Maintworld 3/2019

How Digital Twins Can Accelerate Your Digital Transformation // The Art of Reliability (and Performance) Improvement // 10 Basics to Improve Maintenance in Your Organisation

How Digital Twins Can Accelerate Your Digital Transformation // The Art of Reliability (and Performance) Improvement // 10 Basics to Improve Maintenance in Your Organisation


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3/<strong>2019</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

How Digital Twins<br />

Can Accelerate<br />

Your Digital<br />

Transformation p 6<br />


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Celebrating the<br />

10-Year Anniversary of<br />

<strong>Maintworld</strong> Magazine<br />

YOU ARE NOW READING the anniversary<br />

printout of <strong>Maintworld</strong><br />

magazine. Congratulations to its<br />

makers, the publication has taken<br />

its place in the maintenance information<br />

field!<br />

How did this all begin?<br />

It was prior the new millennium<br />

when people began to worry that<br />

the digital world will soon collapse,<br />

airplanes will drop, phones<br />

will be muted forever. Let’s keep<br />

traditional information methods<br />

in life!<br />

Well, we entered the new millenium,<br />

Y2K turned to be just a<br />

joke, the digital world survived.<br />

The hassle of the new millemium<br />

caused smiles and jokes, but also<br />

left a permanent memory track burned into our brains. As a result, the world will<br />

go towards a new direction.<br />

The Finnish Maintenance Society noticed the change – the number of readers<br />

of its printed national magazine Promaint was decreasing slowly. The board of<br />

society acknowledge the facts: a small country, limited number of readers, more<br />

and more society members are working in international companies and maintenance<br />

service is growing as an export business. The decision was evident: To keep<br />

the magazine alive we need to offer even more interesting material for a growing<br />

number of readers. The national magazine was also transformed, and became<br />

European.<br />

The first new magazine – <strong>Maintworld</strong> magazine – was published some years<br />

later, 10 years ago. Our national publication Promaint magazine is still alive and<br />

we became a publisher of two magazines, but that is another story.<br />

Ten years ago we got the first ink-fresh <strong>Maintworld</strong> magazine in our hands<br />

- we were ready to conquer Europe. This excellent publication was bound to<br />

spread out widely and new orders would start to flow in. However, the straightforward<br />

Nordic method of finding distribution channels round Europe turned to<br />

be far too optimistic a project; the path from the beginning to this day includes<br />

a lot of colorful events. Our mindset was to supply European experts with an<br />

increased level of information on maintenance, but initially the publication was<br />

seen as competition against domestic publications. As a result, there were not as<br />

many of those first issues distributed as planned, but we made it.<br />

Today, celebrating the 10th anniversary of the old/young <strong>Maintworld</strong> magazine,<br />

we have a publication with a relatively constant number of readers, and a<br />

distribution that has stabilized.<br />

The quality of content is a matter for you, our readers, to decide. Your feedback<br />

will guide the development direction of tomorrow’s magazine!<br />

4 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong><br />

Ilkka Palsola<br />

Senior Level Maintenance Manager at Kemira Oyj<br />

34<br />

An<br />

effective Preventative<br />

Maintenance program<br />

must be executed<br />

consistently regardless<br />

of the season!

IN THIS ISSUE 3/<strong>2019</strong><br />

24<br />



SYSTEMS not only costs<br />

millions of euros in downtime<br />

and repairs, they also have the<br />

potential to maim and kill.<br />

=<br />

32<br />

Why would you install<br />

your asset on bases<br />

which is not checked<br />

for proper flatness<br />

and levelness and<br />

face all the problems<br />

related to it?<br />

6<br />

How Digital Twins Can Accelerate<br />

Your Digital Transformation<br />

12<br />

14<br />

18<br />

The Art of Reliability (and<br />

Performance) Improvement<br />

WE NEED TO TALK – An Asset<br />

Management Intervention<br />

Multi-Device Driven Maintenance<br />

Slow Speed Bearing Inspection<br />

20<br />

with Ultrasound<br />

22<br />

Reduced Engineering by<br />

Standardized Data and Interfaces<br />

24<br />

Using Ultrasound for<br />

Electric Power Reliability<br />

10 Basics to Improve Maintenance<br />

28<br />

in Your Organisation<br />

32<br />

Reliable Machinery Installation<br />

34<br />

Preventative Maintenance Cannot<br />

Take a Summer Holiday<br />

36<br />

40<br />

44<br />

48<br />

3 Things That Could Save Your<br />

Maintenance Planning Organization<br />

and Improve Reliability<br />

ADVANCEMENTS IN Vibration<br />

Monitoring OF RECIPROCATING<br />


As Maintenance Practices Change,<br />

Teaching Methods Must Also<br />

Change<br />

Measuring the Value of Data in<br />

Maintenance<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570<br />

Publisher Omnipress Oy, Mäkelänkatu 56, 00510 Helsinki, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi<br />

Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales<br />

Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and<br />

Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@media.fi Printed by Painotalo Plus<br />

Digital Oy, www.ppd.fi Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 5





How digital twins<br />

can accelerate your<br />

digital transformation<br />

As the physical assets within your business become more digitally mature<br />

with the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), there is a need to harness the data<br />

generated and to leverage historical and design information that covers asset<br />

lifecycles. With modeling, sensor data, visualization, and analytical capabilities<br />

expanding all the time, it is now possible to merge these technologies to create<br />

a digital representation of any physical asset.<br />


SENIOR<br />

Product Marketer, Asset<br />

Performance, Bentley<br />

Systems, Inc. Immersive<br />

Digital Operations<br />

STUDIES SHOW that on average 65 percent<br />

of the population are visual learners.<br />

Delivering business intelligence<br />

visually improves productivity, accuracy,<br />

and efficiency. Digital twins are enabling<br />

immersive digital operations so multidiscipline<br />

teams have the flexibility to<br />

work day-to-day in a visual environment<br />

that displays complex asset data intuitively<br />

and in context.<br />

Immersive digital operations enable<br />

you to view current asset information<br />

through 3D models and reality meshes.<br />

Select an element in a graphic view and<br />

display the underlying data related to<br />

the asset, including related 1D, 2D, or 3D<br />

models, associated documents, maintenance<br />

history, geospatial coordinates,<br />

degradation data, and more. The information<br />

that aligns the entire organiza-<br />

6 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>

WE MAKE<br />


WORK<br />

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From the the initial concept phases of of the the production plant through to to ongoing optimization of of your your production processes.<br />

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We We deliver a full a full range of of competences for for pumps, piston compressors and and turbomachinery:<br />

Inspections<br />

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– – Inspections<br />

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Repairs<br />

Engineering<br />

– – Repairs<br />

– – Engineering<br />

We look after ongoing operations and guarantee process security and the highest level of availability.<br />

We We look look after after ongoing operations and and guarantee process security and and the the highest level level of of availability.<br />

Concentrate on your core competences and rely on cost efficient services and technical expertise from Bilfinger.<br />

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tion on achieving the same goals, connecting<br />

the strategic asset management<br />

plan with operational and maintenance<br />

activities, or “line of sight”, is also available<br />

through easily configured dashboards<br />

and reports, presenting trend<br />

analysis and key performance indicators<br />

(KPIs) for robust and reliable decision<br />

support.<br />

A digital twin is a digital representation<br />

of the physical asset, process,<br />

or system, as well as the information<br />

that allows it to understand and<br />

model its performance by combining<br />

operational and IT information with<br />

engineering (modeling) data. Digital<br />

twin models can help organize data<br />

and align it into interoperable formats<br />

so that it can be used to optimize asset<br />

performance and reliability. This<br />

is done by replicating the behavior of<br />

the physical system or asset so that<br />

any change in the physical is instantly<br />

updated within the digital.<br />

Digital Twin<br />

Requirements:<br />

1. A digital twin is a digital representation<br />

of a physical asset,<br />

process, or system, as well as<br />

the engineering information<br />

that allows us to understand<br />

and model performance<br />

2. Typically, a digital twin can<br />

be continuously synchronized<br />

from multiple sources, including<br />

sensors and continuous<br />

surveying, to represent its near<br />

real-time status, working condition,<br />

or position.<br />

3. A digital twin enables users<br />

to visualize the asset, check<br />

status, perform analysis, and<br />

generate insights in order to<br />

predict and optimize asset performance.<br />

This real-time updating proves that<br />

a digital twin should be more than just<br />

a standard 3D model used as a visualization<br />

tool. The digital twin should be<br />

“living and evergreen” and from which<br />

business value and critical decisions are<br />

directly made.<br />

Digital twins are realistic digital representations<br />

of physical things. They unlock<br />

value by enabling improved insights<br />

that support better decisions, leading to<br />

better outcomes in the physical world.<br />

There are many benefits and advantages<br />

a digital twin can provide that affect the<br />

whole organization. These can include:<br />

• Maintaining immersive visualization<br />

for comprehensive and continuous<br />

design, asset information,<br />

and performance on new or existing<br />

assets with virtual representative<br />

models to support effective<br />

decision making and optimize<br />

business outcomes across the en-<br />

Drill into 3D models and meshes<br />

to access comprehensive asset<br />

information in context, enabling<br />

superior decision support.<br />

8 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


tire lifecycle from design and build<br />

stages to operate and maintain<br />

• Gathering and displaying real-time<br />

data feeds from sensors in an operational<br />

asset to know the exact<br />

state and condition, regardless of<br />

location<br />

• Utilizing digital twins on all lifecycle<br />

stages of the asset, from the<br />

design stage to the monitoring of<br />

safety equipment on rigs, such as<br />

drills or pipelines, or model drilling<br />

and extractions to determine<br />

whether virtual equipment designs<br />

are possible or not<br />

• Improving operational and asset<br />

performance<br />

• Improving engineering and maintenance<br />

efficiency by reducing<br />

need for on-site visits<br />

• Improving training and reduced<br />

time to train, especially with augmented<br />

reality<br />

• Detecting early signs of equipment<br />

failure or degradation and moving<br />

from reactive to proactive maintenance<br />

through IoT enablement<br />

• Consolidating multiple sources of<br />

data, and then proactively planning<br />

and implementing corrective<br />

maintenance actions before costly<br />

failures and downtime occurs<br />

Central to any successful digital twin<br />

is an open, connected data environment<br />

– this means the physical world<br />

is directly connected to the digital, e.g.<br />

combining operational technology (OT)<br />

data from sensors, data historians, etc.,<br />

in one common environment. Key to<br />

connectivity is a set of cloud-provisioned<br />

or on-premises services that support<br />

digital context, digital components, and<br />

digital workflows, what Bentley refers<br />

to as a connected data environment.<br />

This means you can manage and access<br />

consistent, trusted, and accurate information,<br />

while sharing the benefits of an<br />



open, integrated, and connected framework<br />

to enable collaboration, improve<br />

decision making, and deliver better<br />

project outcomes and better performing<br />

assets.<br />

Use across greenfield and<br />

brownfield sites<br />

For greenfield sites, it would be ideal to<br />

create a digital twin to maintain an accurate,<br />

up-to-date, accessible picture<br />

throughout the lifecycle to reduce time<br />

to operational readiness and influence<br />

time-to-market. Bentley’s PlantSight<br />

solution is the ideal tool for greenfield<br />

sites because it takes all your plant and<br />

process information together, contextualizes<br />

it, validates it, and visualizes it<br />

– transforming raw data into a complete<br />

digital twin.<br />

For brownfield sites with aging assets,<br />

such as those found within the oil,<br />

gas, and energy industry, assets can be<br />

between 20 to 40 years old or more. So,<br />

how can a digital twin help assets that<br />

are nearing end-of-life or are working<br />

beyond their estimated designed life?<br />

Digital twins can still be applied to older<br />

assets to gain the same benefits across<br />

their remaining life, extending their remaining<br />

life safely and reliably by applying<br />

risk-based and reliability-centered<br />

methodologies. Into the decommissioning<br />

phase, the same rigor is required to<br />

maintain information integrity as when<br />

the asset was operational.<br />

Even if your starting point is operations<br />

and you don’t have a 3D model,<br />

Bentley’s ContextCapture can provide<br />

reality meshes for existing and under<br />

construction assets to provide accurate<br />

visualization and up-to-date conditions.<br />

The ease with which this twin can be<br />

updated during operation or modified<br />

during projects supports the need for<br />

increased flexibility and adaptability.<br />

The seamless and ongoing integration<br />

of process engineering, maintenance,<br />

3D representation, and operational<br />

performance information, speeds up<br />

and supports continuous improvement<br />

and thereby efficiency, sustainability,<br />

and return on asset investment. Owneroperators<br />

can combine the solution<br />

with asset management best practices to<br />

improve useful life and asset value, with<br />

Bentley’s AssetWise ALIM solution. The<br />

digital twin makes it easier to engineer<br />

for safety and compliance and verify the<br />

as-built and as-maintained facility.<br />

An Immersive Experience<br />

The word “immersive”, when relating<br />

to a computer display or system, means<br />

generating a three-dimensional image<br />

that appears to surround the user. While<br />

digital twins can use 3D models to provide<br />

context and more visibility of the<br />

physical object, the next evolutionary<br />

step is to create fully immersive digital<br />

operations, which could also incorporate<br />

virtual and augmented reality to<br />

create a fully immersive picture. To<br />

make a digital twin more relevant and<br />

beneficial than a simple 3D model, the<br />

digital engineering model needs to be<br />

combined with reality meshes, as well as<br />

be connected to various asset information<br />

sources that often reside in different<br />

departments within organizations.<br />

The ability to see through the eyes of<br />

operators in the field in real-time using<br />

reality meshes has become feasible with<br />

technology advancements from organizations<br />

like Bentley.<br />

While mobility, cloud services, the<br />

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), automated<br />

processes, and analytics are the<br />

core digitalization ingredients, for a fully<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 9


