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Art Moves Africa – Retracing Roots and Tracing New Routes: Mobility and Touring in North Africa

A study by Lara Bourdin for Art Moves Africa, October 2019

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<strong>Retrac<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>Roots</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Trac<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>New</strong> <strong>Routes</strong>:<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Tour<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong><br />

—<br />

A study by Lara Bourd<strong>in</strong><br />

for <strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

October 2019<br />


<strong>Retrac<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>Roots</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Trac<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>New</strong> <strong>Routes</strong>:<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Tour<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong><br />

—<br />

A study by Lara Bourd<strong>in</strong><br />

for <strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

October 2019<br />


4<br />

Acknowledgments <strong>and</strong> Impr<strong>in</strong>t<br />

This study is by <strong>and</strong> large the fruit of five months of exchanges <strong>and</strong><br />

conversations with n<strong>in</strong>ety artists <strong>and</strong> cultural actors spread across <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> as well as neighbour<strong>in</strong>g regions. The researcher would first <strong>and</strong><br />

foremost like to thank the respondents who generously contributed their<br />

time, knowledge, <strong>and</strong> above all their <strong>in</strong>sights <strong>and</strong> their ideas. It was an<br />

honour to learn from them about the complex issue that is (artistic <strong>and</strong><br />

cultural) mobility <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> today.<br />

The researcher extends her warm thanks to Khadija El Bennaoui, Director<br />

of AMA, for her guidance <strong>and</strong> presence throughout the research <strong>and</strong><br />

writ<strong>in</strong>g processes. Particular thanks go to Maria Daïf, for the orientation<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>spiration <strong>in</strong> Casablanca, <strong>and</strong> her careful edits to important sections<br />

of the draft. AMA would also like to thank the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Foreign<br />

Affairs of Norway for generously support<strong>in</strong>g this research.<br />

This research was carried out for <strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> (AMA) aisbl. The views<br />

taken <strong>and</strong> analyses presented are those of the author <strong>and</strong> do not necessarily<br />

represent the views of AMA. The f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs of the study are based on<br />

the mapp<strong>in</strong>g carried out between December 2018 <strong>and</strong> April 2019.<br />

Released <strong>and</strong> produced by <strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> (AMA) aisbl<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g study <strong>and</strong> report: Lara Bourd<strong>in</strong><br />

Design: Eps51, Berl<strong>in</strong> — www.eps51.com<br />

Head of the publication: Khadija El Bennaoui<br />

© <strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, 2019<br />

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-<br />

NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


5<br />

Table of Contents<br />

1<br />

1.1<br />

1.2<br />

1.3<br />

1.4<br />

2<br />

2.1<br />

2.2<br />

3<br />

3.1<br />

3.2<br />

4<br />

4.1<br />

4.2<br />

4.3<br />

4.4<br />

4.5<br />

4.6<br />

4.7<br />

5<br />

6<br />

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS<br />

FOREWORD<br />

KEY MESSAGES<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Background of AMA’s research program<br />

Purpose of the research<br />

Socio-historical context<br />

Overview of mobility <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

METHODOLOGY<br />

Key terms<br />

Limitations<br />

SUMMARY OF OUTCOMES<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g of opportunities<br />

Impediments<br />

COUNTRY-SPECIFIC INFORMATION<br />

Algeria<br />

Egypt<br />

Libya<br />

Mauritania<br />

Morocco<br />

Tunisia<br />

Western Sahara<br />

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS<br />

MAPS & GRAPHS<br />

page 4<br />

page 6<br />

page 7<br />

page 9<br />

page 10<br />

page 12<br />

page 13<br />

page 16<br />

page 19<br />

page 20<br />

page 22<br />

page 25<br />

page 25<br />

page 34<br />

page 45<br />

page 46<br />

page 55<br />

page 62<br />

page 69<br />

page 75<br />

page 83<br />

page 90<br />

page 95<br />

page 103<br />

APPENDICES<br />

Appendix A : Acronyms<br />

Appendix B: Respondents<br />

Appendix C: Bibliography<br />

page 121<br />

page 123<br />

page 127


6<br />

Foreword<br />

FORE —<br />

WORD<br />

In a world where freedom<br />

is better guaranteed<br />

for goods <strong>and</strong><br />

digital products than for human be<strong>in</strong>gs, more <strong>and</strong> more<br />

people are be<strong>in</strong>g condemned to watch as the space of<br />

their fundamental rights <strong>and</strong> freedoms shr<strong>in</strong>ks. Many<br />

of them have been forced to flee wars, climate change<br />

or oppressive regimes. It is often their freedom of movement<br />

that is most threatened, as travel restrictions<br />

multiply <strong>in</strong> the face of ris<strong>in</strong>g anti-migration sentiments.<br />

Cultural diversity has never been <strong>in</strong> as much danger as<br />

it is <strong>in</strong> today’s polarized world.<br />

Strategically positioned at the crossroads of Europe,<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> Asia, <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> is one of the regions that<br />

is most significantly affected by ongo<strong>in</strong>g tensions <strong>in</strong> the<br />

geopolitical arena. The first spark of the Arab upris<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2010 <strong>in</strong> Tunisia is still cours<strong>in</strong>g through the whole<br />

region. It has brought hope, with high-spirited <strong>and</strong><br />

creative civic <strong>in</strong>itiatives led ma<strong>in</strong>ly by young people. Yet<br />

restrictions on the freedom of movement <strong>and</strong> speech<br />

of its people have also reached their highest peaks <strong>in</strong><br />

the last decade.<br />

This mapp<strong>in</strong>g study is a contribution by AMA to shed<br />

light on the actors <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>itiatives that are striv<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

revive historical connections <strong>and</strong> build new bridges<br />

between <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> the rest of the cont<strong>in</strong>ent, as<br />

a form of resistance but also as a means of unlearn<strong>in</strong>g<br />

colonial modes of relat<strong>in</strong>g with the regions south of the<br />

Sahara <strong>and</strong> north of the Mediterranean. This study is<br />

the 4th volume of AMA’s mapp<strong>in</strong>g series, which aims<br />

to address the obstacles to artistic mobility with<strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> by provid<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formation on the <strong>in</strong>frastructures,<br />

the <strong>in</strong>stitutional <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g frameworks as well as<br />

the challenges <strong>and</strong> opportunities l<strong>in</strong>ked with mobility<br />

on the cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

We hope this study will help <strong>in</strong>form both practitioners<br />

<strong>and</strong> policy makers on the ways to promote <strong>and</strong> support<br />

artistic mobility with<strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Khadija El Bennaoui<br />

AMA Director


7<br />

Key Messages<br />

KEY<br />

MES —<br />

SAGES<br />

1.<br />

The mobility of artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators is a right, not a privilege.<br />

2.<br />

Desire for mobility is very strong amongst artists <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

practitioners, <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong>-South, East-West <strong>and</strong> South-South directions.<br />

a) <strong>North</strong>-South mobility rema<strong>in</strong>s important, namely for tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> opportunities to connect with a greater diversity of<br />

<strong>in</strong>terlocutors.<br />

b) East-West <strong>and</strong> South-South mobility are important axes<br />

to develop <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>terest of explor<strong>in</strong>g shared histories,<br />

nurtur<strong>in</strong>g creative synergies <strong>and</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g solidarity.<br />

3.<br />

There is an urgent need to work at the level of the imag<strong>in</strong>ation, desire<br />

<strong>and</strong> dream<strong>in</strong>g <strong>–</strong> to nurture exist<strong>in</strong>g desire for South-South exchange<br />

<strong>and</strong> to create it where it does not yet exist.<br />

a) Promote network<strong>in</strong>g amongst <strong>Africa</strong>n cultural actors: meet<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

go-<strong>and</strong>-see tours, residencies, etc.<br />

b) Promote <strong>in</strong>formation-shar<strong>in</strong>g: onl<strong>in</strong>e platforms, <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

hubs, key people <strong>and</strong> ambassadors.<br />

4.<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> can only improve if political <strong>and</strong> adm<strong>in</strong>istrative barriers are<br />

addressed <strong>and</strong> lifted.<br />

a) There is an urgent need for mobilization amongst cultural actors<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, Europe <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternationally to document <strong>and</strong><br />

denounce <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly restrictive visa policies, especially from<br />

the Schengen space.<br />

b) Advocate for greater underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of the stakes <strong>and</strong> importance<br />

of artistic mobility.<br />

5.<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> is not simply about quantitative factors but about the quality<br />

of the experience at the creative <strong>and</strong> human levels.<br />

a) The human <strong>and</strong> creative dimensions of the mobility experience<br />

must be central <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>itiatives geared at promot<strong>in</strong>g arts mobility.


8<br />

Introduction<br />

1<br />

—<br />

Fact :<br />

AMA didn’t<br />

provide grants <strong>in</strong> 2013, 2014<br />

or 2017 due to limited funds.<br />

The statistics <strong>in</strong>cluded are based<br />

on all other years between<br />

2005 <strong>and</strong> 2018.<br />


9<br />

Introduction<br />

IN —<br />

TRO —<br />

DUC —<br />

TION<br />

<strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> (AMA) is an <strong>in</strong>ternational notfor-profit<br />

organisation that aims to facilitate cultural<br />

<strong>and</strong> artistic exchanges with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ent. AMA offers travel grants to artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural practitioners liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> to travel with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>Africa</strong>n cont<strong>in</strong>ent <strong>in</strong><br />

order to engage <strong>in</strong> the exchange of <strong>in</strong>formation,<br />

the enhancement of skills, the development of <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

networks <strong>and</strong> the pursuit of cooperation.<br />

AMA was first launched as a program<br />

by the Young Arab Theatre Fund (YATF) <strong>and</strong> a<br />

group of <strong>Africa</strong>n organizations. It was designed<br />

to facilitate <strong>and</strong> encourage the mobility of artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural operators with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>Africa</strong>n cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

In 2001, YATF participated <strong>in</strong> meet<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong><br />

Egypt, Kenya <strong>and</strong> Zimbabwe, together with different<br />

organizations <strong>and</strong> cultural activists from<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> the Arab world. The meet<strong>in</strong>gs were<br />

aimed at l<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g organizations <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividuals,<br />

<strong>and</strong> creat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formal cont<strong>in</strong>ent-wide networks.<br />

The participants agreed that one of the major<br />

obstacles for artists <strong>and</strong> cultural professionals<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> was the persistent lack of funds specifically<br />

allocated to support travel. AMA was<br />

launched <strong>in</strong> July 2005.<br />

Over the last 14 years, AMA has allocated<br />

809 grants to artists <strong>and</strong> art practitioners<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>. A wide range of<br />

projects has thus been implemented to develop<br />

the <strong>Africa</strong>n creative sector. AMA has produced<br />

regular evaluations <strong>and</strong> collected statistics of<br />

applications received <strong>and</strong> of grants allocated to<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n cultural practitioners. Moreover, it has<br />

commissioned <strong>and</strong> published three studies on<br />

mobility <strong>and</strong> tour<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> East (2011/2015) <strong>and</strong><br />

Central <strong>Africa</strong> (2015), as well as a guide to cultural<br />

mobility fund<strong>in</strong>g opportunities to/from <strong>Africa</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong> collaboration with On the Move (2015/2018).<br />

These <strong>in</strong>itiatives have helped AMA to develop<br />

its <strong>in</strong>terventions as a grant-mak<strong>in</strong>g organization<br />

<strong>and</strong> to identify needs with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>Africa</strong>n artistic<br />

mobility sector.


10<br />

Introduction<br />

1.1<br />

Background<br />

of AMA’s<br />

research<br />

program<br />

AMA launched its research program<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2011, <strong>in</strong> recognition of the<br />

complexity of mobility <strong>and</strong> tour<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> the hopes of fill<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the vast gaps <strong>in</strong> knowledge<br />

<strong>and</strong> data perta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g to the topic. It has produced three<br />

studies to date: two focus on East <strong>Africa</strong> (perform<strong>in</strong>g<br />

arts <strong>and</strong> visual arts) <strong>and</strong> one focuses on Central <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Through these studies, it has contributed to the<br />

development of knowledge, <strong>in</strong>itiatives <strong>and</strong> policies that<br />

strengthen mobility on the cont<strong>in</strong>ent. Indeed, AMA’s<br />

statistics show a substantial impact on mobility <strong>in</strong> the<br />

East <strong>Africa</strong>n <strong>and</strong> Central <strong>Africa</strong>n arts sectors s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

the publication of the studies.<br />

In East <strong>Africa</strong>, mobility appears to have <strong>in</strong>creased,<br />

with a significant jump <strong>in</strong> the number of<br />

applications to / from East <strong>Africa</strong> per session (see<br />

next page). Events such as Addis Foto Fest <strong>in</strong> Addis<br />

Ababa <strong>and</strong> Bayimba <strong>Art</strong>s Festival have become major<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational platforms, draw<strong>in</strong>g artists from across<br />

the region, the cont<strong>in</strong>ent <strong>and</strong> the world. AMA has also<br />

received significant numbers of applications for events<br />

such as the Karibu Music Festival <strong>in</strong> Dar Es Salaam; the<br />

Bagamoyo Festival; Tuz<strong>in</strong>ne Festival <strong>in</strong> Kampala; as well<br />

as for projects <strong>in</strong> Kigali <strong>and</strong> Lilongwe. F<strong>in</strong>ally, a new,<br />

regional mobility fund has emerged: the British Council’s<br />

East <strong>Africa</strong> Travel Grant.


11<br />

Introduction<br />

Grant applications received before <strong>and</strong> after<br />

the East <strong>Africa</strong> studies (2011 <strong>and</strong> 2012)<br />

FROM East <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 108 total applications until Session 20 <strong>in</strong> 2011<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 5.4 applications /<br />

session<br />

· 166 total applications until Session 23 <strong>in</strong> 2012<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 7 applications /<br />

session<br />

· 121 total applications <strong>in</strong> 2015 <strong>and</strong> 2018,<br />

with an average of 17 applications / session<br />

TO East <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 212 total applications until Session 20 <strong>in</strong> 2011<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 10.6 applications<br />

/ session<br />

· 222 total applications until Session 23 <strong>in</strong> 2012<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 9.6 applications /<br />

session<br />

· 146 total applications <strong>in</strong> 2015 <strong>and</strong> 2018, with<br />

an average of 21 applications / session<br />

Grants awarded before <strong>and</strong> after the East<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> studies (2011 <strong>and</strong> 2012)<br />

FROM East <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 78 total selected until Session 20 <strong>in</strong> 2011 (<strong>in</strong>clusive),<br />

with an average of 3.9 selected / session<br />

· 85 total selected until Session 23 <strong>in</strong> 2012 (<strong>in</strong>clusive),<br />

with an average of 3.7 selected / session<br />

· 57 total selected <strong>in</strong> 2015 <strong>and</strong> 2018, with an<br />

average of 8.1 selected / session<br />

TO East <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 93 total selected until Session 20 <strong>in</strong> 2011 (<strong>in</strong>clusive),<br />

with an average of 4.7 selected / session<br />

· 98 total selected until Session 23 <strong>in</strong> 2012 (<strong>in</strong>clusive),<br />

with an average of 4.3 selected / session<br />

· 40 total selected <strong>in</strong> 2015 <strong>and</strong> 2018, with an<br />

average of 5.7 selected / session<br />

<strong>and</strong> to what extent the <strong>in</strong>frastructure issues identified<br />

<strong>in</strong> the 2015 study have been addressed.<br />

Developments of note <strong>in</strong>clude the emergence of<br />

events such as the <strong>Africa</strong>n Cup of Slam Poetry<br />

<strong>in</strong> N’Djamena, Chad, which was a major driver<br />

for mobility <strong>in</strong> Central <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>in</strong> 2018.<br />

Grant applications received before <strong>and</strong> after<br />

the Central <strong>Africa</strong> study (2015)<br />

FROM Central <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 431 total applications until Session 28 <strong>in</strong> 2015<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 15.4 applications<br />

/ session<br />

· 58 total applications <strong>in</strong> 2018, with an average<br />

of 29 applications/session<br />

TO Central <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 375 total applications until Session 28 <strong>in</strong> 2015<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 13.4 applications<br />

/ session<br />

· 67 total applications <strong>in</strong> 2018, with an average<br />

of 33.5 applications / session<br />

Grants awarded before <strong>and</strong> after the Central<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> study (2015)<br />

FROM Central <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 152 total selected until Session 28 <strong>in</strong> 2015<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 5.4 selected / session<br />

· 2 total selected <strong>in</strong> 2018, with an average of<br />

1 selected / session<br />

TO Central <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

· 130 total applications until Session 28 <strong>in</strong> 2015<br />

(<strong>in</strong>clusive), with an average of 4.6 selected /<br />

session<br />

· 5 total applications <strong>in</strong> 2018, with an average<br />

of 2.5 selected / session<br />

In Central <strong>Africa</strong>, impact is more difficult to<br />

measure given that AMA’s grants program was<br />

suspended between 2016 <strong>and</strong> mid-2018. Further<br />

study would be necessary to determ<strong>in</strong>e whether


12<br />

Introduction<br />

1.2<br />

Purpose of<br />

the research<br />

This research was commissioned by AMA<br />

<strong>in</strong> August 2018. Its purpose is to shed light<br />

on the situation of artistic <strong>and</strong> cultural mobility<br />

<strong>in</strong> the <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n region <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> relation with the<br />

other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions. It namely aims to illum<strong>in</strong>ate the<br />

factors underp<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g the relative weakness of mobility<br />

to / from / with<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Indeed, s<strong>in</strong>ce AMA’s launch <strong>in</strong> 2005, <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> has<br />

consistently been the region that generates the smallest<br />

number of mobility grant applications, on all three<br />

fronts: that is, <strong>in</strong> terms of outgo<strong>in</strong>g mobility, <strong>in</strong>com<strong>in</strong>g<br />

mobility, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tra-regional mobility:<br />

· In terms of outgo<strong>in</strong>g mobility, it has generated a total<br />

of 169 projects, account<strong>in</strong>g for an average 8% of total<br />

mobility projects s<strong>in</strong>ce 2005, beh<strong>in</strong>d East <strong>Africa</strong> at<br />

14%.<br />

· In terms of <strong>in</strong>com<strong>in</strong>g mobility, it has attracted a total<br />

of 179 projects, account<strong>in</strong>g for an average 9% of<br />

total mobility projects s<strong>in</strong>ce 2005, beh<strong>in</strong>d East <strong>and</strong><br />

