking

for as well as the commitment to your values. When

the time is appropriate you can then approach the

individual with a position on the board. New recruits

need to be inducted in the enterprise’s vision, mission

and values. They will also need to understand the legal

implications of being a board member, which can be

onerous. Ensure that you have contracts in place and,

importantly, practical mechanisms for letting go of

board members who are not effective, don’t contribute

or have outlived their usefulness. It is generally

regarded as a good governance practice to give (nonexecutive)

board members limited time contracts, for

example a maximum contract of three years, which

can be renewed only once. Garringer (2005) adds in

the appendix of a paper concerning sustainability

planning and resource development for youth mentoring

programmes more instruments that might be relevant

for your mentoring initiative, such as a Board Self-

Assessment checklist, a Board Member Resource

Commitment Form, Board Member Code of conduct.

Sometimes, especially when your mentoring initiative

grows, shows good results and has a high social impact,

(impact) investors might want to take a seat in the

board of your mentoring organisation. As said earlier

mentoring initiatives have very different policies

concerning that topic. There are several options to

take: being a member in the board, being part of an

advisory board, having transparent reporting meetings

which give a clear insight in how the means are used

and what the impact is of their investment in your

mentoring initiative. Most of the mentoring initiatives

we encountered chose the latter two options, also

because they are funded by a range of funders. Mola

(2019) describes the reasons why investors want

to be part of the board. Earlier on in the life of the

organisation, it could be that the investor is sufficiently

impressed by the enterprise to invest their time as well

as their money in the start-up. This is quite often the

case with angel investors. They bring money, expertise

and their contacts with them. By becoming a member

of the board, they can safeguard their investment

from a more insider perspective. As organisations (and

investments) become larger, a similar decision will

be taken by an investor to provide a level of security

in relation to a substantial investment. Grant funding

organisations may sometimes seek a board position

either to help ensure that the enterprise utilises the

grant correctly or else because the grantor is impressed

Social impact

58


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

with the enterprise and wants to contribute more to it

than just the monetary investment. In general, grantmaker

representation on social enterprise boards

is not that common (Mola, 2019). It is relevant when

your mentoring initiatives has an outlook to grow

and scaling up, to have a clear vision on how you

will engage your funders in your formal governance

and what other processes for accountability you can

develop. What does your governance look like today?

And what are the challenges you foresee for the future?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

59


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Good governance / 6 - the board of directors

Are the legal requirements of the board fulfilled? yes - no

Are the individual responsibilities and the role of the board

members clear and understood by all members? yes - no

Does the board work in accordance with the mission

and vision of the mentoring-to-work initiative? yes - no

Is there a reasonable mix of competencies in the board of

directors? E.g. specific competences like judicial, financial, affection

and relevant experience with the target group, … And general

competences like strategic thinking, networking, connecting, … yes - no

Are the duties, powers and responsibilities of the board members

and the management clearly defined and described? yes - no

Are the agreements between the board and the general

assembly, and the day-to-day administration clear enough? yes - no

Is the information about financial health transparent enough for

the board members? Can the board of directors make short and

long-term decisions based on the information available? yes - no

Does your board review and endorse policies and

procedures related to risk management? yes - no

Is the board kept informed with reports on

resource planning and capacity? yes - no

Is the board kept informed with accurate information about

the performance of the organisation and its social impact? yes - no

Social impact

60


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Does the board have an active stakeholder policy?

yes - no

Have the mission and vision been shared with

the organisation and stakeholders? yes - no

Are meetings conducted in a constructive atmosphere? yes - no

Does the board evaluate its performance regularly (e.g. annually)? yes - no

Does the board meet regularly and is it well prepared? yes - no

Are the board members acting from a position of

independence? Are they able to think without restrictions

about the future of the mentoring-to-work initiative? yes - no

Does the board have in place any procedures

related to conflicts of interest? yes - no

Is a code of conduct in place and are the values clear for all the board

members? Is this also systematically provided to new members? yes - no

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

61


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

62


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

REFERENCES

Literature

• Garringer, M. (2005). Sustainability Planning and Resource Development for Youth

Mentoring Programs. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory: Portland.

• Garringer, M., Kupersmidt, J., Rhodes, J., Stelter, R., & Tai, T. (2015). Elements of effective practice for mentoring

(4th Edition). Boston, MA: MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

www.mentoring.org/program-resources/elements-of-effective-practice-for-mentoring.

• Mola, D. (2019). Bringing on new board members.

www.unltd.org.uk/our-support/learning-area/bringing-on-new-baord-members.

• School for Social Entrepreneurs (SSE) (2019). How to establish a social enterprise board?

www.the-sse.org/resources/starting/how-to-establish-a-social-enterprise-board/

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Websites

• www.duoforajob.be

• mittliv.com/

• www.nqt.fr/

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

63


COLLECTIVE LEADERSHIP


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

COLLECTIVE LEADERSHIP

There is a common misconception in the field of

social entrepreneurialism that social entrepreneurs

can build impressive organisations single-handedly,

based solely on charisma and relentless personal

endurance. In reality it “takes a village” to support the

growth and development of successful organisations.

Telling compelling stories and the personal leadership

is only one element that contributes to sustainability

(Kelly Janus, 2017). A culture of collective and

collaborative leadership and the development of

a social entrepreneurial mindset of all employees

are also important success factors. Especially in a

more complex or VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex

and ambiguous) context. This sort of leadership and

training would allow employees and teams to operate

with autonomy and decision-making authority (Kelly

Janus, 2017; 2018). A fundamental choice for more

collaborative and ‘horizontal’ approaches of organising

requires: personal leadership and autonomy, a clear

purpose, open and participatory meetings, a high

level of transparency, decision making authority,

personal leadership in learning and development

and building trustful relationships (Slade, 2018).

Leading through complexity also requires a leadership

approach that knows how to deal with constant

changes in the environment and keep the organisation

alive. At the University of Groningen a research on

leadership styles was conducted between 2008 and

2012, which explored how leadership in mentoring

organisations influences effectivity and sustainability

of the mentoring initiative (Vos et.al, 2012). The

researchers distinguished between four leadership

styles: visionary leadership, participatory leadership,

socio-emotional leadership, and task-oriented

leadership. Before highlighting the research, it is

important to emphasise that our study indicates that

these features cannot be ascribed to the director alone,

they have to be features of several team members.

The Groningen research posits that mentoring projects

who have a project leader with a visionary leadership

style have (1) more successful duos (mentor – mentee),

(2) are able to engage mentors for other tasks than

mentoring alone, and (3) have a larger potential for

growth. Visionary leadership in combination with

task oriented leadership supports the effectiveness

of mentoring. Participatory leadership supports the

repeated engagement of mentors. Although socioemotional

leadership is also, to some extent, related

to the quality of the mutual contact, participative

leadership in particular determines the strength of the

connection between the project and the collaborating

partners. This is a finding that the researchers did

not expect from a theoretical point of view as they

expected socio-emotional leadership would have a

bigger influence. One explanation for this outcome

might be that partners who get the chance to co-create

several elements of the mentoring process feel more

valued. Having a visionary leadership style is supportive

to the communication and recognition of seeing

the added value of mentoring by the stakeholders.

Project leaders who are able to convey a strong vision

are able to convince partners and stakeholders that

mentoring is a good addition to the regular practices.

A participatory leadership style often creates support

for the mentoring project by internal as well as

external stakeholders, which facilitates the integration

of mentoring in organisations. Leaders of mentoring

Social impact

65


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

projects who combine a visionary and participatory

leadership style often find more willingness from their

stakeholders to support the organisation financially, now

and in the future. Garringer et. al. (2015) also found that

leaders of mentoring programmes should be involved

in advocacy work that promotes the awareness of

mentoring at a community level and adequate resources

from public and private sources for mentoring.

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

66


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Inspired by Kelly Janus (2017) and Slade (2018) we formulate the following questions.

We suggest to have conversations with the members of your teams on these questions:

Is the purpose of the mentoring organisation and the social

change you want to achieve clear to every employee? yes - no

Are the (team)meetings based on collaborative

principles and is wise agenda setting used? yes - no

Is it clear for everyone what the metrics for

success are within their roles?

Is the formulation of the metrics supported by the organisation,

based on transparency (e.g. budget, processes, personnel, …)?

Has the mentoring organisation processes in place

to give each other horizontal feedback?

Are decision making processes clear for everyone?

yes - no

yes - no

yes - no

yes - no

Is the guiding language “we” opposed to “I”

when talking about the organisation? yes - no

Have all team members opportunities to act as the

face of the organisation in some capacity?

yes - no

Can everybody take a lead on initiating learning opportunities? yes - no

Is the relational foundation of the organisation a

permanent point of attention (internal and external)? yes - no

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Are regular bonding opportunities such as in-person social

gatherings organised within the organisation as well as

with mentors, mentees, partners and stakeholders?

yes - no

Social impact

67


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

68


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

REFERENCES

Literature

• Garringer, M., Kupersmidt, J., Rhodes, J., Stelter, R., & Tai, T. (2015). Elements of effective practice

for mentoring (4th Edition). Boston, MA: MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

• Kelly Janus, K. (2017). Social Startup Success. How the best nonprofits launch,

scale up and make a difference. Da Capo Lifelong Books: New York.

• Kelly Janus, K. (2018). Social Startup Success Evaluation Toolkit Quiz.

www.kathleenjanus.com/socialstartupsuccess.html

• Slade, S. (2018). Going Horizontal. Creating a Non-Hierarchical Organization,

One Practice at a Time. Berrett-Koehler Publishers: Canada.

• Vos, M., Pot, H., Dotinga, A. (2012). Met mentoring naar de TOP! Toekomst, Ontwikkeling en

Perspectief Evaluatieonderzoek Stimuleringsprogramma Mentorprojecten. ISW: Groningen.

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

69


ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

FOR EFFECTIVENESS

AND AGILITY


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR EFFECTIVENESS AND AGILITY

An organisational structure reflects where the power

of influence is located and the channels through which

information and influence flow. Organisations have

three kinds of power, and three forms of leadership,

three structures (Pflaeging, 2017). There is no decision

to make about having all three structures, or not. None

of the three structures is optional, or nice to have.

They are part of organisational physics — universal laws

that apply to every organisation, large or small, old or

new, for profit or social. What is interesting about this

view is that it recognises the existence of more layers

of organisational structures in the same organisation

at the same time. This view doesn’t make it simpler

for upcoming organisations, but that’s not necessarily

a bad thing. Building an organisational structure is

not an end in itself, but is an answer on how to deal

with the complexity of working together towards

the purpose of the organisation. The organisational

structure should support the continuous flow of value,

enable effective collaboration around dependencies,

ensure information is available to those who need it

and distribute power to influence as required. We use

Pflaeging’s insights to guide you on how to develop

a vision for your (future) organisational structure.

The first structure is the formal structure. The most

widely understood concept of power in an organisation

is that of hierarchy. As a structure, it is more rigid,

has little room for internal networking or space for

complexity. However, it is necessary. Its versatility is

usually over-estimated. A formal structure is capable

of producing one important thing: compliance with

the law. Because formal structure is the domain in

which compliance is produced, every organisation,

large or small, old or young, has one. Too much use of

formal power by managers, or too much emphasis on

hierarchy, has serious downsides: as only one of three

powers within any organisation, hierarchy must not be

over-emphasized. If the formal structure becomes too

dominant, this often has negative consequences for

organisational effectiveness, diminished complexityrobustness,

and a lack of innovation. In the presence

of too much hierarchy or formal power the social

density and connection deteriorates. Members of the

organisation will try to influence the formal structure

and its complicated mechanics of steering and control.

Organisational energy is wasted on bureaucracy,

and self-defence against command-and-control

from the top carried out within informal structure.

The second structure is an informal structure. The

core feature of this structure is an informal network.

Such a structure gets its value from the informal

relationships between people. It is the place where

people share informal stories, find solidarity or where

the gossip takes place. The power that emerges here

is the power of Influence. The formal and informal

structure are in permanent interaction with each

other and influence each other in turn. Decisions

made in the formal structure can trigger the informal

structure, just as much as actions in the informal

space can have outcomes in the formal space.

The third structure is the value creation structure.

This is the least understood of the three structures

of any organisation, but it is in this structure that the

work actually gets done. This is the structure where

effectiveness, performance and success can arise.

Pflaeging notes that neither success nor performance

can be produced in the formal structure or informal

Social impact

71


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

structure of an organisation, because these are just

carriers of the compliance dimension and the social

dimension. The third structure, on the other hand, gives

rise to a third kind of power: the power of reputation.

This arises when people who have a problem at work,

which they cannot solve on their own, turn to someone

else and ask: “Who knows about this?” or “Who is the

expert on this particular matter?” At this point, people

are looking for mastery. This is when value begins to

form. Networks of cells, which contain functionally

integrated teams, and which are interrelated by value

flow, pay, and communication relationships is how

we can imagine these value creation structures. In

the structure, any cell either creates value for other

network cells or for the outside (market, clients).

In practice, these three systems are interrelated

(Pflaeging & Herman, 2011). If they are not interrelated

and the organisation institutes a divide between

management and workers, three systemic gaps are

created. The social gap, the functional gap and the

time gap. The social gap leads towards an erosion of

the social network. The functional gap produces a

need for micro-managed and imposed coordination

through process control, interfaces, planning, rules,

standards, hierarchical power. The time gap creates

a division between the thinkers at the management

level and the ‘non-thinking doers’, which often causes

complicated systems that are of no use for the doers

and only serve the management. However, as we know

from several studies, information in these complicated

systems is often only a fragment of reality and loses its

meaning (Pflaeging et. al., 2012). Furthermore, during

meetings at such organisations, a lot of sabotage

techniques are often at play (the corporate rebels.com).

A mentoring-to-work initiative has all the features of a

complex system: the presence or participation of living

creatures: mentors, mentees, coaches, volunteers

and other stakeholders. People don’t operate in

standardised ways, in clear cause-effect chains (even

though we try to organise our organisations in that

way and expect people to behave accordingly). The

interaction between these actors and many more

(friends, family, employment counsellors, social

workers, …) is constantly changing. And the context in

which mentoring-to-work initiatives work is conducted

is described as VUCA: volatile, uncertain, complex and

adaptive (Wheatley, 2017). To become a sustainable

organisation, mentoring-to-work initiatives will have to

be part of a network of collaboration, and be flexible

and adaptive to the surrounding environment.

Mentoring-to-work initiatives need an organisational

structure that is human-centred as well as resultsoriented.

Human centred because humans and the

Social impact

72


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

relations they establish are the key to mentoring.

Results oriented because mentoring-to-work initiatives

want to create impact (i.e. the employment of mentees

in the regular labour market). Being able to prove

your impact is of high importance for generating

financial resources. The tendency towards results or

impact based funding is growing in Western society

and several organisations that offer mentoring make

use of or ask for impact based funding (e.g. DUO for a

JOB and Joblinge). Most mentoring-to-work initiatives

that are financed with private money have to prove

their impact to their funders one way or another. So,

in order to be successful, mentoring organisations

will have to create a work culture that supports both

– a human-centred approach and a result-oriented

organisational culture. Furthermore, there should be

value creation structures in place that can handle

complexity, thus facilitating the creation of impact.

Over the last few years several structures of value

creation have been developed (Knuchel, 2018), which

have the principle of self-organisation in common. If

well-implemented, they are supportive of collaborative

leadership, which is a feature of self-organisation

and a critical success factor for mentoring-to-work

initiatives. As previously mentioned, this is about

enabling people in your mentoring organisation -

and possibly other people involved (such as mentors

and volunteers) – to take the lead in topics they are

good at (Laloux, 2018), or that they have or want to

gain mastery in, and to create an environment that

supports the enhancement of their power. It’s about

people and community development, in such a way

that people can gain mastery: they can grow, achieve

their full potential, develop themselves and contribute

to the groups they are part of. One where workplaces

move from being places of drudgery, to places of

collaborative growth, learning and development,

and even of joy and living (Knuchel, 2018). In some

mentoring initiatives this is also offered to mentors,

volunteers from companies, and the local community.