Bentley’s<br />

PlantSight<br />

offers the<br />

complete<br />

digital twin<br />

solution for<br />

the process<br />

industry,<br />

combining<br />

plant data and<br />

information in<br />

a rich, visual<br />

environment.<br />

immersive experience, a mix of realities<br />

like augmented and virtual, and an open<br />

modeling network, must be implemented<br />

to realize immersive operations. To<br />

make this successful, all the initiatives<br />

must be connected and communicate to<br />

each other in a single environment.<br />

A leading independent design firm<br />

serving the oil and gas industry in southern<br />

Russia, LLC Volgogradnefteproekt<br />

was retained to deliver an as-built<br />

3D digital model for the seven platforms<br />

commissioned for the Vladimir<br />

Filanovsky offshore field in the Caspian<br />

Sea. As an example, LLC Volgogradnefteproekt<br />

reduced their annual operations<br />

costs by 30% by implementing a<br />

connected data environment to facilitate<br />

the management of their critical<br />

information and 3D engineering data.<br />

This helped them speed up search and<br />

data exchange, coordinate document<br />

management, and reduce human errors<br />

significantly.<br />

10 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong><br />

Some industrial infrastructure organizations<br />

are notorious for isolating<br />

their own technologies, applications, and<br />

processes, with little or no interaction<br />

between other parties. This culture is<br />

slowly changing, and it is why companies<br />

like Bentley are focused on an open connected<br />

data environment so that all data<br />

is trustworthy, reliable, accessible, and<br />

shared among all relevant stakeholders.<br />

Digital twins are at the heart<br />

of digitalization and digital<br />

transformation<br />

Digital twins are taking centre stage and<br />

advancing rapidly beyond building information<br />

modeling (BIM), enabling assetcentric<br />

organizations to converge their<br />

engineering technologies, operational<br />

technologies, and information technologies<br />

into a portal or augmented/immersive<br />

experiences. With the application of<br />

artificial intelligence (AI) and machine<br />

learning (ML), immersive digital operations<br />

will provide analytics visibility and<br />

insights to enhance the effectiveness of<br />

operations staff and help them anticipate<br />

and head off issues before they arise<br />

and react more quickly with confidence.<br />

The true benefit of digital twins can<br />

be seen when all aspects of an asset, such<br />

as design, real-time processes, and data,<br />

are optimized together over its lifetime.<br />

Infrastructure projects require a digital<br />

transformation, with a solution such as<br />

the digital twin at the heart of it, to succeed.<br />

Digital twins should be looked at<br />

as an enabler of the move toward digitalization.<br />

To be successful, companies<br />

must adopt an agile approach to developing<br />

digital twins that can start off<br />

small and then be scaled upwards and<br />

delivered to the end-users in a timely<br />

manner, leading to the overall improvement<br />

of performance, safety, and risk<br />

that go toward achieving operational<br />



It is well known<br />

that businesses can<br />

achieve superior<br />

results if their assets<br />

are more reliable and<br />

achieve higher levels<br />

of performance. It is<br />

also well known that<br />

an initiative that seeks<br />

to improve reliability<br />

will include an endless<br />

array of “obvious<br />

elements” (condition<br />

monitoring, precision<br />

lubrication, planning<br />

and scheduling, risk<br />

analysis, and so on,<br />

and so forth).<br />

The Art of Reliability<br />

(and Performance) Improvement<br />


you implement the program to achieve<br />

optimal results, and how you gain, and<br />

retain, support from senior management,<br />

the plant-floor, and everyone in<br />

between.<br />

The author would contend that there<br />

are essential elements that must be<br />

included in a program if it is to be successful.<br />

Foundational elements<br />

Let’s start with the foundational elements<br />

which must be present for the program<br />

to have any chance of succeeding.<br />

VALUE: The program must be based<br />

on a solid understanding of how the program<br />

delivers value to the organization.<br />

Every task performed must be aligned<br />

with the goals of the organization. And<br />

those goals must be constantly reviewed<br />

as business conditions change. If there is<br />



Mobius Institute<br />



a strong business case, we will win senior<br />

management support; without it the<br />

program will not succeed.<br />

STRATEGY: There must be a strategy<br />

and the strategy must include tactics.<br />

We can’t blindly wander towards the<br />

“reliable plant”, and we can’t randomly<br />

implement those “obvious elements”.<br />

Many have tried; most have failed.<br />

PEOPLE: Our value proposition will<br />

win the support of senior management.<br />

With the support of senior management,<br />

we can win the support of the people<br />

working in the organization. If we don’t<br />

win their support, the program can’t be<br />

truly successful. We need skilled, motivated<br />

people who contribute to the program,<br />

with everyone understanding how<br />

they personally benefit.<br />

Cycle of reliability<br />

With a solid base of value, strategy, and<br />

support of the people, we can build a continual<br />

cycle of reliability improvement.<br />

DISCIPLINE: A reliable plant requires<br />

discipline. There should be one way to<br />

perform every task and every task must<br />

be performed one way. Discipline starts<br />

with accurate information (master asset<br />

list and bill of materials), a management<br />

of change process, accurate spares data-<br />

12 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


base, workflow diagrams and procedures<br />

(work and operational), all documented<br />

in a functioning computerized maintenance<br />

management system CMMS to<br />

manage it all. Work must be performed<br />

with precision, and a QA/QC process will<br />

catch any mistakes.<br />

CARE: Our disciplined processes will<br />

set up our equipment for success. Now<br />

we must care for their equipment while<br />

it is operated. It should be clean, tight,<br />

smooth, calibrated, and correctly lubricated.<br />

It should be operated per the<br />

standard operating procedures, within<br />

the integrity operating windows. We<br />

will also care for our spares, and utilize<br />

condition monitoring to detect the root<br />

causes of failure.<br />

ANALYTICS: Our actions will be driven<br />

by data. Financial and reliability data<br />

will set our priorities. Asset health data<br />

will drive our maintenance actions. Performance<br />

data will guide our operational<br />

decisions. And strategic KPIs will reveal<br />

opportunities for improvement. Where<br />

possible, we will utilize machine learning,<br />

big data, and IIoT to deliver actionable<br />

information at heightened levels of<br />

speed, intelligence, and efficiency.<br />

OPTIMIZE: Continual improvement,<br />

driven by data, will ensure a program<br />

always delivers maximum value. We cannot<br />

set and forget our program.<br />

Asset lifecycle<br />

We must also consider the lifecycle of<br />

the equipment.<br />

ACQUIRE: We must stop importing<br />

trouble into our plant. Our project<br />

management, design, and procurement<br />

processes must seek to achieve<br />

the lowest total cost of ownership by<br />

prioritizing maintainability, safety,<br />

and availability. And to make absolutely<br />

sure that new and overhauled equipment<br />

are fit for our reliable plant, we<br />

will utilize utilize acceptance testing<br />

as QA/QC.<br />

EOL: When the assets reach their end<br />

of life, root cause failure analysis (RC-<br />

FA), supported by a Failure Reporting,<br />

Analysis, and Corrective Action<br />

System (FRACAS) will insure we do<br />

not repeat "avoidable" failures. We will<br />

also dispose of the asset with minimal<br />

impact on the environment.<br />

Reactive maintenance<br />

cycle of doom<br />

There is one more element we must<br />

consider. Many plants attempting to<br />

improve reliability already suffer excessive<br />

reactive maintenance. The drain on<br />

resources, and our emotions, will never<br />

allow our program to succeed.<br />

CONTROL: We must add a phase that<br />

gains control of our maintenance practices<br />

so that we can focus on the elements<br />

within the cycle of reliability.<br />

Reliability illustrated<br />

Combining these essential elements, we<br />

have the key to reliability improvement.<br />

Ignore any one of these elements at your<br />

peril.<br />

While there is so much more that<br />

could be said about each of these topics,<br />

it is hoped this article will provide some<br />

guidance into what must be performed<br />

in order to overcome the common barriers<br />

to reliability success.<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 13



An Asset<br />

Management<br />

Intervention<br />

We need to talk. Has anything enjoyable ever followed those four little words? “We<br />

need to talk,” says your wife/husband/attorney/boss/tax preparer. How did that work<br />

out? The truth is, those people generally have our best interests at heart, even if the<br />

lead-in to their discussion causes our defensive shields to activate. The same is true<br />

with this article. You and I need to talk. The subject? An asset management intervention.<br />


Director of<br />

Training Services,<br />



This is an asset management intervention,<br />

which should tell you that you<br />

(and I) haven’t really been performing<br />

asset management correctly. It’s true,<br />

we haven’t been. When we see a family<br />

member heading down the wrong path,<br />

is our responsibility to intervene. You<br />

and I might not know each other, but we<br />

share a common bond. There is a good<br />

chance that you are a maintenance or<br />

reliability professional just like I am. I<br />

care about you. In a greater sense we’re<br />

family.<br />

So, as family, let me give it to you<br />

straight. There’s a new ISO standard<br />

making its slow cycle around the globe,<br />

ISO 55000 − Asset Management. Admittedly,<br />

this standard is slow-rolling<br />

through industry, but believe me, it is<br />

coming. In fact, for you, it may already<br />

be here. You just don’t know it. We need<br />

to be ready for its arrival.<br />

My intention is not to go into a deep<br />

dive on ISO 55000, but rather to introduce<br />

the idea of asset management and<br />

how, with an ISO standard to back us, we<br />

have another chance to reinvent our approach<br />

to maintaining capital equipment<br />

and ensuring that the company’s physical<br />

assets are cared for by everyone in the<br />

organization. Where did we go wrong in<br />

the past?<br />

Our first, and perhaps greatest (to<br />

date) opportunity to include everyone<br />

in asset care was the advent of Total<br />

Productive Maintenance (TPM). TPM<br />

is a phrase and methodology minted by<br />

Seiichi Nakajima, in Japan, in the early<br />

1970’s that made its way to the shores of<br />

the United States in the 1980’s. Interest-<br />

14 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>





ingly, many of Nakajima’s foundational<br />

thoughts on the matter were formed<br />

while he served as an interpreter for the<br />

American industrialist George Smith,<br />

founder of Marshall Institute, Inc.<br />

While this isn’t necessarily an article<br />

on ISO 55000, it is definitely not a TPM<br />

article. However, it is important that<br />

we agree that TPM and ISO 55000 have<br />

more in common than they have differorder:<br />

making it a maintenance program,<br />

and failing to fully engage all of the<br />

stakeholders. These are exactly the same<br />

two things that will cause ISO 55000, or<br />

for that matter, any reliability continuous<br />

improvement effort, to fail. My colleague<br />

Steve Gowan says, “Show me an<br />

improvement process that failed, and I’ll<br />

show you a management team that lost<br />

interest.” He is so right.<br />

“We are All Responsible for<br />

Asset Reliability”<br />

The good news? ISO 55000 is not a<br />

maintenance program. In fact, it isn’t<br />

written for maintenance people. I believe<br />

it is written for those other guys.<br />

The genesis of this international standard<br />

is telling. The purpose of putting<br />

such a standard together in the first<br />

place is explained in the opening text of<br />

the ISO 55000 standard. Reading into<br />

the ‘official’ language of this international<br />

product, it is clear that the global<br />

community of standards entities felt it<br />

necessary to institutionalize the knowledge<br />

that the world possesses on such<br />

things.<br />

This isn’t a maintenance program.<br />

But, make no mistake, maintenance is<br />

involved. In fact, everyone is involved<br />

or certainly should be. The mandate<br />

from ISO is that all stakeholders are to<br />

be engaged in the development of the asset<br />

management approach. ISO 55000<br />

directs those adhering to this standard<br />

that an organization’s top management,<br />

employees and other stakeholders are<br />

the groups responsible for conceiving<br />

and executing what is referred to<br />

as “control activities.” These activities<br />

might include: policies, procedures, and<br />

performance measuring and monitoring<br />

techniques. Along with top management<br />

and employees, stakeholders can include:<br />

customers, government agencies,<br />




RFQ<br />

AWARD<br />


DESIGN<br />

BUILD<br />





TIME<br />

ences. In fact, I would counsel organizations<br />

that they shouldn’t lose heart if<br />

they’ve developed an outstanding TPM<br />

program. ISO 55000 will do nothing but<br />

enhance their efforts. But, if we failed<br />

at TPM, we might have similar trouble<br />

compelling others that ISO 55000 is different.<br />

What causes TPM to fail?<br />

There are exactly two things that<br />

will cause TPM to fail. They are, in this<br />

the community at large, and vendors:<br />

essentially anyone that has an interest in<br />

the company being successful.<br />

This mandate of engagement is the<br />

first element that gives me a sense that<br />

this process is different from but can<br />

complement TPM. By insisting on engagement<br />

of those who might become<br />

the victim of a corporation’s asset strategy,<br />

the metaphorical tables are turned,<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 15