Southern <strong>Africa</strong> (tied at 18%).<br />

· In terms of <strong>in</strong>tra-regional mobility, it has generated<br />

a total of 28 projects, account<strong>in</strong>g for an average of<br />

1% of total mobility projects s<strong>in</strong>ce 2005.<br />

—<br />

See section 1.4,<br />

“Overview of<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>” below<br />

for detailed<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation on<br />

mobility<br />

trends to/from<br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

This report is divided <strong>in</strong>to the follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

sections: 1 <strong>–</strong> Introduction; 2 <strong>–</strong> Methodology;<br />

3 <strong>–</strong> Summary of opportunities <strong>and</strong> impediments<br />

to mobility to/from <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>;<br />

4 <strong>–</strong> Country-specific <strong>in</strong>formation; 5 <strong>–</strong> Conclusion<br />

<strong>and</strong> Recommendations. It also <strong>in</strong>cludes<br />

three Appendices: A <strong>–</strong> a mapp<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

arts spaces, venues <strong>and</strong> events <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g graphs <strong>and</strong> contact <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

; B <strong>–</strong> a list of the study’s respondents;<br />

<strong>and</strong> C <strong>–</strong> a bibliography.<br />


13<br />

Introduction<br />

—<br />

1. 3.1 NORTH AFRICA<br />

AS A<br />

CULTURAL SPACE<br />

—<br />

This report addresses mobility <strong>in</strong> a<br />

region broadly designated as “<strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>,” all the while recogniz<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

<strong>in</strong>stability of the term <strong>and</strong> the complexity<br />

of the realities it purports to<br />

encapsulate. Indeed, “<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>” as<br />

a geopolitical entity is largely the product<br />

of divisions <strong>in</strong>stituted by <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

organizations along boundaries<br />

established by colonial powers. These divisions<br />

are upheld to this day by organizations such as<br />

the <strong>Africa</strong>n Union <strong>and</strong> the United Nations, albeit<br />

with vary<strong>in</strong>g boundaries. They are also upheld <strong>in</strong><br />

everyday conversation, conceptions of identity,<br />

cultural products <strong>and</strong> events.<br />

1. 3<br />

Socio-political<br />

<strong>and</strong> historical<br />

context<br />

As a cultural <strong>and</strong> l<strong>in</strong>guistic space, <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

is def<strong>in</strong>ed by a number of factors. First, the<br />

heritage of the Amazighen (or Berbers), who are<br />

the first <strong>in</strong>habitants of present-day Morocco,<br />

Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania, northern Mali<br />

<strong>and</strong> Niger as well as western Egypt. The region<br />

is also bound by the sweep of Arabization <strong>and</strong><br />

Islamization, which took place between roughly<br />

600 <strong>and</strong> 1000 A.D. F<strong>in</strong>ally, the present-day countries<br />

of <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> share a common history of<br />

Ottoman conquest (except Morocco, Mauritania<br />

<strong>and</strong> Western Sahara) <strong>and</strong> 19 th - <strong>and</strong> 20th-century<br />

European colonialism, with Morocco, Tunisia,<br />

Algeria <strong>and</strong> Mauritania hav<strong>in</strong>g been under French<br />

rule; Libya under Italian rule; <strong>and</strong> Egypt be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

occupied as a British protectorate from 1882<br />

to 1952.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Every time I want to get fund<strong>in</strong>g for a project,<br />

I need to declare if I’m <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n or<br />

Southern <strong>Africa</strong>n; Christian or Muslim;<br />

Anglo or Franco. We’re be<strong>in</strong>g boxed <strong>in</strong>to<br />

spaces where we have to f<strong>in</strong>d ourselves with<strong>in</strong><br />

a s<strong>in</strong>gle identity. To successfully fill out that<br />

form, you have to do away with the multilayered-ness<br />

<strong>and</strong> complexity of that identity. Who<br />

says I have to choose? Why can’t I be both? »<br />

Jihan El-Tahri<br />

Filmmaker, Cairo / Berl<strong>in</strong>.<br />

Quote from Keynote speech<br />

at 1:54 contemporary art fair <strong>in</strong> Marrakech, 2017.<br />


14<br />

Introduction<br />

Arab identity was re<strong>in</strong>forced at the time of decolonization,<br />

with pan-Arabism becom<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

“ideological l<strong>in</strong>gua franca” across the region<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Middle East (El Amrani, 2011). Part<br />

<strong>and</strong> parcel of this process was the gloss<strong>in</strong>g<br />

over <strong>and</strong> erasure of the multiplicity of cultural,<br />

l<strong>in</strong>guistic <strong>and</strong> ethnic identities with<strong>in</strong> the<br />

various nation states, with marg<strong>in</strong>alization<br />

of Amazigh heritage, language <strong>and</strong> culture as well<br />

as those of Black <strong>in</strong>dividuals <strong>and</strong> communities.<br />

Amazigh resistance movements have obta<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

some recognition at state level, with Algeria<br />

redef<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g itself as an “Arab, Berber, Muslim”<br />

nation <strong>and</strong> Morocco recogniz<strong>in</strong>g Amazigh as an<br />

official language <strong>in</strong> 2011. <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>ns’ “<strong>Africa</strong>n”<br />

identity has been more complex to unearth <strong>and</strong><br />

foreground.<br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>’s “separateness” is often justified<br />

by the presence of the Sahara desert, largely<br />

on the basis of conceptions of the desert as an<br />

“empty space” by European geographers <strong>and</strong><br />

explorers <strong>and</strong> thus as an <strong>in</strong>visible border separat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the cont<strong>in</strong>ent. <strong>Art</strong>ists <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tellectuals have<br />

contested this idea, not<strong>in</strong>g its correlation with<br />

colonial <strong>and</strong> contemporary geopolitical agendas<br />

<strong>and</strong> rem<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g us that the Sahara has been<br />

a space of advanced political <strong>and</strong> social<br />

organization, hospitality, trade <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

exchange for centuries. Indeed, trade routes<br />

have traversed its expanse, l<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g cities<br />

<strong>and</strong> civilizations to the <strong>North</strong> <strong>and</strong> South as<br />

well as those with<strong>in</strong> it.<br />

There is also a push to revive <strong>and</strong> nurture<br />

the pan-<strong>Africa</strong>nist energies, <strong>in</strong>tellectual<br />

productions <strong>and</strong> artistic connections that<br />

were developed <strong>in</strong> the 1950s <strong>and</strong> 60s. Notably,<br />

Algeria hosted the first Pan-<strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

festival of 1969. This thrust of pan-<strong>Africa</strong>nist<br />

unity collapsed due to a number of factors,<br />

both <strong>in</strong>ternal <strong>and</strong> external to the cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

Connections between <strong>North</strong> <strong>and</strong> South are<br />

now play<strong>in</strong>g out <strong>in</strong> the economic sphere,<br />

with Morocco mak<strong>in</strong>g important overtures<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« There is an assumption<br />

that the Maghreb is<br />

someth<strong>in</strong>g somewhere<br />

else than <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

even that Egypt is an<br />

archaeological isl<strong>and</strong> off<br />

the coast of American<br />

universities. »<br />

Koyo Kouoh<br />

Chief curator of Zeitz<br />

Museum of Contemporary<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n <strong>Art</strong>, Cape Town/<br />

former executive director<br />

of RAW Material Company<br />

Dakar<br />

Quote from Open<strong>in</strong>g Remarks<br />

at 1:54 art fair, 2017<br />

—<br />

to other <strong>Africa</strong>n nations <strong>in</strong> the areas of foreign<br />

<strong>in</strong>vestment <strong>and</strong> trade; Algeria has been follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

suit. How do art <strong>and</strong> cultural production<br />

participate or not <strong>in</strong> connect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>North</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

South today?<br />

—<br />

1. 3. 2 REGIONALIZATION<br />

AND FUNDING<br />

—<br />

Contemporary regionalization has created<br />

further boundaries with<strong>in</strong> <strong>and</strong> outside <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. On the largest scale, <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> is<br />

often grouped with the Middle East under<br />

the acronym MENA, or else is subsumed as<br />

a space with<strong>in</strong> the Arab World. These terms<br />

are used <strong>in</strong> politics, academia, bus<strong>in</strong>ess <strong>and</strong><br />

media, by <strong>in</strong>ternational organizations such<br />

as the World Bank <strong>and</strong> the United Nations,<br />

as well as by most <strong>in</strong>ternational development<br />

organizations. Egypt occupies a unique status<br />

with<strong>in</strong> this space, due to its position<strong>in</strong>g at the<br />

h<strong>in</strong>ge between the <strong>Africa</strong>n cont<strong>in</strong>ent <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Middle East.<br />

With<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, regionalization operates<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly at two levels: first, at the<br />

level of the Maghreb; <strong>and</strong> secondly, at<br />

the level of the (Euro-)Mediterranean<br />

space. The Maghreb connects Morocco,<br />

Algeria, Tunisia, Libya <strong>and</strong> Mauritania.<br />

The unify<strong>in</strong>g factor is ma<strong>in</strong>ly cultural, with<br />

the countries shar<strong>in</strong>g Amazigh heritage.<br />

Shared colonial histories <strong>and</strong> resultant<br />

l<strong>in</strong>guistic commonality also b<strong>in</strong>d Tunisia,<br />

Morocco <strong>and</strong> Algeria. The Maghreb’s<br />

geopolitical <strong>and</strong> economic identity was<br />

formalized with the 1989 formation of<br />

the Arab Maghreb Union. However, the<br />

union rema<strong>in</strong>s largely <strong>in</strong>active due to<br />

endur<strong>in</strong>g tensions between Morocco<br />

<strong>and</strong> Algeria over Western Sahara.<br />

The regionalization of the Euro-Mediterranean<br />

was formalized <strong>in</strong> 2008<br />

at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean.<br />

Its aim is to re<strong>in</strong>force the


15<br />

Introduction<br />

Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euromed) that<br />

began <strong>in</strong> 1995 as the Barcelona Process as a<br />

means of “turn<strong>in</strong>g the Mediterranean bas<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>to<br />

an area of dialogue, exchange <strong>and</strong> cooperation<br />

guarantee<strong>in</strong>g peace, stability <strong>and</strong> prosperity”<br />

(Barcelona declaration, 1995). At present, all <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries are <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the partnership,<br />

with the exception of Libya, which possesses<br />

Observer status.<br />

These levels of regionalization are critical for<br />

arts mobility to the extent that they have underp<strong>in</strong>ned<br />

the formation of cultural networks, fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

schemes <strong>and</strong> thus spaces of exchange. The<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>and</strong>scape <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> is characterized<br />

by the presence of numerous funds operat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

at the MENA level: the Arab Fund for<br />

<strong>Art</strong>s <strong>and</strong> Culture (AFAC), Al-Mawred<br />

al-Thafaqy <strong>and</strong> Mophradat are the<br />

three most prom<strong>in</strong>ent. At the Euromed<br />

level, there is a plethora of fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

schemes, among them the Roberto<br />

Cimetta Fund (RCF), the European<br />

Cultural Foundation (ECF) & MitOst’s<br />

T<strong>and</strong>emShaml, the ECF’s STEP Travel<br />

Grants, etc., all of which are ongo<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Other funds, such as SouthMedCV<br />

(2015 <strong>–</strong> 2018), are rolled out with<strong>in</strong> set<br />

timeframes. These funds have allowed for<br />

vital projects, partnerships <strong>and</strong> networks<br />

to emerge across the region.<br />

See Section 3.1.1 for more <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

on Fund<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

In this l<strong>and</strong>scape, <strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> is<br />

the first mobility fund that has worked<br />

to <strong>in</strong>tegrate <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>in</strong> the rest of<br />

the cont<strong>in</strong>ent. Nevertheless, <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ues to be the region that generates<br />

the fewest mobility grant applications.<br />

The question that drives this<br />

research is: why?<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Where did the term<br />

‘Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>’ come from<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce it never appears <strong>in</strong><br />

colonial literature?<br />

What exactly are the contours<br />

of this ‘region’ s<strong>in</strong>ce it<br />

is not demarcated on any map?<br />

Is it a geographic location or is<br />

it a political construct?<br />

How come Mauritania is<br />

considered Sub-Saharan yet<br />

Sudan is not?<br />

Most importantly, how did we,<br />

as <strong>Africa</strong>ns,<br />

start adher<strong>in</strong>g to the postcolonial<br />

remapp<strong>in</strong>g of our own<br />

spaces <strong>and</strong> identities? »<br />

Jihan El-Tahri<br />

Filmmaker,<br />

Cairo/Berl<strong>in</strong><br />

Quote from RAW Material Company<br />

public lecture,<br />

12 April, 2017.<br />


16<br />

Introduction<br />

1. 4<br />

Overview of<br />

mobility <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Based on AMA’s statistics, gathered<br />

over the period 2005 <strong>–</strong> 2018, Morocco,<br />

Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Egypt are the countries that have the strongest mobility<br />

trends. The chart below illustrates the volume of mobility to/from<br />

other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions for each <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n country:<br />

Outgo<strong>in</strong>g mobility<br />

100<br />

Incom<strong>in</strong>g mobility<br />

exchange with other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions <strong>in</strong> %<br />

90<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

Morocco<br />

Tunisia<br />

Egypt<br />

Algeria<br />

Mauritania<br />

Libya


17<br />

Introduction<br />

In order of volume of exchange with <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, the<br />

follow<strong>in</strong>g countries are most active:<br />

1.<br />

2.<br />

3.<br />

4.<br />

5.<br />

6.<br />

7.<br />

8.<br />

9.<br />

Senegal<br />

Cameroon <strong>and</strong> South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)<br />

Ethiopia<br />

Burk<strong>in</strong>a Faso<br />

Kenya <strong>and</strong> Tanzania<br />

Côte d’Ivoire<br />

Mali<br />

Nigeria<br />

Most exchanges happen with West <strong>Africa</strong>, with Senegal,<br />

Burk<strong>in</strong>a Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali <strong>and</strong> Nigeria be<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

most active countries. Egypt has relatively strong l<strong>in</strong>ks<br />

with Nigeria. The Dakar Biennale is repeatedly cited as<br />

a reference for visual artists across <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>; other<br />

events that are often noted <strong>in</strong>clude the Marché<br />

des <strong>Art</strong>s et du Spectacle (MASA <strong>–</strong> Market for<br />

Perform<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Art</strong>s) <strong>in</strong> Abidjan <strong>and</strong> the Bamako<br />

<strong>and</strong> Lagos biennales.<br />

Exchange is roughly the same with South, Central<br />

<strong>and</strong> East <strong>Africa</strong> (14 <strong>–</strong> 16%). Cameroon is by<br />

far the country <strong>in</strong> Central <strong>Africa</strong> that generates<br />

the most exchange, with strong ties to Morocco<br />

<strong>and</strong> Egypt <strong>in</strong> particular; it is followed by<br />

DRC. In East <strong>Africa</strong>, Ethiopia is the country that<br />

generates the most exchange, largely thanks to<br />

strong ties with Egypt; Kenya <strong>and</strong> Tanzania are<br />

the other two major hubs for mobility. In Southern<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, South <strong>Africa</strong> is by far the country<br />

that generates the most exchange, presumably<br />

due to its strong cultural sector <strong>and</strong> capacity to<br />

host <strong>in</strong>ternational events.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« I’m work<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>Africa</strong>n identity.<br />

Culturally, we have many po<strong>in</strong>ts<br />

<strong>in</strong> common. There are trends<br />

l<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g all <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n countries,<br />

whether they be <strong>in</strong> dance, music…<br />

there’s a history that l<strong>in</strong>ks us,<br />

sometimes a pa<strong>in</strong>ful one, because<br />

all the trade routes were between<br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>and</strong> South. There’s a large<br />

community of black <strong>Africa</strong>ns<br />

from South of the Sahara that has<br />

become <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n. We need to<br />

recognize this entity. […]<br />

I th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>Africa</strong> has a great future.<br />

It’s a future we have to build<br />

ourselves; no one outside should<br />

decide what we should be. »<br />

Bahri Ben Yahmed<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer,<br />

Danseurs Citoyens & Lang’art,<br />

Tunis*<br />

Quote translated from French<br />

by the author.<br />

Other translated quotes will be marked<br />

(*) throughout the document.<br />


18<br />

Methodology<br />

2<br />

—<br />

Fact:<br />

This study is based<br />

on <strong>in</strong>terviews<br />

with n<strong>in</strong>ety<br />

artists <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

operators.<br />


19<br />

Methodology<br />

METH<br />

ODOL<br />

—<br />

—<br />

The research for this study was conducted between<br />

December 2018 <strong>and</strong> April 2019. It is primarily based<br />

on <strong>in</strong>terviews that were conducted with n<strong>in</strong>ety<br />

artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators spread across <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, as well as neighbour<strong>in</strong>g regions.<br />

OGY<br />

The research was divided <strong>in</strong>to three overlapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

phases:<br />

I<br />

II<br />

III<br />

Identification of artists, cultural<br />

operators, spaces <strong>and</strong> stakeholders<br />

(December 2018 <strong>–</strong> February 2019)<br />

Interviews (December 2018 <strong>–</strong> March 2019)<br />

a) Field visit to Casablanca <strong>and</strong> Rabat,<br />

December 10 <strong>–</strong> 16, 2018<br />

b) Desk-based <strong>in</strong>terviews, Skype <strong>and</strong><br />

WhatsApp.<br />

Two respondents asked to<br />

respond <strong>in</strong> writ<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Report compilation (March <strong>–</strong> April 2019)<br />

Interviews were primarily conducted via Skype,<br />

with the exception of sixteen <strong>in</strong>terviews which<br />

were conducted <strong>in</strong>-person dur<strong>in</strong>g a field visit to<br />

Casablanca <strong>and</strong> Rabat <strong>in</strong> December 2018 <strong>and</strong> two<br />

which were conducted <strong>in</strong> writ<strong>in</strong>g. The methodology<br />

was semi-structured, follow<strong>in</strong>g a questionnaire<br />

prepared <strong>in</strong> advance by the AMA Secretariat. This<br />

method was chosen <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>terest of allow<strong>in</strong>g an<br />

organic conversation to develop <strong>and</strong> to guide the<br />

direction of the <strong>in</strong>terview.