Organisations that work with a strong purpose and

along the principles of self-organisation often offer

this kind of support. They make use of the energy

that is present, especially when it can contribute to

the overall organisational purpose (e.g. supporting

the integration of mentees into the labour market).

When it started out, Belgian mentoring-to-work

initiative DUO for a JOB was organised along the

principles of holacracy. This organisational structure is

highly flexible and often has no clear job descriptions

in place. It derives its strength from this flexibility.

At DUO for a JOB, the small and motivated staff were

guided by the primary purpose of the organisation as

they navigated through tensions and opportunities

that emerged. Holacracy-powered organisations focus

on purpose at every level of scale: organisational

purpose, team purpose, and individual purpose are

all explicit and aligned. The result is that every team

member directs their energies in alignment with

the mission of the organisation, unlocking the full

potential of their organisation. With holacracy roles are

defined around the work (not people) and are updated

regularly. People might fill several roles. Authority

is distributed to teams and roles and decisions are

made locally. This organisational structure came

under scrutiny in 2016, when DUO for a JOB saw a

steep growing curve and established new divisions of

the organisation in several cities in Flanders. While

the organisation still works along those principles,

the roles are now more defined and distributed on

the basis of the talents and competences of people

working there. In comparison to the start-up phase,

there is also a more formal structure in place.

Social impact

73


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Another form of self-management that is often used in

social entrepreneurial settings working in the field of

complexity, is Sociocracy 3.0. Sociocracy 3.0. provides

a coherent collection of principles-based patterns

for collaboration, to navigate complexity, adapt and

evolve. It enables people to incrementally process

available information into a continuous improvement

of the value stream, products, services and skills. It

helps organisations make the best use of the talent

and the collective intelligence of the group. In the

context of mentoring-to-work initiatives that work with

less qualified refugees, working closely with several

partners in their ecosystem enhances the chances for

a sustainable integration of refugees into the labour

market. An organisational structure and culture that

can build on the intelligence and the emergence of

opportunities might be a critical success factor as well,

especially as it fosters engagement with people working

for your mentoring-to-work initiative and with other

people and organisations in your network. To create a

permanent flow, decision making processes are based

on consent, which are guided by the principles of ‘good

enough for now’ and ‘safe enough to try’. Sociocracy

3.0 is applied within start-ups, small and medium

businesses, networked organisations, communities.

Sociocracy 3.0 works along seven guiding principles

that shape the organisational culture:

• Effectiveness: devote time only to what brings

you closer to achieving your objectives.

• Consent: raise, seek out and resolve

objections to decisions and actions.

• Empiricism: test all assumptions through

experiments and continuous revision.

• Continuous improvement: change incrementally

to accommodate steady empirical learning.

• Equivalence: involve people in making and

evolving decisions that affect them.

• Transparency: make all information accessible

to everyone in an organisation, unless

there is a reason for confidentiality.

• Accountability: respond when something

is needed, do what you agreed to and take

ownership for the course of the organisation.

The basic building blocks for organisational structure

are interdependent, connected domains. Sociocracy

3.0 describes several patterns to grow organisational

structure. All the tools to help you organise in this

manner are open source and available online for

you to use. In a mentoring-to-work initiative it will

be of uttermost importance that these (or similar)

principles of effectiveness, consent, empiricism,

continuous improvement, equivalence, transparency,

and accountability are apparent not only within

the mentoring organisation and in the relation

between the coaches and the mentors, but also

inform the mentoring relation between the mentor

and the mentee. We consider these principles

equally relevant to the networks of collaboration

that might be set in place among several actors in

the field in order to open pathways and generate

opportunities for sustainable integration of

mentees into the labour market (Carrette, 2019).

Social impact

74


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

HOW TO TOOLBOX

The following questions help you reflect on your organisational structure.

• What structures do you have in place? Which structures are dominant? What are

the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and limitations of each?

• How much of your time do you devote to what brings you closer to achieving your objectives?

• During how much of your time do you create value?

In an effective organisational structure, 70 % of the time goes to value creation, 20% to the informal structure

and 10% to the formal structure.

In ineffective organisational structure, 20% of the time goes to value creation,

50% to formal structures and 30% to informal structures.

• Are there practices in place to seek out and resolve objections to decisions and actions?

• Are assumptions about how your mentoring-to-work initiatives works or could work better tested through

experiments? Are feedback loops and learning circles in place for continuous revision and learning?

• Does change in your mentoring to work initiative occur incrementally

to accommodate steady empirical learning?

• How are people involved in making and evolving decisions that affect them within and/or without

the boundaries of your mentoring-to-work initiative? Think from a multi-partner perspective

(mentors, mentees, coaches within the mentoring organisation, volunteers, employers, … )?

• Is all information accessible to everyone in the mentoring-to-work

organisation, unless there is a reason for confidentiality?

• Respond when something is needed, do what you agreed to and

take ownership for the course of the organisation.

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

75


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

76


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

REFERENCES

Literature

• Carrette, V. (2019). Mentoring-to-work in het normaal economisch circuit; Een mentoring

model voor doorstroom naar NEC van vluchtelingen tewerkgesteld in art.60§7.

• Knuchel, F. (2018). Lean, Agile, Teal… how does Sociocracy fit in?

medium.com/virtual-teams-for-systemic-change/lean-agile-teal-how-does-sociocracy-fit-in-b1be0a50e701

• Laloux, F. (2019). Reinventing organisations. Laloux at power of community:

climate change and consciousness. Interview at the online summit.

• Pflaeging, N. & Herman (2011). How structures work, how they interact, what this means for

organizational effectiveness and change. BetaCodex Network White paper, nr. 11.

• Pflaeging, N., Herman, S., Vollmer, L. & Carvalho, V. (2012). How to make work work

again. How to break the barrier of command and control and create peak performance,

networked organisations. BetaCodex Network White Paper, nr. 12 & 13.

• Pflaeging, N. (2017). Org Physics: The 3 faces of every company. How a triad of structures allows companies to

absorb complexity. medium.com/@NielsPflaeging/org-physics-the-3-faces-of-every-company-df16025f65f8.

• Wheatley, M. J. (2017). Who de we choose to be? Facing Reality, Claiming

Leadership, Restoring Sanity. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Websites

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.joblinge.de

• sociocracy30.org

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

77


MARKETING STRATEGY

AND

COMMUNICATION PLAN


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

MARKETING STRATEGY AND COMMUNICATION PLAN

Your marketing strategy should be seen as an integral

component of the overall organisation strategy as it

will play a fundamental role in fulfilling the mission

of your organisation. Once you define your marketing

strategy, you will be able to develop a marketing

plan – i.e. the objectives, budgets and tools that will

be used to deliver the marketing strategy (Bania &

Kandalaft, 2013; Garringer et. al., 2015; UnLtd, 2019).

The marketing strategy of your mentoring-towork

organisation should define how you plan to

communicate your value proposition to the target

audience. A value proposition is a promise of value

to be delivered, communicated and acknowledged. It

is also an understanding on the part of the customer

about how he or she will benefit from what your

mentoring organisation will deliver. Mentoringto-work

initiatives have several target audiences,

including mentors and mentees (refugees), but also

companies and organisations where (potential)

mentors work or those that mentees are involved

with (e.g. public social services, public employment

agencies, refugee organisations). A different marketing

and communication strategy will be necessary to

address different target audiences because how they

benefit from your initiative may differ. The ecosystem

analysis you have made can inform you about the

actors and stakeholders in your ecosystem. If you

look back at the results of your ecosystem analysis

from the perspective of recruiting mentors and

mentees, for example, you might discover actors you

didn’t think of when you first made the exercise.

Understanding your market position will require you

to compare the value proposition of your mentoring-

to-work initiative to those of other (mentoringto-work)

initiatives that support the integration

of refugees in the labour market. Understanding

your market position will enable you to define and

communicate your ‘unique selling point’ (USP).

This, in turn, helps you define the key features

of your initiative that you should communicate to

your target audience (UnLtd, 2019). This exercise

is often made from a competitors’ mindset. It is

good to know your USP and use it as a strength or

a defining feature, especially in the context of a

multi-stakeholder approach, where several actors

working on integration, in the labour market and

beyond, can cooperate well. Only then are we working

together in the service of a sustainable integration of

refugees into the labour market. When organisations

see each other as concurrent in the field of

labour market integration, we create unnecessary

boundaries for the integration process of refugees.

Below are some variables that are commonly

used by social enterprises to compare

themselves with other actors (UnLtd, 2019):

• Scale of social outcomes

• Quality of social outcomes

• Price

• Innovation

• Potential for replication/scaling up

• Social responsibility and ethical values

Social impact

79


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

Your marketing and communication strategy will also

be influenced by the way you want to reach your target

audience (mentors and mentees), i.e., your ‘routes to

the market’. ‘Routes to market’ are different routes or

channels that an organisation needs to use in order

to access its target audience. Both direct and indirect

routes (UnLtd, 2019) can be used. For mentoring-to-work

initiatives, ‘direct routes’ include social media, website

and personal contact with potential mentors in network

meetings. Indirect routes include addressing public

employment agencies, federations and representatives

of sectors. A marketing and communication plan

prioritises the routes that best for the organisation.

A marketing and communication plan

to recruit mentors and mentees

Finding mentors and mentees is a matter of survival

for mentoring initiatives: without mentors or

mentees there is no mentoring-to-work. For several

mentoring-to-work initiatives, finding mentors is

a huge challenge. The requirements for becoming

a mentor or creating sustainable matches can be

quite specific. In mentoring-to-work approaches

that are more social, personality and soft skills

might be an important feature. In mentoring-towork

approaches that focus more on supporting

social capital, personality and soft skills might

be an important feature. In mentoring-to-work

initiatives that aim to support mentees in finding a

job, sector specific matches are more significant. It

is important to find mentors experience in specific

jobs or sectors. How you communicate what and to

whom will influence the recruitment of mentors a lot.

Mentoring-to-work initiatives can enhance

the recruitment and retention of mentors by

understanding what motivates them and tailor

their recruitment messages and experiences

accordingly (Rhodes, 2006). Programmes should take

a “functional” approach to volunteer recruitment.

Different people may have very different, underlying

motivations for deciding to volunteer. Recruitment

messages that address these motivations are

more persuasive than more generic messages.

Researchers identified seven major reasons

why people volunteer (Clary et. al. and

Omoto & Snyder in: Rhodes, 2006):

• Values – to put their values into action

• Career – to explore career options, increase the

likelihood of pursuing particular career paths

• Understanding – to gain a greater

understanding of the world, the people in it

• Enhancement – to feel important, to form new

friendships, and to boost their own self-esteem

• Protective – to distract themselves

from work or personal problems

• Social – to satisfy expectations of friends, a

spouse or others who are close to them.

• Community Concern

Findings on motivation suggest that volunteers

often have multiple motivations, thus marketing

messages that include more than one goal or benefit

for becoming a mentor might be more successful.

Based on interviews with mentoring-to-work

organisations and annual reports, we have created the

following list of expected benefits from mentoringto-work

initiatives for different stakeholders.

80


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Mentees (refugees)

• Feeling welcome

• Focus on his skills and professional goals in

order to gain professional confidence and

position himself as a worthy candidate)

• Having short and long term plans

in order to access a job

• Learning to manage job search

tools and job channels

• Gaining knowledge about the host labour market

• Having access to and discovering a profession,

a professional sector, a professional

network and local work experience through

a first job/professional engagement

• Gaining field-specific knowledge and guidance

• Acquiring professional skills

• Expansion of professional and social network

• Improving language

• Becoming more autonomous

• Clarification of qualifications

Mentors

• Personal and professional

development of mentors

• Learning new skills (e.g. coaching skills,

intercultural skills, leadership, …)

• Human experience

• Opportunity to engage in meaningful action

• Engagement in social responsibility

(policy of their company)

• Learning about interculturality

• Become an intercultural referent in the company

• Doing something positive in

connection to the refugee crisis

• Building a social network and getting to

know ‘peers’ to exchange experiences

related to a common interest

• Having enjoyable interactions with mentees

• Feeling satisfied and fulfilled as a mentor

• Getting to know the younger generation

(intergenerational mentoring)

• Opportunity to flourish differently at work

Companies

• Professional and personal

development of mentor

• Chance to engage employees around strong

commitments, such as social responsibility (CSR)

Social impact

81


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

(from mentoring seen as an answer to social

responsibility as a main value of the company to

mentoring as an element of a marketing policy)

• Employer branding (sense of pride

among employers/employees)

• Learning to appreciate diversity: broader horizon

when hiring in future, inspiring other and

seeing diversity as an enabler of innovation

• Better understanding of new markets

Society

• Financial gains: enhancing the contributions of

refugees as workers, entrepreneurs, innovators,

taxpayers, consumers and investors.

• Securing future workforce: avoiding

a lack of manpower.

• Integration: introducing locals and refugees

to each other creates understanding,

integration and cohesion.

Success factors for marketing and

communication for recruiting mentors

Research has shown that personally asking people

to mentor or volunteer is one of the most effective

recruitment strategies. Personal connections

promote a positive view of the organisation and

the volunteering activity. The link between personal

connections and the employment sector has been

established, and preliminary research indicates that

it can be beneficial for mentor-recruitment efforts

as well. Based on a literature review of scientific

research and practical experience, Garringer et. al.

(2015) formulates success factors for marketing and

communication for recruiting mentors. We translated

those into the following self-reflection tool.

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

82


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Your marketing strategy

Does your mentoring initiative:

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Engage in recruitment strategies that realistically portray the benefits,

practices, support and challenges of the mentoring programme? yes - no

Engage in recruitment strategies that realistically portray the benefits,

practices, support and challenges of the mentoring programme? yes - no

Have recruitment material that informs mentors that they have or

can acquire the basic skills needed to be an effective mentor? yes - no

Inform mentors that they will receive sufficient training and support

from the mentoring programme to help them be prepared and feel

ready to initiate the relationship, and feel efficacious as a mentor? yes - no

Utilize strategies that build positive attitudes

and emotions about mentoring? yes - no

Recruit mentors whose skills, motivations and backgrounds best

match the goals and structure of the mentoring initiative?

yes - no

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Encourage mentors to assist with recruitment efforts by

providing them resources to ask individuals they know, who

meet eligibility criteria of the programme, to be a mentor?

Train and encourages mentees to identify and recruit

appropriate mentors for themselves, when relevant.

yes - no

yes - no

Social impact

83


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Communicate with mentors about how mentoring

and volunteering will benefit them?

yes - no

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Have a publically available written statement outlining

eligibility requirements for mentors in its programme?

yes - no

Use multiple strategies to recruit mentors (e.g. ask directly, social

media, traditional methods of mass communication, presentations,

referrals) on an ongoing basis in which a call to action is clearly

formulated and repeated? Do you use testimonials? Is your message

clear and concise? Does your message stand out? Do you use

statistics which show the accomplishments of your initiative? yes - no

Assign a budget for marketing and communication efforts

specifically related to the recruitment of mentors? yes - no

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

84


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Marketing and Communication Plan

Objective Tools Plan Person responsible

Price Place Promotion

Message

Goals Time

Frame

Budget

Strong public narrative

Target audience

Materials/

route to

market

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Increase

number of

mentors

50+

professionals

with industry

knowledge

and network

Launch new

PR campaign

in quality

media

channels

Enhance the

word of mouth

advertising

Call to

action

50 extra

mentors

January

- April

5000 euro

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

85


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Strategies for retaining your mentors

(and being cost-efficient)

Retaining and re-enrollment of mentors is beneficial

for building qualitative mentoring practices, but, for

many mentoring initiatives, it is also an important

element of cost reduction. Re-enrollment of mentors is

also used as an indicator for success of the mentoring

initiatives because it indicates the engagement of

mentors with a personal and often a societal goal,

and a positive association with the mentoring-to-work

organisation. Recruiting mentors who have faced similar

circumstances as the mentees helps develop a closer

bond among the duos. In such a scenario, mentees see

the mentors as similar to themselves in a significant

way, and the mentors can serve as “credible messengers”

of information and support (Garringer et. al., 2015, 15).