and people are not only encouraged<br />

to participate, but required to do<br />

so. TPM has a similar philosophy;<br />

we are all responsible for asset reliability.<br />

Care should be taken to avoid<br />

making this a maintenance program.<br />

The standard itself is meant to educate<br />

the masses. ISO 55000 lists the primary<br />

targets for the creation and deployment<br />

of the standard itself. Specifically:<br />

• All those engaged in determining<br />

how to improve the returned value<br />

for their company from their asset<br />

base (this means all assets, but we<br />

are focused on physical assets)<br />

• All those who create, execute,<br />

maintain, and improve an asset<br />

management system<br />

• All those who plan, design, implement<br />

and review the activities involved<br />

with asset management<br />

If you read that list again, you could<br />

see how an organization could accidently<br />

make the adoption of ISO 55000 a maintenance<br />

program.<br />

The second element that we should<br />

take heart in for our intervention is to<br />

ensure that those responsible for the<br />

execution of the activities, or as stated<br />

above, the “control activities,” are properly<br />

resourced to be successful. ISO<br />

55002 instructs organizations to develop<br />

these asset management plans for the<br />

purpose of defining the activities that<br />

will be implemented and the resources<br />

that will be used to meet the asset management<br />

objectives. And, those resources<br />

have to be ‘aware and competent.’<br />


GROWTH<br />


PLAN<br />



ASSETS<br />

ASSETS<br />


POLICY<br />

SAMP<br />


VISION<br />


There are three thoughts in that last<br />

paragraph that require further definition.<br />

I mentioned ISO 55002. ISO<br />

55000 is actually made up of three companion<br />

standards: 55000, 55001, and<br />

55002. They build on each other like<br />

Russian nesting dolls. I’d recommend an<br />

investment in each. Control activities<br />

are essentially the very foundational activities<br />

that each organization executes<br />

in the care strategy of their assets: PM/<br />

PdM, planning, scheduling, work management,<br />

storeroom control, KPIs and<br />

metrics, etc. The last thought is the idea<br />

of asset management objectives. I want<br />

to expand on this by illustration.<br />

The figure below is meant to show<br />

the entire life cycle of a physical asset<br />

from concept to grave. Give this some<br />

thought.<br />

What exactly is your company’s objective<br />

towards each phase of the asset’s<br />

physical life? It needs to be noted that<br />

the asset’s life does not necessarily end<br />

when your organization is done with it.<br />

No, not at all. The asset could have value<br />

at another location. Understanding this<br />

leads to the crux of asset management.<br />

To what end are we managing assets?<br />

We are managing assets to ensure that<br />

the asset, through the various phases of<br />

its life, can continue to provide ‘value’ to<br />

the organization. This, of course, is predicated<br />

on our ability to determine what<br />

‘value’ means to our organization in<br />

terms of the return on asset utilization.<br />

This last point is where the intervention<br />

takes its initial shape. I feel that organizations<br />

have failed in clearly defining<br />

how utilization, continued reliability,<br />

and availability of the asset contributes<br />

to the value that organizations seek from<br />

their assets. It is the responsibility of top<br />

leadership to translate their organizational<br />

objectives into an asset management<br />

policy. This translation takes place<br />

in the SAMP, or Strategic Asset Management<br />

Plan. The figure below helps to<br />

illustrate this interchange.<br />

You’ve no doubt noticed the ‘Asset’<br />

block between ‘Organizational Objectives”<br />

and the ‘Asset Management Policy.’<br />

This is the genius of ISO 55000 and<br />

a detail we absolutely missed in adopting<br />

TPM. The Asset Management standards<br />

clearly stipulate that it is the responsibility<br />

of the organization to determine<br />

which physical assets, specifically, are<br />

to be included in the asset management<br />

plan. This is a critical point of distinction.<br />

Let this summary remind you of the<br />

path you need to walk going forward to<br />

have a better (asset) life:<br />

• Don’t make asset management a<br />

maintenance program<br />

• Engage all stakeholders<br />

• Resource those responsible for<br />

executing the control activities<br />

• Determine which assets really<br />

matter<br />

• Translate organizational objectives<br />

into an asset management policy<br />

This intervention is meant to shake<br />

you up and help you see the light and, in<br />

a sense, the error of your ways, in terms<br />

of asset management. I do this because<br />

I care. Please reach out if you feel ‘we<br />

need to talk.’<br />

16 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>

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LEAKS<br />

Find pressure and<br />

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Avoid over/under<br />

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Inspect medium and<br />

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Assess valve<br />

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Multi-Device Driven<br />


Location: [Company X],<br />

Inc. Global Headquarters.<br />

Today is your first day on<br />

the job and you’ve just<br />

met the Buildings and<br />

Maintenance Supervisor,<br />

who has some words of<br />

wisdom.<br />


Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS,<br />

melissa@iconics.com<br />

“WELCOME TO YOUR first day at [Company<br />

X], Inc. You came highly recommended<br />

as a skilled maintenance tech, so<br />

we’re sure you’ll catch on pretty quickly<br />

as to how we do things around here.<br />

“[Company X] is pretty much an<br />

ICONICS shop, meaning we prefer to<br />

use their solutions for a variety of applications,<br />

especially in maintenance and<br />

operations. They just came out with this<br />

great tool called CFSWorX. That’s ‘CFS’<br />

as in Connected Field Service. It’s meant<br />

to improve efficiency through intelligent<br />

scheduling and guaranteed notifications.<br />

Intelligent Scheduling<br />

“Notifications get triggered by events, like<br />

alarms or faults. CFSWorX, which, can<br />

work with most ERP, CRM, or directory<br />

services like Microsoft Dynamics 365,<br />

Teams, and Azure Active Directory, uses<br />

a customizable weighted scoring system<br />

to factor in each workers' schedule, availability,<br />

location, and skill level to determine<br />

which field worker is the best for the task.<br />

Then it delivers a notification to the selected<br />

field worker’s mobile device for immediate<br />

action.<br />

“Imagine a job ticket was created for<br />

one of [Company X’s] nearby facilities.<br />

CFSWorX’ advanced algorithm then helps<br />

determine the best person for the job. Let’s<br />

say that’s Sam over there. Sam would get<br />

a notification on his mobile device. When<br />

Sam gets the notification, he can then either<br />

acknowledge it, snooze the issue for a<br />

certain amount of time, or pass it along to<br />

the next person.<br />

“For this part, we’ll say that Sam is on his<br />

way to another site, so he opts to pass it on.<br />

CFSWorX’ algorithm kicks back in to determine<br />

who the next best tech is. We’ll pretend<br />

it’s Martin over there. Martin gets the<br />

notification, acknowledges the assignment,<br />

and then heads out to fix the problem.<br />

Best Device? The One You<br />

Have With You<br />

“What device does [Company X] standardize<br />

on for maintenance personnel?<br />

The answer to that is whatever device<br />

gets the job done!<br />

“Some of the people who’ve been in<br />

the department awhile work out of a<br />

central control room. Susan over there is<br />

able to monitor incoming faults through<br />

a desktop PC. ICONICS has a product<br />

called GENESIS64 where the displays<br />

can be created then viewed just about<br />

anywhere. I’ve seen some of our crew<br />

on jobs with laptops, tablets, and smartphones,<br />

and they’re running ICONICS’<br />

MobileHMI product. Same KPIs and<br />

data; just in a different form factor. It<br />

all comes down to having the right info<br />

when and where you need it, right?<br />

18 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


“The other day, I saw some of the<br />

maintenance crew trying out some<br />

Augmented Reality devices. There was<br />

a Microsoft HoloLens and a RealWear<br />

HMT-1. I tried on the HoloLens and it<br />

was pretty interesting. ICONICS created<br />

a holographic machine interface for<br />

it. I looked at one of our machines and,<br />

right in front of my eyes, I could see all<br />

these options like opening the machine<br />

schematics in 3D, or a video demonstrating<br />

one of the repair techniques, or some<br />

of the related documentation. All that,<br />

while I could still keep my hands free to<br />

do any actual repair.<br />

“I tried on the RealWear one, which<br />

features entirely voice-driven navigation,<br />

and it also had ICONICS software<br />

running on it. As I worked through a<br />

simulated training scenario, one for a<br />

type of equipment with which I haven’t<br />

had too much experience yet, it gave me<br />

an option to contact a ‘Remote Expert’.<br />

I chose it and it connected me to Susan!<br />

She laughed and said if I were out on an<br />

actual job, that she, or any other remote<br />

expert, would then be able to see what<br />

I was seeing and help guide me through<br />

the repair process.<br />

Hands (Wrists) and Voices<br />

“Sounds amazing, right? Using ICON-<br />

ICS has really kept us on the cutting edge<br />

of tech. I’ve seen some of the crew with<br />

smart watches recently and ICONICS<br />

has even created a tie-in to those with<br />

its KPIWorX tool, as long as you have an<br />

Apple Watch Series 2 or newer. It ties in<br />

with GPS and beacon location services,<br />






too, so it can give you ‘location-aware’<br />

KPIs and data, which is really helpful<br />

when you’re out on a call.<br />

“And have you seen, or better yet,<br />

have you heard these smart speakers<br />

yet? Alexa? Cortana? The Google Assistant?<br />

I’ve seen them in some of my<br />

friends’ houses but just like what happens<br />

most of the time, the technology<br />

sooner or later makes it to the shop<br />

floor. And, yes, ICONICS did something<br />

with that too. Just like they did with the<br />

‘holographic machine interface’, they<br />

created a ‘voice machine interface’.<br />

“While the other interfaces are understandably<br />

visual, the voice interface<br />

lets you give a smart speaker (or other<br />

device running Amazon Alexa, Microsoft<br />

Cortana, or Google Assistant) a<br />

voice command to, say, monitor a system<br />

or process status, or control equipment<br />

or devices, or analyze specific KPIs.<br />

“Here’s an example. You could say ‘Alexa.<br />

What is the current voltage of this<br />

chiller compressor?’ and she could reply<br />

back, ‘The current voltage of this chiller<br />

compressor is 200 volts at 50 hertz’.<br />

Again, it’s pretty useful to be able to get<br />

that info with just your voice when you<br />

have your hands busy with tools inside<br />

open equipment.<br />

“I guess it’s pretty easy to tell that I’ve<br />

had some experience with ICONICS<br />

software. I’m glad that [Company X]<br />

continues to consider them, especially<br />

for our Maintenance Team. I haven’t<br />

even mentioned FDDWorX yet. Or their<br />

geo-SCADA capabilities. Or… Anyway,<br />

suffice to say, when it comes to new<br />

technology and the software to best<br />

adapt it for maintenance applications,<br />

ICONICS is the way to go. Just remember<br />

that, and you’ll do fine around here.<br />

Oh, and almost forgot, make sure you<br />

introduce yourself to Susan.”<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 19


Slow Speed<br />

Bearing Inspection<br />

with Ultrasound<br />

Vibration analysis has long been the instrument of choice to use for bearings and<br />

other rotating equipment. More commonly, ultrasound is being used in conjunction<br />

with vibration analysis to help technicians confirm the condition of mechanical assets.<br />