20<br />

Methodology<br />

—<br />

NORTH AFRICA<br />

—<br />

—<br />

MAGHREB<br />

—<br />

—<br />

MENA<br />

—<br />

2.1<br />

Key<br />

Terms<br />

There is no s<strong>in</strong>gle commonly accepted<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ition of the term “<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>,”<br />

which encompasses mean<strong>in</strong>gs of a<br />

geographical, political <strong>and</strong> cultural nature. In geographic<br />

terms, it may refer to the area that lies between the<br />

Atlantic Ocean to the West; the Mediterranean Sea to the<br />

<strong>North</strong>; the Red Sea to the East; <strong>and</strong> the Sahara desert to<br />

the South. In geopolitical terms, it is employed by <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

organizations such as the <strong>Africa</strong>n Union (AU) <strong>and</strong><br />

the United Nations (NU) to designate different group<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

of countries. The nation-states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia,<br />

Libya <strong>and</strong> Egypt are <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> both group<strong>in</strong>gs; however,<br />

the AU <strong>in</strong>cludes Mauritania but not Sudan or South<br />

Sudan, while the UN <strong>in</strong>cludes Sudan <strong>and</strong> South Sudan<br />

but not Mauritania. The term “<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>” also overlaps<br />

with several others, namely the “Arab world” <strong>and</strong><br />

the “Maghreb” (see below). AMA acknowledges these<br />

caveats <strong>and</strong> debates. However, <strong>in</strong> this document, it uses<br />

the term “<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>” to designate a region consist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of the follow<strong>in</strong>g states: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania,<br />

Morocco, Tunisia <strong>and</strong> the disputed territory of Western<br />

Sahara.<br />

The Maghreb is the region encompass<strong>in</strong>g Algeria, Libya,<br />

Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Western Sahara. Mauritania,<br />

Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria <strong>and</strong> Libya established<br />

the Arab Maghreb Union <strong>in</strong> 1989 to promote cooperation<br />

<strong>and</strong> economic <strong>in</strong>tegration <strong>in</strong> a common market. However,<br />

the Union is stalled due to ongo<strong>in</strong>g conflict between<br />

Morocco <strong>and</strong> Algeria over the issue of Western Sahara.<br />

MENA is the commonly used acronym for “Middle East<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.” There is no stable def<strong>in</strong>ition of the term<br />

either. The follow<strong>in</strong>g countries are typically <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the<br />

MENA: Algeria, Bahra<strong>in</strong>, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel,<br />

Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Oman,<br />

Palest<strong>in</strong>e, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, the United<br />

Arab Emirates <strong>and</strong> Yemen. Other countries that may be<br />

<strong>in</strong>cluded are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Chad,<br />

Comoros, Cyprus, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia,<br />

Mali, Mauritania, Niger, <strong>North</strong>ern Cyprus, Sahrawi Arab<br />

Democratic Republic, Somalia, Sudan <strong>and</strong> Turkey.


21<br />

Methodology<br />

—<br />

MENASA<br />

—<br />

—<br />

ARAB WORLD<br />

—<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY<br />

—<br />

—<br />

TOURING<br />

—<br />

MENASA is the acronym for “Middle East, <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> South Asia.” It typically designates the MENA countries<br />

as well as a subset of countries <strong>in</strong> Asia, most prom<strong>in</strong>ently<br />

India <strong>and</strong> Pakistan. However, as with the other<br />

acronyms cited above, its boundaries are not set. It is<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly used <strong>in</strong> economic <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ancial circles but is also<br />

ga<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g currency <strong>in</strong> the contemporary art <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

sectors.<br />

Although it is sometimes used <strong>in</strong>terchangeably with the<br />

term MENA, the term “Arab world” typically refers to the<br />

22 states of the Arab league: Algeria, Bahra<strong>in</strong>, Comoros,<br />

Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,<br />

Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palest<strong>in</strong>e, Qatar, Saudi<br />

Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab<br />

Emirates <strong>and</strong> Yemen.<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> <strong>in</strong> the arts sector is for the purpose of this study<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ed as the temporary relocation of an artist to a region<br />

or a country other than that of permanent residence,<br />

for the purpose of presentation, performance, study,<br />

teach<strong>in</strong>g or rehearsal. The relationship between mobility<br />

<strong>and</strong> migration is frequently related to economic means of<br />

survival (less frequently to an improvement on a social or<br />

economic scale). Draw<strong>in</strong>g the l<strong>in</strong>e between artistic mobility<br />

<strong>and</strong> migration can be challeng<strong>in</strong>g as some artists will<br />

spend part of their career liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> another<br />

country (Wies<strong>and</strong>, 2008) <strong>and</strong> eventually become associated<br />

with the country of their choice.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to the new Oxford American Dictionary, a<br />

“tour” can refer to a journey made by performers or an<br />

athletic team, <strong>in</strong> which they perform or play <strong>in</strong> several<br />

different places. These places do not necessarily need<br />

to be located <strong>in</strong> several countries. A tour<strong>in</strong>g circuit is a<br />

more or less closely def<strong>in</strong>ed network of performance or<br />

exhibition places for the purpose of circulat<strong>in</strong>g artwork<br />

<strong>and</strong> performances. The organizers are generally the ones<br />

who determ<strong>in</strong>e how open or closed this network is <strong>and</strong><br />

what criteria are applied for membership <strong>and</strong> development.


22<br />

Methodology<br />

2.2<br />

Limitations<br />

1.<br />

The study is of course not exhaustive.<br />

It namely does not cover the<br />

complex problematics of travel to/<br />

from rural areas. It concentrates on<br />

capital cities, which are the locales most likely to<br />

be covered by AMA grants. Further study is necessary<br />

to offer a more comprehensive perspective<br />

on mobility to/from other large cities <strong>in</strong> the region<br />

as well as rural areas.<br />

2.<br />

The term “<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>” has an unstable mean<strong>in</strong>g<br />

(see Section 2.1) <strong>and</strong> as such the scope of the study<br />

does not capture all the realities that the term may<br />

refer to. For example, this study does not cover<br />

Sudan (covered <strong>in</strong> the 2012 <strong>and</strong> 2015 studies on<br />

East <strong>Africa</strong>).<br />

3.<br />

Research was conducted <strong>in</strong> French <strong>and</strong> English. As<br />

such, it is possible that certa<strong>in</strong> potential <strong>in</strong>terlocutors<br />

were not reached <strong>and</strong> that <strong>in</strong>formation was not<br />

identified or <strong>in</strong>cluded. One <strong>in</strong>terlocutor decl<strong>in</strong>ed to<br />

grant an <strong>in</strong>terview because it would not be conducted<br />

<strong>in</strong> Arabic.<br />

4.<br />

Interviews were not always completed <strong>in</strong> full due<br />

to time considerations. The questionnaire was<br />

long <strong>and</strong> conversations were very often rich <strong>and</strong><br />

wide-rang<strong>in</strong>g. Certa<strong>in</strong> questions were often excluded<br />

<strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>terest of captur<strong>in</strong>g the most essential<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation <strong>and</strong> respect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>terlocutors’ time.<br />

5.<br />

Research was desk-based rather than field-based.<br />

As such it was not possible to meet respondents<br />

simultaneously, nor to visit spaces, studios, venues,<br />

etc.


23<br />

Methodology<br />

Le radeau (The Raft), by Cyr<strong>in</strong>e Gannoun <strong>and</strong> Majdi Boumatar, tells the story<br />

of 8 cl<strong>and</strong>est<strong>in</strong>e migrants try<strong>in</strong>g to cross the Mediterranean to reach Italy.<br />

Photo courtesy of Cyr<strong>in</strong>e Gannoun/Théâtre El-Hamra.


24<br />

Sunmmary of Outcomes<br />

3<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

Sometimes, preconceptions, blockages of<br />

the imag<strong>in</strong>ation, <strong>and</strong> maybe even of desire,<br />

can get <strong>in</strong> the way of conceiv<strong>in</strong>g projects or<br />

travell<strong>in</strong>g South.<br />

Mariem Guellouz<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> researcher,<br />

Director of<br />

Les Journées chorégraphiques<br />

de Carthage*<br />


25<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

SUM —<br />

MARY<br />

OF<br />

OUT —<br />

COMES<br />

3.1.<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

A major objective of this study was to highlight<br />

the <strong>in</strong>frastructure <strong>and</strong> map the resources<br />

that are currently <strong>in</strong> place to facilitate the<br />

mobility of artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>. The major cross-country <strong>in</strong>frastructures<br />

facilitat<strong>in</strong>g mobility <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

(fund<strong>in</strong>g opportunities, transport l<strong>in</strong>ks <strong>and</strong> options, <strong>and</strong><br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g service providers) are described <strong>in</strong> the follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

sub-sections. Country-specific <strong>in</strong>formation regard<strong>in</strong>g<br />

venues, events, organizations <strong>and</strong> other artistic facilities<br />

is provided <strong>in</strong> Section 4 of the report.<br />

Overall, it can be said that <strong>in</strong>frastructures vary substantially<br />

from country to country, as a function of cultural<br />

policy, history <strong>and</strong> economic conditions. Most opportunities<br />

are concentrated <strong>in</strong> Morocco, Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Egypt,<br />

although this l<strong>and</strong>scape is chang<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> response to <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g<br />

repression <strong>in</strong> Egypt <strong>and</strong> the evolv<strong>in</strong>g sector<br />

<strong>in</strong> Tunisia. There are promis<strong>in</strong>g developments <strong>in</strong> Libya,<br />

Mauritania <strong>and</strong> even <strong>in</strong> Western Sahara, but these of


26<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

course rema<strong>in</strong> extremely limited <strong>in</strong> terms of capacity for<br />

facilitat<strong>in</strong>g mobility <strong>and</strong> are subject to extremely precarious<br />

political / economic conditions.<br />

A mapp<strong>in</strong>g of exist<strong>in</strong>g arts venues <strong>and</strong> events that may<br />

host mobility projects <strong>in</strong>volv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Africa</strong>n cultural actors is<br />

provided <strong>in</strong> Appendix A of the report.<br />

Other useful mapp<strong>in</strong>gs of exist<strong>in</strong>g service providers, spaces <strong>and</strong> venues<br />

can be found on the follow<strong>in</strong>g websites:<br />

1. The <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> Cultural <strong>Mobility</strong> Map, a research <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>fo-platform about residency <strong>and</strong> mobility <strong>in</strong>itiatives for<br />

artists, writers <strong>and</strong> researchers <strong>in</strong>terested <strong>in</strong> travell<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g projects from with<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

2. Independent <strong>Art</strong>s <strong>and</strong> Culture Spaces <strong>in</strong> the Arab<br />

World, a 2013 publication by the Young Arab Theatre Fund<br />

(now Mophradat)<br />

3. Morocco <strong>Art</strong>Map by Rac<strong>in</strong>es<br />

4. Carte Culturelle de l’Algérie by the Groupe de Travail sur<br />

la Politique Culturelle en Algérie<br />

5. Perform-arts.net by Reflection <strong>Art</strong>s, Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g & Development<br />

<strong>–</strong> a database of cultural organizations <strong>and</strong> spaces <strong>in</strong><br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria, Egypt<br />

6. Digi <strong>–</strong> MENA for digital artists <strong>in</strong> the MENA region. Coord<strong>in</strong>ated<br />

by Out of the Circle <strong>and</strong> supported by the Goethe<br />

Institut<br />

7. Alternative <strong>Art</strong> Guide, an onl<strong>in</strong>e database of non-profit,<br />

artist-run <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dependent spaces around the world<br />

8. DutchCulture / Transartists, an onl<strong>in</strong>e database of artists’<br />

residencies worldwide


27<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

3.1.1 FUNDING<br />

—<br />

Fund<strong>in</strong>g for mobility to <strong>and</strong> from <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> is provided at six<br />

ma<strong>in</strong> levels:<br />

—<br />

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONS<br />

—<br />

While public adm<strong>in</strong>istrations <strong>in</strong> most of the countries covered by<br />

this study have the capacity to fund mobility, provision of funds<br />

is generally characterized by opacity, clientelism, preference for<br />

traditional <strong>and</strong>/or folkloric forms, <strong>and</strong> poor adm<strong>in</strong>istration.<br />

Respondents <strong>in</strong> Tunisia <strong>and</strong> to a lesser extent Morocco were<br />

the most likely to obta<strong>in</strong> funds from their M<strong>in</strong>istries of Culture.<br />

The only formal program support<strong>in</strong>g mobility <strong>in</strong> the region is<br />

Tfanen <strong>–</strong> Tunisie Créative, created through a partnership between<br />

the EU <strong>and</strong> the Tunisian state (see Tunisia section for more detail).<br />

—<br />

CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS<br />

—<br />

Several civil society organizations do crucial <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>spir<strong>in</strong>g work<br />

to support mobility <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>. In addition to AMA, the most<br />

prom<strong>in</strong>ent organizations are:<br />

1.<br />

Culture Resource<br />

(Al Mawred Al-Thaqafy)<br />

Based <strong>in</strong> Beirut, Culture Resource (Al-Mawred Al-Thaqafy) is a<br />

regional, non-profit organization founded <strong>in</strong> 2003 that seeks to<br />

support artistic creativity <strong>in</strong> the Arab region <strong>and</strong> to encourage<br />

cultural exchange with<strong>in</strong> the region <strong>and</strong> beyond.<br />

Its ma<strong>in</strong> program for mobility support is Wijhat. It is open to artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural managers of all discipl<strong>in</strong>es. All departure countries<br />

<strong>and</strong> dest<strong>in</strong>ations are eligible, with the exception of Israel,<br />

although travel must be to or from an Arab country. Air travel<br />

as well as <strong>in</strong>ternal road / tra<strong>in</strong> connections are covered. Additionally,<br />

the fund covers visa costs, accommodation <strong>and</strong> partial<br />

support for liv<strong>in</strong>g expenses.


28<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

The program offers 25 to 30 grants per year <strong>in</strong> three rounds.<br />

Al Mawred Al-Thaqafy has also supported mobility via its<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g programs for cultural managers.<br />

2.<br />

Arab Fund for <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

<strong>and</strong> Culture (AFAC)<br />

Based <strong>in</strong> Beirut, the Arab Fund for <strong>Art</strong>s <strong>and</strong> Culture <strong>–</strong> AFAC<br />

was founded <strong>in</strong> 2007 through the <strong>in</strong>itiative of Arab cultural<br />

activists as an <strong>in</strong>dependent foundation to support <strong>in</strong>dividual<br />

artists, writers, researchers, <strong>in</strong>tellectuals, as well as organizations<br />

from the Arab region work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the field of arts <strong>and</strong><br />

culture.<br />

AFAC currently runs n<strong>in</strong>e open call grants programs <strong>and</strong><br />

one tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g program by nom<strong>in</strong>ation. Each grants program<br />

has one annual open call dur<strong>in</strong>g which applications are submitted<br />

onl<strong>in</strong>e. The grants are not mobility grants. However,<br />

travel is covered so long as it is part of the implementation<br />

of a project.<br />

In addition, AFAC has just launched the new <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Cultural Program (NACP), a three-year program (2019 <strong>–</strong> 2022)<br />

dedicated to five countries <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>: Morocco, Algeria,<br />

Tunisia, Libya <strong>and</strong> Egypt. It comprises two support schemes,<br />

a National Fund <strong>and</strong> a Regional Fund. The program is run<br />

through an open-call scheme <strong>and</strong> covers <strong>in</strong>stitutional <strong>and</strong><br />

programmatic support to active arts organizations based <strong>in</strong><br />

the five countries, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g cross-border collaborations.<br />

3.<br />

Mophradat<br />

Based <strong>in</strong> Belgium, Mophradat offers a grant<strong>in</strong>g program for<br />

artists to support <strong>in</strong>dividuals, collaborations, or collectives<br />

to develop their practice. Among other activities, the grants<br />

can be used to pursue threads of research, stage an event,<br />

make new work, publish, travel, take part <strong>in</strong> a residency or<br />

workshop, or present an exhibition or performance. Average<br />

amount is $5.000. Mophradat’s emphasis is on contemporary<br />

art. Activities or projects can take place anywhere <strong>in</strong> the<br />

world, but must be carried out by artists liv<strong>in</strong>g or work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

the Arab world <strong>and</strong>/or engaged with the Arab world.<br />

4.<br />

Roberto Cimetta Fund<br />

(RCF)<br />

Based <strong>in</strong> Paris, the Roberto Cimetta Fund is an <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

non-profit grant-mak<strong>in</strong>g organization support<strong>in</strong>g the mobility<br />

<strong>and</strong> creativity of artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators <strong>in</strong> Europe, the<br />

Arab world <strong>and</strong> beyond.


29<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

The RCF provides support for mobility through two programmes:<br />

a <strong>–</strong> the <strong>Mobility</strong> fund; <strong>and</strong> b <strong>–</strong> Tamteen, or the support<br />

fund. The <strong>Mobility</strong> Fund is divided <strong>in</strong>to two streams:<br />

the General Fund, <strong>and</strong> specific fund<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>in</strong>es, which vary from<br />

year to year. The General Fund is open to artists <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

operators liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the Euro-Arab-Middle East<br />

geographical zone. Applicants from the MENA region or the<br />

Balkan countries can apply to travel to other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions<br />

(as well as Asia or other world regions). A maximum of 3<br />

<strong>in</strong>dividuals per group may be covered.<br />

The Tamteen support fund can cover mobility as part of<br />

the structur<strong>in</strong>g of oganizations <strong>and</strong> collectives <strong>in</strong> the Arab<br />

world. Maximum fund<strong>in</strong>g is 3.000 euros. Five projects are<br />

selected per call.<br />

5.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Art</strong> L<strong>in</strong>es<br />

An <strong>in</strong>spir<strong>in</strong>g new <strong>in</strong>itiative is <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Art</strong> L<strong>in</strong>es, run by Morocco-based<br />

civil society organization Afrikayna. Launched<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2016, <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Art</strong> L<strong>in</strong>es provides mobility grants to projects<br />

connect<strong>in</strong>g Morocco <strong>and</strong> other <strong>Africa</strong>n countries. It does so<br />

through two ma<strong>in</strong> schemes: 1) Partnerships with organizations<br />

<strong>and</strong> events; 2) Open calls. Support is delivered via the<br />

host organization. See Morocco section for more detail.<br />

—<br />

EMBASSIES AND INTERNATIONAL<br />

COOPERATION INSTITUTES<br />

—<br />

Many artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> have travelled thanks<br />

to fund<strong>in</strong>g provided by embassies <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitutes<br />

present <strong>in</strong> their cities. However, there are at present no formal mobility<br />

schemes <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g is thus generally provided on a case-by-case<br />

basis, often through artists’ or cultural operators’ personal connections<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>stitutes. A bilateral component or connection to the European<br />

country is generally a prerequisite for fund<strong>in</strong>g to be provided.<br />

The most prom<strong>in</strong>ent cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitute across the region is the Institut<br />

Français, which reta<strong>in</strong>s a strong presence <strong>in</strong> Morocco, Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Algeria.<br />

The Goethe Institut facilitated mobility for a number of cultural actors<br />

through its Mov<strong>in</strong>g MENA travel fund (2013 <strong>–</strong> 2017). However, the fund is no<br />

longer operational. The Goethe cont<strong>in</strong>ues to organize occasional cultural<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g programs <strong>in</strong> the region. Pro Helvetia has also supported projects<br />

<strong>in</strong> Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Egypt.