Rhodes (2006) found out that adults are more likely to

be mobilized into sustained mentoring relationships

when mentors perceive that the experience of mentoring

addresses their underlying expectations and needs

and when they are aware of the potential benefits

of mentoring for themselves, the mentees and to

the community. Mentors want to feel a connection

not only with other volunteer-mentors but also

with the community in which mentoring will occur.

Mentors need to feel confident that they can master

the logistics and can find both time and energy to

volunteer. Given this, it is important to support mentors

by providing logistics (e.g. meeting spaces), employ

people who can take care of logistical needs (when

scaling up, e.g. DUO for a JOB) and the development of

tools to support the mentoring trajectory. Mentoring

initiatives are also invited to provide opportunities

for mentors to get public validation for their role as

a mentor (e.g. network events, media exposure, ...).

Retaining mentors also means that mentors feel

taken care of, communication is clear, mentors feel

appreciated and respected and are supported in several

ways so they can fully focus on mentoring as a joyful

activity (Garringer et. al., 2015). DUO for a JOB describes

in their annual report that they not only choose to

provide more meeting space for the mentors and

mentees, they pay also special attention for maintaining

a personal approach in welcoming the mentors. To be

able to do this they hired extra personal assistants.

In their evidence-based study on critical success

factors of mentoring-to-work initiatives, Purkayastha

& De Cuyper (2019) found that the following elements

influence the likelihood of re-engaging mentors:

positive outcomes of the mentoring relationship,

having a positive relationship with the coach of the

mentoring organisation, access to growth and training

opportunities, networking opportunities and visible

recognition of the contribution of the mentors. We

also learnt from certain organisations that they

organize networking events for mentors and mentees

to enhance the possibility of building a professional

network. For instance, Kodiko organizes a speed

dating networking event where participants talk to

multiple mentors and mentees through the evening.

This is also an interesting activity for mentors who

are not yet assigned a mentee (and vice-versa) as

they can explore the possibility of self-matching.

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

86


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Strategies for retaining your mentors

Connect with needs

Does the mentoring experience address the underlying

expectations and needs of mentors?

yes - no

Good governance

Are the mentors aware of the potential benefits mentoring

offers to themselves, their mentees and to the community? yes - no

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Identification

Do mentors feel that they can find the time and energy to volunteer? yes - no

Are mentors provided with opportunities to identify

themselves with their mentoring role? yes - no

Financial sustainability planning

Communication

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Do mentors receive appropriate information from the mentoring

organisation regarding any special needs the mentee might have?

yes - no

Do mentors feel free to mention any problem they are experiencing so

that your organisation and your volunteers can work together to solve

them? yes - no

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Do your mentors feel welcome in your mentoring

initiative when they want to drop by?

yes - no

Social impact

87


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

When communicating, do you show appreciation for their contribution? yes - no

Appreciation

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Does your mentoring initiative thank the mentors often enough?

Does your mentoring initiative facilitate ‘words of

appreciation’ between mentors and mentees?

yes - no

yes - no

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Respect

Does your mentoring initiative make the mentor feel welcome? yes - no

Does your mentoring initiative treat the mentors

with respectful and timely communication? yes - no

Are you clear about what you expect of a mentor? yes - no

If a mentor brings up a problem, are you able

to provide support on a short term? yes - no

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Enjoyment

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Do you set up mentoring activities in a way that helps

mentors enjoy the time they spend with their mentees? This

includes providing inspiring spaces to meet, matching duos

on their intrinsic motivation, taking care of logistics.

yes - no

Social impact

88


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Do you provide a space for mentors and mentees

to meet each other in an informal way? yes - no

Community based

Do mentors feel a connection with other volunteers or

with the community in which mentoring occurs? yes - no

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Training and education

Do you provide learning opportunities for the mentor? yes - no

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Results

Do you show mentors that mentoring has impact? yes - no

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

89


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Efficient strategies to recruit mentees

For the recruitment of mentees it is important to

collaborate with municipal job centers or employment

agencies (e.g. DUO for a JOB, Foreninger Nydansker,

Connect2Work, Joblinge Kompass) and with social

work organisations, NGOs, local volunteer groups.

Social media is also a relevant channel to use for the

recruitment of mentees. Kodiko considers social media

– specifically Facebook/Twitter/LinkedIn one of their

main tools. Ben Masson of Betterplace LAB says:

“The question that needs to be asked is how to

combine online digital elements and analog or more

traditional approaches. In terms of dissemination,

it is a challenge for many organisations to reach

the audiences they want to support. We know that

the use of smartphones, Facebook or WhatsApp

is extremely widespread among a large number

of refugees. Therefore, establishing a first contact

with them through Facebook or other digital

channels could be very effective if they are used

in the right way. Once established, we can develop

something that goes beyond the digital sphere.”

In addition, several mentoring-to-work initiatives

mention the importance of word of mouth recruitment.

Based on literature, Purkayastha & De Cuyper (2019)

found that having well-defined selection criteria is

important for a mentoring-to-work organisation. On

the one hand, it ensures that the programme is not

stretched thin in an attempt to cater to everyone

and can focus its process on a specific demographic.

On the other hand, a correlation between certain

criteria and successful outcomes will help ensure

a positive design and outcome. Based on literature

and practice-based learning, the authors define

seven mentee recruitment criteria to take into

account: correlate criteria to ground reality in labour

market, consider a minimum language criteria for

lower skilled/educated applicants, assess language

on a case by case basis for experienced applicants,

length of stay in the guest country, clarity of purpose

while recruiting, motivation and job-readiness.

The findings of this study also highlight the importance

of conducting a needs assessment (Purkayastha & De

Cuyper, 2019). The needs assessment is based on a

holistic view of integration on the labour market and

can involve support in job-specific language learning,

administration, knowledge of the labour market and

job search channels and childcare among other things.

The needs assessment should focus on individual

needs combined with a self-assessment of needs by

the mentee. Meeting these needs, either through the

development of side-activities within your mentoringto-work

programme or through cooperation with other

organisations, will help establish the preconditions

for sustainable integration into the labour market.

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

90


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

HOW TO TOOLBOX

What channels do you use for recruiting mentees? How successful are they?

Channels (Success rate 1 = not successful – 5 = very successful)

Strong public narrative

Good governance

1 2 3 4 5

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

1 2 3 4 5

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

1 2 3 4 5

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

1 2 3 4 5

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

1 2 3 4 5

Social impact

91


Introduction

TOOLKIT

What criteria do you use for selecting the mentees?

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Are you conscious about the criteria you use? yes - no

How do they reflect ground reality in the labour market?

If they do not reflect it, do you have a clear policy

or activities developed to overcome this?

yes - no

Do you consider a minimum language criteria

for lower skilled/educated applicants? yes - no

Do you assess language on a case-by-case basis and use your

knowledge of the labour market to estimate the relevance of

knowing the language(s) for a particular application? yes - no

Do you consider length of stay of the refugee in host country? yes - no

Is the mentee job-ready? And if not, what minimal activities (such

as workshops) can you offer to improve their job-readiness? yes - no

Is there a clarity of purpose?

Is the mentee motivated?

yes - no

yes - no

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Do you integrate a needs assessment when recruiting and selecting mentees? And does it inform you

on what activities you could develop – with partners – to support the needs you identified?

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

92


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

93


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

REFERENCES

Literature

• Bania, M. & Kandalaft, A. (2013). Striving for sustainability: six strategies

to guide your efforts. YOUCAN Mentoring Program

• Rhodes, 2006. Research Corner: Strategies for Recruiting and Retaining Volunteers. Mentor

National Partnership. www.amssa.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/From-Intention-

To-Action-Strategies-For-Recruiting-And-Retaining-Todays-Volunteers.pdf

• Garringer, M., Kupersmidt, J., Rhodes, J., Stelter, R., & Tai, T. (2015). Elements of effective practice

for mentoring (4th Edition). Boston, MA: MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

• Purkayastha, D. & Decuyper, P. (2019). Best practices and critical success factors in mentoring

to work for refugees and migrants: an evidence-based study. Leuven: HIVA KU Leuven.

• UnLtd (2019). Social entrepreneurship awards toolkit. www.unltd.org.uk/our-support/

learning-area/developing-your-marketing-strategy-and-marketing-plan

Websites

• www.connect2work.be/

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.joblinge.de

• www.foreningen-nydansker.dk

• www.kodiko.fr

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

94


HUMAN

RESOURCES


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

HUMAN RESOURCES

A high-quality human resources management values

people and creates an organisational culture which

ensures that both personal and professional goals

can be are achieved. Organisations that transition

from being funded primarily as projects to taking

on characteristics of a social entrepreneurship pose

major challenges for everyone. Every member of the

organisation has to walk a fine balance between being

more entrepreneurial themselves and developing

individual ideas and trajectories, while at the same

time following a collective vision and leadership that

echoes the purpose of the mentoring organisation

(Kelly-Janus, 2017). We see this collective spirit at the

mentoring-to-work initiative of DUO for a JOB. It is

evident from the language used in the website and

annual report of DUO for a JOB that they emphasise

a “we” spirit. Other organisations that reflect a

‘we’ spirit with a lot of attention for community

building as well, are the French organisations

Kodiko and Nos Quartiers ont des Talents.

Another aspect of human resources is to ensure that

a mentoring programme is well staffed. There should

be enough full-time (or equivalent) staff to implement

the mentoring programme as intended for the desired

number of participants (Van Dooren & De Cuyper, 2015;

Garringer et. al., 2015). Garringer et. al. (2015) states that

while there is no fixed number of staffers needed to

implement a mentoring programme, there needs to be

sufficient staffing to follow all procedures as intended,

especially those related to ensuring the quality of

mentoring. Programmes must also demonstrate that

they have the right mix of skills and competencies to

fulfil the mission and they should reflect diversity and

lived experience of the people they serve (Garringer et.

al., 2015). In order to provide high quality mentoringto-work,

especially once the programme starts growing,

mentoring programmes can recruit extra staff or

volunteers. For instance, DUO for a JOB works with

speech therapists and (psycho-)social services.

Organisations that make a shift towards a social

entrepreneurial approach also need a human resources

policy that supports this transition. Such transient

phases in organisations often involve a kind of identity

crisis. Partly because the evolution towards a social

enterprise also means that achieving results and

communicating externally become more important in

order to acquire financial resources. And the attention

for human aspects gets sometimes overlooked. Staff

should be able to fill fundraising, advocacy, partnership

development and other programme leadership roles

as needed (Garringer et. al., 2015). The combination

of these tasks is of the comfort zone for employees in

organisations that traditionally have been subsidised.

Social entrepreneurial mindset

If your mentoring-to-work initiative wants to work

more from a social entrepreneurial mindset, then

your employees will have to adapt such a mindset

as well. Employees of such companies are called

social intrapreneurs and they focus on developing or

delivering projects that drive social change in a way

that generates long-term value for their organisation.

Being a social intrapreneur is not related to a certain

function, instead it is seen within the framework of

‘new leadership’ and non-hierarchical organisations.

If you have worked as a not-for-profit mentoring

initiative, especially if you worked in a hierarchical

way, it might be that social intrapreneurship is

a hidden capacity that has to be unlocked.

96


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

According to a study on the DNA of social

intrapreneurship, a social intrapreneur has a mix

of the following competencies (Folley, 2014):

• Aligning market and customer

needs to the business

• Being independent and politically savvy

• A deeper understanding of the core business

• Higher levels of collaboration and partnership

• Effective and passionate

communication to gain support

• Dealing with complexity and uncertainty

• Sharing information, instructing

others, and influencing people

• Flexibility and resilience to deal with setbacks

• Self-confidence and personal

power to stay the course

The research also revealed 6 behaviour

strengths of social intrapreneurs:

• Learning: Eager to learn and try new things.

• Response to change: Have a high and effective

response to change, and able to drive change

• Presentation style: Skilled and engaging

presenters. One who can present the bigger picture

and uses facts and data to get their point across

• Planning: Well-versed with how to plan and

organize on the short and longer term. They

are often disciplined and well-organised.

• Empathy: Show genuine interest in understanding

other people, but don’t let their emotions

get in the way of decision making.

• Mobility: Have the ability to move around

and travel. For most social intrapreneurs,

travel an integral part of what they do

and how they get things done.

It is important for social intrapreneurs to develop

emotional composure, which means that the passion

and empathy you show has to be balanced in such a way

that you maintain a professional demeanour and poise.

Social impact

97


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

The importance of human resource policy for a

thriving mentoring-to-work organisation

In a mentoring project, a lot of tasks – often relational

– have to be fulfilled (Van Dooren & De Cuyper, 2015)

by a limited staff. As we see further in this report, a

significant part of the cost of a mentoring-to-work

organisation is the cost of your employees. Hence,

it is necessary to have a human resource policy

and practice that supports the optimization of the

performance of your employees. Engaging your

employees and creating an environment where people

can thrive and work along their competences and

talents will be one of the most important aspects of

your human resources policy. This can be done by

investing in a learning and development policy to

improve quality and efficiency. In a small or growing

organisation, roles may be diverse and a staff member

may be well-qualified to complete most of their

responsibilities and yet have skills gaps in some other

areas. Training (specifically skills-based training) can

help fill some of these gaps and can reduce your

need to recruit new staff. It should be seen as an

investment in increased productivity in the longer

term. When working with a staff member, try to identify

training opportunities that speak to the particular

needs of both the individual and your organisation

(UnLtd, 2019). In some mentoring-to-work initiatives

funders support the learning and development of

your employees because they understand that this

will improve the effectivity, quality and the impact of

mentoring. In the course of our interviews, we also

noted that companies or consultancies sometimes

support mentoring-to-work organisations with the

development information technology (e.g. CRM)

to enable more efficiency in the workflow. This

backend system that keeps organisational logistics

smooth is also a factor of wellbeing at work: if these

systems work well and create meaningful output or

outcome, it can help your employees thrive as well.

UnLtd (2019) / 7 also emphasizes the importance of

the right balance between recruiting staff versus using

freelance contractors. In the early stages, it may not

be cost effective to employ staff outright. Many social

enterprises use freelance staff to complete functions

that do not justify a full- or part-time staff role. As

your mentoring-to-work organisation grows, it is

worth keeping an eye on how this changes. At some

point during growth you may be spending more on

freelancers (paid at a daily rate) than you would if

you created a full- or part- time staff post. Bringing

people on as staff may also enable you to oversee and

enhance the quality of the work produced, providing

further benefits in terms of quality. It is good to

keep in mind that a staff member brings with them

additional costs and obligations (e.g. employer’s

taxes, staff benefits, staff overhead costs, health and

safety and other legal compliance requirements)

– these should be factored into any cost-benefit

analysis around staffing/contracting choices.

Interviews with mentoring-to-work initiatives also

revealed the importance of volunteers supporting the

operational tasks. It some organisations, mentors also

offered their time and expertise to support internal

and operational processes or develop materials that

can support the mentoring process. In order to make

the most of volunteering potential among mentors, and

value the contribution of all volunteers effectively, it

is important to have an open mindset and follow-up

and feedback loops. This will need a rather agile way

of organizing. Certain mentoring-to-work organisations

also work directly with companies and engage with the

employees of those companies in multiple ways: they’re

invited on board as mentors, volunteers or experts who

can conduct workshops for a (small) group of mentees.

Social impact

98


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

What human expertise do you need as a mentoring-to-work initiative?

We make a difference between tasks related to the mentoring process itself and tasks related to the processes

of the mentoring organisation. It will depend on the size of your organisation and the organisational

structure you choose if you translate this also to functions and positions. First, we give an overview of the

tasks. Second, we give some examples of what functions mentoring organisations have developed.

Clear purpose

Tasks related to the mentoring

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Recruiting and guiding mentees

Recruitment and guidance of mentors

Intake

Orientation of mentors and mentees

Matching

Support of the mentors and mentees

Taking and/or processing evaluations

Identifying locations where mentees can be found: online, public

places, at organisations, service providers, etc., giving promotional

presentations to relevant organisations and tutoring partners, ...

Identifying locations where mentors can be

found: online, public places, in organisations and

companies, promotional presentations, ...

Conducting interviews with mentees/mentors, assessing

whether they are eligible for participation (language

skills, motivation, etc.), processing intake forms, ...