HALLUM,<br />

Regional Manager<br />

UK & Ireland,<br />

chrish@uesystems.com<br />

BECAUSE OF the versatility of ultrasound,<br />

if a facility does not have a robust vibration<br />

analysis program in place, ultrasound<br />

can be implemented to detect early<br />

stage bearing failures, as well as other<br />

issues. If the vibration analysis is performed<br />

by an outside service provider on<br />

a quarterly or monthly basis, ultrasound<br />

can be used during the interim. This will<br />

help the facility to know the condition of<br />

some of the more critical assets prior to<br />

the service provider entering the facility;<br />

therefore, the service provider’s time<br />

can be used more efficiently because the<br />

plant knows if there are any prominent<br />

problems with the assets that are being<br />

monitored by ultrasound. The service<br />

provider can then prioritise based off the<br />

ultrasound findings.<br />

Another scenario in which ultrasound<br />

may be used first over vibration analysis<br />

is with the monitoring of slow speed<br />

bearings. Slow speed bearing monitoring<br />

with ultrasound is easier than you<br />

might think. Because most high-end<br />

ultrasound instruments have a wide<br />

sensitivity range and frequency tuning, it<br />

is possible to listen to the acoustic quality<br />

of the bearing, especially at slower<br />

speeds. In extreme slow speed bearing<br />

applications (usually less than 25rpm),<br />

the bearing will produce little to no ultrasonic<br />

noise.<br />

20 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


Sound Spectrum of the damaged bearing, where the peaks in amplitude<br />

give the inspector a clear sign of damage.<br />

It was also noticeable that one of the rollers<br />

had moved 90 degrees. The cage had<br />

been totally damaged too.<br />

Sound Spectrum of a “good”<br />

bearing. Very uniform and no<br />

changes in amplitude.<br />

In that case, it is important to not only<br />

listen to the sound of the bearing, but<br />

more importantly to analyse the recorded<br />

ultrasound sound file in a spectrum<br />

analysis software, focusing on the time<br />

wave form to see if there are any anomalies<br />

present. If “crackling” or “popping”<br />

sounds are present, then there is some<br />

indication of a deformity occurring. In<br />

bearing speeds above 25rpm, it is possible<br />

to set a baseline decibel level and<br />

trend the associated decibel level readings<br />

over time.<br />

Using Ultrasound to Identify<br />

Oven Motor Bearing Failure<br />

An inspection with an ultrasound instrument<br />

was carried out on a site with<br />

a newly installed oven dryer. This was a<br />

large drum oven, about 20 meters long by<br />

5 meters wide. It was rotated by 4 large<br />

motors, each of them having two large<br />

sets of bearings. These motors rotate the<br />

oven and are rotating at a speed of around<br />

7-10 rpm. Meaning we are talking about<br />

a case of extreme slow speed bearings,<br />

which is usually a challenge to inspect.<br />

An ultrasonic instrument was used to<br />

inspect all bearings – almost all of them<br />

presented a nice and smooth sound and<br />

a 0dB reading, except for one. On one of<br />

the bearings from this set, the ultrasonic<br />

instrument was displaying 2dB instead of<br />

0. Also, the sound heard from the headphones<br />

was different: it was not smooth<br />

as in the other bearings and it presented<br />

a repetitive “knocking” sound. This gave<br />

the inspector an indication that something<br />

might have been wrong with this<br />

specific bearing.<br />

After the results from the ultrasonic<br />

inspection, a grease sample was taken to<br />

confirm if there was any damage on the<br />

bearing – in which case the grease sample<br />

would show metal contamination. The<br />

results from the grease analysis showed<br />

indeed the presence of metal particles,<br />

confirming the damage as indicated by<br />

the ultrasound instrument.<br />

The next step was naturally scheduling<br />

an outage to replace the bearing,<br />

which was in a very bad condition as<br />

it can be seen in the image. Part of the<br />

outer race came away as it was opened.<br />

Ultrasound and Slow Speed<br />

Bearings – the Method<br />

As we can see, ultrasound technology is<br />

very useful when trying to monitor the<br />

condition of slow speed bearings, and an<br />

ultrasonic instrument/sensor is able to<br />

provide maintenance personnel with a<br />

warning of failure, even in extreme slow<br />

speeds like in this case.<br />

With bearings rotating at normal<br />

speeds, ultrasonic inspection can be<br />

performed by comparing changes in dB<br />

values, establishing that a bearing with<br />

a certain value above a decibel baseline<br />

will need lubrication or be already in a<br />

failure state, depending on how much<br />

decibels it is above the baseline.<br />

However, with slow speed bearings,<br />

comparing dB levels and establishing<br />

alarms is not enough: in many situations<br />

the difference in the dB levels will not<br />

be significant or even non-existent, in<br />

which case the inspector might think<br />

there is nothing wrong with it.<br />

For slow speed bearings, one must<br />

rely on the sound quality and the sound<br />

pattern. For this, it is necessary to use an<br />

ultrasonic instrument with sound recording<br />

capabilities, like the Ultraprobe 15000,<br />

and then analyse the sound file on a sound<br />

spectrum analysis software like the Spectralyzer<br />

from UE Systems. Then, maintenance<br />

professionals can simply record the<br />

sound produced by a slow-speed bearing,<br />

load the file in Spectralyzer and analyse it<br />

in the Time Series view.<br />

The spectrum analysis of this oven<br />

motor bearing shows clearly where the<br />

roller at 90 degrees hits the crack as the<br />

knock stops briefly. Thus, the sound<br />

pattern indicates already an existing<br />

problem, being the most reliable source<br />

of information when determining the<br />

condition of a slow-speed bearing using<br />

ultrasound.<br />

On the other hand, the spectrum of a<br />

recorded sound from one of the “good”<br />

bearings shows a very different picture:<br />

a very uniform spectrum with almost no<br />

changes in the amplitude.<br />

This find has saved the company a significant<br />

amount of money, as it was necessary<br />

to get cranes in to replace such a<br />

big bearing, a job that took up to 6 hours.<br />

Luckily this was done during a planned<br />

outage, avoiding the costs of unplanned<br />

downtime.<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 21


Globalization has contributed to the fact that<br />

modern economic contacts and alliances, as well<br />

as global goods and information streams are in<br />

communication and movement around the clock.<br />

Reduced<br />

Engineering by<br />

Standardized<br />

Data and Interfaces<br />

Text: Götz Görisch, VDW and<br />

Stefan Hoppe, OPC Foundation<br />

DESPITE THE DIFFICULTIES of building a<br />

strong, international network, the advantages<br />

of globalization for economic<br />

growth in numerous countries worldwide<br />

outweigh any challenges. Especially<br />

when the spoken language is already<br />

perceived as an obstacle because two<br />

partners come from different language<br />

backgrounds, M2M communication is<br />

even more effective.<br />

Connectivity is key for manufacturing<br />

in the 21st century. It means getting<br />

data in and out of devices and software<br />

systems – easy, secure and seamless. For<br />

the benefit of machine tool users and<br />

the machine tool industry itself, umati<br />

(universal machine tool interface) tackles<br />

this issue by setting an open standard<br />

throughout the world – based on OPC<br />

UA!<br />




• Simplifying the effort for machine<br />

tool connection to customerspecific<br />

IT infrastructures and<br />

ecosystems.<br />

• Reducing costs through faster<br />

realization of customer specific<br />

projects.<br />

umati relies on OPC UA as<br />

the global interoperability<br />

standard<br />

Creating a standard with global acceptance<br />

is a challenge. The standardization<br />

work takes place in the umati OPC<br />

UA joint working group with the OPC<br />

Foundation. This guarantees maximum<br />

transparency and the support of a strong<br />

global community.<br />


• provide a framework for standardized<br />

communication (HOW to<br />

communicate)<br />

• allow focusing on defining WHAT<br />

is to be communicated (Companion<br />

Specifications)<br />

• include a global community for<br />

revising the standard<br />

• assist in global outreach by publishing<br />

the standard with no license<br />

fee.<br />

umati is success & adoption!<br />

110 machines and 28 software solutions<br />

from 70 companies out of 10 countries<br />

have been connected to the umati demo<br />

dashboard during the EMO<strong>2019</strong> Hanover<br />

– the world leading trade show for<br />

metal working.<br />

umati was created in 2018 in a joint<br />

effort by VDW, the German machine tool<br />

builders’ association, and 17 partners.<br />

umati is still under development.<br />

It aims to provide:<br />

1. an OPC UA Companion Specification<br />

to define globally applicable<br />

semantics for machine<br />

tools<br />

2. Communication Default<br />

Requirements for the implementation<br />

of an OPC UA<br />

environment (e.g., encryption,<br />

authentication, server settings<br />

(ports, protocols) to allow plugand-play<br />

connectivity between<br />

machines and software<br />

3. Quality Assurance through<br />

testing specifications and tools,<br />

certification, and serving as<br />

ombudsman for supplier-client<br />

disputes<br />

4. Marketing and a label for visibility<br />

in the market through a<br />

global community of machine<br />

builders, component suppliers,<br />

and added value services<br />

22 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>

The<br />

The<br />

The Uptimization<br />

Uptimization Experts.<br />

Experts.<br />

What does<br />


mean to you?<br />

marshallinstitute.com<br />



Using Ultrasound for<br />

Electric Power Reliability<br />


CRL, Director,<br />

Business Development,<br />

SDT International<br />


costs millions of euros in downtime and<br />

repairs, they also have the potential to<br />

maim and kill. Reliability leaders must<br />

remain focused on preserving both<br />

physical and human assets. Employees<br />

have the right to work in a safe work environment<br />

and return home unharmed.<br />

Ultrasound technology helps detect fault<br />

conditions that can lead to dangerous<br />

outages at their earliest stage. It should<br />

be a part of every strategic electrical asset<br />

management plan.<br />

What is Ultrasound?<br />

There are three categories of sound.<br />

Infrasound, Audible sound, and Ultrasound.<br />

When we speak about ultrasound<br />

we refer to sound which is above the<br />

range of human hearing. By technical<br />

definition that’s above 20kHz.<br />

The first characteristic is directionality.<br />

As we go higher in the frequency spectrum<br />

the energy and size of the sound<br />

pressure wave decreases. Its ability to<br />

travel through a medium over long distance<br />

diminishes. This helps us because<br />

the likelihood of two or more sound<br />

waves overlapping (competing) is less.<br />

It also helps us because high frequency<br />

sound waves cannot expand or spread<br />

through their medium.<br />

There are certain characteristics of<br />

ultrasound that make it advantageous<br />

for industrial condition monitoring.<br />

The second characteristic that makes<br />

ultrasound helpful is its stay at home<br />

mentality.<br />

It tends to stay where its created. This<br />

is great for us because we want a way to<br />

quickly identify and pinpoint its origin.<br />

Ut Owns the Apex<br />

of the P-F Curve<br />

Ultrasound is considered the first line of<br />

defense for finding defects that can lead<br />

to asset failure. The first signs of change<br />

in the operating condition of an asset are<br />

usually indicated in the ultrasound frequencies<br />

first. Only after the asset has progressed<br />

to a more severe stage of deterioration<br />

do other asset condition monitoring<br />

technologies begin to play a role. For planners<br />

and schedulers, having the largest<br />

window of opportunity possible to order<br />

parts, plan downtime and allocate labour<br />

represents a tremendous advantage.<br />

24 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


F riction<br />

I mpacting<br />

T urbulence<br />

Heterodyne Principle<br />

Ultrasound instruments work on the<br />

principle of heterodyning. Ultrasound<br />

detectors detect high frequency sound<br />

pressure waves. Using a mixing filter,<br />

they translate those waves into representative<br />

signals that humans can<br />

comfortably hear. What is heard ultrasonically,<br />

is heard as a direct representation,<br />

audibly. Great detectors do so with<br />

crystal clear clarity and provide multiple<br />

indicators of condition.<br />

Ultrasound Is The First Line of Defence<br />

Ultrasound is a FIT<br />

Ultrasound can tell us how FIT our assets<br />

are. It is sensitive to defects that<br />

product Friction, Impacting, and Turbulence.<br />

This is the case for most every<br />

failure mode associated with any asset.<br />

So if you ever wonder where you can use<br />

ultrasound, ask yourself… does it produce<br />

Friction? Does it produce<br />

Impacting? Does it produce turbulent<br />

flow? If the answer is “YES”, then ultrasound<br />

is a FIT to find that defect.<br />

The Eight Application Pillars<br />

Ultrasound is widely considered by most<br />

reliability leaders to be the most versatile<br />

asset condition management technology.<br />

At SDT we identified the primary<br />

areas where ultrasound makes your life<br />

better and we define these as the 8 Application<br />

Pillars. They include: Mechanical,<br />

Leaks, Lubrication, Electrical, Valves,<br />

Steam, Hydraulics and Tightness.<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 25


What is Partial Discharge (PD)?<br />

Partial Discharge is a localized electrical<br />

discharge in an insulation system that<br />

does not completely bridge the electrodes.<br />

Partial Discharge (PD) is an atomic<br />

reaction which, due to the movement of<br />

electrons ionizes the air molecules and<br />

locations of high stress. This ionization<br />

phenomenon splits the oxygen molecule<br />

to form ozone and nitrous oxide which in<br />

their normal states are generally harmless.<br />

But when mixed with water vapour<br />

in the air, become corrosive.<br />

Where do we Find PD?<br />

There are many components in your<br />

electrical asset portfolio. Substation<br />

components where we want to be particularly<br />

diligent for PD include transformers,<br />

overhead infrastructure also<br />

referred to as transmission and distribution<br />

systems any joints or termination<br />

points on cables, breakers, bus sections,<br />

insulators, and surge arrestors in switchgear,<br />

and more.<br />

Why Test for Partial<br />

Discharge?<br />

In a word: Reliability. Actually, two<br />

words, reliability and safety, but reliability<br />

leaders know that the two go hand in<br />

hand. Reliable facilities are safe facilities.<br />

Electrical assets can never be managed<br />

with a run to failure strategy.<br />

Partial Discharge is an indication of<br />

a developing fault in medium and high<br />

voltage insulation and is widely regarded<br />

as the best early warning indicator of the<br />

deterioration of the insulation system. A<br />

weaker insulation system translates to a<br />

higher probability of failure.<br />

Testing for the presence of PD must<br />

take place throughout the life of the asset.<br />

During the design phase, directly<br />

after manufacturing as a quality control.<br />

During the installation and commission<br />

phase, and throughout the serviceable<br />

life of the asset.<br />

PD is Destructive<br />

It directly destroys all organic insulation<br />

materials and produces by products that<br />

form aggressive chemicals which can attack<br />

both insulation and conductors. The<br />

end result of PD is a full discharge (complete<br />

failure) of the insulation system.<br />

What are the Consequences?<br />

Insulation in some electrical equipment<br />

is designed to be resistant to partial<br />

discharge, but… Switchgear is designed<br />

to be PD free so switchgear insulation<br />

is NOT PD resistant. When PD occurs<br />

in switchgear it is because of a defect.<br />

Early detection allows relatively quick<br />

and easy repair. But if it is not detected…<br />

and eliminated it will eventually bridge<br />

the insultation and result in an Arc Discharge.<br />

Arcing and in some instances<br />

partial arcing, is the flow of electricity<br />

through the air from one conductor to<br />

another object, which conducts electricity.<br />

It is a rapid expansion of gas, causes<br />

fires and explosions, is extremely violent,<br />

generates extreme temperatures,<br />

and therefore the rapid destruction of all<br />

equipment connected.<br />

Human Safety<br />

A report published in Industrial Safety<br />

and Hygiene News estimated that, on<br />

average, there are 30,000 arc flash incidents<br />

every year. The report went on to<br />

estimate that those incidents resulted<br />

in average annual totals of 7,000 burn<br />

injuries, 2,000 hospitalizations, and 400<br />

fatalities per year. http://tyndaleusa.<br />

com/blog/2018/08/27/how-commonare-arc-flash-incidents/<br />

How Does Ultrasound Help?<br />

Ultrasound is a FIT for so many defects<br />

and electrical faults such as Partial<br />

Discharge are included because they<br />

produce Turbulence with peaks in the<br />

frequency range of 40kHz. Directional<br />

due to its high frequency, low energy<br />

26 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


the amplitude, analyze the signal for<br />

diagnosis and compare the multiple defects’<br />

amplitudes using scalable data.<br />

Switchgear Panels<br />

In switch gear panels, with the presence<br />

of an electrical defect, the insides of the<br />

panel are flooded with ultrasound. The<br />

ultrasound, being small in wavelength,<br />

can pass through the tiniest of air paths<br />

making it easy to identify which panels<br />

need closer attention, and which to simply<br />

leave alone.<br />




characteristics means we can pinpoint<br />

the source quickly, and from a safe distance.<br />

Inspections can be performed in<br />

noisy facilities during peak production.<br />

Thanks to advancements in instruments,<br />

the ability to capture dynamic signals<br />

allows for deeper analysis of the fault.<br />

This allows inspectors to classify the root<br />

cause origin as either corona discharge,<br />

tracking discharge, or arcing discharge.<br />

Advanced ultrasound detectors allow<br />

inspectors to record the sound, measure<br />

Final Thoughts<br />

Discharge is more common than we like<br />

to believe. There are ready technologies<br />

available that help to not only reduce the<br />

risk of arc flash exposure but also simultaneously<br />

enhance the overall reliability<br />

of the electrical system. Its really a winwin<br />

for safety and reliability. There are a<br />

few technologies available, but some are<br />

better than others. Some are suited for a<br />

particular purpose. It’s a case of choosing<br />

the right technology, for the right<br />

applications, on the right components,<br />

on the right situation. When compared,<br />

ultrasound seems to be the most practical,<br />

simple, comprehensive, and costeffective.<br />

Ultrasound should be your first line<br />

of defense technology to build out your<br />

overall electrical condition monitoring<br />

and analysis strategy.<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 27


What are the 10 fundamentals<br />

to improve maintenance<br />

in your organisation? The<br />

question seems trivial, but<br />

when you stop to think<br />

about it more closely,<br />

you will quickly end up<br />

with a list that is much<br />

longer than anticipated.<br />


Partner of Mainnovation<br />

10 basics to improve<br />


in your organisation<br />

Creating Value with Maintenance & Asset Management<br />

NETHERLANDS-BASED consultancy consulting group Mainnovation.<br />

wanted to find an answer to the question. In the<br />

beginning of July <strong>2019</strong>, the Belgium Maintenance Association<br />