30<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

Two programs funded by the European Union, MedCulture (2014 <strong>–</strong> 2017) <strong>and</strong><br />

SouthMedCV (2015 <strong>–</strong> 2018), played an important role <strong>in</strong> facilitat<strong>in</strong>g travels across<br />

the region. Several respondents expressed the hope that similar schemes would be<br />

implemented.<br />

—<br />

PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS<br />

—<br />

Several private foundations are facilitat<strong>in</strong>g mobility across the region. In Tunisia,<br />

Fondation Rambourg <strong>and</strong> Fondation Kamel Lazaar are two new foundations to<br />

watch. In Morocco, Fondation HIBA <strong>and</strong> Fondation Touria et Abdelaziz Tazi have<br />

supported mobility through sponsorship, residencies <strong>and</strong> exchange <strong>in</strong>itiatives.<br />

Other private foundations cover<strong>in</strong>g mobility, generally via program or project support,<br />

are: the European Cultural Foundation (ECF), the Ford Foundation, Fondation<br />

Rosa Luxembourg, Fondation Drosos, Mimeta, the Organisation Internationale de la<br />

Francophonie (OIF), the Pr<strong>in</strong>ce Claus Fund <strong>and</strong> Sticht<strong>in</strong>g DOEN.<br />

—<br />

FESTIVALS, EVENTS<br />

AND<br />

RESIDENCIES<br />

—<br />

Many artists depend on <strong>in</strong>vitations from<br />

festivals, events or residencies to support<br />

their travels. Events that have offered<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g for mobility <strong>in</strong>clude Visa<br />

for Music, Rencontres chorégraphiques<br />

de Carthage, residencies at Le18, Atelier<br />

de l’observatoire, Contemporary Image<br />

Collective Cairo, D-CAF, etc. However,<br />

they have generally done so via fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from one of the abovementioned organizations.<br />

—<br />

BANKS, BUSINESSES<br />

AND<br />

INDIVIDUAL SPONSORS<br />

—<br />

Entrepreneurial cultural actors have approached banks, bus<strong>in</strong>esses<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividual sponsors for funds to cover their travel<br />

costs.<br />

Important resources on mobility opportunities <strong>in</strong> the region are:<br />

1. On the Move’s Guide to fund<strong>in</strong>g for cultural mobility <strong>in</strong><br />

the Arab world (2017). On the Move’s Facebook, Twitter<br />

<strong>and</strong> website are also critical platforms for <strong>in</strong>formation.<br />

2. Culture Fund<strong>in</strong>g Watch has recently launched a comprehensive<br />

database of fund<strong>in</strong>g opportunities for arts <strong>and</strong><br />

culture <strong>in</strong> the MENA Region. Their social media pages are<br />

regularly updated.


31<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

3.1. 2<br />

MAIN HUBS AND<br />

SERVICE PROVIDERS<br />

—<br />

—<br />

See Chapter 6<br />

for a mapp<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

venues <strong>and</strong> arts<br />

spaces across<br />

the region<br />

—<br />

The follow<strong>in</strong>g organizations <strong>and</strong> arts spaces<br />

are well-poised to serve as hubs, <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

po<strong>in</strong>ts, <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g centres for mobility<br />

projects <strong>in</strong> the region.<br />

Algeria<br />

aria arts residencies, Algiers<br />

Ateliers N.A.S., Algiers<br />

Les Ateliers Sauvages, Algiers<br />

<strong>Art</strong>issimo, Algiers<br />

Box24, Algiers<br />

La Baignoire, Algiers<br />

Brokk’art, Algiers<br />

Raconte’arts Theatre festival, Tizi Ouzou<br />

Morocco<br />

Atelier de l’Observatoire, Casablanca<br />

EAC-L’Boulvard, Casablanca<br />

L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e, Casablanca<br />

Le18, Marrakech<br />

C<strong>in</strong>émathèque, Tanger<br />

Tabadoul, Tanger<br />

Mahal <strong>Art</strong> Space, Tanger<br />

L’appartement22, Rabat<br />

LeCube, Rabat<br />

Visa for Music, Rabat<br />

Egypt<br />

Al Moharek Agency, Cairo<br />

AfriCairo, Cairo<br />

Contemporary Image Collective, Cairo<br />

Darb 1718 Contemporary <strong>Art</strong> & Culture Centre, Cairo<br />

Hewar for Independent Theater & Perform<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Art</strong>s,<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

MASS, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

Out of the Circle, Cairo<br />

Medrar for Contemporary <strong>Art</strong>s, Cairo<br />

Reflection for <strong>Art</strong>s Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g & Development,<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

Townhouse Gallery, Cairo<br />

Libya<br />

Ali Gana Foundation <strong>and</strong> Museum, Tripoli<br />

Noon <strong>Art</strong>s Projects, Tripoli/London<br />

Tanarout, Benghazi<br />

WaraQ <strong>Art</strong> Foundation, Tripoli<br />

Mauritania<br />

<strong>Art</strong>GalléAmySow, Nouakchott<br />

Les Échos du Sahel, Nouakchott<br />

Espace culturel Diadie Tabara Camara, Nouakchott<br />

Maison des c<strong>in</strong>éastes, Nouakchott<br />

Traversées Mauritanides, Nouakchott<br />

Tunisia<br />

BL79, Tunis<br />

Centre des Musiques Arabes et<br />

Méditerranéennes, Tunis<br />

Centre national d’art vivant de Tunis<br />

Cité’Ness Association, Tunis<br />

Culture Fund<strong>in</strong>g Watch, Tunis (<strong>in</strong>formation<br />

<strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g)<br />

Fanni Raghman Ani, Tunis<br />

La Boîte, Tunis<br />

Lab619, Tunis<br />

Lang’art, Tunis<br />

L’<strong>Art</strong> Rue, Tunis<br />

Maison de l’Image, Tunis<br />

Théâtre Al-Hamra/Centre arabo-africa<strong>in</strong> de<br />

formation et de recherche théâtrales, Tunis<br />

Tunisia Culture Network, Tunis<br />

Western Sahara<br />

Abid<strong>in</strong> Kaid Saleh Audiovisual School,<br />

Boujdour refugee camp, T<strong>in</strong>douf (Algeria)<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ifariti Festival, Tifariti, Sahrawi Arab Democratic<br />

Republic/refugee camps <strong>in</strong> T<strong>in</strong>douf<br />

Fi’Sahara Festival, Boujdour refugee camp, T<strong>in</strong>douf<br />

Motif <strong>Art</strong>s Studio, Samara refugee camp, T<strong>in</strong>douf


32<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

3.1. 3<br />

TRANSPORT LINKS<br />

AND<br />

REGULATIONS<br />

—<br />

VISA POLICIES<br />

—<br />

Visa-free travel is <strong>in</strong> place between Morocco,<br />

Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Algeria. In theory, Libyans should<br />

benefit from visa-free travel to Algeria; however,<br />

<strong>in</strong> practice, refusals have been documented.<br />

Libyan citizens should also benefit from visa-free<br />

access to Mauritania, although no testimonials<br />

are available. In turn, visa-free access to Libya<br />

is accessible only to Tunisian <strong>and</strong> Jordanian<br />

citizens. Egypt’s visa policy has gotten <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

restrictive <strong>in</strong> recent years. At the time of<br />

writ<strong>in</strong>g, visa-free access to Egypt was open to<br />

Algerian, Moroccan <strong>and</strong> Tunisian citizens under<br />

the age of 14 only. Egyptians require a visa to<br />

enter Morocco, Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Algeria. Mauritania<br />

offers visa-free travel to citizens of Algeria, Libya<br />

<strong>and</strong> Tunisia. Mauritanians may travel to Tunisia<br />

<strong>and</strong> Algeria without a visa.<br />

Detailed <strong>in</strong>formation on visa policies with respect<br />

to other <strong>Africa</strong>n countries is provided <strong>in</strong><br />

the country-specific sections.<br />

—<br />

OTHER REGULATIONS<br />

—<br />

Tunisian citizens under the age of 35 must obta<strong>in</strong><br />

parental authorization to travel outside the<br />

country. Moreover, exit<strong>in</strong>g Tunisia requires payment<br />

of an exit stamp, at a cost of 30 d<strong>in</strong>ars.<br />

Egyptian men of military service age may face<br />

travel restrictions.<br />

—<br />

ROAD AND RAIL NETWORKS<br />

—<br />

Road <strong>and</strong>/or rail travel is generally possible<br />

with<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n countries. However, border<br />

cross<strong>in</strong>gs are complicated or made impossible<br />

by ongo<strong>in</strong>g border disputes or security concerns.<br />

The Trans-Saharan Highway’s Route 1 connects<br />

Cairo to Nouakchott, via the coast. However, only<br />

selected segments of the route are practicable<br />

due to conflict areas <strong>and</strong> border closures. The only<br />

border cross<strong>in</strong>g that is practicable is the border<br />

between Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Algeria; some artists use<br />

these roads to travel <strong>in</strong> lieu of expensive flights.


33<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

Overl<strong>and</strong> travel <strong>in</strong>to <strong>and</strong> out of Libya is not recommended<br />

due to the presence of militias<br />

along the road.<br />

Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria <strong>and</strong> Egypt also have<br />

decent to good road networks connect<strong>in</strong>g major<br />

cities. Morocco boasts the region’s most developed<br />

rail system, with high-speed rail <strong>in</strong> place<br />

between Tangiers <strong>and</strong> Casablanca <strong>and</strong> plans to<br />

extend the network east to Oujda <strong>and</strong> south to<br />

Agadir via Marrakech. The national rail operator<br />

is the ONCF. Algeria <strong>and</strong> Egypt also have rail<br />

systems connect<strong>in</strong>g major cities, namely along<br />

the coast <strong>and</strong> the Nile river <strong>in</strong> Egypt.<br />

—<br />

AIR TRAVEL<br />

—<br />

Dancer Jenny Mezile perform<strong>in</strong>g at Harambee Days<br />

at L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e, 2018.<br />

Photo: Ahlam Maroon/L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e.<br />

The closure of the Morocco <strong>–</strong> Algeria border makes<br />

road travel between the two countries impracticable.<br />

Likewise, entry <strong>in</strong>to Western Sahara via<br />

road is subject to controls, which can be unpredictable,<br />

especially <strong>in</strong> periods of strife.<br />

Algeria’s road system <strong>in</strong>cludes the Trans-Saharan<br />

Highway’s Route 2, which l<strong>in</strong>ks Algiers to<br />

Lagos via Tamanrasset, Agadez <strong>and</strong> Kano. The<br />

highway is almost complete, with the exception<br />

of a 200 km-long segment <strong>in</strong> the north of Niger.<br />

Cairo is connected to Khartoum via road. However,<br />

border cross<strong>in</strong>g has been complicated due<br />

to diplomatic disputes between Egypt <strong>and</strong> Sudan<br />

<strong>and</strong> arms smuggl<strong>in</strong>g at the border.<br />

Due to the above-described impediments to road<br />

travel <strong>and</strong> the large distances between major<br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n cities, air travel is the preferred<br />

method of transportation. Flight connections<br />

are frequent between capital cities, provided by<br />

national air carriers Royal Air Maroc, AirAlgérie,<br />

TunisAir <strong>and</strong> Egypt Air. The exception is Tripoli,<br />

which is at present only connected to Tunis <strong>and</strong><br />

Cairo (although the latter is subject to change).<br />

Royal Air Maroc (RAM) is emerg<strong>in</strong>g as the region’s<br />

most active carrier, creat<strong>in</strong>g connections with<strong>in</strong><br />

the region <strong>and</strong> the cont<strong>in</strong>ent that used to only<br />

be possible via European cities such as Paris<br />

<strong>and</strong> Barcelona. In recent years, RAM has exp<strong>and</strong>ed<br />

its network <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> significantly, rivall<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Ethiopian Airl<strong>in</strong>es as the cont<strong>in</strong>ent’s number one<br />

carrier. RAM currently connects Casablanca to<br />

26 dest<strong>in</strong>ations <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>. AirAlgérie <strong>and</strong> TunisAir<br />

are also develop<strong>in</strong>g their connections <strong>in</strong> West<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, connect<strong>in</strong>g with 9 <strong>and</strong> 11 dest<strong>in</strong>ations,<br />

respectively.


34<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

As such, connections between Alger / Tunis / Tripoli,<br />

<strong>and</strong> dest<strong>in</strong>ations <strong>in</strong> West, Central, East <strong>and</strong> Southern<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> generally go via Casablanca. EgyptAir has<br />

connections with several East <strong>Africa</strong>n countries,<br />

as well as South <strong>Africa</strong>, Zimbabwe <strong>and</strong> Zambia <strong>in</strong><br />

Southern <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> Nigeria, Ghana <strong>and</strong> Côte d’Ivoire<br />

<strong>in</strong> West <strong>Africa</strong>. Other dest<strong>in</strong>ations may be reached<br />

via Addis Ababa.<br />

Despite these developments, cost rema<strong>in</strong>s a major<br />

impediment to air travel. Travel to Europe rema<strong>in</strong>s<br />

less expensive than travel with<strong>in</strong> the cont<strong>in</strong>ent, even<br />

on l<strong>in</strong>es such as Tunis <strong>–</strong> Alger.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

3.2.<br />

Impediments to<br />

mobility<br />

Impediments to mobility<br />

are listed below, grouped<br />

<strong>in</strong>to 11 ma<strong>in</strong> categories.<br />

However, it should be noted that many of these<br />

impediments are related <strong>and</strong> often difficult to<br />

dissociate. For example, the lack of <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong><br />

travell<strong>in</strong>g to other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions is critically<br />

related to the lack of <strong>in</strong>formation-shar<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

network<strong>in</strong>g. The difficulty of obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g visas<br />

is often compounded by high travel costs,<br />

with one or the other discourag<strong>in</strong>g artists or<br />

cultural professionals from even seek<strong>in</strong>g out<br />

mobility opportunities. Visa issues are cited<br />

most frequently <strong>in</strong> part because artists associate<br />

travel with Europe <strong>and</strong> do not consider<br />

travel opportunities <strong>in</strong> other countries where<br />

they may have visa-free access.<br />

« We need to talk about<br />

non-mobility. We need to talk<br />

about artists’ stagnation. And<br />

we need to fight aga<strong>in</strong>st that<br />

stagnation. »<br />

Mehdi Djelil<br />

Visual artist, Algiers*<br />

—<br />

Moreover, most of these obstacles can be<br />

l<strong>in</strong>ked to the after-effects of colonialism, nationalisms<br />

<strong>and</strong> wars, <strong>and</strong> the persistence of<br />

neo-colonialism <strong>in</strong> the form of development<br />

agendas, regionalization, conflict, etc. This reality<br />

underscores the importance of mobility as a<br />

means of strengthen<strong>in</strong>g South-South solidarity,<br />

underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g, co-imag<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g, vision-shar<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

knowledge-shar<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> project-build<strong>in</strong>g.


35<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« This immigration question, this<br />

‘potential immigrant’<br />

label <strong>–</strong> we carry those loads<br />

heavily. Travell<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong> <strong>and</strong> of<br />

itself (with or without an artistic<br />

purpose), is not a right that is<br />

given to us. To secure that right,<br />

we have to undergo countless<br />

adm<strong>in</strong>istrative processes, we have<br />

to lay ourselves bare, <strong>and</strong> without<br />

any guarantee of success.<br />

So much energy, so many<br />

strategies, so much paperwork…<br />

it’s exhaust<strong>in</strong>g after awhile. »<br />

H<strong>in</strong>d Benali<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer,<br />

founder of Compagnie Fleur<br />

d’Orange,<br />

Casablanca*<br />

—<br />

—<br />

1.<br />

VISAS<br />

—<br />

Difficulties obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g visas for travel were one of the two most<br />

frequently cited obstacles to mobility for <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n cultural<br />

actors. The Schengen space has become <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly difficult<br />

to access for cultural actors from across the region due to the<br />

migration crisis, post-9 / 11 security context <strong>and</strong> heighten<strong>in</strong>g<br />

xenophobia. Young men describe themselves as personae<br />

non-gratae <strong>in</strong> Europe. Cultural actors from older generations,<br />

despite hav<strong>in</strong>g made frequent travels to Europe <strong>in</strong> the past, are<br />

also subject to visa refusals or severe time limitations for their<br />

stays <strong>in</strong> Europe.<br />

Visa issues also <strong>in</strong>hibit mobility with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n region,<br />

for example for cultural actors wish<strong>in</strong>g to travel to Egypt <strong>and</strong><br />

Libyan artists want<strong>in</strong>g to travel outside Tunisia.<br />

The follow<strong>in</strong>g issues are most frequently cited with respect to visas:<br />

Faced with these restrictions, artists <strong>and</strong> operators must often<br />

rely on personal contacts with<strong>in</strong> embassies or m<strong>in</strong>istries to try to<br />

expedite their applications. When applications are denied, they<br />

must restructure projects: for example, many meet<strong>in</strong>gs happen<br />

<strong>in</strong> Jordan because visa access is easier than for countries such<br />

as Egypt.<br />

Refusals:<br />

Long wait times:<br />

The motive given is usually “likelihood of non-return,”<br />

often despite extensive proof of employment, means of<br />

subsistence, family <strong>in</strong> the home country, etc. Many artists<br />

feel visa refusal decisions are arbitrary <strong>and</strong> / or motivated<br />

by poor organization <strong>and</strong> / or xenophobia. While refusals<br />

especially affect young artists (<strong>and</strong> especially men), successful<br />

<strong>and</strong> established artists have also been affected.<br />

Respondents reported hav<strong>in</strong>g to wait as long as 6 months<br />

for an appo<strong>in</strong>tment at the consulate or embassy, especially<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce many European countries ceased to process visa<br />

applications through their embassies <strong>and</strong> externalized<br />

visa services to agency TLScontact. Wait times may be<br />

so long that applicants are given an appo<strong>in</strong>tment that<br />

is after the event they planned to attend. Furthermore,<br />

delivery of the visa may take several weeks, which also<br />

jeopardizes artists’ ability to make commitments to events /<br />

residencies / etc. <strong>and</strong> follow through on travel plans.