Giving orientation sessions, answering

questions, checking expectations, …

Finding a suitable match, assessing the proposed match with

mentor and mentee, answering questions and clarifying doubts.

Following-up on the mentoring relationship: solving (intercultural)

communication problems, ensuring there are enough meetings, ...

Referring to other service providers, providing

(external) tools, e.g. professional orientation tests,

organizing exchanges and activities, …

Conducting telephone surveys, entering results in a

database, performing statistical analyses, ...

Social impact

99


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Tasks related to supporting the mentoring process

Understand the environment

you are working in

Marketing and communication

Making project presentations, managing presence on social media,

establishing and managing relationships with the media, ...

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

ICT

Management of the website, management of an IT platform

or database for follow-up of relations and matching, ...

Good governance

Building and managing partnerships

Finding partners for guidance, financing, developing

and following up a partnership framework, ...

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Assessing quality of the project

and the services provided

Development of tools, elaborating quality standards,

monitoring and evaluating the performance of coaches

and partners, making working arrangements, ...

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financing

Initiatives to seek financing. E.g. promoting the project

to potential financiers, negotiating and maintaining

partnerships with financiers, submitting subsidy files, etc.

Financial management Financial administration, accounting, ...

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

HR and personnel matters

Recruitment, training and coaching of staff

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Volunteer management

Engaging and supporting volunteers

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

100


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

At KVINFO in Denmark there is a programme

coordinating team with two clearly separate

functions: a) promoting the programme to business

and recruiting mentors from the corporate sector;

b) screening mentors and mentees, then training,

matching, supporting, and monitoring the budding

mentor relationships. This separation is often made

by mentoring-to-work programmes, but not at the

beginning stage of the mentoring initiative.

When we take a look at DUO for a JOB we see clear

evolutions over the years going along with growth and

scaling up the model within Belgium (2016 – 2018).

DUO for a JOB has in 2016 a main office in Brussels and

start-ups in Antwerp, Ghent and Liège. In their annual

report DUO for a JOB mentions the following functions:

• 2 managing directors

• 3 regional managers

• 14 mentoring programme officers

• 2 operation assistances

• 1 advocacy coordinator

• 1 communication and marketing manager

• 1 communication officer

• 1 logistician and IT responsible

• 1 finance, HR and administration coordinator

DUO for a JOB has also an important community of

volunteers (60 in 2016) who support the team in its tasks

and the development of its services. The annual report

of 2017 speaks of the additional hiring of 4 new project

managers, 1 administrator, 1 HR and 1 financial manager

for these regional offices. In 2018 Duo for a JOB forecasts

to hire also a regional manager for the Brussels

office, and scales up in 2019 with an office in Paris.

The mentoring initiative Kodiko employs in 2019

16 people (Paris, Indre-et-Loire, Loiret).

• 2 co-founders

• 1 operational and partnership manager

• 4 project coordinators (2 Ile-de-

France, 1 Indre-et-Loire, 1 Loiret)

• 3 project assistants

• 1 policy officer for promotion,

trainings and workshops

• 1 policy officer for educational programmes

• 1 communication officer

• 1 administrator

• 1 secretary

• 1 treasurer

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

101


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

The Swedish mentoring-to-work organisation Mittliv, founded in 2008, with offices in Stockholm and Gothenborg has:

• 1 founder

• 1 Innovation and digitization coordinator

• 1 Operations Manager

• 1 Business Development Manager/ Diversity Strategist

• 1 Communications Manager

• 1 Senior Consultant

• 1 Consultant / Programme Coordinator (Gothenborg)

• 1 Programme officer (Gothenborg)

• 1 Diversity Consultant (Gothenborg)

• 1 Director (Stockholm)

• 1 Programme Coordinator (Stockholm)

• 1 Programme officer (Stockholm)

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

102


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Personal Ikigai Canvas

What do you enjoy?

What are you

good at doing?

What feels most

useful to you?

What creates a forward

momentum for you?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

How do you relate

to others?

PASSION

MISSION

What needs to change

to improve our IKIGAI?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Where do we feel

the energy?

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

What can you do

for others?

What

are we

good

at?

IKIGAI

What

does

society

need?

Actions you can take?

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

What do we get

paid for?

What support would

you like to get?

Create dynamic partnerships

PROFESSION

VOCATION

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

103


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Reflection questions for making a transition towards a social entrepreneurial mindset

As a mentoring-to-work initiative attempting to transition to a social

entrepreneurial mindset, ask yourself the following questions:

Strong public narrative

As a director, do you have a social entrepreneurial mindset yourself? yes - no

Good governance

What are edge does your education/experience give you?

yes - no

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Do you have a mentor or coach yourself? / 8 yes - no

Can you identify the social intrapreneurs in

your mentoring-to-work initiative? yes - no

Are you offering them the right development opportunities?

yes - no

What extra edge can employees with a lower

social entrepreneurial mindset offer? yes - no

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

The personal purpose of employees and their contribution to the purpose of your mentoring-to-work initiative

The Ikigai canvas is a tool that can be used to enable growth of people and teams. It is helpful to be able to assess

what makes someone feel happy at work and what makes people grow as individuals. If you do this as a team,

it helps to relate and understand others and informs how you can work together to serve the purpose of your

mentoring-to-work initiative. It also reveals – when confronted with the roles and tasks your organisation needs

to address in order to be sustainable – what is still needed. What are the gaps that you need to bridge. The Ikigai

canvas can also be used by teams to evaluate how people contribute instead of a traditional performance review.

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

104


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Tasks related to mentoring

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

What tasks do you need to start with? invest in?

Recruiting and

guiding mentees

Recruitment and

guidance of mentors

Identifying locations where mentees

can be found: online, public places, at

organisations, service providers, etc., giving

promotional presentations to relevant

organisations and tutoring partners, ...

Identifying locations where mentors can be

found: online, public places, in organisations

and companies, promotional presentations, ...

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Intake

Orientation of mentors

and mentees

Matching

Support of the mentors

and mentees

Taking and/or

processing evaluations

Conducting interviews with mentees/

mentors, wassessing whether they are

eligible for participation (language skills,

motivation, etc.), processing intake forms, ...

Giving orientation sessions, answering

questions, checking expectations, …

Finding a suitable match, assessing the

proposed

match with mentor and mentee, answering

questions and clarifying doubts.

Following-up on the mentoring relationship:

solving (intercultural) communication problems,

ensuring there are enough meetings, ...

Referring to other service providers, providing

(external) tools, e.g. professional orientation

tests, organizing exchanges and activities, …

Conducting telephone surveys, entering results

in a database, performing statistical analyses, ...

Social impact

105


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Tasks related to supporting the mentoring process

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

What tasks do you need to start with? invest in?

Marketing and

communication

Making project presentations, managing

presence on social media, establishing and

managing relationships with the media, ...

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

ICT

Building and managing

partnerships

Management of the website, management

of an IT platform or database for followup

of relations and matching, ...

Finding partners for guidance,

financing, developing and following

up a partnership framework, ...

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Assessing quality of

the project and the

services provided

Financing

Development of tools, elaborating quality

standards, monitoring and evaluating the

performance of coaches and partners,

making working arrangements, ...

Initiatives to seek financing. E.g. promoting

the project to potential financiers, negotiating

and maintaining partnerships with financiers,

submitting subsidy files, etc.

Financial management Financial administration, accounting, ...

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

HR and personnel matters

Recruitment, training and coaching of staff

Create dynamic partnerships

Volunteer management

Engaging and supporting volunteers

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

106


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

107


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

REFERENCES

Literature

• Folley, S. (2014). The Social Intrapreneurs DNA. www.corporate-entrepreneurs.com

• Garringer, M., Kupersmidt, J., Rhodes, J., Stelter, R., & Tai, T. (2015). Elements of effective practice

for mentoring (4th Edition). Boston, MA: MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

• Van Dooren, G., & De Cuyper, P. (2015). Connect2work, mentoring naar werk. Leidraad voor het opzetten van

een mentoring project naar werk voor hooggeschoolde anderstalige nieuwkomers. Leuven: HIVA-KU Leuven.

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Websites

• www.connect2work.be/

• www.corporate-entrepreneurs.com

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.joblinge.de

• www.kodiko.fr

• kvinfo.dk

• www.nqt.fr

• www.unltd.org.uk/our-support/learning-area/optimising-operational-efficiency-and-effectiveness

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

108


FINANCIAL

SUSTAINABILITY

PLANNING


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING

Mentoring initiatives must have a clear resource

development plan and budget in which they identify funds

that may support mentoring-to-work staff and activities and

what the expected project funding possibilities may be in

the (near) future (Garringer et. al., 2015). It requires a lot of

time and a high level of persistence, energy and enthusiasm

to seek, secure and maintain financial resources (MacRae

& Wakeland, 2006; Bania & Kandalaft, 2013). It is an ongoing

process which needs a lot of planning. Ideally, you want

to get to a point where you have a good mix of all types of

sources of funding and resources, so that the fate of your

programme does not largely depend on one or a few single

sources. (Bania & Kandalaft, 2013). Mentoring initiatives

that make a shift from project-based funding (as being part

of a non-profit organisation) and want to adapt a more

socio-entrepreneurial approach (and sometimes become

independent, e.g. Connect2Work) find this process often

very challenging. Getting the ball rolling is often the hardest

part, which needs a leader and a team that knows how

to build connection with a wide range of stakeholders .

MacRae & Wakeland (2006) identify guiding

principles for resource development:

• Create passion for what you are doing and

develop a strong presence in your community.

• Develop fundraising goals and resource

development objectives that are realistic for the

capacity of your programme and community.

• Develop specific financial and resource goals

and specific timelines to discuss with each ally.

• Also be specific when looking for in-kind

donations. Ask for exactly what you need.

• Actively seek and obtain the support and

involvement of the Board of Directors and

agency leaders, and encourage them to develop

partnerships with corporations and foundations.

• Be persistent, find concrete ways to remind

them that your programme is good for the

community it serves, and therefore good for

the organisation, e.g. by making a theory of

change and show the social impact you have.

• Know your current funding arrangements

well, and when they will end. How much

will you need to raise, and by when?

Types of funding

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

• Be realistic, maintain a positive attitude

and think future oriented

• Understand and consistently promote your

programme’s mission and goals and avoid

chasing or accepting money and resources

that don’t fit your programme goals.

The next table offers an overview of the most used

types of funding. A golden rule for social enterprises

is that no more than 30% of the financial resources

come from one source. However, for mentoring to

work initiatives that work with refugees who are at

a considerable distance from the labour market, a

higher (than 30%) amount of governmental funding

Social impact

110


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

might be a necessity. For finding the optimal financial mix you might will also have to take the regulations and

laws into account related to the juridical structure your organisation adopts, including fiscal regulations.

Public funding

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Government subsidies

European government (e.g. European Social Fund, AMIF, Erasmus,

…), Federal government (e.g. Ministry of employment), Regional

government (e.g. employment agency), Local government.

Good governance

Collective leadership

Private funding

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Funding by companies

Income

Gifts/Donors

Contributions in kind

Foundations

Local companies, national companies, international companies

Companies paying to become a member of your network

Companies paying you for the participation of their

mentors in training programmes (e.g. mentor fees)

Companies paying you for your expertise and consultancy

on topics such as diversity, leadership and so on

Gifts from the public, fundraising initiatives (e.g.

crowdfunding), the local community

Volunteering (e.g. giving workshops, supporting language classes, …)

Logistical support (providing a location, donating ICT material, …)

Consultancy (e.g. companies support you in the development of your

business model, or support you in the development of CRM tools, …)

Gifts from private foundations, foundations of

companies, foundations of the local community

Social impact

111


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Love money

Business angels

Money from family and friends, that often will be

repaid later as business profits increase

Business angels are generally wealthy individuals or retired

company executives who invest directly in small firms owned by

others. They are often leaders in their own field who not only

contribute their experience and network of contacts but also their

technical and/or management knowledge. In exchange for risking

their money, they reserve the right to supervise the company's

management practices. In concrete terms, this often means a seat

on the board of directors and an assurance of transparency.

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

In the next table we look at the income of initiatives

that offer one on one mentoring to work. These

initiatives were chosen because information regarding

their financing is publicly available and in English (e.g.

annual reports). The selection reflects a combination of

mentoring initiatives that work with a different target

groups: for instance, there are organisations that work

with highly skilled migrants and those that include

migrants with lower qualifications. There are also those

that work only with refugees as a target group. The list

includes two initiatives whose core activity is mentoring:

DUO for a JOB (Belgium) and Kodiko (France) / 9 . We took

also a look at Joblinge (Germany) and Nos Quartiers

ont des Talents (NQT) (France), who offer one on one

mentoring alongside other activities, such as ateliers

and webtools (NQT) and orientation, development of job

competencies through first job experiences (Joblinge).

In the course of the MeMoRe transnational project, we

learned that initiatives working with (young) people

with a migrant background (amongst others refugees)

and with a big distance from the labour market often

offer additional services. Or that mentoring is added

to the activities they already had in place. In such

cases, mentoring or the additional services offered are

seen as activities that enhance the effectivity of the

programmes. Since the income and cost structure might

be different, we present their incomes and their the

costs separately. An exact comparison is difficult to make

because for the context of each organisation is different,

however the table offers a general impression of the

income and costs, and how they are distributed. We

first describe, briefly, what kind of activities they offer.

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

112


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Overview of incomes of initiatives that offer 1-on-1 mentoring to work

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

DUO for a JOB KODIKO Joblinge NQT

Understand the environment

you are working in

Founded in 2012 2016 2007 and 2016: Joblinge

Kompass for refugees

2006

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Core

activities

Locations

1-on-1 Mentoring

3 locations

(1+2 start-ups)

1-on-1

Mentoring, but

Kodiko the term

‘co-training’

2 locations

Paris et Tours

orientation, development

of job competencies

through first job

experiences, 1-on-1

mentoring

27 locations + Umbrella

Organisation in

2017 (incl. Joblinge

Kompass, 8 locations)

1-on-1 mentoring,

ateliers, online

courses

10 regions and 4

oversea regions

2016 2017 2016-2017 2016 2017 2016 2017

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Mentors

317 (in

total,

since

2013)

530

(in total,

since

2013), +/-

250 new

mentors

trained

1500

volunteers

& mentors

1700

volunteers

& mentors

4158 4451

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

Mentees > 240 Not

mentioned

in the

annual

report of

2017. In

total since

2013: 980

VTE 15

(persons)

25

(persons)

70 en îles

de France

(2016-2017)

1306

239

(Joblinge

Kompass)

1609

436

(Joblinge

Kompass)

4582 6005

5,7 117 141 not mentioned

113


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Mentoring-to-work organisations

Income DUO for a JOB DUO for a JOB KODIKO

2016 2017 2016-2017 (1,5 year)

Public funds

Public funds (subsidies) 134.728 283.323

Good governance

Collective leadership

Transfer of capital grants / 10 -121.704 -159.497

Amortization of capital grants 59.588 107.562

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Private funds 729.310 87,4% 1.548.801

Gifts / donations 42.986 10.230

Foundations 169.400 876.268

Corporations 23.539 108.585

Sponsoring 549.952 590.000

Love money

Business angels

Other income 5.549 15.653

In kind

230.000

(spread

over 2

years)

Social impact

Total income 834.038 1.832.123 114.666

114


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

In comparison with other mentoring-to-work

initiatives, DUO for a JOB is most transparent

about the diversification of their income:

“Because the association’s mission addresses

questions of integration, social cohesion as well as

equality of opportunity, the financial independence

of DUO for a JOB is crucial to both its sustainability

and its advocacy powers. It is with this in mind

that the association seeks continually to diversify

its sources of income and why it is committed to

complete openness and transparency with regard to

the use of funding received as well as the efficiency

of its activities. Part of the revenues are coming from

number of services developed for staff aged over 50

of companies (cross-cultural training and training

in transferring skills). The funding of DUO for a

JOB consists mainly out of patronage, foundations,

subsidies. Only a small amount of the funding has its

origin in donations and income of corporations. It is

the aim of Duo for a JOB to heighten the amount of

subsidies of governmental actors the next five years.”

The mentees in DUO for a JOB are high as well as

low qualified persons with a migration background.