BEMAS organised three afternoon study sessions about the<br />

10 basics for the technical department. At the event, Mainnovation<br />

together with more than 60 other professionals from<br />

the field of Maintenance & Asset Management discussed and<br />

ranked the themes marking three out of ten propositions with<br />

a high amount of interest.<br />

The themes were assessed by indicating if they were: Totally<br />

agreeing – Agreeing – Neutral – Not agreeing – Totally<br />

disagreeing with the 10 propositions around the 10 basics.<br />

So, what were the 10 basics<br />

for the Technical Department?<br />

Here they are listed and briefly explained:<br />


The maintenance manager or the head of the technical department<br />

communicates with the direction about Maintenance &<br />

Asset Management by explaining everything in terms of value.<br />

Here is a clear picture of what the “dominant value driver” is<br />

and we keep maintenance from being seen in terms of pure cost.<br />


(PDCA: PLAN – DO – ACT – CHECK)<br />

We are used to looking at everything through the “continuous<br />

improvement lens”. We are critical and constantly ask<br />

ourselves, how we can do business better in the future. We<br />

do this for technical as well as organisational challenges. We<br />

also put in place improvements in a structured manner.<br />


We use available data from our Enterprise Asset Management<br />

(EAM) system. Based on this, we develop several maintenance<br />

indicators and use them to make adjustments in a structured<br />

way. With these indicators, we adjust the content of the maintenance<br />

plans and processes, we amend the organisation and<br />

we optimise the supporting IT tools.<br />



When can we talk of a malfunction, or an actual “urgency”? Is<br />

it always clear for the applicant whether direct intervention is<br />

required or not? Who is well placed to make an assessment? Or<br />

do we leave it as is over the issue of the day?<br />

28 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


There are different types of work requests within maintenance.<br />

Plannable activities often result in a considerable<br />

workload. These activities, such as inspections, improvement<br />

proposals, and work for third parties are assessed in a gatekeeping<br />

discussion. On top of controlling the comprehensiveness<br />

of the question, we determine the priority and the<br />

corresponding execution date together with the applicant<br />

and the operator.<br />



A good work preparation & planning is the driving force of<br />

an efficient working technical department. All plannable<br />

work is prepared in detail (the correct spare parts are ready;<br />

the special tools are reserved; instructions are written up;<br />

the permit is ready; there are clear agreements regarding the<br />

sequence, the required time, the team, the testing and the<br />

release of the installation; the required external suppliers are<br />

provided; etc.). That way, the technician can focus 100 percent<br />

on the execution of his or her tasks.<br />


Maintenance plans must be addressed dynamically based on<br />

the changing situation (market, dominant value driver, etc.).<br />

But past performances are also an important source of data<br />






to adjust things. Based on the number of failures, the length<br />

of the failures and the cost that we spend on each installation,<br />

we improve the maintenance plans in a structured way.<br />




A lot of maintenance organisations live by the issue of the<br />

day. As a result, a lot of people are busy with short-term problems<br />

and little attention is paid on long-term goals. A clear<br />

structure with roles and functions that work on the long- and<br />

medium-term smooths things over in the organisation as well<br />

as ensures that we work towards a better future in a structured<br />

manner.<br />


Lubrication maintenance is perhaps a strange theme to bring<br />

up in this list. On the other hand, this theme is a good indicator<br />

of the maturity in a maintenance. Lubrication is probably<br />

the oldest maintenance operation, however, it is still an area<br />

that can be improved drastically. Do we lubricate correctly,<br />

with the right frequency, with the right product? Do we stock<br />

the lubricants in the right way, etc.?




“Focus + Change” is the key to success. With “Focus”, we<br />

develop the right analysis and determine the points of<br />

improvement. On top of that, we also need “Change” to<br />

transform things in practice. If we want to manage actively<br />

the resistance to change, then we must work on acceptance<br />

and the corresponding project of change from day one. It<br />

is, therefore, an art to avoid the common pitfalls in change<br />

management.<br />

Out of the 10 fundamentals maintenance professionals<br />

were the most in agreement with the following themes,<br />

giving the highest scores to the following three topics:<br />

1. We have clear agreements on urgencies<br />

2. We speak the language of the boardroom<br />

3. We keep an eye on the change process in the technical<br />

department<br />

The themes with the lowest scores and, therefore, with a<br />

great potential for improvement were the following:<br />

1. We bring order to the TD and divide the LT – MT – ST<br />

activities<br />

2. The work preparation & Planning is elaborated down to<br />

the last detail<br />

3. We adjust maintenance plans based on feedback<br />


At the end of the afternoon study session, Mainnovation also<br />

asked the participants to indicate, which themes they would<br />

like to work on in their own organisation. Out of the 10 themes,<br />

eight were put on the improvement agenda by more than half<br />

of the participants, with the three following top priorities:<br />

• We want to give more attention to the change process in<br />

the technical department<br />

• We want to close the PDCA loops in all processes in a<br />

structured way<br />

• -We want to improve Gatekeeping for work requests<br />

Priority challenges that the participants want to meet<br />

Give more attention to change process<br />

Better closing of the PDCA loops<br />

Improve gatekeeping for reports<br />

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100<br />


The theme “We want to give more attention to the change process<br />

in the technical department” and the additional change aspect<br />

was the theme with the highest score. Eighty-one percent of the<br />

participants see potential improvement here and would like to<br />

pay extra attention to this.<br />

Although maintenance professionals gave themselves a high<br />

score in terms of attention given to change process within the<br />

technical department at the beginning of the session, this subject<br />

received the highest priority to work on and to further improve.<br />

We also see this for our own customers at Mainnovation.<br />

“Keeping an eye on change” is a crucial theme in change processes.<br />

It is important here that all people in the organisation<br />

understand the need for change, that there is a shared vision of<br />

the future, and that we work with viable intermediate steps.<br />

Closing the “Plan – Do – Check – Act” loop is viewed as the second<br />

priority for the participants. In a lot of cases, the improvement<br />

circle is not closed today. There are a lot of ideas and good<br />

initiatives but measuring and adjusting is not always done.<br />

The third priority is gatekeeping, which is the assessment<br />

of plannable work requests. It is a crucial process to manage<br />

incoming workflow. Without a good gatekeeping, there is a<br />

high chance that the influx of work requests will influence the<br />

operational workflow so much that it will be difficult to keep a<br />

clear view of the important and priority works.<br />

With these 10 basics, everyone can make their own analysis<br />

of whether the themes are relevant to their organisation.<br />

Perhaps the Top 3 will help you to work on the foundation of a<br />

modern and proactive technical organisation.<br />

30 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>




An Ultrasound<br />

instrument is<br />

the perfect tool<br />

for lubrication<br />

management<br />

60-80% of<br />

premature bearing<br />

failures are<br />

lubrication related<br />

Avoid downtime<br />

and premature<br />

bearing failures with<br />

Ultrasound Assisted<br />

Lubrication<br />


401 DIGITAL<br />


Can be attached to<br />

a grease gun for<br />

ease of use<br />

Know when to stop<br />

adding lubrication and<br />

record the amount used<br />

Set up and store routes<br />

for easy condition<br />

based lubrication<br />

Trend and report your<br />

lubrication data with UE<br />

Systems free DMS Software<br />



www.uesystems.eu/ebook-lubrication<br />

UE Systems Europe - Windmolen 20, 7609 NN Almelo, The Netherlands<br />

T: +31 546 725 125 | E: info@uesystems.eu | W: www.uesystems.eu





“Reliable machinery<br />

installation” - it sounds like<br />

an obvious thing, don’t you<br />

agree? But where does<br />

reliability actually start?<br />



Reliability engineer at<br />


Soft foot<br />

Bent base frame<br />

Roman Megela<br />

Gazdova works as<br />

Reliability engineer at Easy-Laser<br />

AB. He has 20 years of experience in<br />

assembly, commissioning and service<br />

of gas compression systems all over<br />

the world, from Europe to Asia and<br />

USA, in all kind of industries: glass<br />

production, stainless steel production,<br />

oil and gas, oxygen, petrochemical,<br />

natural gas, biogas, hydrocarbons.<br />

He is now on a mission to teach<br />

good practice for reliable machinery<br />

installation.<br />

WE ALL KNOW that “the thing” starts<br />

with the design. The design stage<br />

decides what is going to be installed.<br />

Which equipment, and where. But<br />

there is no decision of Who is going<br />

to perform the installation, and How<br />

it is going to be installed. Most of the<br />

time those two departments are not<br />

cooperating, especially if they don’t<br />

belong to the same organization. The<br />

installation teams must be involved in<br />

the design because they will provide<br />

their feedback for reliable machinery<br />

installation. They know exactly how<br />

the things work out there and how this<br />

needs to be done.<br />






Every day I see on the social media<br />

tons of information regarding reliability<br />

maintenance, condition monitoring,<br />

sensors, cameras and all possible problem-solving<br />

technologies. All those technologies<br />

provide necessary information<br />

from our assets. Things we need to know<br />

in order to evaluate the condition of our<br />

assets. But what about the most crucial<br />

step? Machinery installation, anyone? I<br />

have been assembling and building skids<br />

and gas compression systems for gas and<br />

petrochemical industry for many years.<br />

My experience has shown me that “flatness<br />

and levelness” is one of the most<br />

critical issues when it comes to the assembly<br />

of rotating machinery.<br />

Designed for flatness and<br />

levelness<br />

All machinery is designed to work on a<br />

flat and levelled surface. Every manufac-<br />

32 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


turer of pumps, compressors, blowers,<br />

electrical motors, gear boxes assume that<br />

their equipment is going to be installed<br />

correctly, meaning on flat and levelled<br />

surface. And they also provide their<br />

tolerances for this. There are standards<br />

for the installation, too. ANSI standards<br />

recommend foot flatness less than 0.4µ/<br />

mm [5 mils/ft]. And coplanarity less<br />

than 50µm/mm [2 mils] between the<br />

machines and their drives for machines<br />

up to 400kW or 500 HP. ISO standard<br />

for centrifugal pumps for petroleum,<br />

petrochemical and natural gas industries<br />

(ISO 13709:2009) say clearly that “Corresponding<br />

surfaces shall be in the same<br />

plane within 150µm/m”. That is 0,15mm<br />

per meter. Levelness has the tolerances<br />

less than 0,8 µm/mm [10 mils/ft]<br />

Flatness and levelness affect<br />

everything<br />

Checking the flatness of the foundation<br />

is essential. The foundation is the cornerstone<br />

for every single installation, irrespective<br />

of type. Mounting pads, soleplates,<br />

frames and tables. Everything you<br />

put on top of them is going to be affected.<br />

Flange misalignment<br />

When the flatness is out of tolerances all<br />

rotating equipment is affected. Soft foot,<br />

misalignment, machine casing stress,<br />

pipe flange misalignment, and many other<br />

causes. But I want to mention specifically<br />

one, and that is strain in the bearings.<br />

The bearing is designed to rotate<br />

using the oil film lubrication. According<br />

to Swedish bearing manufacturer SKF,<br />

a free running bearing with the proper<br />

lubrication will rotate to infinity. When<br />

the bearing is squeezed, the lubrication<br />

film is forced out and contact metal-tometal<br />

appear. Excess heat is generated,<br />

and your bearing is running into the<br />

failure. That simple. All other failures<br />

will be linked to it. And it often started<br />

with a flatness issue. Levelness is another<br />

factor affecting heavily the equipment.<br />

Vertically installed bearings carry<br />

on horizontal loads and if you change<br />

their gravity point, the lubrication will<br />

move out of their race way. If you have<br />

not proper lubrication film, there will<br />

be metal to metal contact. If you have<br />

splash lubrication in your machine, and<br />

you have unlevelled installation, you will<br />

move the oil away from the oil slinger.<br />

That will be End of the story.<br />

Why would you install your asset on<br />

bases which is not checked for proper<br />

flatness and levelness and face all the<br />

problems related to it? After reading this<br />

you can at least not claim “I didn’t know<br />

it was important...”