36<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

High costs :<br />

Bureaucracy :<br />

Prejudice <strong>and</strong><br />

discrim<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

aga<strong>in</strong>st artists :<br />

Age <strong>and</strong> gender :<br />

Short duration of<br />

stay granted :<br />

Access to<br />

embassies:<br />

Lack of<br />

bilaterality:<br />

A Schengen visa currently costs 60 euros. Photocopies or<br />

certified copies of documents may add additional costs, as<br />

does travel to the embassy.<br />

Visa applications can require applicants to submit large volumes<br />

of paperwork, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g proof of employment, bank<br />

records, letters of authorization, paystubs, etc. These documents<br />

can be difficult to obta<strong>in</strong>, especially for artists who<br />

work as freelancers <strong>and</strong>/or work <strong>in</strong> discipl<strong>in</strong>es that are not<br />

recognized under local labour laws. Bureaucracy can also be<br />

a major obstacle because of the sheer volume of documents<br />

<strong>and</strong>/or the amount of detail required (one respondent reported<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g asked to submit all paystubs s<strong>in</strong>ce her very first job).<br />

Moreover, none of these documents are a guarantee, s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

several respondents reported hav<strong>in</strong>g been denied access to a<br />

country despite hav<strong>in</strong>g submitted all the required paperwork.<br />

Several respondents reported hav<strong>in</strong>g been subjected to prejudice<br />

<strong>and</strong>/or discrim<strong>in</strong>atory treatment by visa <strong>and</strong> immigration<br />

authorities on account of their professional status as artists.<br />

Young men are reportedly the most likely to be denied visas,<br />

due to xenophobic associations with del<strong>in</strong>quency <strong>and</strong> terrorism.<br />

In the case of Schengen visas, respondents reported be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

given as little as 2 days on their visa. The time granted usually<br />

corresponds to the duration of the event, leav<strong>in</strong>g no time for<br />

artists to network, attend other events, or simply enjoy the<br />

experience of travel, with all the <strong>in</strong>spiration, connections <strong>and</strong><br />

unexpected opportunities that it may br<strong>in</strong>g. Moreover, s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

multiple-entry visas are <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly difficult to obta<strong>in</strong>, artists<br />

must re-apply for every trip.<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators liv<strong>in</strong>g outside capitals or major<br />

cities have to travel to the embassies to complete the visa<br />

procedures, <strong>in</strong>curr<strong>in</strong>g extra costs for travel <strong>and</strong> accommodation,<br />

forc<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dividuals to take days off work, etc.<br />

Several respondents deplored the <strong>in</strong>consistency between<br />

European countries’ cultural <strong>and</strong> immigration policies, whereby<br />

a discourse of openness to cultural exchange <strong>and</strong> an<br />

<strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g fashion of “spotlight<strong>in</strong>g” <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> are <strong>in</strong> conflict<br />

with <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly restrictive visa policies.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« If you’re an <strong>in</strong>dividual artist,<br />

[travell<strong>in</strong>g] is a huge amount of<br />

stress <strong>and</strong> work, often for<br />

no reason. Difficulties are built<br />

<strong>in</strong>to the process. Either it’s an<br />

issue with a visa or time or<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g. There always seems to<br />

be some sort of<br />

panic with someth<strong>in</strong>g. There<br />

must be a better way. »<br />

Nada Sabet<br />

Theatre director <strong>and</strong> cofounder,<br />

Noon Creative<br />

Enterprise, Cairo<br />


37<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

2.<br />

COST OF TRAVEL<br />

—<br />

The high cost of travel was the other most-cited obstacle to<br />

mobility, named by almost all respondents. Costs of <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

flights are exorbitant on all <strong>in</strong>tra-regional <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tra-cont<strong>in</strong>ental<br />

l<strong>in</strong>es.<br />

Aggravat<strong>in</strong>g factors <strong>in</strong>clude:<br />

a) Impossibility of road travel between most countries (see<br />

Section 3.1.3 above).<br />

b) Poor flight connections between cities. Until recently, most<br />

travels between <strong>Africa</strong>n cities had to go via Europe. The<br />

situation is chang<strong>in</strong>g, especially with the development of<br />

RAM’s <strong>and</strong> other local airl<strong>in</strong>es’ networks <strong>and</strong> Casablanca’s<br />

emergence as a travel hub. However, direct flight connections<br />

rema<strong>in</strong> few <strong>and</strong> far between, <strong>and</strong> costs rema<strong>in</strong> high.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« That’s the life of an artist: we<br />

want to make th<strong>in</strong>gs happen,<br />

but sometimes it’s money that<br />

blocks everyth<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>and</strong> other<br />

times we have the plane<br />

tickets but not the visas. »<br />

Cyr<strong>in</strong>e Gannoun<br />

Theatre practitioner, Director of<br />

the Centre Arabo-<strong>Africa</strong><strong>in</strong> de<br />

Formation et de Recherche<br />

Théâtrale, Tunis*<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« That’s the whole paradox.<br />

There are so many European cultural<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutes that do spotlights on the<br />

Arab world; the Arab world has greater<br />

<strong>and</strong> greater visibility <strong>in</strong> Europe; but at the<br />

same time, the conditions to get<br />

a visa are gett<strong>in</strong>g more <strong>and</strong> more<br />

complicated. »<br />

Am<strong>in</strong>a Mourid<br />

Cultural manager, co-founder of Th<strong>in</strong>k<br />

Tanger/Atelier Kissaria,<br />

Tangiers, Morocco*<br />

—<br />

c) Absence of fund<strong>in</strong>g organizations <strong>and</strong>/or <strong>in</strong>sufficient<br />

coverage of ancillary costs.<br />

d) Ancillary costs of travel: the cost of mobility goes<br />

beyond the flight ticket. Accommodation, <strong>in</strong>surance,<br />

vacc<strong>in</strong>es, visas, travel to embassies, etc.<br />

(see Visas above) all add to the f<strong>in</strong>ancial burden<br />

associated with travel<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

e) Lack of knowledge of fund<strong>in</strong>g possibilities.<br />

f) <strong>Art</strong>ists’ precarity across the region makes self-funded<br />

travel impossible.<br />

g) Issues with currency <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ancial transactions<br />

are present <strong>in</strong> many of the countries covered, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g<br />

limits on cash withdrawals (Libya, Morocco,<br />

Tunisia); <strong>in</strong>eligibility for credit cards; restrictions<br />

on currency exchange <strong>and</strong> frozen accounts (Libya).


38<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

3.<br />

LACK OF INTEREST OR MOTIVATION /<br />

PREFERENCE FOR TRAVEL TO EUROPE<br />

—<br />

When asked why they thought mobility is weak with<strong>in</strong><br />

the region <strong>and</strong> especially with respect to other <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

regions, most respondents noted that artists <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

operators associate mobility with travel to Europe.<br />

Aggravat<strong>in</strong>g factors <strong>in</strong>clude:<br />

a) Europe’s geographical proximity: some respondents<br />

noted that Europe felt “closer” than<br />

the rest of the <strong>Africa</strong>n cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Ever s<strong>in</strong>ce the Barcelona process,<br />

<strong>and</strong> all the other measures taken<br />

to regionalize the Mediterranean,<br />

to make it a geo-politico-cultural<br />

space, artists have <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

wanted to travel <strong>North</strong> rather<br />

than South. »<br />

Malek Sebaï<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer,<br />

co-founder, Associations Danseurs<br />

Citoyens <strong>and</strong> Hayyou’Raqs, Tunis*<br />

—<br />

b) Lower costs for travel to Europe make it<br />

possible for <strong>in</strong>dependent cultural actors to<br />

cover travel costs themselves <strong>in</strong> the absence<br />

of mobility fund<strong>in</strong>g (although this avenue is<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g jeopardized by visa restrictions).<br />

c) <strong>Art</strong>ists’ precarity <strong>and</strong> the precarity of the<br />

arts sector underlie many aspirations to a<br />

European career.<br />

d) Regionalization of the Euro-Mediterranean space <strong>and</strong> separation<br />

of “<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>” <strong>and</strong> “Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>,” namely through<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g agendas (see Introduction & Methodology, Key terms).<br />

e) The relative weight traditionally held by bilateral cooperation<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutes <strong>in</strong> facilitat<strong>in</strong>g mobility projects.<br />

f) More plentiful tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g opportunities <strong>in</strong> Europe <strong>and</strong> the associated<br />

prestige.<br />

g) Misconceptions about everyday life <strong>in</strong> Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>: some<br />

respondents noted that Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong> is associated with<br />

poor work<strong>in</strong>g conditions <strong>and</strong> uncomfortable accommodation, if<br />

not war <strong>and</strong> disease, <strong>in</strong> the more extreme cases of misconception<br />

<strong>and</strong> prejudice (see #4, Difficulty Identify<strong>in</strong>g With <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Identity / Discrim<strong>in</strong>ation).<br />

h) Misconceptions about the arts sector <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>: some respondents<br />

reported that artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators <strong>in</strong> their<br />

milieus believed that noth<strong>in</strong>g happens <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>in</strong> terms of arts<br />

<strong>and</strong> culture.


39<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

i) Economic considerations: there is a sense that artists’<br />

fees will be lower <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> than Europe, if not nonexistent.<br />

(On the other h<strong>and</strong>, many artists reported<br />

that they would gladly play or perform for free if it<br />

meant they got the chance to travel to another <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

region).<br />

—<br />

4.<br />

DIFFICULTY IDENTIFYING WITH AFRICAN<br />

IDENTITY / DISCRIMINATION<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n artists often want to be connected with<br />

Europe more than <strong>Africa</strong>. Many Egyptian artists will prefer<br />

to have a screen<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a small city <strong>in</strong> Europe than <strong>in</strong> an<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n capital. »<br />

Mohamed Ghazala<br />

Professor, Vice President of the International Association<br />

of Animation filmmakers (ASIFA),<br />

Cairo / Jeddah<br />

—<br />

—<br />

While most artists <strong>in</strong>terviewed expressed strong motivation<br />

to travel to other parts of <strong>Africa</strong>, many described an overall<br />

climate of unease surround<strong>in</strong>g identification to <strong>Africa</strong> as a<br />

possible factor expla<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g low mobility with<strong>in</strong> the cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

This difficulty can be described as a spectrum rang<strong>in</strong>g from<br />

uncerta<strong>in</strong> identification to ambient racism (present <strong>in</strong> all<br />

countries covered by the study). This climate nourishes<br />

misconceptions with respect to travel <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong>/or<br />

motivates preference for travel to the West.<br />

It should also be noted that some respondents noted a<br />

sense of discrim<strong>in</strong>ation on the part of colleagues from West,<br />

East, South or Central <strong>Africa</strong>. They said this discrim<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

was expressed <strong>in</strong> several forms, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g exclusion from<br />

pan-<strong>Africa</strong>n events; lack of overtures <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>vitations; <strong>and</strong><br />

explicit attributions of difference (e.g., “You’re not like us”).<br />

—<br />

5.<br />

NETWORKS AND ACCESS<br />

TO INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

Unless they have made a dedicated or<br />

concerted effort to seek out opportunities <strong>in</strong><br />

the region or <strong>in</strong> other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions, artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural operators tend to be unaware of<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g events, networks, residencies, etc.<br />

Aggravat<strong>in</strong>g factors:<br />

a) There is a lack of active <strong>and</strong> up-to-date<br />

databases <strong>and</strong> platforms gather<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

dissem<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formation about opportunities<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g about fund<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

b) Exist<strong>in</strong>g platforms (e.g., Culture Fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Watch, Music <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, On the Move) are<br />

not necessarily well-known.<br />

c) There is a lack of opportunities for <strong>in</strong>person<br />

contact <strong>and</strong> network<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

d) Lack of professionalization means that<br />

artists often do not have the <strong>in</strong>tuition,<br />

education or confidence to seek out<br />

opportunities.<br />

e) There are not enough professional cultural<br />

operators who can assist artists with<br />

research, connect them with <strong>in</strong>formation,<br />

etc. There are also not enough tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

opportunities for such operators.


40<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

6.<br />

LACK OF PROFESSIONALIZATION<br />

AND INFRASTRUCTURE<br />

—<br />

The absence of a structural framework allow<strong>in</strong>g for the professionalization<br />

of artists <strong>and</strong> arts professions is a major factor undergird<strong>in</strong>g poor mobility.<br />

Its impact can be felt on several levels:<br />

a) <strong>Art</strong>ists are unequipped with the skills, knowledge or networks<br />

to search for <strong>in</strong>ternational opportunities <strong>and</strong> / or to complete<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g applications.<br />

b) Cultural operators are unequipped with the skills, knowledge<br />

or networks to search for <strong>in</strong>ternational opportunities <strong>and</strong>/or to<br />

complete fund<strong>in</strong>g applications <strong>and</strong> / or to support artists complet<strong>in</strong>g<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g applications.<br />

c) Centres <strong>and</strong> facilities with the capacity to host <strong>and</strong> support<br />

mobility projects may be lack<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

d) There is a lack of funds support<strong>in</strong>g mobility at the public, private<br />

<strong>and</strong> civil society levels.<br />

—<br />

7.<br />

LANGUAGE BARRIERS<br />

—<br />

While Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic is the official language across <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

countries, differences <strong>in</strong> regional spoken dialects <strong>and</strong> the presence<br />

of different colonial languages pose communication barriers with<strong>in</strong> the<br />

region <strong>and</strong> outside. Respondents named the follow<strong>in</strong>g issues:<br />

a) Language barriers were cited as a source of <strong>in</strong>timidation, discourag<strong>in</strong>g<br />

some artists from pursu<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>ternational travel opportunities.<br />

b) Low literacy <strong>in</strong> written French, English <strong>and</strong> / or Arabic was cited as<br />

an impediment to complet<strong>in</strong>g fund<strong>in</strong>g application forms.<br />

c) Language barriers can be especially relevant <strong>in</strong> discipl<strong>in</strong>es such as<br />

music <strong>and</strong> theatre, where underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of lyrics or dialogue can<br />

impact overall appreciation of a song or play.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Sometimes the problem is not with<br />

mobility funds but also with the<br />

freedom of mobility or accessibility<br />

to mobility. Egypt is a shr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g<br />

political space, <strong>and</strong> artists work<strong>in</strong>g<br />

with creative <strong>in</strong>dustries <strong>and</strong> creative<br />

expression have this challenge<br />

<strong>in</strong> terms of regime, for example<br />

gett<strong>in</strong>g permissions to apply for<br />

visas <strong>and</strong> permits to travel to many<br />

countries. »<br />

Abdelsamee Abdallah<br />

Cultural activist <strong>and</strong> theatre<br />

practitioner,<br />

Cairo/Amman<br />


41<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

For the 2016 edition of Ségou <strong>Art</strong> <strong>in</strong> Mali, artists Wadi Mhiri <strong>and</strong> Houda Gorbel created “Conta<strong>in</strong>ers for a<br />

Cont<strong>in</strong>ent,” a float<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>stallation composed of calabashes unified by iron wire <strong>and</strong> set upon the Niger river.<br />

In the artists’ words: “The union of the calabashes represents the dream of a unified <strong>Africa</strong>, without any<br />

border, enriched by its civilizations <strong>and</strong> cultural mixture. It’s about a dream right to the doorstep, r<strong>and</strong>omly<br />

launched <strong>in</strong> the flow of the river as an <strong>in</strong>vocation of the sky for a better tomorrow.”<br />

Photos courtesy of Wadi Mhiri.