The mentees in Kodiko are refugees with A2

level of French and willing to work. In 2016 and

2017 DUO for JOB is mainly financed via private

funding. Kodiko, as a starting organisation, is

mainly funded by subsidies and donations.

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

115


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Work integration organisations that offer 1-on-1 mentoring

Income Joblinge NQT

2016 2017 2016 2017

Public funds 5.668.000 64,7% 7.665.000 67,8% 1.302.911 25,8% 1.642.164 30,7%

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Private funds 3.093.000 35,3% 3.637.000 33,2% 3.369.030 66,8% 3.252.498 60,9%

Gifts / donations 3.027.000

Foundations

Corporations

Sponsoring

Love money

Business angels

Other income 66.000

In kind 369.680 7,4% 388.347 8,4%

Total income 8.761.000 11.302.000 5.041.621 5.339.217

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

116


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

In comparison with the mentoring-to-work organisations

that offer only mentoring-to-work Joblinge and NQT the

funds are spread differently. For Joblinge two third of the

budget are public funds, which is a much higher amount

than what we see in mentoring initiatives. For NQT two

thirds of the funding is private and one third is publicly

funded. What is interesting is that both organisations

pay a lot of attention at proving their social impact, and

seem to develop opinions that support impact funding.

Traditional mentoring-to-work initiatives working with

highly qualified refugees or newcomers explained that

their programme cannot be adapted to meet the needs

of a target audience without considerable changes.

In order to be able to work with refugees with lower

qualifications they would need to change the content of

the programme and require larger government funding

to do so. Both Mitt Liv and MINE (a Swedish mentoringto-work

initiative that works with a combination

of public and private funding) consider it far more

difficult for mentoring organisations working with

low skilled/educated refugees to build a sustainable

business model. They both think that a mix of funding,

including public funding is necessary. When developing

a mentoring initiative for low qualified refugees

and migrants with a distance to the labour market,

where more intense guidance might be relevant in a

cooperation with several actors, we suggest in line with

the opinions of the Swedish organisations that finding

a good mix of public and private funding is necessary.

World over there is an emergence of impact funding,

such as social impact bonds, as an innovative and

multi-stakeholder way to generate funding and develop

initiatives aimed at the integration of (young) people at

a distance from the labour market. All these forms of

funding are temporary. Yet, despite the establishment of

an social impact bond and a proven positive impact that

is better than that of regulatory services, governments

seldom take responsibility for more structural funding

that can keep such organisations going. It does put

a huge responsibility and pressure on the initiatives

to search for money on a day by day basis, which

questions if this time threatens the time that can go

to the improvement of the quality of the programme.

Public funding

The importance of public funding cannot be

underestimated. Policies that invest in supporting

the labour market integration of newcomers or

people at a distance from the labour market are

expected to have a vision and create a climate in

which successful integration on the long term is

more probable. The annual report of Joblinge (2016)

states that the key success factor of JOBLINGE has

been the joint, cross-sector commitment that is also

reflected in their funding. Under a public-private

co-funding framework, the running costs of the

JOBLINGE locations are largely carried by the public

sector. The share of public financing differs between

locations and amounts to approximately 60 percent

for the initiative as a whole. Approximately 40 percent

of the costs are financed through donations.

NQT, while preserving its financial independence, has

three domains that are funded with public means

(2016): (1) to participate at a national network to reflect

on and valorise the activities of NQT, (2) to be able to

build a coherent programme that connects with and is

outreachend towards the target group in less favourable

areas of Paris and other regions, and (3) to grow as

an organisation. For the first domain the Ministry

of Employment, Professional education and Social

Dialogue (DGEFP) is involved as well as the Regional

Direction for companies, concurrency, consumption

and employment (DIRECCTE) and offered 350.000 euro.

For the second domain the Ministry of Cities, Youth

117


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

and Sports is involved for a budget of 500.000 euro.

And for the third domain the Ministry of Overseas

Territory as well as Regional Councils and Departments

supports are involved for a budget of 300.000 euros.

Private funding

Premium private partners and membership fees

Joblinge also has a range of premium private partners

that stand for the sustainability of the initiative

(Joblinge, 2017). “With their long-term sponsorship

and support, they not only enable us to plan and

build professional structures, but also to grow by

establishing new locations and to further develop the

programme with innovative projects, continuously

improving it for participants and making a difference

beyond Joblinge. The premium partners are essential,

especially for the umbrella organisation, which unlike

their local branches is 100% financed by private

donations” (Joblinge, 2017). Having premium partners

in combination with public funding might support the

sustainability in results and impact on the longer term.

The innovative elements of the programme, such as

the professional training of more than 1,500 volunteer

mentors or the cultural programme, are enabled through

private donations. JOBLINGE considers these elements

decisive in enabling the long-term success of the

participants, thus making private donations crucial.

Swedish organisations MINE and Mitt Liv – both not in

the table above –also have a system of membership

fees and mentor fees. This means that companies pay a

fee to be a member of the network of these mentoring

organisations and also a fee per mentor. At MINE board

members, renewed every year, are asked to support

the organisation in times of financial difficulties.

Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding is a way of raising money to finance

projects and businesses. It enables fundraisers to

collect money from a large number of people via online

platforms. Crowdfunding is most often used by start-up

companies or growing businesses as a way of accessing

alternative funds. It is an innovative way of sourcing

funding for new projects, businesses or ideas. It can

also be a way of cultivating a community around your

offering. By using the power of the online community,

you can also gain useful market insights and access to

new customers / 11 . The SME Finance of the European

Commission identifies 7 forms of crowdfunding:

• Peer-to-peer lending: the crowd lends money

to a company with the understanding that the

money will be repaid with interest. It is very

similar to traditional borrowing from a bank,

except that you borrow from lots of investors.

• Equity crowdfunding: sale of a stake in

a business to a number of investors in

return for investment. The idea is similar to

how common stock is bought or sold on a

stock exchange, or to a venture capital.

• Rewards-based crowdfunding: individuals

donate to a project or business with

expectations of receiving in return a nonfinancial

reward, such as goods or services, at

a later stage in exchange of their contribution.

• Donation-based crowdfunding: individuals

donate small amounts to meet the larger

funding aim of a specific charitable project

while receiving no financial or material return.

Social impact

118


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

• Profit-sharing / revenue-sharing: businesses

can share future profits or revenues with

the crowd in return for funding now.

• Debt-securities crowdfunding: individuals

invest in a debt security issued by

the company, such as a bond.

• Hybrid models: offer businesses the

opportunity to combine elements of

more than one crowdfunding type.

The mentoring-to-work initiative DUO for a JOB

experimented with a crowdfunding-campaign on the

platform Gingo, with the support of Oxygen Lab. Their

first-ever campaign was a big success and they reached

117% of their target. This means that they raised money

for 11 new duos. As mentioned on the Gingo site, the

operational cost for a of mentor and mentee is 1433

euro (2016). The site gives more details on the costs

covered with this amount of money: a part of the wages

of the personal of duo, the costs for education of the

mentor (internal and external speakers), the operational

and investments related to the duo (administrative,

ICT, costs for renting an office), and the costs for the

development of materials supporting the mentoring

process. A report with the results of the crowdfunding

project with Gingo is available online (French – Dutch).

Contributions in Kind

Several mentoring-to-work initiatives we encountered

were supported by contributions in kind from companies

or with free consultancy from larger consultancy firms.

For example, a new software for CRM was developed

by Accenture for several mentoring-organisations

in Belgium. This software allowed them to have all

the information about mentors and mentees in one

professionalised digital system. This CRM-system also

simplifies the monitoring of duos by automating the

administrative tasks and enables them to compile

accurate statistics. In several mentoring programmes this

is part of a diversified funding policy and is part of the

communication in the recruitment process of mentors.

Some mentoring-to-work initiatives can use offices

from companies and do not have to pay (high) rents.

Social impact bonds

The social impact bond (and the related development

impact bond) is a mechanism that harnesses private

capital for social services and encourages outcome

achievement by making repayment contingent upon

success. Social impact bonds are applied as a means to

fund initiatives that try to tackle harsh social problems

that cannot be tackled by traditional approaches. Social

impact bonds (SIBs) combine some components of

results- or performance-based financing and publicprivate

partnerships, which have been used to fund

public services for many decades. However, impact

bonds differ in several ways. First, in an impact bond,

financing is provided upfront rather than when results

are attained. Second, results in social impact bonds

are usually related to outcomes as opposed to outputs.

Third, impact bonds can focus on the delivery of

human services as opposed to the traditional physical

infrastructure that has often been the center of both

public-private partnerships and performance contracts.

Finally, in contrast to programmes such as Programme

for Results (P4R) or results-based financing (RBF)

being used by the World Bank, impact bonds bring in

private sector rigor and performance management

to drive results (Gustafsson-Wright, 2015, 2).

The Munich branch of Joblinge in Germany participated

in one of the first social impact bonds in Germany.

Private investors pre-financed the project and carried

the risk. The public sector would only cover the cost

119


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

and pay a success premium if the placement goal was

achieved. The Bavarian State Ministry of Labour and

Social Affairs, Family and Integration, and the Benckiser

Stiftung Zukunft initiated the social impact bond

(Garanin, annual report Joblinge, 25). Joblinge sees

future opportunities in this kind of funding: “If we could

establish such a success-based funding model with the

public sector, that would be a huge opportunity not just

for JOBLINGE but also for many other initiatives trying to

solve social problems through innovative approaches.

In the Frankfurt RhineMain region, we have started to

establish this with a few job centres, so that we receive

bonuses for successes and can reinvest them in the

programme development. But, the whole thing is still

very much in the early stages. A success-based funding

model would give us much more security as a social

entrepreneur, allowing us to focus even more on our

work with the youths and less on securing funding. For

instance, if we are already able to place our participants

after four months instead of six, we are missing two

months’ worth of funding. Of course, we would always

choose the risk and the participant’s success.

With a placement rate of more than 70 percent

of participants, the success-based funding

model would be a decisive improvement for us—

and for the entire funding system in the social

sector” (Tas, annual report Joblinge, 25)

In Belgium, DUO for a JOB, has gained not only financial

support but also visibility from experiments in funding

such as Social Impact Bond (SIB). A SIB is an innovative

financing mechanism in which governments or

commissioners enter into agreements with social service

providers, such as social enterprises or non-profit

organisations, and investors to pay for the delivery of

pre-defined social outcomes. DUO for a JOB was the first

non-profit organisation on the European mainland to

start with Social Impact Bonds. A trajectory with DUO for

a JOB costs 1,500 to 3,500 euros, while an unemployed

young person costs the state 27.000 euros a year.

Gustafsson-Wright et.al. (2015, 126) included DUO for a

JOB in their study on the potential and limitations of

impact bonds. The infographic shows the features of

the social impact bond agreement of DUO for a JOB.

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

120


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Social Impact Bond Name

DUO for a JOB

Understand the environment

you are working in

Location

Brussels-Capital

Region

Country

Belgium

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Start date January 2014 Contract Duration 24 months

Social Issue

Target Population

Intervention

Unemployment

180 18- to 30-year old migrants who are neither EU, US nor Canadian

nationals, are legally residing in Brussels, and are registered at

Actiris (the Brussels Capital region employment agency)

Participants will be matched with local retires who worked in the field of the

participant’s employment interest, who will give them advice for 6 months

and put them in touch with suitable employers. The programme will provide

individualized and tailored follow-up of participant’ job-searching activities.

Service provider Duo for a Job Outcome funder Actiris

Intermediary

KOI Invest

Upfront capital commitment 0,323

Technical

Assistance Provider

Non-recoverable

grants

Kois Invest

Pro bono legal services and

external foundation grant

for technical assistance

form Kois Invest

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

121


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Social Impact Bond Name

Investor Name

Investment

Senior Investors

Kois invest gathered individual investors

0,324 million EUR

Clear purpose

Maximum potential loss 100%

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Outcome Metric

Outcome Evaluation Method

Payment Schedule

Payments beyond threshold

Maximum return

The one-year reemployment rate, defined as having accumulated

more than 90 days of employment or obtained a permanent

employment contract in the year following the programme

Quasi-experimental (matched comparison group)

(Brussels Observatory of Employment, verified by an independent validator)

Payments from the outcome funder to the investors will

take place once at the end of the two year deal

If improvement in reemployment rate (in comparison to control

group) is between 0% and 10%, payment gradually increases from

0% to 100% of investment principal. If improvement is beyond

10%, investors earn incrementally higher interest, up to 9%

Up to 9% at the end of the project

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

122


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Diversification of activities which lead to new funding opportunities

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Besides financial diversification, some mentoring-towork

initiatives develop a combination of activities to be

more sustainable. However, not all mentoring initiatives

are in favour of the diversification of their activities.

Some consider one on one mentoring as the ultimate

core of their activities and don’t develop other activities,

not even those in line with their purpose, to create new

funding opportunities. In the course of our research,

we found several mentoring initiatives who do develop

additional activities as a strategy for new funding, which

in turn allows them to make a bigger societal impact.

For instance, Mitt Liv in Sweden developed a

combination of activities to be more sustainable:

1-on-1 mentoring, membership fees from companies,

consultancy on diversity, recruitment for companies.

The target group of Mitt Liv comprises highly educated

refugees. Mitt Liv’s ‘Inclusive Leadership’ programme

contains three workshops that focus on the concept of

diversity and inclusion in workplaces. In the programme

participants speak about the challenges that come with

diversity and share success factors. The takeaways for

the participants include a solid understanding about

what and why diversity is linked to working life, how

diversity and inclusion are related to profitability and

growth, a toolbox for how to become more inclusive

in your leadership and understanding your own bias.

The advantages for the employer are that they gain

leaders with ideas, energy and motivation to push

the diversity in their company forward, they have an

employee equipped with the tools to move from words

to action and showing the way in the organisation. The

costs for the workshop in 2019 is 16.500 krona / 12 .

The diversification of your activities might generate

extra income and a cash flow, this might bring also

extra costs related to book-keeping systems, extra

personal, rent of locations and so on. It is important

to calculate the estimated revenues and costs on

the short and the long term. There is likely to be an

initial investment, but that will bear fruit eventually.

A financial plan will be necessary to develop these

activities as well. A lot depends of the expertise and

competencies you have already in place, the tools

you have available, the financial or in-kind support

you receive from funders to develop these activities

and bridge a possible phase of investment.

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

123


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Fundraising planning

Kelly Janus (2018) developed

a questionnaire to help you

think about your funding when

starting social enterprises.

She recommends finding a

combination of business and

philanthropy: sell products

and services that align

strongly with the mission

of the organisation and

use bold strategies to raise

philanthropic capital.

Kelly Janus also suggests

charging beneficiaries. In

the case of mentoring, this

would include mentors

and mentees. In the field

of mentoring-to-work field

we did not encounter many

mentoring initiatives that

ask mentors and mentees

to pay a fee, except for the

Swedish organisation MINE.

On the basis of the research

conducted in the MeMoRe

project, we do not recommend

asking mentors and mentees

to pay for participation

because the voluntary

character of mentoring is a

core feature of mentoring.

Where do you find yourself on a scale of 1 to 5?

1: strongly disagree/5: strongly agree

Our mentoring initiative has sought

the input of as many constituents

as possible to brainstorm potential

sources of earned income, and whenever

possible, tested a variety of earned

income strategies (earned income

resources, charging third parties such

as government entities or companies).

Our mentoring initiative has a

multi-year fundraising plan. Kelly

Janus recommends having at least

a 5 year fundraising plan.

Our mentoring initiative is detailed

and realistic. We have a gift table

outlining target contribution

amounts for each year, a detailed

prospect list with potential funders/

donors and contribution amounts,

an outreach calendar with a

personalized plan for each prospect

on the list and we use it actively.

Our mentoring initiative leverages

others to help fundraise us, through

connecting with peers and existing

funders to brainstorm, has organized

fundraising training where they practice

‘asking’ for funding, other external

champions for the organisation

who fundraise on our behalf.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

124


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Diversification of finances

• What does the financing mix of your

mentoring programme look like?

• Make a timeline of your current financial

resources to get a clear picture of when

your funding sources will expire. The

excel-tool can support you doing so.