Preventative Maintenance<br />

Cannot Take a Summer Holiday<br />

Is your Preventative<br />

Maintenance Program on<br />

a summer holiday or does<br />

your team perform the<br />

critical essential care tasks<br />

year-round? An effective<br />

Preventative Maintenance<br />

program must be<br />

executed consistently<br />

regardless of the season!<br />

HERE IS A STORY from a process plant we<br />

have worked with over the last few years.<br />

During a meeting with the Leadership<br />

team, they agreed with us on the value<br />

of executing good Preventative Maintenance<br />

(PM). The Plant Manager responded,<br />

“We want to do all these things,<br />

but we don’t. Can you tell us why?”<br />

What we uncovered is that while the<br />

client was looking at all the newest technologies<br />

like IoT (internet of things),<br />

cloud-based data, and connecting smart<br />

devices with mobile apps they were not<br />

doing the basic processes of Essential<br />


Senior Management<br />

Consultant with<br />

IDCON INC.<br />

Care and Condition Monitoring.<br />

Basic Essential Care processes include:<br />

cleaning, lubrication, alignment,<br />

balancing, mounting and operating<br />

procedures to name a few. Condition<br />

monitoring processes include: infrared<br />

(IR) measurements, vibration analysis,<br />

temperature readings, visual inspections<br />

and leak detection, more can be named<br />

but you get the idea.<br />

The client was not even using the<br />

simple tools to perform inspections – IR<br />

guns or vibration pens. How can their<br />

people be expected to use new technologies<br />

when they have not mastered the<br />

basics?<br />

If it is dirty – clean it!<br />

It is not a mystery that accumulated<br />

dirt and dust is the enemy of equipment<br />

– dirt and dust never take a holiday.<br />

Consistent cleaning improves safety,<br />

machine reliability and condition monitoring<br />

inspections.<br />

Let’s take for example that you find<br />

the temperature is rising on an AC motor.<br />

Taking a look at the motor, you see<br />

that it is very dirty. You know dirt can<br />

block the airflow, which will increase<br />

temperature and decrease the life of the<br />

motor.<br />



1. No inspection (or poor inspection)<br />

– if the motor had been<br />

inspected properly, the inspector<br />

would have seen dirt was accumulating<br />

and had someone clean it.<br />

2. Lack of cleaning<br />

Since the motor’s condition was beyond<br />

dusting or vacuuming, it had to be<br />

cleaned during a shutdown.<br />

The question is “Why wasn’t it<br />

cleaned?” Do people not understand<br />

why cleaning is important or is it they do<br />

not understand how to do it? When you<br />

34 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


develop your PM strategy you need to<br />

decide who will do cleaning and how you<br />

will train them to do it. Training documents<br />

and reference guides should detail<br />

both the “Why” and “How” of cleaning<br />

equipment.<br />

Inspections<br />

Back to that client- when we looked at<br />

the inspection routes and PM work orders<br />

in place, we saw they put some good<br />

thoughts into documenting Essential<br />

Care and Condition Monitoring for some<br />

of the equipment. Still, there were many<br />

vague inspections such as, “Inspect<br />

motor”. One of the maintenance technicians<br />

showed us the PM work order and<br />

his written comments, “The motor is<br />

still there!” Humour is great, but details<br />

are needed on what to inspect, how and<br />

where to measure, and the acceptable<br />

range.<br />

Train people doing inspections to understand<br />

the principals of how the motor<br />

and coupling works, and the basic failure<br />

modes for key components like the bearings<br />

and the windings. Also, train them<br />

how to use the inspection tools. If you<br />

document and describe these inspection<br />

instructions on a PM route or a work<br />

order you will get consistent execution of<br />

your PM task.<br />

The maintenance department was<br />

focused on doing vibration analysis and<br />

electrical dynamic and static testing of<br />

larger AC motors. But they were still<br />

having issues with AC motor failures.<br />

We performed a Root Cause Problem<br />



All maintenance done to prevent a<br />

failure (life extension) and detect a<br />

failure early (Condition Monitoring)<br />

before it impacts the process.<br />

Elimination investigation and found the<br />

failures were due to either over or under<br />

lubrication.<br />

Did they need to focus on detecting<br />

the bearing going bad before attempting<br />

to make sure the bearings had the right<br />

lubrication?<br />

Do PM’s on the AC motors as long as<br />

it is cost effective, i.e. Condition Based<br />

Maintenance costs less than Operate to<br />

Breakdown. Based on our PM evaluation<br />

we found the client should do both: the<br />

right lubricants, at the right time, the<br />

right amount, and have vibration analysis<br />

to provide both Essential Care and<br />

Condition Monitoring.<br />

As time passed with our assistance the<br />

client developed PM inspections with<br />

the right frequency, trained the inspectors,<br />

and executed them on time. The<br />

PM inspections generated quality work<br />

requests that were turned into work<br />

orders for Corrective Maintenance and<br />

was planned and executed according to<br />

the schedule.<br />

And they were making<br />

progress until…summer!<br />

During summer holiday we noticed<br />

the PM compliance went from over 90<br />

percent to less than 20 percent and this<br />

went on for several months after the<br />

vacation season ended. An effective PM<br />

program requires good processes, documentation,<br />

tools, and execution of task.<br />

The discipline to continue the program<br />

had not been anchored in our client’s organization.<br />

We determined that the leadership<br />

team in Operations and Maintenance<br />

needed to be more involved to<br />

ensure that processes are executed, and<br />

compliance is reported.<br />

Preventative Maintenance needs to<br />

be executed according to the schedule<br />

despite vacation season, deer hunting<br />

season, or moose hunting season. What<br />

season will decrease the efficiency of<br />

your PM program?<br />




3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 35



CMRP CAMA,<br />

Partner, Eruditio<br />


FAILURE…<br />

AS I LOOK BACK over the many facilities<br />

and plants that I have visited over the<br />

years I have noted many examples of<br />

“best practice”, but there are only a few<br />

things that a few sites have effectively<br />

implemented. One of those is maintenance<br />

planning and then scheduling.<br />

Perhaps it is because it takes more<br />

discipline, more commitment, and more<br />

organizational understanding than<br />

many of the other tools that we have in<br />

our reliability toolbox. Maybe it is just<br />

a lack of training. Let us look at 3 key<br />

things you could implement as part of<br />

your reliability improvement efforts that<br />

will set your team up for a higher probability<br />

of success with your planning and<br />

then scheduling efforts.<br />

Start early with maintenance planning.<br />

Too many sites wait too late to get<br />

their planners on board and started on a<br />

planning task. It can be done very early<br />

because many of the activities are capable<br />

of being started well before the rest<br />

3 Things That Could Save<br />

Your Maintenance Planning<br />

Organization and Improve<br />

Reliability for Your Site<br />

of the organization becomes involved in<br />

reliability improvement efforts. Likely,<br />

only the most basic of tasks would need<br />

to be completed before planning kickoff.<br />

Of course, things like vision, mission,<br />

and communication planning would<br />

need to be done first, but once the leadership<br />

team has built the foundation and<br />

created a direction then we can get the<br />

planners engaged. If your site is a new<br />

greenfield start-up then hire your planners<br />

early and if your site is just starting<br />

a maintenance and reliability improvement<br />

effort, then include planning in the<br />

very early activities.<br />

Why do I suggest moving so early?<br />

Many of the critical tasks for successful<br />

planning have a very large time component.<br />

For example, hiring a planner can<br />

take months, creating a bill of materials<br />

and job plan libraries can take years.<br />

If you are lucky enough to have planners,<br />

then you still have to a lot of time<br />

for planner training because it is very<br />

likely that your current planners do not<br />

understand the requirements of the<br />

new planned and then scheduled state.<br />

If you are hiring, you can ensure a level<br />

36 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


of understanding by looking for and<br />

requesting a planner that has been certified<br />

through an organization like the<br />

University of Tennessee Reliability and<br />

Maintainability Center. If this is new to<br />

you please visit www.plannercertification.com<br />

for more information on planner<br />

and scheduler certification.<br />

1. Build the base tools<br />

What should they work on first? This is<br />

more complicated and is dependant on<br />

your current state. In general, they can<br />

start to build the base tools they will use<br />

to help change the organization. Things<br />

like populating the bill of material for<br />

critical assets using OEM documentation<br />

and other historical sources, building<br />

job plans for high probability tasks<br />

which can then be stored in the job plan<br />

library, and determining kitting processes<br />

and expectations. Depending on<br />

your organizational staffing and maturity<br />

they may also work with the maintenance<br />

or reliability engineers to improve<br />

the existing preventive maintenance<br />

task. If you are using OEM equipment<br />

vendor-provided PM tasks, you will<br />






likely benefit enormously by optimizing<br />

these PMs based on your operating context<br />

and skilled trade levels.<br />

2. Focus on staffing<br />

Next, let’s talk about staffing for your<br />

planner role. Let us first answer everyone’s<br />

favourite question of “how many?”<br />

Staffing correctly is critical and not as<br />

cut and dried as some text would make<br />

it sound. Many would suggest that you<br />

need a planner/scheduler for every 15 to<br />

20 technicians or crafts people. While<br />

I agree with the number for a mature<br />

organization, in the beginning, I think<br />

there are more factors you must consider.<br />

If you have limited job plans in<br />

your job plan library, and few assets have<br />

a bill of materials, then you will be understaffed<br />

because in that environment<br />

everything takes longer to complete.<br />

If you started early as I recommended<br />

above, and you have a base of BOMs and<br />

job plans in the library then you can<br />

likely stick with the recommendation of<br />

15-20. However, if you are like most you<br />

are behind in these areas and you really<br />

need a lower ratio to “catch up”. In that<br />

situation, I would suggest that you may<br />

want your early ratios closer to 10:1. Do<br />

not concern yourself too much with the<br />

fact that you will be overstaffed in the<br />

future, because most likely some of your<br />

planners will move into supervisory<br />

roles and as time goes on you will find<br />

that you settle out in the recommended<br />

range of 15-20:1.<br />

Now I can hear some of you, “this guy<br />

is dreaming, where will I get that many<br />

planners?” If you believe that planned<br />

maintenance is a better, more efficient<br />

way then trust your belief and pull them<br />

from your technicians' ranks. My experience<br />

shows that a planner can nearly<br />

double the wrench time or value-added<br />

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task completed per hour for the maintenance<br />

team they support. With that said,<br />

even with small teams, removing one<br />

technician and converting them into a<br />

planner yield a positive impact on maintenance<br />

work throughput. Be careful<br />

about your selection though. We are not<br />

looking for your best technician, we are<br />

looking for your technician who is the:<br />

• most organized,<br />

• most gifted at communication,<br />

• type that works well with others,<br />

• type that understands and embraces<br />

precision maintenance.<br />

This is not a clerical job and this role<br />

is not a fill-in supervisor, or a lead technician,<br />

this person builds the effective<br />

work instructions that will become the<br />

marching orders for your organization<br />

and their selection, staffing, training,<br />

and certification is critical.<br />

The next area we have to work on is<br />

organizational understanding. Planning<br />

and then Scheduling is not natural for<br />

most of your organization. Many have<br />

been “cowboys shooting from the hip”<br />

for years. They have been rewarded for<br />

their ability to react faster with little<br />

understanding of the long-term effects<br />

on the organization. If your site uses a<br />

lot of duct tape, baling wire, and zip ties<br />

to keep the plant running and reactivity<br />

is the norm then you will have a harder<br />

task ahead of you in this next area but<br />

either way, it is critical.<br />

3. Communication is key<br />

Communication, the one thing that<br />

everyone wants to say is not done well<br />

38 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong><br />

enough, is now our focus. We need the<br />

organization to understand the value of<br />

planned work and to a varying degree<br />

the role of a planner in its creation. You<br />

need to look at your business process<br />

and see who is affected by the planner/<br />

scheduler then develop a communication<br />

strategy in tiers based on interaction<br />

and responsibility. For example,<br />

we may want many people to know<br />

that planning reduces maintenance<br />

requested downtime and reoccurring<br />

failures, but we may want only the<br />

maintenance supervisor and technician<br />

to understand what the expectation for<br />

our new job plans and work packages<br />

are. At the very least, I would suggest<br />

that the maintenance supervisors, operations<br />

scheduler, and the planner all<br />

receive a very detailed understanding<br />

of the planner role and the training to<br />

support it. The understanding of planning<br />

can then tier down from there to<br />

the engineers and technicians and then<br />

tier down again to the operators and<br />

ops leaders for example.<br />

Why do these people need to know?<br />

Let's look at each role given in the example.<br />

The core team of the planner/<br />

scheduler, maintenance supervisor, and<br />

operations scheduler have to be working<br />

together on a daily basis with the<br />

operations scheduler providing downtime<br />

windows weeks in advance and<br />

the supervisor executing the schedule<br />

as close to as defined as possible. Within<br />

the next level, the engineers need<br />

to be providing new best practices in<br />

precision maintenance, high-risk failure<br />

modes from the failure modes and<br />

effects analysis (FMEA) and conditionbased<br />

maintenance tasks to the planner<br />

to constantly improve the job plans<br />

and equipment maintenance plans.<br />

The technicians must understand the<br />

importance of providing feedback on<br />

the job plans as part of the continuous<br />

improvement loop and executing the<br />

job by the plan. As we get to the third<br />

tier that includes operations leadership<br />

and the operators themselves we<br />

have to make sure they understand the<br />

importance of communicating defects<br />

in the equipment as early as possible<br />

such that the work can be planned,<br />

scheduled and executed before the<br />

catastrophic failure which prevents a<br />

costly emergency repair. These are just<br />

examples for each level that I hope help<br />

you see the tiered approach to communication<br />

that is required to empower<br />

success in your planner/schedulers.<br />

So, as we look back at the topic of<br />

successful planning and then scheduling<br />

please remember the three elements<br />

that we discussed: start early,<br />

staff appropriately and communicate<br />

effectively. These are the sins I most<br />

often see as I complete the forensic<br />

analysis of dead or dying planning efforts.<br />

We know that everyone is important<br />

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Vibration Monitoring<br />



Over the last twenty years, stand-alone vibration sensors for reciprocating<br />

compressors have evolved from ineffective RMS vibration transmitters to firstgeneration<br />

shock monitoring technology. That technology provided valuable data<br />

by shifting from VAC-to-VDC RMS signal processing to impact counting, but had<br />

its own set of disadvantages. Second generation shock-monitoring technology<br />

has built upon the existing technology to create a solution that is best tailored for<br />

reciprocating compressor monitoring.<br />

MEREDITH CHRISTMAN Product Marketing Manager, IMI Sensors, Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc.<br />