42<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« We’re hav<strong>in</strong>g all these revolutions, ask<strong>in</strong>g ourselves “who are we?”.<br />

In Libya alone, the South is completely different from the <strong>North</strong>.<br />

Among countries, we’re so unaware of each other. But I th<strong>in</strong>k the arts are<br />

the way to connect. »<br />

Najlaa El-Ageli<br />

Architect, Founder of Noon <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

Projects, Tripoli / London<br />


43<br />

Summary of Outcomes<br />

—<br />

8.<br />

SECURITY CONCERNS<br />

—<br />

Libya is the country most affected by security<br />

concerns, with militias present across<br />

the country <strong>and</strong> namely controll<strong>in</strong>g airports.<br />

Recent conflict <strong>in</strong> the country has isolated<br />

cultural actors liv<strong>in</strong>g there (namely through<br />

border closures <strong>and</strong> closure of embassies)<br />

<strong>and</strong> discourages <strong>in</strong>ternational actors from<br />

pursu<strong>in</strong>g projects there.<br />

Security concerns also affect potential travellers<br />

to Egypt, especially from marg<strong>in</strong>alized<br />

identities, who are aware of <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g limitations<br />

on freedom of expression, arbitrary<br />

<strong>in</strong>carceration, etc.<br />

—<br />

9.<br />

RESTRICTIONS ON FREEDOM<br />

OF MOVEMENT AS CENSORSHIP<br />

—<br />

In Egypt, restrictions on freedom of movement<br />

are part of a broader mechanism designed to<br />

limit freedom of expression <strong>and</strong> association.<br />

Restrictions on freedom of movement have<br />

also been noted <strong>in</strong> Morocco, Algeria <strong>and</strong><br />

Tunisia.<br />

—<br />

10.<br />

POSTCOLONIAL AND<br />

POST-REVOLUTION DISPENSATION<br />

—<br />

Some respondents noted that weak mobility<br />

<strong>in</strong> the region can be attributed to the idea that<br />

the region is “search<strong>in</strong>g for itself,” <strong>in</strong> the wake<br />

of conflicts, revolutions <strong>and</strong> ongo<strong>in</strong>g profound<br />

transformations at the social, economic, <strong>and</strong><br />

political levels. One impact is that some artists<br />

are focused on develop<strong>in</strong>g their careers <strong>and</strong><br />

scenes at a local level, address<strong>in</strong>g issues <strong>and</strong><br />

concerns rooted <strong>in</strong> their surround<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>and</strong> do<br />

not prioritize <strong>in</strong>ternational travel. However, it also<br />

flows from this dispensation that the pursuit of<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational opportunities can be underm<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

by a difficulty position<strong>in</strong>g oneself <strong>and</strong> relat<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

others <strong>in</strong> a constantly chang<strong>in</strong>g climate.<br />

—<br />

11.<br />

DISILLUSIONMENT WITH MOBILITY<br />

AND TRAVEL CONDITIONS<br />

—<br />

A number of respondents questioned the usefulness<br />

of pursu<strong>in</strong>g mobility projects today, given<br />

the above-described limitations.<br />

a) Respondents noted that mobility often seems<br />

to have been dra<strong>in</strong>ed of its human <strong>and</strong> creative<br />

aspects <strong>and</strong> reduced to a purely quantitative<br />

<strong>in</strong>dicator, often <strong>in</strong> development <strong>and</strong><br />

cooperation schemes. Feel<strong>in</strong>g the impact<br />

of budgetary constra<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>and</strong> visa duration<br />

restrictions, they note that attendance at<br />

festivals <strong>and</strong> other events often feels more<br />

dra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g than it is nourish<strong>in</strong>g or <strong>in</strong>spir<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

b) Three respondents named the framework<br />

of <strong>in</strong>ternational cooperation as an impediment<br />

to mean<strong>in</strong>gful cultural exchange. The<br />

terms of exchange be<strong>in</strong>g dictated by foreign<br />

<strong>–</strong> usually European <strong>–</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitutions, artists<br />

f<strong>in</strong>d their liberty of creation <strong>and</strong> move-ment<br />

constra<strong>in</strong>ed by foreign agendas <strong>and</strong> budgets,<br />

sometimes f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g themselves held<br />

up as ambassadors of successful cultural<br />

diplomacy rather than as creators <strong>in</strong> their<br />

own right.


44<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4<br />

—<br />

Fact:<br />

This study covers<br />

Algeria, Egypt, Libya,<br />

Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia<br />

<strong>and</strong> Western Sahara.<br />


45<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

COUN<br />

TRY<br />

SPECIFIC<br />

INFOR<br />

MATION<br />

—<br />

—<br />

The follow<strong>in</strong>g country-specific sections detail<br />

the follow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formation: 1) General <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

on the country (geography, politics, history, relationship<br />

with the rest of <strong>Africa</strong>); 2) an overview<br />

of the arts <strong>and</strong> culture sector; 3) <strong>in</strong>formation on<br />

mobility to/from the country (visa requirements,<br />

transport, etc.); 4) <strong>in</strong>formation on fund<strong>in</strong>g for arts<br />

mobility; 5) impediments to mobility to / from the<br />

country.


46<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4.1<br />

Algeria<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« To underst<strong>and</strong> the phenomenon<br />

[Algeria’s isolation from <strong>Africa</strong>],<br />

you need to look at the history.<br />

Algiers was the Mecca of <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

revolutionaries. After the ‘black<br />

decade’ [the 1990s], Algeria took<br />

some distance from <strong>Africa</strong>. <strong>Art</strong>ists<br />

became <strong>in</strong>terested <strong>in</strong> what lay beh<strong>in</strong>d<br />

the sea, which is to say Europe.<br />

Europe’s cultural <strong>and</strong> economic might<br />

allow it to decide on the direction<br />

of mobility. »<br />

FAST FACTS<br />

Population 41.3 million (World Bank, 2017)<br />

Walid Aidoud<br />

Visual artist, founder of Box24,<br />

Algiers*<br />

—<br />

Surface area<br />

Capital<br />

Large cities<br />

Languages<br />

2.382 million km²<br />

Algiers<br />

Oran, Constant<strong>in</strong>e, Annaba, Blida, Tizi Ozou<br />

Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic <strong>and</strong> Tamazight<br />

(official)<br />

Darija (vernacular Algerian Arabic)<br />

French<br />

Diall<strong>in</strong>g code +213<br />

Currency<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

airports<br />

Algerian d<strong>in</strong>ar<br />

Houari Boumediene International Airport,<br />

Algiers Mohamed Boudiaf International Airport,<br />

Constant<strong>in</strong>e Es-Sénia International Airport,<br />

Oran<br />

Rail network<br />

Société nationale des transports ferroviaires<br />

(SNTF), 4500 km of railways<br />

Visa requirements<br />

for <strong>Africa</strong>ns to enter<br />

Algeria<br />

Visa-free access for nationals of Maghreb<br />

countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania),<br />

Mali <strong>and</strong> the Seychelles<br />

Visa required for all other nationalities<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries’<br />

visa requirements for<br />

Algerian nationals<br />

Visa-free travel: Maghreb countries, Mali,<br />

Gu<strong>in</strong>ea <strong>and</strong> Ben<strong>in</strong><br />

E-visa or visa upon arrival: Angola, Cabo-<br />

Verde, the Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti,<br />

Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea-Bissau, Kenya,<br />

Lesotho, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rw<strong>and</strong>a,<br />

São Tomé <strong>and</strong> Pr<strong>in</strong>cipe, Somalia, Tanzania,<br />

Togo, Ug<strong>and</strong>a, Zambia <strong>and</strong> Zimbabwe<br />

Visa required for all other <strong>Africa</strong>n countries


47<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

GENERAL INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

Algeria is the largest country <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> shares<br />

a border with all the countries of <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>,<br />

with the exception of Egypt. To its <strong>North</strong> lies the<br />

Mediterranean Sea, while the Sahara desert covers<br />

a wide swathe of the South of the country.<br />

Algeria’s first peoples are the Amazighen.<br />

Ancient Algeria was occupied consecutively by<br />

the Phoenicians, the Carthag<strong>in</strong>ians <strong>and</strong> the Romans<br />

before the Arab <strong>in</strong>vasions of the 8th <strong>–</strong> 11th<br />

centuries AD. The Ottoman Empire occupied<br />

coastal Algeria between 1518 <strong>and</strong> 1830. In 1830,<br />

France annexed Algeria, beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g a lengthy <strong>and</strong><br />

violent process of colonization. Algeria was adm<strong>in</strong>istered<br />

as a département of France between<br />

1848 <strong>and</strong> Independence <strong>in</strong> 1962. The latter was<br />

won through a complex <strong>and</strong> brutal war, with<br />

torture <strong>and</strong> massacres deployed by the French<br />

aga<strong>in</strong>st the Algerian resistance. Over the years<br />

of colonial presence, the French implemented<br />

a thorough acculturation policy. Resistance to<br />

this policy has def<strong>in</strong>ed the foundations of modern-day<br />

Algerian identity: Islamic, Arabic <strong>and</strong><br />

Amazigh (Boukrouh <strong>and</strong> Kessab, 2010). Today,<br />

French has no official status but is widely spoken<br />

<strong>and</strong> used <strong>in</strong> government, media <strong>and</strong> educational<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions, a legacy of Algeria’s colonial history.<br />

Affiliation to <strong>Africa</strong> was enshr<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> the<br />

constitution of 1963, a reflection of Algeria’s<br />

commitment to <strong>and</strong> centrality with<strong>in</strong> decolonization<br />

movements across the cont<strong>in</strong>ent. Dubbed<br />

the “Mecca of revolution” by Amilcar Cabral,<br />

Algiers was a place of meet<strong>in</strong>g for <strong>Africa</strong>n resistance<br />

leaders <strong>and</strong> political exiles <strong>in</strong> the 1960s<br />

<strong>and</strong> 1970s. The Pan-<strong>Africa</strong>n festival of 1969<br />

was held <strong>in</strong> Algiers, <strong>and</strong> the city was a seat for<br />

essential <strong>in</strong>tellectual <strong>and</strong> political movements<br />

such as pan-<strong>Africa</strong>nism, pan-Arabism <strong>and</strong> the<br />

non-Aligned movement.<br />

Algeria’s connections with the cont<strong>in</strong>ent<br />

have been marred by its recent history<br />

of authoritarianism <strong>and</strong> conflict. In the 1990s,<br />

Algeria was engulfed <strong>in</strong> what is typically called<br />

la décennie noire (the black decade), a period<br />

of violence <strong>and</strong> terrorism oppos<strong>in</strong>g the Algerian<br />

government <strong>and</strong> various Islamist rebel groups.<br />

Abdelaziz Bouteflika was elected <strong>in</strong> 1999 <strong>and</strong><br />

rema<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> power until his resignation on April<br />

2, 2019. Diplomatic or economic relations with<br />

the <strong>Africa</strong>n cont<strong>in</strong>ent have not been a priority for<br />

the Algerian government, although there have<br />

been gestures toward <strong>in</strong>vestment <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

recent years.<br />

While widespread protests did erupt <strong>in</strong><br />

Algeria <strong>in</strong> 2011, full-scale revolution did not take<br />

place. However, on February 22, 2019, hundreds<br />

of thous<strong>and</strong>s of Algerians took to the streets <strong>in</strong><br />

what was described as a spontaneous wave<br />

of contestation <strong>in</strong> response to Bouteflika announc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

his c<strong>and</strong>idacy for a 5th consecutive<br />

m<strong>and</strong>ate. Demonstrations have cont<strong>in</strong>ued s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

Bouteflika’s resignation, as Algerians call for the<br />

rul<strong>in</strong>g elite to step down <strong>and</strong> gather around the<br />

ideals of social justice, equitable distribution of<br />

wealth, dignity, popular sovereignty, egalitarian<br />

republicanism, anti-imperialism <strong>and</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>cipled<br />

politics, among others (Rouabah, 2019). This<br />

massive swell of popular dissent is underway at<br />

the time of writ<strong>in</strong>g, with magnificent displays of<br />

solidarity, hope, humour <strong>and</strong> imag<strong>in</strong>ation radiat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from Algerian streets to the world.<br />

—<br />

ARTS AND CULTURE SECTOR<br />

—<br />

Algeria’s cultural sector has been marked by<br />

strong centralization <strong>and</strong> monopolization of<br />

cultural affairs by the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture. The<br />

M<strong>in</strong>istry has enjoyed a considerable budget, with<br />

the w<strong>in</strong>dfall from oil <strong>and</strong> gas revenue mak<strong>in</strong>g it<br />

possible fo the M<strong>in</strong>istry’s budget to swell to $314<br />

million <strong>in</strong> 2014, the largest <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> (Kessab,<br />

2015). This budget is reported to have collapsed<br />

<strong>in</strong> recent years with the fall of oil <strong>and</strong> gas prices<br />

<strong>and</strong> liquidation of Algeria’s reserves.<br />

Adm<strong>in</strong>istration of the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture’s<br />

budget has been characterized by tight regulation,<br />

opaque f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g, poor management, clientelism<br />

<strong>and</strong> a strong emphasis on fund<strong>in</strong>g for major<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>and</strong> large-scale cultural activities<br />

such as festivals. These <strong>in</strong> turn have promoted<br />

a vision of Algerian culture that can broadly be<br />

—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />


48<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

described as folkloric. Public <strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>and</strong><br />

facilities <strong>in</strong>herited from the colonial period have<br />

<strong>in</strong> large part deteriorated <strong>and</strong> few new ones have<br />

been built. Moreover, <strong>in</strong>frastructures for culture<br />

are strongly centralized <strong>in</strong> Algiers, with f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

for rural areas dependent largely on personal<br />

connections. Algeria has not yet ratified the 2005<br />

UNESCO Convention on the Protection <strong>and</strong> Promotion<br />

of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions<br />

(Kessab, 2015).<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to MedCulture’s 2015 report,<br />

cultural <strong>and</strong> artistic associations received only<br />

0.2% of the annual budget for culture (Kessab,<br />

2015). Associations have been subject to tight<br />

<strong>and</strong> confus<strong>in</strong>g legislation that limits the freedom<br />

to associate, operate <strong>and</strong> receive fund<strong>in</strong>g (see<br />

Impediments below). Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Freedom<br />

House (2018), “Algeria is one of the most difficult<br />

environments <strong>in</strong> the world to establish <strong>and</strong> operate<br />

a bus<strong>in</strong>ess.” There is a very limited culture<br />

of sponsorship <strong>and</strong> patronage.<br />

Despite the restrictions on its existence,<br />

the <strong>in</strong>dependent cultural sector is flourish<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

affirm<strong>in</strong>g its presence with verve <strong>and</strong> energy. The<br />

visual arts have been particularly active, with a<br />

number of <strong>in</strong>dependent spaces <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>itiatives<br />

burgeon<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the last ten years. Censorship,<br />

lack of facilities <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g have muzzled the<br />

perform<strong>in</strong>g arts, but artists have stayed active <strong>and</strong><br />

are express<strong>in</strong>g themselves <strong>in</strong> today’s waves of<br />

popular demonstration. There is a strong awareness<br />

<strong>and</strong> hope that the future of the country can<br />

be written by Algeria’s creatives.<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY TO / FROM ALGERIA<br />

—<br />

Algeria’s creative sector has been marked by<br />

isolation, largely a factor of the political unrest <strong>in</strong><br />

the 1990s, lack of structur<strong>in</strong>g (described above)<br />

<strong>and</strong> lack of state support for <strong>in</strong>ternational exchange.<br />

Algeria is very weakly represented <strong>in</strong><br />

AMA’s statistics, with a total of 20 applications<br />

from Algeria <strong>and</strong> 8 for projects tak<strong>in</strong>g place <strong>in</strong><br />

the country s<strong>in</strong>ce 2005.<br />

—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« What’s amaz<strong>in</strong>g [about this moment,]<br />

is that the <strong>in</strong>dependent cultural scene is<br />

tak<strong>in</strong>g up space <strong>and</strong> ga<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> credibility<br />

with the public with small <strong>in</strong>itiatives here<br />

<strong>and</strong> there. If we can structure our work <strong>in</strong><br />

such a way that it’s susta<strong>in</strong>able, we’ll easily<br />

succeed <strong>in</strong> tak<strong>in</strong>g the lead over the state<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions. People have expressed their<br />

need for freedom <strong>and</strong> hope. That gives<br />

us space to act. It’s now possible for us<br />

to channel this energy <strong>and</strong> to offer<br />

someth<strong>in</strong>g other than the violence we’ve<br />

always known. »<br />

Myriam Amroun<br />

Cultural project manager, Algiers*<br />

—<br />

More generally speak<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

travel to / from Algeria is a factor of the large size<br />

of the territory, expensive air connections <strong>and</strong><br />

a fairly restrictive visa policy. Most <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

travel cont<strong>in</strong>ues to be with Europe, dom<strong>in</strong>ated<br />

by France <strong>in</strong> light of the ties connect<strong>in</strong>g the two<br />

countries: the large Algerian population <strong>in</strong> France,<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ued presence of French <strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>in</strong><br />

Algeria, <strong>and</strong> the relatively low cost of travel.<br />

Faced with these limitations but also<br />

compelled to discover <strong>and</strong> appropriate their<br />

own country, a number of artists have been purposefully<br />

seek<strong>in</strong>g to develop mobility projects<br />

with<strong>in</strong> Algeria. The size of the country alone<br />

makes travel from <strong>North</strong> to South a potential<br />

adventure. Moreover, the diversity of cultures<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the country has been a subject of <strong>in</strong>terest,<br />

even open<strong>in</strong>g up curiosity <strong>and</strong> desire to travel<br />

further afield to <strong>Africa</strong>. In the words of musician<br />

Sadek Bouz<strong>in</strong>ou (of Democratoz): “Algeria is a<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ent.”