• Spend at least one hour a week analyzing

and working on a good mix of resources.

Investigate new sources and opportunities

(MacCrae & Wakeland, 2006).

• Know the advantages and disadvantages of the

sources of funding, and what the chances are

that you are eligible. Not all funding sources will

be attractive, even if the budgets are high. For

example, some may be contrary to your mission

or your values (personal and/or organisational)

• Build expertise in writing

proposals for grant funding.

• The field of social impact funding is

growing and several mentoring initiatives

strive to impact funding. What is your

vision on social impact funding? Are you

ready to show your social impact?

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Types of funding 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

Public

Government subsidies (structural)

Project-based subsidies

Private

Financial sustainability planning

Financing by companies

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

Income from activities

Gifts/Donors

Contributions in kind

Foundations

Love money

Business angels

TOTAL (%) 100 100 100 100 100

125


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

What looks good here?

What makes me

uncomfortable is...

I need more

information about ...

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Source: Mentoring Programme Sustainability Plan Template, Iowa Department of public health

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Choosing the right resource development activities (MacRae & Wakeland, 2006, 26)

When developing resource development activities it is important to assess whether each resource is right

for your mentoring-to-work initiative. The internal and external environmental analysis can help to inform

you, as well as the feedback loops resulting from your theory of change and social impact analysis.

When considering the righteousness of specific resources you can ask yourself the following questions:

Human Resources

Does the funding resources fit your vision and mission?

yes - no

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Does the funding strategy meet the objectives you have identified (via your theory

of change) and the timeframe you have set? However, it is important to know that

gathering financial resources often is not a linear process. Some kind of flexibility

related to the timing and reprioritising might be relevant to consider.

yes - no

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Does your programme have the capacity to take on a particular strategy:

staff, connections, administrative support, partners …

yes - no

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

Does getting the grant / donation entail so much red tape from the

funding resource that it compromises your programme?

Will the fundraising strategy help you diversify your funding mix rather than

simply extend a single source? Does the funding fit with your other sources?

yes - no

yes - no

126


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Grant funding

Writing, submitting and securing grant funding for your organisation can be a stressful

experience. Wallace (2019) of the School for Social Entrepreneurs gives five tips to

make sure your energy and resources are focussed on what does work:

• You must convince funders there’s a problem to solve.

• Almost all funders will ask you to explain what problem you are trying to

solve and what evidence you are basing this on. Funders want to ensure their

money is being spent wisely so you need to prove there is a need..

• You are selling a solution to a problem. Funders want to know how the money they allocate will be spent,

your proposed solution, how the project/idea will be implemented and what happens if plans go wrong.

Your application must clearly explain this to the funder in a way that is coherent, easy to follow and

which can be measured and translated into a measurable project plan to measure success against.

• Have a clear and realistic budget. You should do this really early on because it will focus you on

what your project can and CAN’T deliver within the funder’s budget. What do you need to buy to

make the project a success, what can you cut back on and how long will the project take?

• Don’t bend your project to breaking point to fit a funder, find a different funder. Finding

funding is highly competitive but that should never mean you compromise your project/idea

so that it fits a funder’s priority. You’ll just have to find a different funder that does recognise

the problem you are trying to solve. Time spent researching potential funders who do value

what you want to achieve is never wasteful, these must become your absolute focus.

• Less is always more. If you can make your point within 80% of the word count that’s a sign of being

articulate. Unnecessarily complex words and excessive lengthy sentences never convince a funder. A funder

wants to understand your ideas quickly by reading concise explanations.

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

127


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Diversification of activities

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

What activities could you develop that lead to new funding?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

What are the investments needed to develop these activities?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

How does this influence your financial plan on the short term / long term?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

128


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

129


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

REFERENCES

Literature

• Bania, M. & Kandalaft, A. (2013). Striving for sustainability: six strategies

to guide your efforts. YOUCAN Mentoring Program.

• Garringer, M., Kupersmidt, J., Rhodes, J., Stelter, R., & Tai, T. (2015). Elements of effective practice

for mentoring (4th Edition). Boston, MA: MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

• Kelly Janus, K. (2017). Social Startup Success. How the best non-profits launch,

scale up and make a difference. Da Capo Lifelong Books: New York.

• MacRae, P. & Wakeland, D. (2006). Building a sustainable mentoring program. A Framework for Resource

Development Planning. MRC: Folsom. educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/resources/sustainability.pdf

• Gustafsson-Wright, E., Gardiner, S., Putcha, V. (2015). The potential and limits of impact

bonds. Lessons from the first five years of experience worldwide. Global Economy and

Development. www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Impact-Bondsweb.pdf

• Wallace, A. (2019). How to write successful funding applications.

www.the-sse.org/resources/starting/how-to-write-successful-funding-applications/

Websites

• www.connect2work.be

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.joblinge.de

• www.kodiko.fr

• mittliv.com

• mine.se/english/mentor-program

Social impact

130


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

• https://www.nqt.fr

• https://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/crowdfunding-guide/what-is/explained_en

• https://www.gingo.community/nl/creeer-10-extra-jobs-met-duo-for-a-job?set-country=BE

• https://www.duoforajob.be/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Gingo-vs-DUO.pdf

Annual reports

Other

• Duo for a Job, annual reports 2016 and 2017

• Joblinge, annual reports 2016 and 2017

• Kodiko, annual report 2016-2017

• Nos Quartiers ont des Talents, annual reports 2016 and 2017

• De Standaard, “Wanneer vijftigplussers en allochtone werkzoekenden de

handen in elkaar slaan”, interview Fredéric Simonart, 6/01/2018.

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

131


FINANCIAL

MANAGEMENT

& ANALYSIS


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT & ANALYSIS

Financial management is the process of planning,

monitoring and evaluating all financial aspects of your

organisation or enterprise. At its most basic level it is

about anticipating and tracking how money comes into

your organisation (revenues, funding, investment), how

it is invested within your organisation (operating costs,

staff costs, purchasing assets, …) and how it is invested

or leaves your organisation (paying operating suppliers,

paying staff, purchasing assets, paying investors, …). It

is important to understand that financial management is

about both – the past and the future. You need to look at

your historical financial performance (through financial

reports) and also assess (through budgets, projections,

forecasts, etc.) how you want to perform financially in

the future (UnLtd, 2019). Financial management is best

conducted as a day-to-day practice, so that when you

have to report on your financial year you don’t have to

scramble to get all the documents together. It is also

important to have financial knowledge handy as some

funders will ask you to report on finances – and on

impact – related to the specific area of your organisation

they are funding. A financial reporting system that is

flexible enough to generate customized reports will

be important. It is important to start with a financial

management plan even in the early stages, so that when

your mentoring initiative grows, financial management

grows smoothly with it (UnLtd, 2019; Simonart, 2019 / 13 ).

Your financial projections should reflect the ambition

of your organisation. In this case, financial targets

should be driven by the social impact and operational

targets that you have for the next period of operation.

Mentoring initiatives can set targets in terms of the

number of mentees and mentors you want to serve

and work through the operational and financial

implications of that. This includes questions such

as: How much staff do we need? How big does the

office need to be? How many computers do we

need? How much grant income will I need to find in

order to bridge the funding gap? (UnLtd, 2019).

Financial management

Book-keeping

Book-keeping is the activity of recording

the transactions of your business and filing

documentation to support the financial data you

record (receipts, invoices, etc.). It is the system/

process that will enable you or your accountant

to generate your historical financial statements. A

computer-based system is highly recommended.

Book-keeping can be outsourced quite cost

effectively for a small organisation. This should be

an option that you consider, but bear in mind that

the quality of the book-keeping service can depend

on the quality and timeliness of the information

you provide. Also, don’t take the out of sight, out of

mind approach – even though someone else might

be recording your finances, you are the one who

should be actively reviewing the outputs as a normal

part of your work This way you can understand your

current financial position and financial challenges

as you make multiple other business decisions.

Legal financial compliance requirements

Once you start operating, you are likely to have a

number of obligations in relation to your financial

reporting. The complexity of these obligations will

Social impact

133


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

depend on your choice of legal structure and will

also grow as your organisation grows. In addition

to your legal obligations, as your organisation

grows above certain thresholds there will be an

increasing requirement to complete an independent

audit of your financial reports. Auditors are

qualified accountants who will review your financial

statements and supporting documentation to signoff

your financial reports and confirm that they

present a true and fair view of your business.

Financial management systems

The demands of financial recording can grow

exponentially as your mentoring initiative grows. There

is a variety of book-keeping and accounting software

that can help you record your transactions effectively

and efficiently. Some providers offer discounts for social

enterprises. A financial management system can reduce

your workload significantly and it’s important to have

an idea about how you want to receive the outputs

they generate. Broadly speaking, the software that you

choose should enable you to generate your financial

statements in a form that comply with your legal

financial compliance requirements (typically every year).

It should also be able to record your operations over

the last few months and allow you to analyze monthly

your financial state. These ‘informal’ financial records

are often called management accounts. Management

accounts are more detailed than financial statements

– they may consider the income and costs relating to

different areas of your business separately, for example.

Taxes

Your tax obligations will be driven by features such

as the legal structure of your mentoring-to-work

initiative, the scale of your operations, whether

you employ staff and how much you pay them. A

qualified tax accountant can help you with that.

Financial plan & analysis

When starting out, initiators of projects are often

less concerned with financial aspects and financial

sustainability. Studies show that in a number of cases

founders are more concerned with the development

of their programmes and the operational aspects that

go along with it. We, however, advocate in favour of a

sound financial policy at the very start of operations.

A sound financial policy means converting your vision

into activities and estimating the costs that are likely

to occur. Such a policy will let you: know where you

are financially, use efficient follow-up instruments,

report regularly to the board and stakeholders. Being

financially healthy on the long term largely depends

on a sensible estimate of income and expenditure

and a correct assessment of the risks. Therefore, it

is important to (1) plan the returns, solvency and

liquidity of the organisation over a longer term (2)

carry out the plan and report regularly and adjust if

necessary and (3) organize internal risk monitoring

and control via control procedures and regular risk

analysis. The mission (the purpose) and strategy of your

organisation also needs to guide financial decisions.

These insights are translated into an operational plan

that indicates how you are going to tackle any financial

issues that crop up. Eventually, this operational plan

is adapted into a financial plan that measures the

costs against the revenues. A sound financial policy

starts from this financial plan in 3 to 5 years.

• Financial plan: You draw up a budget based

on the financial plan. Ensure that the

planned content of the programme fits the

financial estimates you have made. This

Social impact

134


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

exercise must be made every year and

adjusted if necessary based on your policy

options and your financial capacity / 14 .

• The balance sheet and the prediction of the

balance of your company: The balance sheet

is one of the three (income statement and

statement of cash flows being the other two)

core financial statements used to evaluate

a business. The balance sheet is a snapshot,

representing the state of a company’s finances

(what it owns and owes) as of the date of

publication. Based on your profit and loss

statement, you can make a prediction of the

balance of your company. The balance shows the

origin and the destination of the assets in the

organisation. The advantage of this prognosis

is that you can check whether your company

has a healthy financing structure (solvency). A

solvent company has a healthy balance between

equity and debt. Elements to include are the

assets (e.g. cash), liabilities (e.g. debt, rent,

wages, dividends, …) and shareholders’ equity.

• Income statement. While a balance sheet

provides the snapshot of a company’s

financials as of a particular date, the income

statement reports income through a particular

time period. The income statement focuses

on the four key items - revenue, expenses,

gains and losses. It does not cover receipts

(money received by the business) or the cash

payments/disbursements (money paid by the

business). It starts with the details of sales,

and then works down to compute the net

income and eventually the earnings per share

(EPS). Essentially, it gives an account of how

the net revenue realized by the organisation

gets transformed into net earnings (profit or

loss). An income statement provides valuable

insights into an organisation’s operations,

efficiency of its management, under-performing

sectors and its performance relative to peers.

• Cash flow: Cash flow is the net amount of money

moving in and out of a business. It shows where

cash comes from and how it’s being used. A

positive cash flow means your cash inflows were

greater than your cash outflows. If the cash flow

is negative, the business might not have enough

cash to finance operations. This could mean the

business is financing operations by borrowing.

A statement of cash flows studies operating,

financing, and investing activities to show where

the money of your organisation is coming from

and where it’s being spent. It allows investors

and creditors to assess an organisation’s ability

to meet obligations and produce future net cash

inflows while determining the need for external

financing. It is typically done over e a period of

12 months. There are two methods to determine

your cash flow: direct and indirect. The direct

method is most appreciated by funders or

banks, because it is most transparent. The direct

method lists cash inflows and outflows for

every type of operating activity, including: cash

collected from customers, employee salaries,

interest and dividends received, cash paid to

suppliers or vendors, interest paid, income

tax paid (Hart, 2019). It is highly recommended

to make a cash flow prognosis, so you have a

good insight in what is the expected inflow and

outflow of cash during a year. Projecting future

cash flows can give you greater financial control,

provide a deeper understanding of a company’s

performance, help identify shortfalls in

advance, and support business planning so that

activities and resources are properly aligned.

135


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

• Liquidity: It is important that a company has

sufficient liquid assets to be able to pay all

its expenses in the short term. In a profitable

company, the revenues are greater than the costs.

• Cost calculation. It is important to know what

mentoring costs. While making an inventory, do

not hesitate to chart all costs. It is important

to have a good view on the costs you have

(UnLtd, 2019). Besides personnel costs, include

rent, utilities, communication and marketing,

office supplies, representation costs, travel

expenses, social secretariat, accounting,

insurance, etc. A good understanding of fixed

versus variable costs will help you calculate your

cost projections much more accurately (UnLtd,

2019). Do not be afraid of a fair and realistic

picture, and keep a positive attitude (MacCrae

& Wakeland, 2006). That ensures that you know

where you stand. What looks good? What makes

you uncomfortable? What do you need more

information about?

When you have separated your fixed and variable

costs, you can identify your break-even point. The

break-even point is when your income equals

your total cost. If your mentoring initiative works

as a social enterprise, this is seen as a highly

desirable objective. It is the level of activity for

your business at which you are sustainable.

Full cost recovery is an important element of

becoming sustainable. Some stakeholders may

not budge, others may understand your longterm

view or rationale and be willing to cover a

proportion of central costs as part of a longerterm

relationship (UnLtd, 2019).

Of the mentoring initiatives we studied, the

two most transparent about their figures in

their annual reports is DUO for a JOB (Belgium).

While Joblinge (Germany) and Nos Quartiers ont

des Talents (NQT) (France) also have a certain

level of transparency, they are not singularly

mentoring-based organisations. They offer one

on one mentoring alongside other activities, such

as ateliers and webtools (NQT) and orientation,

development of job competencies through

first job experiences. During the course of the

transnational project MeMoRe, we learned that

initiatives working with (young) people with a

migration background (amongst others refugees)

and with a big distance to the labour market

often offer additional activities. Or that one on

one mentoring is added to the activities they

already offer. In this case, mentoring is seen as

an activity that enhances the effectivity of the

programmes. Since the income and cost structure

might be different, we present their incomes

and their costs separately. An exact comparison

is difficult to make especially because they

function in different contexts. However, a general

impression of their income and costs, and how

they are distributed help understand their

financial system.

For the initiatives in this study, two thirds of the

expenditures are related to personnel costs.

This reflects the fact that mentoring to work is

a relational process. As shown in the previous

section, contributions in kind from companies

in the network of the mentoring initiative is a

well proven method for sustainable mentoring

initiatives to reduce their expenditures and invest

in the development and growth of the mentoring

programme. Another (indirect) strategy to reduce

costs, is developing training programmes for

mentors and excellent relations with mentors,

so that they want to re-enrol in the programme.