Reciprocating<br />

compressors are<br />

prevalent in the<br />

upstream, midstream<br />

and downstream/<br />

refining sectors<br />

of the oil and gas<br />

industry.<br />

40 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>



employed to compress a wide range of<br />

industrial and medical gases (ex. helium,<br />

hydrogen, oxygen) in order to provide<br />

high-pressure, low-volume delivery.<br />

They are also highly prone to catastrophic<br />

damage when developing faults go<br />

undetected and unresolved.<br />

Faults creating errant vibration in<br />

reciprocating compressors can generally<br />

be classified as mechanical looseness<br />

and can include loose, broken or cracked<br />

bolts & rod nuts, excessive crosshead<br />

clearance, cracked rods and cylinder<br />

debris or scoring. The faults typically<br />

create metal-to-metal impacts that manifest<br />

in vibration data as high-frequency,<br />

high-amplitude peaks.<br />

Because faults develop quickly, continuous<br />

24/7 process monitoring has<br />

been and continues to be preferred<br />

because data can be constantly recorded,<br />

trended and analyzed by a PLC<br />

(programmable logic controller), DSC<br />

(distributed control systems), SCADA<br />

(supervisory control and data acquisition)<br />

or other online monitoring system.<br />

The above-referenced systems can all<br />

seamlessly accept a current input signal<br />

so a vibration transmitter is ideal.<br />

signal values because, for sine waves<br />

with equal positive and negative half cycles,<br />

this averaging would result in a nonvaluable<br />

measurement of zero. Alternatively,<br />

the RMS methodology consists of<br />

the following four calculation steps:<br />

• Divide one cycle (ie. one positive<br />

and one negative half cycle) of the<br />

AC waveform into many slices,<br />

each small enough to represent a<br />

constant voltage during the time<br />

period.<br />

• Square each of those individual<br />

constant voltages. This squaring<br />

of each individual voltage converts<br />

all voltages, regardless of whether<br />

originally positive or negative, to<br />

positive values.<br />

• Calculate the mean (average) of<br />

the squared values.<br />

• Calculate the square root of the<br />

mean. (The result is the RMS DC<br />

voltage value.)<br />

For reciprocating compressor-monitoring<br />

applications, the RMS process<br />

masks the exact high-frequency, high<br />

amplitude peaks in the vibration data<br />

that are crucial to identify by averaging<br />

the area (energy) under the curve. While<br />

metal-to-metal impacts create high<br />

amplitude peaks in the data, they are<br />

simultaneously very narrow curves. As a<br />

result, the curves have very little energy<br />

and the peaks have very little effect on<br />

the averaged RMS DC voltage value. Because<br />

of this shortcoming, reciprocating<br />

compressor operators moved from typical<br />

vibration transmitters to first-generation<br />

shock monitoring technology as a<br />

more effective monitoring methodology.<br />

Ineffective Use of the RMS<br />

Vibration Transmitter for<br />

Reciprocating Compressor<br />

Monitoring<br />

Initially, reciprocating compressor operators<br />

selected RMS vibration transmitters<br />

as their vibration sensor of choice.<br />

These sensors would output a current<br />

signal scaled to a specific measurement<br />

range (typically measured in velocity).<br />

The signal-processing scheme in these<br />

sensors was as follows:<br />

• Sensing element producing a<br />

high-impedance charge output after<br />

being acted upon by a force.<br />

• High-impedance signal is converted<br />

into a low-impedance voltage<br />

signal.<br />

• AC voltage signal is decoupled<br />

from the DC bias voltage.<br />

• C voltage signal is converted into<br />

DC voltage signal via RMS (root<br />

mean square) methodology.<br />

• DC voltage signal is then subsequently<br />

converted to a 4-20 mA<br />

current signal.<br />

The conversion of the AC voltage signal<br />

to a DC voltage signal is not as simple<br />

as averaging the individual AC voltage<br />

The oscillating blue line represents the AC voltage signal. The horizontal orange line<br />

represents the amplitude of the resulting DC voltage value while the horizontal green line<br />

represents the actual peak amplitudes. The graph illustrates that high frequency, high<br />

amplitude peaks in the AC voltage signal have little effect on the resulting DC voltage<br />

value when the VAC-to-VDC conversion is done via RMS.<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 41


First Generation Shock<br />

Monitoring Technology<br />

First generation shock monitoring technology<br />

shifted the signal processing focus<br />

from the existing RMS methodology<br />

to impact counting. Impact transmitters<br />

based on the technology would measure<br />

vibration, apply a band pass filter to<br />

isolate frequencies of interest and count<br />

the number of impacts occurring above<br />

a pre-set threshold level every 2-3 seconds.<br />

For each counted impact, the current<br />

output would increase by a pre-set<br />

1mA increment from the 4mA baseline<br />

to create a building current output.<br />

The technology fundamentally moved<br />

away from allowing the direct correlation<br />

of the current output to a specific<br />

amplitude. Instead, impact transmitters<br />

focused on identifying the high-frequency,<br />

high-amplitude peaks in vibration data<br />

that are caused by the metal-to-metal<br />

impacts that are common indicators of<br />

developing faults. Operators would set<br />

the threshold at the amplitude level that<br />

was the boundary between acceptable<br />

and unacceptable amplitudes. The output<br />

subsequently let them focus solely<br />

on the number of impacts occurring at<br />

unacceptable amplitudes and build a<br />

current output accordingly.<br />

counterparts. After that point, the signal<br />

processing scheme between impact<br />

transmitters and reciprocating machinery<br />

protection sensors diverges.<br />

• No impacts above the threshold<br />

are present: Impact transmitters<br />

provide a flat 4mA signal when no<br />

impacts above the threshold are<br />

present. Reciprocating machinery<br />

protection sensors provide a<br />

continuous, meaningful current<br />

output scaled to peak acceleration.<br />

This signal provides valuable<br />

trending data as well as confirmation<br />

of proper sensor operation<br />

to the reciprocating compressor<br />

operator.<br />

• Comparison of actual vibration<br />

amplitudes to benchmark(s):<br />

While impact transmitters only<br />

compared the amplitudes of the<br />

actual vibration to a single threshold,<br />

reciprocating machinery<br />

protection sensors compare the<br />

amplitudes of the actual vibration<br />

to two, independently-set thresholds<br />

every 2-3 seconds.<br />

• Weighting of each impact with<br />

an amplitude greater than the<br />

threshold(s): Impact transmitters<br />

weighted each impact in excess of<br />

the threshold at an unchangeable<br />

increment of 1mA. Reciprocating<br />

machinery protection sensors<br />

provide an independent weighting<br />

increment for each threshold.<br />

Each weighting increment can be<br />

field-altered to a value between 0.2-<br />

16 mA. Peaks with amplitudes that<br />

exceed both thresholds are doublecounted<br />

in that both the weighting<br />

factor for a peak exceeding the first<br />

threshold and the weighting factor<br />

for a peak exceeding the second<br />

threshold are both added to the<br />

total current output when such a<br />

peak occurs. This allows the sensor<br />

to build the current output faster as<br />

peaks increase in amplitude. This<br />

is essential so that the sensor’s signal<br />

can stay ahead of the developing<br />

fault and allow the technician time<br />

to shut down the compressor prior<br />

to a catastrophic failure.<br />

While the technology provided a substantial<br />

improvement in effective vibration<br />

monitoring for reciprocating compressors,<br />

it still did not provide operators<br />

all of the data and flexibility that they<br />

required. The sensors had three major<br />

shortcomings:<br />

• Provided a flat, unchanging 4mA<br />

output when no impacting was<br />

occurring.<br />

• Compared actual vibration amplitudes<br />

to only a single threshold.<br />

• Provided no flexibility to the increment<br />

added to the total current<br />

output when an impact was identified,<br />

regardless of the impact’s<br />

amplitude.<br />

Second Generation Shock<br />

Monitoring Technology<br />

Second generation shock-monitoring<br />

technology, which was patented in 2007,<br />

has built upon the first-generation technology<br />

by addressing the three major<br />

shortcomings. Reciprocating machinery<br />

protection sensors based on the technology<br />

still measure vibration and apply a<br />

band pass filter to isolate frequencies<br />

of interest like their first generation<br />

The oscillating blue line represents the AC voltage signal. While impact transmitters<br />

only compared the amplitudes of the actual vibration to a single threshold, reciprocating<br />

machinery protection sensors compare the amplitudes of the actual vibration to two,<br />

independently-set thresholds.<br />





Conclusion<br />

Those stand alone vibration sensors for<br />

reciprocating compressors have evolved<br />

over the last twenty years as the oil &<br />

gas and petrochemical industries place<br />

greater emphasis on vibration monitoring<br />

as a valuable predictive maintenance<br />

technique.<br />

42 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>





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As Maintenance<br />

Practices Change,<br />

Teaching Methods<br />

Must Also Change<br />

Working through web<br />

has and will change<br />

maintenance practices.<br />

How do we train students<br />

to learn and work<br />

through the network?<br />


Senior Lecturer (Communications),<br />

School of Technology,Häme University<br />

of Applied Sciences (HAMK)<br />


Senior Lecturer, Electrical and Automation<br />

Engineering study programme, Häme University<br />

of Applied Sciences (HAMK)<br />

A MAINTENANCE PLAN is always made to<br />

the requirements of the company. It defines<br />

maintenance needs and practices.<br />

With the Internet of Things (IoT), the<br />

availability and analysis of information<br />

has become much easier. The collected<br />

data passes directly from the sensors, for<br />

example, to the cloud. If certain threshold<br />

values are exceeded, the signal indicates<br />

that something is to be reacted to.<br />

In addition, data can be better combined.<br />

IoT has been greatly hyped. In practice,<br />

at least in Finland, larger companies<br />

can make full use of its after-sale<br />

services. Thus, the services sold are the<br />

capability to predict what must or can be<br />

done - and in addition to this, if needed,<br />

the ability to be in contact with the customer<br />

even from other side of the world.<br />

This is the reality that we train our<br />

students of Electrical and Automation<br />

technology at Häme University of Applied<br />

Sciences (HAMK) to. The students<br />

must have the ability to work in large<br />

companies, but also have the capability<br />

to bring practices, that reform operations<br />

and boost competitive ability, to<br />

small and medium companies.<br />

Working and learning<br />

through the web<br />

Today, IoT is involved in much of the<br />

maintenance education content. Content<br />

on its own is not enough, students<br />

need to get the experience, that shows<br />

them the ease of use, possibilities and<br />

44 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>

Industrial<br />

Value Chain<br />

Initiative<br />

Version 08 // June 2018<br />

OPC_Brochure_GB_06_2018_RZ.indd 1 06.06.18 17:12<br />

OPC_Brochure_Security_GB_2018_RZ.indd 1 05.06.18 15:14<br />

Industrial<br />

Interoperability:<br />

From Sensor<br />

into Cloud<br />

Controller<br />

ERP<br />

MES<br />

SCADA<br />

Controller<br />

DCS<br />

Version 02 // April <strong>2019</strong><br />

OPC_Folder_FLC_<strong>2019</strong>_RZ.indd 1 25.03.19 15:42<br />

The Industrial Interoperability Standard<br />

www.opcfoundation.org<br />

Interoperability for Industrie 4.0 and IIoT<br />

OPC UA is a framework for Industrial Interoperability<br />

➞ Scalable from sensor to IT Enterprise & Cloud<br />

➞ Modeling of data and interfaces for devices and services<br />

➞ Integrated security by design with confi gurable access rights for data and services<br />

➞ Extendable transport protocols: Client/Server and Publisher/Subscriber<br />

➞ Independent from vendor, operating system, implementation language and vertical markets<br />