49<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

The strongest trends of <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

exchange are with neighbour<strong>in</strong>g Morocco <strong>and</strong><br />

Tunisia. These trends are due to freedom of<br />

movement with<strong>in</strong> the Greater Maghreb <strong>and</strong> historic<br />

cultural <strong>and</strong> l<strong>in</strong>guistic ties, which facilitate<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation-shar<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> network<strong>in</strong>g. Road travel<br />

is possible between Algeria <strong>and</strong> Tunisia but<br />

not between Morocco <strong>and</strong> Algeria, the border<br />

rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g closed after decades of conflict over<br />

the issue of Western Sahara. Many <strong>in</strong>terviewees<br />

have expressed frustration at this limitation,<br />

which forces artists to travel by air (at a greater<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ancial cost) <strong>and</strong>, on a deeper level, can restrict<br />

their capacity to envision common projects.<br />

Today, travel to other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions goes<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly via Casablanca. Until the RAM began<br />

exp<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g its network, travel was necessarily<br />

via Paris. AirAlgérie has been develop<strong>in</strong>g its<br />

network, with new l<strong>in</strong>es created to several West<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n dest<strong>in</strong>ations. Anecdotal reports suggest<br />

that AirAlgérie would like to rival RAM as a carrier<br />

towards the cont<strong>in</strong>ent, <strong>in</strong> l<strong>in</strong>e with Algeria’s shift<br />

towards encourag<strong>in</strong>g tourism <strong>and</strong> stimulat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

connections with <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Desire to create <strong>in</strong>ternational bridges is<br />

very strong. In the visual arts, it is nourished <strong>in</strong><br />

large measure by the visibility <strong>and</strong> prestige of<br />

major <strong>in</strong>ternational events such as the Biennale<br />

de Dakar (mentioned by almost all respondents).<br />

In music, a number of groups such as Ifrikya<br />

<strong>and</strong> Democratoz have foregrounded the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

musical roots of Algeria, creat<strong>in</strong>g popular consciousness<br />

of an <strong>Africa</strong>n identity <strong>and</strong> a strong<br />

desire to develop greater exchange.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

« S<strong>in</strong>ce the borders are closed on almost<br />

all sides, except with Tunisia, a l<strong>in</strong>k has<br />

formed between <strong>North</strong> Algeria <strong>and</strong> the South.<br />

Algerians from the <strong>North</strong> have started to<br />

discover the South <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> so do<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>Africa</strong>. »<br />

Houari Bouchenak<br />

Photographer, Collectif 220,<br />

Algiers / Tlemcen*<br />


50<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

CHEDMED<br />

DEMOCRATOZ<br />

MÂAN (TOGETHER)<br />

RACONTE’ARTS<br />

Examples of mobility projects<br />

Organized by Nomad Tracks, an Algerian multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

collective, ChedMed was a meet<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

Algerian <strong>and</strong> Senegalese artists <strong>in</strong> Dakar <strong>in</strong> 2017.<br />

It was the second stop <strong>in</strong> a long-term project<br />

aim<strong>in</strong>g to revive the idea of the “Tricont<strong>in</strong>ental”<br />

South-South organization. A group of Algerian<br />

artists were <strong>in</strong>vited to Dakar to build <strong>and</strong> pa<strong>in</strong>t<br />

a house together <strong>in</strong> Dakar’s med<strong>in</strong>a. Concerts<br />

were hosted <strong>and</strong> photographers documented the<br />

process. The next edition is <strong>in</strong> Vietnam.<br />

Lead s<strong>in</strong>ger Sadek Bouz<strong>in</strong>ou has been creat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

songs <strong>in</strong>spired by pan-<strong>Africa</strong>nism <strong>and</strong> anti-racism<br />

movements, mix<strong>in</strong>g raï, reggae, gnawa <strong>and</strong> other<br />

musical genres. He currently lives <strong>in</strong> Dakar.<br />

A new digital arts festival organized by visual artist<br />

Mouna Bennamani <strong>and</strong> photographer Mahmoud<br />

Agra<strong>in</strong>e that will connect Algerian creatives with<br />

artists from <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> beyond. It<br />

will be the first of its k<strong>in</strong>d <strong>in</strong> the country.<br />

The country’s only fully <strong>in</strong>dependent theatre<br />

festival, it has regularly <strong>in</strong>vited artists from West<br />

<strong>and</strong> Central <strong>Africa</strong> to perform <strong>in</strong> the remote villages<br />

where it is held every year.<br />

—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

MARSAD 1<br />

MERIEM BOURAOUI<br />

A collective of photographers, visual artists, writers<br />

<strong>and</strong> graphic designers travelled from Algiers<br />

to the south of Algeria <strong>in</strong> a van, explor<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

Algerian stretch of the TransSaharan highway<br />

that was designed to l<strong>in</strong>k Algiers to Lagos, via<br />

Agadez <strong>in</strong> Niger. They have future plans to explore<br />

Ottoman trade routes between Salé (Morocco)<br />

<strong>and</strong> Algiers, <strong>and</strong> potentially to cont<strong>in</strong>ue the road<br />

trip down to Lagos.<br />

Slam poet Meriem Bouraoui travelled to<br />

N’Djamena, Tchad, <strong>in</strong> November 2018, to represent<br />

Algeria <strong>in</strong> the <strong>Africa</strong>n Cup of Slam Poetry.<br />

Her trip was supported by AMA.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« For the most part, [Algerians]<br />

only know <strong>Africa</strong> through<br />

Western music. But as artists,<br />

we can really build a vision.<br />

Music isn’t everyth<strong>in</strong>g but<br />

it can do a lot. […] I’m here [<strong>in</strong><br />

Dakar] to learn. I want to show<br />

Algerians the positivity<br />

of Senegal. »<br />

Sadek Bouz<strong>in</strong>ou<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ger/songwriter, Democratoz,<br />

Oran/Dakar*<br />


51<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

Algerian artist El’Moustach show<strong>in</strong>g his works at Casalgéria<br />

exhibition at L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e, 2018. Photo: Ahlam Maroon/L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />


52<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

—<br />

FUNDING FOR MOBILITY<br />

—<br />

Public adm<strong>in</strong>istrations<br />

While the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture has enjoyed a sizeable<br />

budget s<strong>in</strong>ce the 2000s, these funds scarcely benefit<br />

<strong>in</strong>dependent cultural actors wish<strong>in</strong>g to pursue mobility<br />

projects. While applications can be submitted<br />

directly to the M<strong>in</strong>istry, there is no formal<br />

program <strong>and</strong> procedures <strong>in</strong>volve heavy<br />

bureaucracy.<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> funds have been granted via a<br />

semi-private agency called the Agence<br />

Algérienne pour le Rayonnement Culturel<br />

(AARC), designed to promote Algerian<br />

culture <strong>in</strong>ternationally. It acts primarily<br />

on a sponsorship basis, select<strong>in</strong>g artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g their participation at <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

events. They may be solicited<br />

directly but <strong>in</strong>terviewees report that it<br />

is exceed<strong>in</strong>gly rare for them to grant<br />

an application as their fund<strong>in</strong>g primarily<br />

goes towards the same groups.<br />

—<br />

« The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture<br />

has been out of service<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce 1988. »<br />

Myriam Amroun<br />

Cultural project manager,<br />

Algiers*<br />

—<br />

Annaba, Constant<strong>in</strong>e, Oran, Tlemcen <strong>and</strong> Tizi<br />

Ozou. The Instituto Cervantes, British Council,<br />

Istituto Italiano, Goethe Institut <strong>and</strong> EU Delegation<br />

are also present <strong>in</strong> Algiers.<br />

Non-governmental organizations<br />

Local NGOs do not have the capacity to f<strong>in</strong>ance<br />

mobility projects. Foreign NGOs are very little<br />

known <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g is complicated due to restrictions<br />

on <strong>in</strong>ternational transfers <strong>in</strong>to Algerian<br />

bank accounts (see Lack of fund<strong>in</strong>g below).<br />

Banks <strong>and</strong> large companies<br />

Two <strong>in</strong>terviewees reported that they had<br />

been able to travel thanks to sponsorship<br />

from banks <strong>and</strong> private donors. However,<br />

they noted that such opportunities are becom<strong>in</strong>g<br />

more <strong>and</strong> more limited due to the<br />

general climate of austerity.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« The AARC is run as an executive body of the ‘spare wheel’ m<strong>in</strong>istry,<br />

which practices clientelism, among other th<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>in</strong> a sector that is eager for<br />

openness <strong>and</strong> facilitation for its actors. They approach the parties they<br />

want without any public transparency, neither about their modes of<br />

operation nor their services. They ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> opaque <strong>and</strong> visionless public <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutional relations. One of their declared missions is to spread<br />

Algerian culture elsewhere - of course, this only applies to artists who align<br />

with the official cultural regime <strong>in</strong> place. »<br />

Malik Chaoui<br />

Co-project manager, Work<strong>in</strong>g Group<br />

on Cultural Policy <strong>in</strong> Algeria,<br />

Algiers*<br />

Bilateral cooperation<br />

Several artists reported that they have had greater<br />

facility obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g mobility possibilities via <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitutes. The Institut Français<br />

is by far the most active, with branches <strong>in</strong> Algiers,<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Algeria is a very closed<br />

country; we often have to<br />

fall back on big Algerian<br />

companies, cultural<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutes <strong>and</strong> embassies to<br />

fund our projects.»<br />

Arslan Naili<br />

Visual artist,<br />

Founder of Atelier N.A.S.,<br />

Algiers*<br />


53<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

IMPEDIMENTS<br />

TO MOBILITY<br />

—<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> to <strong>and</strong> from Algeria is complicated by<br />

the follow<strong>in</strong>g factors:<br />

Lack of fund<strong>in</strong>g options<br />

· The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture has not supported<br />

<strong>in</strong>dependent arts practitioners.<br />

· NGOs must submit detailed reports of fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> ga<strong>in</strong> government approval before<br />

accept<strong>in</strong>g foreign fund<strong>in</strong>g (risk<strong>in</strong>g f<strong>in</strong>es or<br />

imprisonment). This greatly limits fund<strong>in</strong>g possibilities<br />

for <strong>in</strong>dependent artists. Funds must be<br />

obta<strong>in</strong>ed through circuitous means <strong>in</strong>volv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

friends or partners abroad, or through timeconsum<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> potentially fruitless bureaucratic<br />

procedures.<br />

Adm<strong>in</strong>istratively, it’s extremely complicated to<br />

receive money. It’s impossible to buy other currencies.<br />

If it’s a private <strong>in</strong>dividual who sends me<br />

money, it goes through. But if it’s an organization<br />

<strong>–</strong> like a publish<strong>in</strong>g house or an association <strong>–</strong> it goes<br />

through, but only <strong>in</strong> Algerian d<strong>in</strong>ars, which <strong>in</strong>volves<br />

a loss of more than 50% of the orig<strong>in</strong>al sum. <strong>–</strong><br />

Ammar Bourras, photographer, Algiers*<br />

· Moreover, the climate of austerity has limited<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g possibilities from private sponsors <strong>in</strong><br />

Algeria.<br />

Politics of isolationism<br />

· Algeria has ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed fairly limited foreign<br />

relations, with considerable impact on the arts<br />

sector. Several respondents noted that Algeria<br />

has failed to <strong>in</strong>vest <strong>in</strong> the l<strong>in</strong>k between culture<br />

<strong>and</strong> tourism, for <strong>in</strong>stance, <strong>in</strong> contrast with its<br />

neighbour Morocco.<br />

It’s a l<strong>in</strong>k that’s just terrible between Algeria<br />

<strong>and</strong> other nations. We know there are [physical]<br />

borders, but it seems there are many others<br />

that are <strong>in</strong>visible but very present, <strong>and</strong> that<br />

make it impossible for us to connect to <strong>Africa</strong>. <strong>–</strong><br />

Houari Bouchenak, photographer, Collectif 220,<br />

Algiers / Tlemcen*<br />

· In return, one respondent noted weak will<strong>in</strong>gness<br />

on the part of the <strong>in</strong>ternational community<br />

to reach out <strong>and</strong> create bridges with Algeria.<br />

There is no will to reach out to Algeria <strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong><br />

what is go<strong>in</strong>g on, how can Algeria be<br />

supported. <strong>–</strong> Malik Chaoui, co-project manager,<br />

Groupe de travail sur la politique culturelle en<br />

Algérie, Algiers*<br />

Morocco/Algeria<br />

· Several respondents expressed regret <strong>and</strong><br />

frustration at the difficulty of build<strong>in</strong>g bridges<br />

with their Moroccan neighbours, due to ongo<strong>in</strong>g<br />

territorial disputes between the two states<br />

which have ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed the border closed <strong>and</strong><br />

thus limited connections.<br />

[In terms of travel<strong>in</strong>g], one of the difficulties we<br />

face is with Algeria: it’s absurd <strong>and</strong> anecdotal.<br />

We know about a lot of projects <strong>in</strong> Algeria but<br />

we can’t f<strong>in</strong>d a way to create collaborations<br />

between the two countries. The fact that the<br />

border is closed complicates th<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>and</strong> flights<br />

are quite expensive. It’s cheaper to go to Berl<strong>in</strong><br />

or Amsterdam than to Algiers. <strong>–</strong> Am<strong>in</strong>a Mourid,<br />

cultural operator, Co-founder, Atelier Kissaria &<br />

Th<strong>in</strong>k Tanger*<br />

Restrictions on civil society, censorship<br />

· Freedom of association has been limited <strong>in</strong><br />

Algeria <strong>and</strong> artistic activity has been closely<br />

monitored. Freedom House rates Algeria as<br />

“not free.”<br />

Algiers is very conservative. There’s a m<strong>in</strong>i-scene,<br />

but it’s not like Tunis. In Algeria, it’s more people<br />

with lots of money who are open<strong>in</strong>g venues. It’s<br />

very small, very local. At the level of the Algerian<br />

authorities, it’s not easy. <strong>–</strong> Hamdi Ryder, DJ,<br />

Downtown Vibes collective, Tunis*<br />

· Restrictions on freedom of movement have<br />

been used as a form of censorship.<br />

Cultural operators are closely monitored. Every<br />

time we’ve prepared to participate <strong>in</strong> an event,<br />

we’ve had lots of trouble at the airport. I have<br />

friends who haven’t been able to leave. They [the<br />

authorities] tell you “please wait,” <strong>and</strong> then they<br />

purposefully make you miss your flight. <strong>–</strong> Myriam<br />

Amroun, cultural project manager, Algiers*<br />

—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />


—<br />

A<br />

L<br />

G<br />

E<br />

R<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

Visas<br />

· Algerian authorities have been known to apply<br />

visa restrictions arbitrarily, even to countries<br />

with which freedom of movement purportedly<br />

applies.<br />

· Access to Egypt has been particularly difficult<br />

for Algerian cultural actors.<br />

Lack of tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

Educational <strong>in</strong>stitutions exist for artistic tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g,<br />

but there are no opportunities for cultural<br />

managers to receive tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Algeria.<br />

The notion of cultural <strong>in</strong>dustries rema<strong>in</strong>s<br />

embryonic here. <strong>–</strong> Zafira Ouartsi, founder <strong>and</strong><br />

director, <strong>Art</strong>issimo, Algiers*<br />

Culture of nepotism <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividualism<br />

· Several respondents noted that the climate<br />

of poor / absent fund<strong>in</strong>g, lack of tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

isolationism has created a culture of nepotism<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividualism.<br />

· On the one h<strong>and</strong>, a select number of groups<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividuals who have managed to break<br />

<strong>in</strong>to <strong>in</strong>ternational markets have monopolized<br />

all opportunities.<br />

There are groups that have toured everywhere,<br />

that have used every fund, that have been to<br />

every music market. And then there are some<br />

that never move. There’s a category that has<br />

priority; it’s the ones who match the authorities’<br />

agendas. <strong>–</strong> Samy Abdelguerfi, booker, cultural<br />

policy researcher, Groupe de travail sur la politique<br />

culturelle en Algérie, Algiers / Paris*<br />

· On the other h<strong>and</strong>, those who have not yet had<br />

access to opportunities have had to compete,<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g a climate of <strong>in</strong>dividualism.<br />

In Algiers, it can get very <strong>in</strong>dividualistic. Everyone<br />

is try<strong>in</strong>g to break the other person’s career. There<br />

are so few of us, <strong>and</strong> yet we’ve been shoot<strong>in</strong>g<br />

each other <strong>in</strong> the feet <strong>in</strong>stead of help<strong>in</strong>g one<br />

another. <strong>–</strong> Samy Abdelguerfi*<br />

54<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

Racism<br />

· Racism has been exacerbated <strong>in</strong> recent years<br />

due to the migration crisis.<br />

· Algeria has taken a tough st<strong>and</strong>, adopt<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

security-based approach, crim<strong>in</strong>aliz<strong>in</strong>g migration<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2008 <strong>and</strong> sign<strong>in</strong>g agreements with Niger<br />

to deport migrants at the border.<br />

· Algeria cont<strong>in</strong>ues to be an important dest<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

for scholarship holders from Sub-Saharan<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries, but they face discrim<strong>in</strong>ation.<br />

It’s the lack of knowledge of Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong><br />

that creates racism toward students. It depends<br />

on the cities ; <strong>in</strong> some, students have an easier<br />

time <strong>in</strong>tegrat<strong>in</strong>g. <strong>–</strong> Houari Bouchenak, photographer,<br />

Collectif 220, Algiers / Tlemcen*<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« It’s the lack of knowledge of Sub-Saharan<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> that creates racism toward students.<br />

It depends on the cities; <strong>in</strong> some, students<br />

have an easier time <strong>in</strong>tegrat<strong>in</strong>g. »<br />

Houari Bouchenak<br />

Photographer, Collectif 220,<br />

Tlemcen*<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Recently we made an<br />

anti-racism video. There was an <strong>in</strong>cident <strong>in</strong><br />

2017 ; everyone was manipulated.<br />

A Sub-Saharan man attacked a woman.<br />

Everyone came out to say that migrants<br />

should stay <strong>in</strong> their home countries.<br />

I got a group of young people together.<br />

I’m the first to mobilize people <strong>–</strong> I was say<strong>in</strong>g<br />

“you’re aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>Africa</strong>ns, but<br />

WE are <strong>Africa</strong>ns!”. »<br />

Sadek Bouz<strong>in</strong>ou<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ger /songwriter, Democratoz,<br />

Oran / Dakar*<br />

Watch the video for<br />

“At<strong>in</strong>i Yedak” here<br />


55<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4.2<br />

Egypt<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« People <strong>in</strong> Egypt are try<strong>in</strong>g to look <strong>North</strong>.<br />

Perhaps they look to Tunisia <strong>and</strong><br />

Morocco. They don’t know about <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

culture. The media give us American<br />

movies, European movies.<br />

We have connections <strong>in</strong> Tunisia <strong>and</strong><br />

Morocco. The language barrier is not a big<br />

deal <strong>–</strong> many families are connected.<br />

We know them <strong>and</strong> they know us as well. »<br />

Ahmed Eldeeb<br />

Co-founder, Director, Reflection for<br />

<strong>Art</strong>s Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g & Development,<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

—<br />

FAST FACTS<br />

Population 94.8 million (World Bank, 2017)<br />

Surface area<br />

Capital<br />

Large cities<br />

Languages<br />

2.382 million km²<br />

Cairo<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria, Giza, Shubra El-Kheima,<br />

Port Said, Suez, Luxor<br />

Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic (official)<br />

Egyptian Arabic or Masri (vernacular)<br />

English; Sa’idi Arabic; Bedou<strong>in</strong> Arabic;<br />

Nubian languages; Berber languages<br />

Diall<strong>in</strong>g code +20<br />

Currency<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

airports<br />

Rail network<br />

Visa requirements for<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>ns to enter Egypt<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries’<br />

visa requirements for<br />

Egyptian nationals<br />

Egyptian pound<br />

Cairo International Airport<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria Borg El Arab Airport<br />

Egyptian National Railways (ENR),<br />

5,083 km network<br />

Visa on arrival for nationals of South Sudan<br />

Visas are required for citizens of all <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries above the age of 14<br />

Visas required for all other nationalities<br />

Visa on arrival: Ben<strong>in</strong>, Burk<strong>in</strong>a Faso, Cabo<br />

Verde, Comoros, Djibouti, Ghana, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea,<br />

Gu<strong>in</strong>ea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar,<br />

Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rw<strong>and</strong>a,<br />

Senegal, Seychelles


—<br />

GENERAL INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

Spann<strong>in</strong>g the northeast corner of <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

the southwest corner of Asia, Egypt is located<br />

at the nexus of two cont<strong>in</strong>ents. It is the most<br />

populous country <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> the Arab<br />

world. Egypt’s economy is one of the largest <strong>in</strong><br />

the Middle East <strong>and</strong> is third only to Nigeria <strong>and</strong><br />