136


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Mentoring-to-work organisations

Expenditure DUO for a JOB KODIKO

2016 2017 2016-2017 (1,5 year)

Personnel costs 630.219 68,8% 1.208.301 70,3% NPA 75%

Non-personnel

costs and other

operating expenses

Contributions in kind

285.266 / 15 31,1% 510.463 29,7% NPA 25% / 16

Total expenditure 915.485 1.718.764 118.168

Code: NPA: not publicly available

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

137


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Work integration organisations that offer 1-on-1 mentoring

Expenditure Joblinge NQT

2016 2017 2016 2017

Personnel costs 5.403.000 64,6% 7.020.000 65% 4.337.716 91,2% NPA

Code: NPA: not publicly available

Good governance

Collective leadership

Non-personnel

costs and other

operating expenses

2.952.000 35,4% 3.780.000 35%

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Contributions in kind 369.680 8,8% NPA

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Total expenditure 8.355.000 10.800.000 4.707.396 NPA

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

138


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

• Pricing and calculating the costs of a mentoring

pair.

When thinking on the long term, it is necessary

to know how much it really costs to implement

a high-quality mentoring programme. Cost per

pair varied significantly across the mentoring

programmes we interviewed — ranging from

596 euro (annual report NQT, 2017) to 3500

euro per matched pair. It would be interesting

to further investigate what the origin is of the

differences in costs. Initiatives that scale up

see their costs per mentoring pair reduced as

the indirect overhead costs do not vary with

the number of pairs. The costs of a start-up

initiative will also differ from a more mature

initiative as the initial starting costs can then

be subtracted. So, how do you calculate the

cost of a pair? Do your resources cover all

the costs associated with the service? And if

you sell the mentoring service to companies,

how should you determine the selling price?

• During reflections with several mentoring

initiatives, we noticed that mentoring-towork

initiatives might need to be developed

differently depending on the target group

of the mentoring initiative and the stage of

their integration on the labour market. This

could mean a more or less intense duration,

with shorter or longer periods of mentoring

and with extra activities related to the

development of skills and competences. For

mentoring-to-work initiatives for refugees

with no or low qualifications it is important

to think about more intense trajectories,

with a longer duration, and a community

approach. If several initiatives work together

in a collaborative network for instance, it

will be important to think about funding

and the economics of the project in a

different way (e.g. shared economics). This

will often require adapted thinking by the

funders. This is an important consideration

for mentoring initiatives and funders.

• Benchmark your operations against those

of other organisations: You can do this in a

quantitative manner (comparing cost drivers

between organisations to look at relative

efficiency or effectiveness) or in a qualitative

manner. As you gain experience and a track

record in developing your mentoring-to-work

organisation you are likely to learn quite a lot

about how others operate. You should see this

as one of the benefits of establishing yourself

and your organisation, since learning about

how others operate can help influence your

own thinking about how to optimise the way

your organisation functions. Benchmarking

your operations against those of other

organisations is a widely used technique.

Quantitative benchmarking is closely linked

to financial analysis techniques, which are

introduced elsewhere in the toolkit. Often

benchmarking will be an informal and done

in qualitative way, e.g. through learning

networks or network events where you and

other mentoring-to-work initiatives are

asked to talk about your organisation.

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

139


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Calculating the cost of a mentoring pair

To calculate your full cost price there are three types of

costs you need to consider for mentoring.

• Labour cost: the salary and benefits of the direct and

indirect staff working for the mentoring programme.

• Direct cost: these are the expenses that the mentoring initiative

can easily connect to the core business of mentoring.

• Indirect overhead costs: these costs go beyond the expenses

associated with providing the service and include the cost of

maintaining and supporting the mentoring initiative.

The table on the next page illustrates how to calculate the average cost of running

a programme to match mentees with a mentor. Note that the costs below have

not been verified, they are based on information shared by organisations. The

table only serves as tool to calculate your cost per matched pair. Furthermore,

this tool is only for initiatives where mentoring is the only main activity.

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

140


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Budget category

Cost

in euro in %

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Labour costs

Coördinator: Salary and benefits of coordinator

Other programme staff: Salary and benefits of other staff to assist with mentor and

mentees, recruitment, matching pairs, follow-up with the pair, recruitment of volunteers,

communication, marketing, finance, HR, administration, logistics, partnerships.

Good governance

Direct costs: expenses

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Mentor training

Mentee training

Activities events for mentee and mentors

Indirect costs: operational expenses

Rent and utilities

Website and computer maintainance

Office supplies

Communication and marketing material

Phone and internet

Travel costs

Accounting fee

Insurances

Depreciation of investment costs

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Total

Number of matches

Social impact

Total cost per match

141


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

142


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

REFERENCES

Literature

• Hart, M. (2019). The Plain-English Guide to Cash Flow Statement. blog.hubspot.com/sales/cash-flow

• MacRae, P. & Wakeland, D. (2006). Building a sustainable mentoring program. A Framework for Resource

Development Planning. MRC: Folsom. educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/resources/sustainability.pdf

• Sturtevant Borden, C. (s.d.). Implementing Effective Youth Mentoring Relationships for High School Students;

Smaller Learning Communities Programme Auckland Chamber of Commerce: Pricing and Costing.

• UnLtd (2019). Key financial management operations

www.unltd.org.uk/our-support/learning-area/key-financial-management-operations

• UnLtd (2019). Optimising operational efficiency and effectives.

www.unltd.org.uk/our-support/learning-area/optimising-operational-efficiency-and-effectiveness

• UnLtd (2019). Getting started with financial management. www.unltd.org.uk/oursupport/learning-area/getting-started-with-financial-management

Websites

• www.duoforajob.be

• www.joblinge.de

• www.kodiko.fr/

• mittliv.com

• mine.se/english/mentor-program/

• www.nqt.fr

• www.investopedia.com/terms/i/incomestatement.asp

Social impact

143


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Annual reports

• Duo for a Job, annual reports 2016 and 2017

• Joblinge, annual reports 2016 and 2017

• Kodiko, annual report 2016-2017

• Nos Quartiers ont des Talents, annual reports 2016 and 2017

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

144


OPERATIONAL

PROCESSES, SYSTEMS

AND INFRASTRUCTURE


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

OPERATIONAL PROCESSES, SYSTEMS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

In the early stages of your mentoring to work initiative

your attention for and investment in efficient and

effective operational structures might have been

minimal. However, once you are growing, have a larger

amount of mentors and mentees, more partnerships,

more funders who want you to show them your

impact, the need to have transparent processes,

effective operational systems and structures rises.

The need to document your processes might also

rise because you might have to prove your (social)

impact, you don’t want to lose energy and time at

non efficient procedures, and you want to keep

the quality of your mentoring programme high.

Processes

A process defines your approach to completing a

particular activity. Even the smallest organisation

will have a number of activities that take place

concurrently, based on their own time cycles.

While most day-to-day activities do not need to be

documented as a formal process, once you start

planning to operate in the long term, it is worth

thinking about whether the major activities that are

critical to your on-going success should be articulated

and written down clearly. Of course, the main aspect

of this is hiring new staff members to carry out some

of the activities that you did while starting up. Defining

processes enables you to get what you’ve learnt about

best practices out of your head and onto a piece of

paper. The emphasis should be on formalising the

things that help drive excellent quality of mentoring

and coaching of the duos, at the same time giving staff

the ability to respond to specific circumstances as they

do their jobs (UnLtd, 2019).

Some typical areas around which you might think about

defining and documenting some processes: databases

of mentors and mentees, matching of mentors and

mentees, monitoring and evaluation of the duos,

capturing and reporting impact, financial planning

and monitoring, strategy and marketing planning.

Systems

As you reach operational stability, you are also likely to

start identifying areas where systems (usually IT-based

systems) can help make your operations more effective

and/or efficient. During the startup phase most

organisations work with simple, cheap, stand-alone

systems (e.g. webmail, website hosting, etc.), once you

start thinking about operating in the long term it may

be worth investing in more functional systems. Many of

these systems take a much more integrated approach

to information management and will address a range of

operational functions (UnLtd, 2019).

Some examples are customer relationship and

stakeholder management systems, financial bookkeeping,

accounting and reporting systems, a welldesigned

website that provides a more integrated

and interactive ‘touch point’ for engaging and

communicating with stakeholders, in particular

mentors, mentees, companies, monitoring

and evaluation systems. In several mentoring

to work initiatives we notice that companies

support the mentoring to work initiative with

the development of these instruments as a way

to professionalise the operational systems. As

we know, Accenture and the Bertelmansstiftung

have been supporting the field of mentoring to

work initiatives with the development of tools.

Social impact

146


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Infrastructure

In the early period of operation, the issue of office

space may be difficult to manage since the size of your

organisation in terms of staff may fluctuate and/or be

increasing in an unpredictable manner. To avoid the

need to relocate too frequently, many organisations

will rent premises that provide ‘growing space’ for the

future. This may be a costly option and one alternative is

to use serviced office space where you can rent a space

that reflects your current needs (e.g. a certain number of

desk spaces) and add further space as you grow (UnLtd,

2019). Mentoring to work initiatives need infrastructure

and spaces not only for their staff, but also to receive

and meet mentors and mentees and to give trainings

for mentors and mentees. Several mentoring to work

initiatives offer also meeting spaces for the duos of

mentor and mentee to meet each other. It is an asset

when you can offer this at the place you are located.

Having an infrastructure that can hold space for meeting

each other can be seen as an element of perceived

quality by staff, mentors and mentees.

It might also be necessary to establish partnerships

with organisations in the neighbourhood or in villages

in the surroundings to offer additional places to meet.

As you start to think about operating in the longer

term, it is likely that investing in your own assets

may be attractive or even essential versus short-term

options such as informally borrowing the assets of

friends and supporters, sharing assets with other

organisations or hiring/leasing. Operating assets

generally need to last for more than a year and

purchasing assets can be more cost effective than

hiring them from one year to the next The basic

rule is to ‘spread’ the cost of the asset across its

useful life to consider an effective annual cost and

compare that to the cost of an alternative such as

hiring or leasing. However, don’t forget to think about

additional costs that are likely to go hand in hand

with owning your assets outright, such as insurance,

maintenance and repair costs – these should be

factored in to your cost-benefit analysis (UnLtd, 2019).

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

147


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

148


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

REFERENCES

Literature

• UnLtd (2019). Operational processes, systems and infrastructure.

www.unltd.org.uk/our-support/learning-area/operational-porcesses-systems-and-infrastrcuture

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Websites

• www.duoforajob.be

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

149


CREATE DYNAMIC

PARTNERSHIPS


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

CREATE DYNAMIC PARTNERSHIPS

The integration of refugees into the European labour

market is a complex social challenge. This requires

cooperation and partnerships among multiple

layers of stakeholders, even if they have different

perspectives and disagree about the causes of the

problem and the best solutions. It requires working

across organisational boundaries, as the circumstances

are beyond the capacity of any one organisation or

sector to respond to. Several studies on mentoringto-work

find that it is critical for mentoring to work

initiatives to establish partnerships with other

service providers (Purkayastha & De Cuyper, 2019).

Petrovic (2015) calls for a strategic collaboration

where multiple stakeholders work together: civil

sector organisations, public employment services and

employment partners. Cooperation with public sector

actors is crucial, whether this means using them as

resources for recruitment and training or as pathways

to understanding and navigating policies and barriers.

Mentoring-to-work programmes also need to build

strong relationships with other organisations in order

to keep the quality of mentoring high and be able to

support the mentor and mentee during the mentoring

trajectory (Garringer et. al., 2015). In his research on

a mentoring to work project for refugees, Mestan

(2008) noted the importance of building partnerships

with service providers that look into resettlement

needs such as housing and language. Working with

partners also increases the capacity of your mentoringto-work

initiative, so you can deliver your service

at a broader scale. It gives you access to new and

valuable resources and skills that can enhance social

impact. It might also increase your chances of gaining

more resources (financial, human, material, …).

RISE in London works with a range of supporters:

from language centres, social care service

providers, employment counsellors, mental

care experts and employers. They address

various barriers faced by refugees in the labour

market, despite their limited resources.

Nos Quartiers ont des Talents (France) aims to build an

ecosystem of organisations to support its mission. There

are 600 companies in the NQT eco-system, ranging from

large business groups, intermediary enterprises, smallsized

companies to micro enterprises. They provide

mentors and specific workshops for mentees. NQT has

also established partnerships with more than 60 local

and regional authorities. These partnerships aim to

strengthen communication with citizens, consolidate

complementarity with local actors or organise events.

Executives from local authorities also provide mentors.

NQT has close ties with universities and schools to make

students aware about the availability of mentoring

to support their journey to the labour market.

In the German mentoring initiative Joblinge, two out

of three targets of their mentoring initiative – (1)

individual mentoring & support and (2) bundled

social commitment - can only be obtained through

committed partner companies, private volunteers

and close cooperation with the public sector. Joblinge

offers a broad spectrum of involvement opportunities

for its partners. Partner businesses can mix and match

different forms of commitment such as financial

support, internship positions, employee mentoring.

The partner business can adapt their commitment

according their CSR strategy. Each Joblinge location has

private-sector partners. They support the organisation

Social impact

151


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

and agree to offer participants jobs or internships.

For participating companies, the partnership provides

two benefits: (1) an ongoing source of new employees

who are supported and coached to success and (2)

a way to give back to the community by offering job

opportunities to disadvantaged youth. Volunteers from

the partner organisations and the local community

provide services such as mentoring, training, and

project expertise. Joblinge also cooperates with

multiple cultural institutions and foundations. This

collaboration across sectors is critical, both as a

source of training, experience, and jobs and as a

way to offer youths a professional network that they

would otherwise lack. Each sector plays a critical

role. The public sector refers unemployed youth to

the programme and provides part of the funding.

Mitt Liv in Sweden created a for-profit, self-sustaining

model by partnering with companies who purchase

the service and participate in the programme. Mitt

Liv generates income by selling ‘partner package’

deals to a broad range of companies (from cosmetics

to finance). The companies get access to guest

lectures, discussion groups, mentoring and a forum to

exchange experiences regarding internal and external

diversity efforts among partners. In 2010, Mitt Liv

worked already with 21 partner companies—many

of them international—from a broad range of fields,

each paying 150,000 Swedish Kroner for the package.

Partners include Mary Kay, JKL Group, Volvo and

Vinge (one of the largest law firms in Sweden). Mittliv

charges companies for participation and services,

drawing mentors from company employees and, in

turn, positions young participants as experts. The

participants offer their knowledge of immigrant life

and markets through paid lectures, participation in

consumer research focus groups and testers, forums,

and field trips, offering an inside look at globalization.

Furthermore, Mitt Liv creates a win-win interactive

programme for these participants by building

networks, personal relationships, and lifeplans—giving

them solid contacts for future

opportunities and success to incubate their own

ideas and develop their entrepreneurial skills.

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

152


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

HOW TO TOOLBOX

Key stakeholder involvement

The ecosystem analysis has given you a view on the actors in your ecosystem. In this exercise we explore the extent

to which you are working together, directly or indirectly, with the actors you define as your key stakeholders. A

stakeholder is a person, group, organisation that has an interest or concern in your mentoring-to-work initiative.

Stakeholders can be affected by the actions, objectives and policies of your mentoring-to-work initiative. Examples

of key stakeholders are directors, employees, companies, government and its agencies, public social welfare

services among others. The key stakeholders are those that (might) have the most influence on your organisation.

Kelly-Janus (2018) developed 5 short questions to explore how your mentoring-to-work initiative

works with stakeholders. We adapted this questionnaire to help you reflect on your approach:

• Do you know your key stakeholders? Who are they?

• Are you in touch with your key stakeholders (e.g. organising meetings often enough)?

• Do you work with your key stakeholders indirectly on common initiatives?

• Do you work with your key stakeholders directly on common initiatives?

• Who takes the initiative?

Financial sustainability planning

• What do you want to start, stop and continue?

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

For a deeper reflection on the sort of relationship you have with your keystakeholders,

you can use the stakeholder retrospective tool.

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

153


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

In touch Do you work directly together? What do you want to?

...

Name Yes / No Yes / No On what topic

do you work

together?

Start Stop Continue

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

154


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Asset mapping partners

This can be a useful way of creating a map or inventory

of the resources, skills and talents of the stakeholders

and partners in your network. This can help you

discover, visualize, and track the actual and potential

links between your initiative and the different parts of

your community. The more people you can talk to and

involve in your Asset Mapping, the better. Have these

conversations formally and informally, depending

on the person in question and the situation. Attend

meetings and events in your community, or host your

own. Ask individuals and organisations what they do,

what they are interested in, what they think of your

initiative, and what they would like to contribute.