➞ International: OPC UA is IEC62541<br />

The OPC Foundation closely cooperates with organizations and associations<br />

from various branches. Information models are mapped onto OPC UA to make<br />

them interoperable with integrated security.<br />

Engineering<br />

Industries<br />

IT<br />

Process<br />

Automation<br />

Consortia<br />

IO Level<br />

Energy<br />

Factory Automation<br />

LNI4.0<br />


IEC61850<br />

IEC61970<br />

German and english version<br />

under opcfoundation.org/<br />

resources/brochures/<br />

Security brochure<br />

https://opcfoundation.org/<br />

security<br />

FLC brochure<br />

https://opcfoundation.org/<br />

fl c-pdf<br />

OPC Foundation Videos<br />

https://www.youtube.com/<br />

user/TheOPCfoundation/<br />

videos<br />

UPDATE<br />

OPC Unified Architecture<br />

Interoperability for Industrie 4.0 and the Internet of Things<br />

1<br />

Practical Security Recommendations<br />

for building OPC UA Applications<br />

1<br />

Version 3 // June 2018<br />

Initiative: Field Level Communications (FLC)<br />

OPC Foundation extends OPC UA<br />

including TSN down to field level<br />

1<br />

IoT<br />

4.0<br />

Industrie<br />

M2M<br />

Initiative for Field<br />

Level Communications<br />

Whitepaper<br />

Security Working Group


challenges of working through the web.<br />

Skills and experience are needed in addition<br />

to theoretical knowledge. If processes<br />

crucial to the company’s trade are<br />

made and controlled through the web,<br />

learning content of skills essential to the<br />

craft should also be implemented. This<br />

challenge has been answered by creating<br />

a maintenance module (15 credits) for<br />

electrical and automation studies, based<br />

on time and place independent network<br />

implementation.<br />

HAMK's pedagogical model has its<br />

basis on phenomenon learning. It has its<br />

basis in constructivist learning concept,<br />

that states that the student always creates<br />

or constructs the knowledge. That is to<br />

say, the knowledge does not transfer from<br />

teacher to student as it is. Multidisciplinary<br />

understanding of the phenomenon,<br />

inter-science, in which different fields<br />

combine, is central. The phenomenon is<br />

studied from the perspectives of different<br />

fields, but in such a way that the yield is<br />

shared. This requires team teaching.<br />

In addition to phenomenon learning<br />

and team teaching, modularity is important.<br />

In the pedagogical model of HAMK,<br />

instead of separate courses the lessons<br />

are compiled into 15 credit compilations,<br />

modules. For students this means about<br />

400 work hours per module.<br />

Goals are defined, methods not<br />

In HAMK's pedagogical model the<br />

learning goals are defined, but the team<br />

can make the whole plan and define the<br />

methods used to reach those goals. In<br />

addition to technical studies teachers it<br />

may include for example a communication<br />

teacher. The role of the communication<br />

teacher is usually integrated to implementation<br />

of written and spoken assignments,<br />

in other words directly to the<br />

development of students’ qualifications.<br />

He or she can also act as an important resource<br />

for content teachers as support in<br />

the development of study materials.<br />

Team teaching helps teachers to cope<br />

with constant changes, provided there<br />

is trust between the members. It also<br />

helps to try different pedagogical solutions.<br />

In the Electrical and Automation<br />

Engineering study programme, team<br />

teaching is a normal and systematic way<br />

of teaching. Development work of many<br />

years has created a culture, where teams<br />

can test different pedagogical methods.<br />

We call that an experimentation culture.<br />

It is a way to test a new way to work and<br />

develop study implementations.<br />



Process based on interaction<br />

So, an e-learning module for maintenance<br />

has been created, but work is just<br />

beginning and much more remains to be<br />

done. Its basis is both the changed maintenance<br />

operating model and the thought<br />

that students need to be able to learn<br />

and operate through the network. One<br />

of the main questions is: How prepared<br />

the students are for this type of studying?<br />

Experience shows that variations are<br />

wide. The experience shows that studying<br />

online requires great discipline in<br />

familiarization with the materials doing<br />

tasks on time chosen by the students, but<br />

within timeline set by the teachers. Some<br />

of the students wants to plan their studies<br />

themselves, but part of the students<br />

needs more guidance and deadlines.<br />

The changing methods challenges<br />

the teachers. It is always easier to use<br />

the methods he/she is used to use. The<br />

change means you need to go to the<br />

discomfort zone. Role of a teacher has<br />

changed from "knowledge transferrer" to<br />

a coach. Teaching through the network<br />

requires a new type of guiding skill, as<br />

students are not left stranded. Teaching<br />

materials and assignments have to be<br />

comprehensive. For example, doing assignments<br />

after watching online lectures<br />

or videos is not enough. It is possible to<br />

do group assignments or have conversations<br />

through the web. Usually students<br />

are already in working life, so they have<br />

the opportunity to reflect on what they<br />

have learned and to create and share<br />

knowledge.<br />

Sharing knowledge<br />

Studying by the network gives also a lot<br />

of flexibility to share and transfer the<br />

tacit knowledge. In the previous implementations<br />

part time students, who<br />

often work in the week time, had their<br />

classes Friday evenings and Saturdays.<br />

Full time student had their classes Monday<br />

to Friday at the daytime. This made<br />

the cooperation and knowledge sharing<br />

between students difficult. Now when<br />

changing the materials, discussion, tasks<br />

and group works to the network, it gives<br />

a possibility to mix the teams in different<br />

combinations. This maximize getting<br />

together different kind of ideas and experiences.<br />

At its best, studying becomes a process<br />

where the student learns, and the<br />

teaching improves. When making most<br />

of the network while studying and creating<br />

a developmental learning model for<br />

students, we believe it will also have a<br />

transfer effect to develop new maintenance<br />

models.<br />

46 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>

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Measuring the Value<br />

of Data in Maintenance<br />

It is easy for organizations to assume that more data equals more value in<br />

maintenance. However the value of data is case dependent and should be<br />

assessed to ensure that the benefits from the data exceed the additional costs.<br />

DR. SALLA<br />


University of<br />

Sunderland<br />


University of<br />

Sunderland<br />

MANY MAINTENANCE organizations<br />

have been tempted by the big data hype<br />

into collecting excessive amounts of<br />

data without specific business cases or<br />

data exploitation plans. When following<br />

the hype, it is easy to forget that the additional<br />

value created by the data must<br />

exceed the costs of resources used to collect<br />

and analyze it (Günther et al. 2017).<br />

Achieving significant value from big<br />

data tends to require extensive resource<br />

use, however, many companies do not<br />

have the necessary resources and competence<br />

to keep experimenting with big<br />

data technologies, especially within the<br />

manufacturing and maintenance industries<br />

where the technology maturity is<br />

currently quite low (Diez-Olivan et al.<br />

<strong>2019</strong>; Kans 2013). It has been acknowledged<br />

that the optimal amount of data in<br />

maintenance decision-making depends<br />

on the size, business, competences, and<br />

complexity of assets and processes within<br />

the organization (BS ISO 55001 2014).<br />

The value of maintenance data also<br />

depends on the situation: for instance, in<br />

corrective maintenance, data are mostly<br />

used to detect failures and to decide<br />

whether to repair the asset immediately<br />

or at a later date, whereas in conditionbased<br />

maintenance the data are considerably<br />

more complex and used to define<br />

measurement parameters, techniques<br />

and locations, maintenance action limits<br />

and maintenance actions.<br />

Value of data<br />

Value of data can be defined as having the<br />

right information, in the right amount,<br />

quality, format, time, place, and for an appropriate<br />

price (Bucherer & Uckelmann<br />

2011). Familiar mostly as a production<br />

philosophy, lean management emphasizes<br />

increasing value through eliminating<br />

waste (Gupta et al. 2016).<br />

Adapted to data management, lean<br />

could help maintenance organizations<br />

in assessing and maximizing the value of<br />

their data-based decision making (Marttonen-Arola<br />

& Baglee <strong>2019</strong>a). The waste<br />

types in data management include:<br />

• Unnecessary data (duplicate,<br />

non-relevant or too detailed data<br />

which can cause an information<br />

overload),<br />

• Unnecessary transfer of data (nonvalue<br />

adding transfer between people,<br />

systems or organizations),<br />

• Unnecessary processing of data<br />

(non-value adding processing, e.g.<br />

changing format, ensuring access,<br />

copying, unnecessary summarizing),<br />

• Underutilization of data management<br />

resources (for example unused<br />

IT systems or personnel),<br />

• Poor quality data and/or analyses<br />

(can lead to suboptimal decision<br />

making), and<br />

• Waiting for data or missing data<br />

(waiting or looking for data items)<br />

(Marttonen-Arola & Baglee<br />

<strong>2019</strong>b).<br />

To assess the value of maintenance<br />

data, quantifying the changes in the<br />

aforementioned wastes is beneficial. Figure<br />

1 shows how the value of additional<br />

maintenance data can be modelled based<br />

on various types of decreasing waste in<br />

the data management process. A number<br />

of the waste types can be quantified in<br />

terms of time, which makes evaluating<br />

the overall value quicker. The quality<br />

of data and analyses can be taken into<br />

48 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>


How to measure<br />

Time saving<br />

×<br />

Cost of time<br />

Time saving<br />

×<br />

Cost of time<br />

Time saving<br />

×<br />

Cost of time<br />

Resource<br />

utilisation rate<br />

×<br />

Cost of resources<br />

Costs of maintenance<br />

work<br />

+<br />

Value of lost<br />

production<br />

Probability of<br />

incorrect data<br />

+<br />

Probability of incorrect<br />

analyses<br />

Decreasing waste<br />

Decrease of unnecessary<br />

data<br />

+<br />

Decrease of unnecessary<br />

transfer<br />

of data<br />

+<br />

Decrease of unnecessary<br />

processing<br />

of data<br />

+<br />

Decrease of underutilised<br />

data<br />

management<br />

resources<br />

Decrease of<br />

waiting for required<br />

data<br />

×<br />

Uncertainty from<br />

poor quality data<br />

and/or analyses<br />




Value of maintenance<br />

data<br />

Assessing<br />

the value of<br />

maintenance data.<br />

account by multiplying the decrease of<br />

waiting for data by an uncertainty factor.<br />

This reflects that the benefits of exploiting<br />

data in decision-making may be lost<br />

if the data are unreliable.<br />

Applications in maintenance<br />

decision-making<br />

To demonstrate applying the abovepresented<br />

approach in maintenance<br />

decision-making, an industrial example<br />

from an automotive part manufacturing<br />

company is presented. The company<br />

has a manual data collection process<br />

and conducts mostly corrective maintenance<br />

on their production lines. The<br />

data which are currently collected are<br />

production-led and either not used to<br />

support maintenance management<br />

decisions or the data is used with little<br />

effect. For example, historic and useful<br />

3/<strong>2019</strong> maintworld 49


data on the root causes of failures are not<br />

recorded. The maintenance manager of<br />

the company is considering expanding<br />

the data collection and implementing a<br />

Computerized Maintenance Management<br />

System (CMMS). They would first<br />

pilot the system on three of their 15 production<br />

lines.<br />

The financial value of the investment<br />

(including the CMMS as well as additional<br />

data gathering and analyses) was<br />

assessed (see Figure 2). The time used<br />

in gathering, processing and analyzing<br />

the data would increase significantly<br />

if the company invested in more data.<br />

The costs of the CMMS software are<br />

taken into account as underutilized data<br />

management resources, because at first<br />

the software would only be used for the<br />

data of the three specific pilot production<br />

lines. Regarding the benefits of the<br />

investment, adopting the CMMS would<br />

decrease the amount of unnecessary data<br />

transfer. Currently the maintenance<br />

staff are required to insert the data manually<br />

into electronic spreadsheets every<br />

day. However, the investment appraisal<br />

concluded that with corrective maintenance,<br />

the company would not benefit<br />

from the additional data and the CMMS<br />

in terms of actual maintenance costs or<br />

the value of lost production. Thus the<br />

benefits of the investment would not be<br />

able to cover the additional costs.<br />

The company has also expressed their<br />

interest towards increasing the role of<br />

predetermined maintenance in their<br />

production. Another investment appraisal<br />

was conducted to see if a change<br />

in the maintenance approach would affect<br />

the profitability of the investment.<br />

In this case the additional data collected<br />

to the CMMS could be exploited to design<br />

predetermined maintenance schedules<br />

and prevent asset breakdowns.<br />

Figure 3 shows the value of the investment<br />

if the data was successfully used to<br />

achieve moderate breakdown prevention<br />

rates at the three pilot production<br />

lines. The reliability of the data and the<br />

analyses has been assumed to improve<br />

slightly due to severe inaccuracies in<br />

the current manual system (including<br />

poor legibility of the forms, inconsistent<br />

terminology and clearly incorrect data).<br />

It is clear that with predetermined maintenance,<br />

the significant decrease of lost<br />

production would justify the investment.<br />

This example showed that it is crucial<br />

for companies to assess the value<br />

of maintenance data before investing<br />

in additional data and IT systems. Data<br />

only have value when exploited, and the<br />

additional costs of gathering, storing and<br />

analyzing the data must be exceeded by<br />

the additional benefits in maintenance.<br />

Although the value of data is challenging<br />

to measure, even rough quantitative<br />

assessments would help the decision<br />

makers.<br />

This article is part of LeaD4Value<br />

research project. More information:<br />

https://lead4value.wordpress.com/.<br />

The value of<br />

the investment<br />

with corrective<br />

maintenance<br />

(the current<br />

maintenance<br />

approach).<br />

(Waiting for<br />

data × Poor<br />

quality data<br />

and analyses) 73934<br />

Annual value<br />

in total<br />

55383<br />

The value of the investment with<br />

predetermined maintenance (a<br />

potential maintenance approach).<br />

Unnecessary<br />

transfer of<br />

data<br />

0<br />

Unnecessary<br />

transfer of<br />

data<br />

1862<br />

Unnecessary<br />

data<br />

-10413<br />

-10000<br />

Unnecessary<br />

processing of data<br />

Underutilised<br />

data management<br />

resources<br />

0<br />

1862<br />

(Waiting for<br />

data × Poor<br />

quality data<br />

and analyses)<br />

-10413<br />

Unnecessary<br />

processing of<br />

data<br />

-10000<br />

Underutilised<br />

data<br />

management<br />

resources<br />

Annual<br />

value in<br />

total<br />

-18551<br />


This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020<br />

research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie<br />

grant agreement No 751622.<br />


BS ISO 55001 (2014) Asset Management. Management systems – Requirements.<br />

BSI Standards Ltd., ISBN 978-0-580-75128-8.<br />

Bucherer, E., Uckelmann, D. (2011) Business models for the Internet of<br />

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50 maintworld 3/<strong>2019</strong>





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