1. Draw a circle. Write the name of

your programme in the middle.

2. Write down the names of all organisations

and groups of individuals that have a

connection to your programme.

3. When going through the mapping exercise,

ask yourself the following questions:

• Who are your existing partners? What

assets do they have to offer? What can

you do to strengthen the level and

longevity of engagement, commitment and

contribution of existing partnerships?

• What organisations, groups, associations,

foundations, or businesses in your community

could support your work? Generate a list of

potential supporters and their assets. Look

into their individual passions and priorities,

and figure out how to best highlight the

aspects of your programme that align with

what they are trying to accomplish.

• What can you provide for each partner in

question? What is it that you would like

them to provide for you? Always highlight

the potential for a win-win partnership.

• Which community partnerships would you

like to enhance? To what end? How will you

engage with these new relationships?

• It is not difficult to get governments excited

about promising projects, it is much more

difficult to convince them to (co-) fund your

mentoring initiative. Know the political and

policy cycle and respond accordingly. How will

you find support for your mentoring initiative?

And what will your lobbying strategy look like?

• Building and maintaining good relations

with (local) actors. Know who the influential

actors and the decision makers are. Be

present in the community. Be outgoing.

• The mentors are your ambassadors too.

Experienced mentors with a higher professional

profile are often part of associations that bring

together professional leaders and business

leaders to provide humanitarian services and

build goodwill for financing projects. They can be

an important source of new mentors, they have a

large network that contributes to the realization

of successful mentoring processes and can

sometimes also provide financing. Maintaining

good contacts with mentors is of particular

importance. How will you engage the mentors?

Social impact

155


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

What can each partner bring to the partnership?

Information

Employment trajectories

and legislation

Social care trajectories

and legislation

Market analysis/forecasting

Local knowledge/social conditions

Statistics

Other: ………………………….........

Which partners contribute? And how?

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Accommodation

Office

Meetings

Workshops for mentors

Workshops for mentees

Networking events for mentors

Networking events for mentees

(Data) storage

Project activities

Other: ………………………….........

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Products

ICT

CRM infrastructure

Food and beverages for duoand

network meetings

Other: ………………………….........

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

156


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

People

Mentors

Mentees

Volunteers

Administrative and

logistics support

Experts additional workshops

on specific topics

Experts for organisational

development

Other: ………………………….........

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Relationships

Expertise

Information

Community groups

Companies and organisations

Policy makers

Foundations

Donors

Media

General public

Other: ………………………….........

Expertise for additional

workshops on specific topics

for mentors and mentees

Expertise for organisational

development

Other: ………………………….........

Create dynamic partnerships

Other

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

157


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Key features of good cooperation in mentoring initiatives

Based on a study of mentoring initiatives MacRae

& Wakeland (2006) and Bania & Kandalaft (2013)

formulated some key features of good cooperation that

support the sustainability of mentoring initiatives.

• Develop a shared vision or passion with partners

and stakeholders (even if you do not share the

same perspective from the beginning): MacRae

& Wakeland (2006) suggest making sure that you

have a mutual understanding of your individual

and common goals. Once this is clear you can

demonstrate how the mission and objectives of

your mentoring initiative support the priorities

of the partner or organisation of interest and

highlight mutual benefits. Simply put, look for

the win-win scenario. Be sure to clarify the roles

and responsibilities and what you expect from

one another right from the outset. In this case

of integration of refugees and newcomers in the

labour market, the social challenge is complex.

• Develop trustful relationships. This is a basic

requirement Initial contact with a potential ally

or partner is more effective if it is a personal,

one-on-one contact. It is personal contact

that trust is build. MacRae & Wakeland (2006)

and Bania & Kandalaft (2013) suggest that

organisations should never promise more

than they can deliver. However, if conservative

goals are based on a fear of not being able

to obtain results (and therefore not receiving

promised funding), this approach can turn into

a cherry-picking approach and organisations

can set very easy goals. The challenge here

is to build engaging relationships with

partners and stakeholders while dealing

with highly complex social problems. It is a

situation where the impact of your mentoring

initiatives might be influenced (un)consciously

by the initiatives of others for the good or

the bad. This is when open communication

and transparency becomes critical.

• Open communication & transparency: ensure

an open forum for discussion and conflict

resolution. Be honest about your intentions

and the reasons for making the decisions

you make. Do not avoid or ignore tensions

or troubles, but address them head-on in a

sensitive and productive way. Silence is never

a good sign, and can signify a lack of trust

in the partnership. Do not leave a partner’s

questions or concerns unanswered. A lack of

openness and transparency can translate into

a perception of disinterest or deceptiveness.

• Be embedded in the community: It is not

enough to be located in a community or

even to reach out to a community. A base

of community members who feel a real

ownership towards your programme and

participate in your efforts is a key to success.

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

158


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Questions to reflect on successful cooperation and partnerships

Based on research Kaats & Opheij (2013) formulate the following indicators for successful cooperation:

Ambition

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Do the partners have a shared ambition?

Does the partnership create meaning and value for the partners?

Does the aim contribute to the cooperation strategy between the partners?

Does the cooperation between the partners have personal meaning?

yes - no

yes - no

yes - no

yes - no

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Interests

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Are the partners sincerely concerned about each other’s interests and

can they have a transparent conversation about their interest?

yes - no

Financial management & analysis

Does the partnership create extended value?

yes - no

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Are the partners prepared to negotiate with each other?

yes - no

Create dynamic partnerships

Have the partners a real dialogue for each other’s interests?

yes - no

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

159


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Relations

Are the partners good at making connections?

Do the partners make their connections with you stronger?

yes - no

yes - no

Strong public narrative

Do the partners trust each other and develop trust?

yes - no

Good governance

Can one or more partners take the lead on cooperation?

yes - no

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Organisation

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Are the structures and governance in place aligned with the goals of the partners?

Do the partners participate in the cooperation and do the stakeholders of the

partners support the cooperation with your mentoring organisation?

Does the partnership realise the intended results and the pre-agreed objectives?

Are clear agreements formulated and how will they be evaluated?

yes - no

yes - no

yes - no

yes - no

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

160


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Process

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Are phases clearly formulated and are they well-timed?

yes - no

Clear purpose

Can a balance be struck between content and process-related attention for cooperation?

yes - no

Strong public narrative

Is there a clear division of roles?

yes - no

Good governance

Is the process of the partnership self-managing?

yes - no

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Does the partnership pay attention to the quality of the process and the ambitions?

yes - no

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Results

Does the partnership have an impact beyond its immediate stakeholder group?

Is there a recognition of achievement from project beneficiaries, key others and/or the wider community?

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Does the partnership have an impact beyond its immediate stakeholder group?

yes - no

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Is there a recognition of achievement from project beneficiaries,

key others and/or the wider community?

yes - no

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

161


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Stepping stones for wiser action

What are the key learnings?

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

What are the actions to take?

Good governance

Collective leadership

Who is responsible?

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

What is the deadline for the first step?

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Who will notice the difference?

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

How will we notice and evaluate the difference?

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

162


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

REFERENCES

Literature

• Bania, M. & Kandalaft, A. (2013). Striving for sustainability: six strategies

to guide your efforts. YOUCAN Mentoring Program.

• Garringer, M., Kupersmidt, J., Rhodes, J., Stelter, R., & Tai, T. (2015). Elements of effective practice

for mentoring (4th Edition). Boston, MA: MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

• Kaats, E. & Opheij, C. (2013). Leren samenwerken tussen organisaties. Vakmedianet: Deventer.

• Kelly Janus, K. (2017). Social Startup Success. How the best non-profits launch,

scale up and make a difference. Da Capo Lifelong Books: New York.

• Kelly Janus, K. (2018). Social Startup Success Evaluation Toolkit Quiz.

www.kathleenjanus.com/socialstartupsuccess.html

• MacRae, P. & Wakeland, D. (2006). Building a sustainable mentoring program. A Framework for Resource

Development Planning. MRC: Folsom. educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/resources/sustainability.pdf

• Mestan, K. (2008). Given the Chance An evaluation of an employment and education pathways program for

refugees. Brotherhood of St Laurence: Fitzroy Vic.

pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f666/6a434993312b74ff220a4a30827f9d21feeb.pdf

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

Websites

• www.ashoka.org/en/fellow/sofia-appelgren

• www.businessdictionary.com/definition/stakeholder.html

• www.joblinge.de

• mittliv.com

• www.nqt.fr

• www.toolkitsportdevelopment.org/html/resources/E1/E1585B25-8A8A-44A9-BC6C-F519987AD2CE/pt-en.pdf

163


QUALITY OF

MENTORING-TO-WORK


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

QUALITY OF MENTORING-TO-WORK

Purkayastha & De Cuyper (2019) explored in the context of this transnational ESF-project MeMoRe what practices

constitute a well-designed programme and under what conditions and why certain practices are more significant

when it comes to labour market integration of refugees. First they took an in-depth look at critical success factors

and best practices suggested by academic literature and studies on mentoring to work. Secondly the researchers

conducted detailed interviews with mentoring to work organisations around the world in order to understand what

they consider critical for success. The researchers discovered 11 key dimensions at the macro, meso- and micro-level.

The paper and the checklist Purkayastha & De Cuyper are available on the website: www.memore.be

REFERENCES

Literature

• Purkayastha, D. & Decuyper, P. (2019). Best practices and critical success factors in mentoring

to work for refugees and migrants: an evidence-based study. Leuven: HIVA KU Leuven

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

165


SOCIAL IMPACT


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

SOCIAL IMPACT

Are you looking to raise new funds? Or does your

mentoring initiative need to justify the investment

you have already received? Is it time to communicate

in a different way about your organisation? Do you

want to better understand the outcome of your

mentoring initiative and how you can improve upon

it? Are you looking for ways to better motivate your

staff? These are all reasons to evaluate your social

impact. In addition, the expectation is that both

governments and private financiers will increasingly

expect social enterprises and non-profit organisations

to be able to demonstrate not only their results,

but also their social impact. This is also the case for

mentoring-to-work initiatives (Gonzales, Garribay &

De Cuyper, 2013; Van Dooren & De Cuyper, 2015).

Social impact is usually defined in reference to four

key elements (Clifford et.al., 2014): the value created as

a consequence of someone’s activity (Emerson et. al.

2000), the value experienced by beneficiaries and all

others affected (Kolodinsky et. al., 2006), an impact that

includes both positive and negative effects (Wainwright,

2002), an impact that is judged against a benchmark

of what the situation would have been without the

proposed activity (Clark et al., 2004, p7). This means

that the impact differs from intentions, the output or

the outcome of an intervention. Output and outcome

are often supply-oriented indicators. New business

models pay more attention to social impact. New

business models integrate economic as well as social

and/or ecological dimensions. They are called ‘double

bottom-line’ or ‘triple bottom-line’ organisations (Dart

et. al., 2010). The Stanford survey on leadership and

management in the non-profit sector (Meehan & Jonker,

2017) teaches us that more than half of the organisations

find it difficult to evaluate their impact, and the practice

of doing so is not yet widespread (OECD, 2015).

In general, accounting and measuring for social

enterprises relies on three main approaches (OECD,

2015): positivist, critical and interpretative. Each has

different views on how to evaluate social impact. A

universal definition and method for the evaluation

of social impact is not possible. Each of these

approaches use different strategic objectives. The

positivist approach is aimed at enhancing operational

performance and driving innovation; the critical theorist

approach supports resource acquisition; and the

interpretative reporting approach builds and maintains

organisational legitimacy. Academics also note that

public actors, social enterprises and private funders

use different methods to measure (their) social impact.

Among these are qualitative synthetic metrics such

as social return on investment and a mix of narrative

and quantitative data (Gibbon & Dey, 2011). The

existing debate regarding social impact measurement

distinguishes two dominant approaches: (1) a onesize-fits-all

approach with a defined set of indicators

(economic and social) for all social enterprises and (2)

an approach with different data (metrics) to capture

the differences among social enterprises. The second

approach finds more support among practitioners.

OECD (2015) is conscious about the fact that some

social enterprises operate in areas where the social

impact measurement is more complex and where

evidence in outcomes takes longer to materialize.

As a consequence, some social enterprises seem to

apply a ‘cherry-picking’ approach and select easier

cohorts of beneficiaries for their services. In this case

Social impact

167


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

the impact is more tangible and easier to reach in a

shorter time frame. Several stakeholders working on

mentoring-to-work feel that this is already the case in

this field. A majority of mentoring-to-work programmes

present in Europe today are aimed at highly qualified

newcomers. This could be because positive results are

easier to obtain in this case. When asked about their

decision to work only with highly qualified newcomers,

the organisations we interviewed responded in three

ways: some said it was a legitimate, strategic choice

as it fit their business model. For other organisations,

funding determined their choices and, if needed, they

could tweak their project to take on people with a

slightly larger distance from the labour market (e.g.

women with a migrant background), but not low-skilled

migrants. Only a few mentoring-to-work organisations

actually aimed to build a mentoring approach (content

and process wise) for newcomers/refugees with more

complex challenges on the labour market. For these

organisations, the choice to focus on this demographic

is based on social and societal values. While mentoringto-work

initiatives for highly skilled newcomers can

also arrive at best practices easily, the complexity of

the situation faced by mentees with lower qualifications

and / or a big distance to the labour market makes it

difficult to standardize processes. Thus, the mentoring

model for these organisations is often constructed

through a complex adaptive systems approach which

might require measurement on several levels to

know how social impact can be created the best.

Start with an impact map

An impact map is a visual way of articulating how

your organisation or project creates impact. It usually

includes: your activities (outputs), the people and

organisations you work with and affect (stakeholders),

the changes you create for them (outcomes), and your

long-term vision and goals (impact objectives). Impact

maps visualise the dynamic relationship between

delivery plans and the world around them, capturing the

most important assumptions as well as delivery scope.

They help us adapt plans effectively and react to change,

while still providing a good road map for delivery

teams and a big-picture view for business sponsors.

An impact map can help your mentoring-to-work

initiative to:

• Improve your impact strategy: the impact map

can help you make strategic decisions. Using

and adapting your impact map will inform you

on what activities work best to reach your goals,

what you need to adapt, what you need to stop

doing and what you need to develop. It also helps

you clarify what you need in order to measure

or monitor your impact and continuously

improve your mentoring-to-work initiative.

• Show funders your outcomes and how you

create impact and what makes your organisation

special (your unique selling proposition). An

impact map will give you a concrete tool to have

a conversation with your funders about how

they can help you reach your goals and how they

contribute to a better society by doing so. The

impact map can help you convince companies

to start a (paid) partnership to recruit mentors,

offer trainings, contribute in any other way to the

success of your mentoring-to-work initiative.

• Show the wider public and community what

you are doing and how you contribute to a

better society. The impact map can be used

as a marketing and communication tool to

Social impact

168


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Collective leadership

recruit and retain mentors and get involved

in your mentoring-to-work initiative.

• Show mentees how you can support them

in their journey to the labour market.

• Help (new) staff and volunteers to see the bigger

picture and how what they do contributes to the

purpose of your mentoring-to-work initiative.

• Organisations sometimes use different

versions for different audiences; for example,

they may use a summary graphic for outside

audiences and a detailed prose version

for leadership and staff (Forti, 2012).

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

169


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

HOW TO TOOLBOX

When making an impact map you start with asking the following questions:

When you have answered these questions, it is easy to make an impact map.

Strong public narrative

Good governance

Why are we doing this?

Who can obstruct this?

Who can produce the desired effect?

Collective leadership

Organisational structure for

effectiveness and agility

Marketing strategy and

communication plan

Human Resources

Financial sustainability planning

How can the actors help us to achieve the goal?

How can they obstruct us from succeeding?

What can we deliver?

What are the high level features?

Financial management & analysis

Operational processes,

systems and infrastructure

Create dynamic partnerships

Quality of mentoring-to-work

Social impact

170


Introduction

TOOLKIT

Good knowledge of the social

problem you address

Understand the environment

you are working in

Clear purpose

Why?

The business goal is

the center, it answers

the most important

question: The Why.

Who?

Actors who can make an

impact on the outcome.

How?

It puts in perspective

the actors and the

business goal