South <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>in</strong> terms of GDP (IMF, 2018).<br />

The country is a found<strong>in</strong>g member of the Arab<br />

League, the <strong>Africa</strong>n Union, the United Nations<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.<br />

Egypt’s position at the crossroads of<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ents, bodies of water <strong>and</strong> civilizations<br />

has shaped its cultural history. Greek, Roman,<br />

Ottoman, Persian <strong>in</strong>fluences have layered its<br />

cultural heritage; Jewish, Christian <strong>and</strong> Baha’í<br />

religions have all left their impr<strong>in</strong>t as well, <strong>in</strong> addition<br />

to the dom<strong>in</strong>ant Islamic faith established<br />

after the Arab <strong>in</strong>vasions. Nubians <strong>and</strong> Coptic<br />

Christians rema<strong>in</strong> important m<strong>in</strong>orities today.<br />

Egypt was a British colony from 1882 to 1922, the<br />

only British possession <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Full <strong>in</strong>dependence came with the revolution<br />

<strong>in</strong> 1952 <strong>and</strong> the declaration of the<br />

republic <strong>in</strong> 1953. Its 20th-century political<br />

history has been marked by <strong>in</strong>stability <strong>and</strong><br />

conflict, with successive armed conflicts<br />

with Israel between 1948 <strong>and</strong> 1973 <strong>and</strong><br />

the spread of terrorism <strong>in</strong> the 1980s, 90s<br />

<strong>and</strong> 2000s.<br />

Egypt has always been at the<br />

heart of debates on <strong>Africa</strong>n identity <strong>and</strong><br />

history. In 1955, Senegalese historian <strong>and</strong><br />

anthropologist Cheikh Ana Diop published<br />

the sem<strong>in</strong>al <strong>and</strong> highly polemical Nations<br />

nègres et culture, <strong>in</strong> which he argued that<br />

Egyptian <strong>and</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n civilizations <strong>and</strong><br />

cultures should be traced back to a common<br />

“cradle.” Gamal Abdiel Nasser was a<br />

committed supporter of <strong>Africa</strong>n liberation<br />

movements <strong>and</strong> is widely recognized as<br />

a major figure of pan-<strong>Africa</strong>nism. S<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

the 1970s, Egyptian foreign <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

policy have been geared towards the Middle<br />

East <strong>and</strong> Europe, although overtures<br />

—<br />

E<br />

G<br />

Y<br />

P<br />

T<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE :<br />

« I’m from Egypt<br />

but I want to speak<br />

to the <strong>Africa</strong>n soul.<br />

I’m so proud to be an<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n. I th<strong>in</strong>k I will<br />

never end this project.<br />

I’m archiv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Africa</strong><br />

through sound <strong>and</strong><br />

music. Every time I<br />

start a country, I feel<br />

it’s endless. »<br />

Yara Mekawei<br />

Sound <strong>and</strong> video artist,<br />

founder of Radio<br />

Submar<strong>in</strong>e,<br />

Cairo<br />

—<br />

56<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

have been made <strong>in</strong> recent years, center<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

particular on negotiations over shares of the<br />

Nile river.<br />

Egypt is one of the Arab countries <strong>in</strong><br />

which the 2011 upris<strong>in</strong>gs gave way to full-scale<br />

revolution. Eighteen days after protests erupted<br />

on January 25, 2011, then-president Hosni<br />

Mubarak <strong>–</strong> who had held power s<strong>in</strong>ce 1981 <strong>–</strong> resigned.<br />

However, the years s<strong>in</strong>ce the revolution<br />

have been marked by heavy <strong>in</strong>stability <strong>and</strong> a<br />

return to authoritarianism s<strong>in</strong>ce Abdel Fattah<br />

Sisi’s coup <strong>in</strong> July 2013. Freedom House rates<br />

Egypt as “not free,” signall<strong>in</strong>g persecution of activists,<br />

parties <strong>and</strong> political movements, pervasive<br />

corruption, unfair elections, military <strong>in</strong>cursion <strong>in</strong>to<br />

political affairs <strong>and</strong> discrim<strong>in</strong>ation aga<strong>in</strong>st women,<br />

Christians, Shiite Muslims, Nubians <strong>and</strong> darksk<strong>in</strong>ned<br />

Egyptians, <strong>and</strong> LGBTQ communities.<br />

—<br />

ARTS AND CULTURE SECTOR<br />

—<br />

Egypt has historically had a rich <strong>and</strong><br />

well-connected arts sector, bolstered by<br />

a strong, well-structured civil society,<br />

a strong media sector <strong>and</strong> a huge film<br />

<strong>and</strong> music <strong>in</strong>dustry. The cultural sector<br />

is strongly concentrated <strong>in</strong> Cairo <strong>and</strong> to<br />

a lesser extent <strong>in</strong> Alex<strong>and</strong>ria (Fazeulaa,<br />

2018).<br />

There is no clear state monopoly on<br />

culture today, although censorship <strong>and</strong><br />

surveillance of cultural actors are major<br />

problems. State budgets have not <strong>in</strong>vested<br />

significant budgets <strong>in</strong>to culture nor has<br />

the government demonstrated the will<br />

to implement an efficient cultural policy.<br />

This dispensation has left space for the<br />

private sector <strong>and</strong> civil society to flourish.<br />

In 2018, it was estimated that there were<br />

143 cultural organizations <strong>in</strong> the country<br />

(Fazeulaa, 2018). These are work<strong>in</strong>g to fill<br />

the gap left by <strong>in</strong>sufficient cultural policy<br />

<strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g creatively to survive despite<br />

adverse legal frameworks.


57<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

In the absence of well-ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed government<br />

facilities, private organizations have set<br />

up arts spaces <strong>in</strong> Cairo <strong>and</strong> Alex<strong>and</strong>ria. The two<br />

cities are home to a large number of galleries <strong>and</strong><br />

multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary arts spaces as well, of which<br />

the Townhouse Gallery, Darb 1718, Medrar <strong>and</strong><br />

Contemporary Image Collective (CIC) are some<br />

of the best-known on <strong>in</strong>ternational circuits <strong>in</strong><br />

Cairo, <strong>and</strong> Al-Mad<strong>in</strong>a <strong>and</strong> MASS are some of<br />

the best-known <strong>in</strong> Alex<strong>and</strong>ria.<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY TO/FROM EGYPT<br />

—<br />

Despite Egypt’s position<strong>in</strong>g at the crossroads of<br />

geopolitical <strong>and</strong> cultural areas, mobility patterns<br />

to / from the country are not equally distributed.<br />

Most respondents agreed that arts mobility cont<strong>in</strong>ues<br />

to have Europe as a centre of gravity.<br />

However, as <strong>in</strong> other <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n countries,<br />

this situation is chang<strong>in</strong>g due to visa restrictions<br />

enforced on Egyptian nationals.<br />

Cultural actors are more likely to travel to<br />

Middle Eastern dest<strong>in</strong>ations than <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

ones, due to geographic proximity <strong>and</strong> historical<br />

ties that have connected Cairo <strong>and</strong> Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

more closely with Beirut <strong>and</strong> Amman than Tunis<br />

<strong>and</strong> Casablanca. Most cultural actors who have<br />

had <strong>in</strong>ternational travel experience have been to<br />

Beirut <strong>and</strong> Amman, as Lebanon <strong>and</strong> Jordan have<br />

easy visa regulations for Egyptians <strong>and</strong> are also<br />

important seats of cultural activity.<br />

In <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, exchange is most active with<br />

Morocco <strong>and</strong> Tunisia. Both countries are associated<br />

with lively cultural scenes <strong>and</strong> political<br />

stability. Only two respondents mentioned<br />

attendance at an event <strong>in</strong> Algeria <strong>and</strong> only one<br />

mentioned a cultural project <strong>in</strong> Libya.<br />

Exchange with other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions is<br />

fairly weak <strong>in</strong> contrast with the volume of exchange<br />

with Europe, the Middle East <strong>and</strong> <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. Most respondents stated that Sub-Saharan<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> simply is not on the radar. For artists who<br />

have pursued connections to the South, the most<br />

active channels are those that connect Egypt to<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>, Ethiopia, as well as hubs <strong>in</strong> West<br />

—<br />

E<br />

G<br />

Y<br />

P<br />

T<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« There are big gaps between the<br />

communities. I always talk about this;<br />

the problem is the media. There is no<br />

news show or program talk<strong>in</strong>g about<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n issues <strong>in</strong> Egypt. We’re try<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to get people <strong>in</strong>terested, to close this gap.<br />

Most of these communities stay<br />

together because they’re afraid; they<br />

don't feel <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> Egyptian society.<br />

I say let’s meet through music. It’s a<br />

place where we can come together. »<br />

Ahmed Omar,<br />

Bassist <strong>and</strong> founder of AfriCairo,<br />

Cairo<br />

—<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, most prom<strong>in</strong>ently Dakar <strong>and</strong> Lagos. Accord<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to AMA’s statistics, Egypt has had the<br />

most exchange with South <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> Ethiopia<br />

(10 applications each), followed by Nigeria <strong>and</strong><br />

Cameroon (8) <strong>and</strong> lastly by Kenya (7). These<br />

connections can likely be expla<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> terms of<br />

cultural <strong>and</strong> l<strong>in</strong>guistic ties <strong>in</strong>herited from colonial<br />

times, as well as geographic proximity <strong>and</strong> availability<br />

of flight connections <strong>in</strong> the case of East<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

A number of <strong>in</strong>itiatives have nevertheless<br />

been promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Africa</strong>n arts <strong>and</strong> culture <strong>in</strong><br />

Cairo <strong>and</strong> Alex<strong>and</strong>ria, especially through music.<br />

Makan <strong>–</strong> Egyptian Center for Culture <strong>and</strong> <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

has been work<strong>in</strong>g to promote Egypt’s traditional<br />

musical heritage, offer<strong>in</strong>g a platform <strong>in</strong> particular<br />

for Sudanese <strong>and</strong> Nubian communities. On the<br />

side of contemporary music, AfriCairo is offer<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a venue for <strong>Africa</strong>n musicians liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Cairo to<br />

meet <strong>and</strong> perform, with a small record<strong>in</strong>g studio<br />

<strong>and</strong> a performance / jam space. The <strong>in</strong>dependent<br />

Luxor <strong>Africa</strong>n Film Festival is also an important<br />

event on the annual arts calendar, with year-round<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>itiatives <strong>and</strong> programmes to support<br />

the production <strong>and</strong> promotion of <strong>Africa</strong>n c<strong>in</strong>ema.


58<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

E<br />

G<br />

Y<br />

P<br />

T<br />

—<br />

YARA MEKAWEI<br />

ELHAM KATTAB<br />

CONTEMPORARY<br />

IMAGE COLLECTIVE<br />

Examples of mobility projects:<br />

Sound <strong>and</strong> video artist Yara Mekawei attended<br />

the Lagos <strong>and</strong> Dakar biennales. She has s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

founded a pan-<strong>Africa</strong>n radio station named<br />

Radio Submar<strong>in</strong>e, which broadcasts one hour of<br />

sound art <strong>and</strong> alternative music (historical <strong>and</strong><br />

contemporary) from a different <strong>Africa</strong>n country<br />

every week.<br />

Digital artist Elham Kattab has been collaborat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

with curators across <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> on a new<br />

platform named Digi-MENA. The first phase was a<br />

mapp<strong>in</strong>g research of digital artists <strong>in</strong> the region,<br />

produced <strong>in</strong> collaboration with Moroccan curator<br />

Nouha Ben Yebdri <strong>and</strong> Algerian curator Taoufiq<br />

Douib. She is also co-organiz<strong>in</strong>g a Digital <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

Festival with Douib, which is set to take place<br />

<strong>in</strong> Algeria later this year.<br />

The Contemporary Image Collective <strong>in</strong> Cairo is<br />

part of the Centres of Learn<strong>in</strong>g for Photography<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> Network, which l<strong>in</strong>ks organizations<br />

across the cont<strong>in</strong>ent to develop critical th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g<br />

on photography. They have met <strong>in</strong> different<br />

countries across the cont<strong>in</strong>ent, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g Ug<strong>and</strong>a,<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>, Lesotho, Rw<strong>and</strong>a <strong>and</strong> RDC.<br />

LAILA SOLIMAN<br />

Egypt’s visa policy is one of the most restrictive<br />

<strong>in</strong> the region. Visas are required for citizens of<br />

all <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n countries above the age of 14,<br />

with the exception of Libyan women who may<br />

enter visa-free. Nationals of all <strong>Africa</strong>n countries,<br />

with the exception of South Sudan, must apply<br />

for a visa.<br />

Egypt has good flight connections to<br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> via EgyptAir as well as AirAlgérie,<br />

Tunisair <strong>and</strong> Royal Air Maroc, which all fly<br />

to Cairo. Egyptair has developed its connections<br />

southward, with connections to several<br />

East <strong>Africa</strong>n countries, as well as South <strong>Africa</strong>,<br />

Zimbabwe <strong>and</strong> Zambia <strong>in</strong> Southern <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

Nigeria, Ghana <strong>and</strong> Côte d’Ivoire <strong>in</strong> West <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Other dest<strong>in</strong>ations may be reached via Addis<br />

Ababa.<br />

Playwright <strong>and</strong> theatre director Laila Soliman<br />

has been pursu<strong>in</strong>g projects <strong>in</strong> Senegal <strong>and</strong> South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. In 2017, she attended a residency at<br />

RAW Material Company <strong>in</strong> Dakar <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> 2018,<br />

directed a theatre production titled “Museum<br />

of Lungs,” featur<strong>in</strong>g South <strong>Africa</strong>n composer/<br />

multi-<strong>in</strong>strumentalist Neo Muyanga <strong>and</strong> writer/<br />

performer Stacy Hardy.


59<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

—<br />

FUNDING FOR MOBILITY<br />

—<br />

Public adm<strong>in</strong>istrations<br />

There is a serious lack of transparency regard<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the national budget for culture <strong>and</strong><br />

allowances for cultural actors. However, two<br />

respondents stated that they were aware<br />

of funds available through the M<strong>in</strong>istry <strong>and</strong><br />

that they had successfully obta<strong>in</strong>ed grants<br />

from the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture’s <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

relations office.<br />

Civil society organizations<br />

Egyptian artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators seem<br />

to be the best <strong>in</strong>formed about fund<strong>in</strong>g opportunities<br />

provided by <strong>in</strong>ternational civil society<br />

organizations. Al-Mawred al-Thaqafy <strong>and</strong><br />

AFAC are very well-known amongst cultural<br />

actors, likely a result of proximity to Beirut<br />

<strong>and</strong> the fact that al-Mawred’s headquarters<br />

were <strong>in</strong> Cairo until 2015. Mophradat <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Roberto Cimetta Fund are also well-known.<br />

However, no respondents mentioned <strong>Africa</strong><br />

<strong>Art</strong> L<strong>in</strong>es.<br />

« The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture is not<br />

transparent at all about how their fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

works <strong>–</strong> you can go to them with the<br />

paperwork but you could wait <strong>in</strong>def<strong>in</strong>itely.<br />

It’s always a mystery as to why they<br />

respond to one application but not the<br />

others. There’s no clarity <strong>in</strong> the process<br />

<strong>and</strong> it keeps chang<strong>in</strong>g. It’s a very tedious<br />

process; an application has to go through<br />

4<strong>–</strong>5 offices <strong>and</strong> everyth<strong>in</strong>g can stop if<br />

one person isn’t at their desk. »<br />

Nada Sabet<br />

Theatre director <strong>and</strong><br />

co-founder, Noon Creative Enterprise<br />

—<br />

—<br />

E<br />

G<br />

Y<br />

P<br />

T<br />

—<br />

International cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitutes<br />

Unlike <strong>in</strong> Maghreb countries, where the Institut<br />

Français is by far the most present, <strong>in</strong> Egypt<br />

the most well-known cultural <strong>in</strong>stitutes are the<br />

Goethe Institut <strong>and</strong> Pro Helvetia. The Goethe<br />

Institut’s regional bureau is <strong>in</strong> Cairo. While they<br />

do not have a formal mobility program, they<br />

have supported a large number of artists via<br />

the Mov<strong>in</strong>g MENA program (s<strong>in</strong>ce phased<br />

out) <strong>and</strong> have thus emerged as a reference<br />

for a large number of artists. Pro Helvetia was<br />

also repeatedly cited as a reliable source of<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g. The British Council <strong>and</strong> the Dutch<br />

Embassy are also known to cultural operators<br />

<strong>and</strong> artists as possible sources of fund<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Private foundations<br />

Several respondents deplored that the Ford<br />

Foundation is no longer provid<strong>in</strong>g direct support<br />

for <strong>in</strong>itiatives <strong>in</strong> Egypt. However, two<br />

noted that the Drosos Foundation is fill<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the space left by Ford.


60<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

IMPEDIMENTS<br />

—<br />

Repression of civil society organizations<br />

· NGOs <strong>in</strong> Egypt have been fac<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g<br />

harassment, censorship, raids <strong>and</strong> persecution.<br />

They are be<strong>in</strong>g required to navigate <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

complex bureaucratic mechanisms, with<br />

permissions required for nearly all activities.<br />

We don’t use state theatre or big theatres because<br />

we have issues with censorship. We don’t<br />

want any of our works to be censored. We try to<br />

work with cultural <strong>in</strong>stitutes to avoid censorship. <strong>–</strong><br />

Adel Abdelwahab, <strong>Art</strong>istic director, Hewar for Independent<br />

Theater & Perform<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Art</strong>s, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· The most relevant laws, <strong>in</strong> terms of mobility,<br />

are those that require CSOs to apply for permission<br />

to host foreign artists.<br />

For example, if a Moroccan artist wants to come<br />

to Reflection <strong>Art</strong>s, I have to get a permission<br />

for him to work with me. If there are any fees,<br />

<strong>in</strong>come from a performance, etc., I have to get<br />

a permit. If we do the project <strong>and</strong> I’m still wait<strong>in</strong>g<br />

for permission, I also have to get another<br />

permit to send money abroad. <strong>–</strong> Ahmed Eldeeb,<br />

Co-founder <strong>–</strong> Director, Reflection for <strong>Art</strong>s Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

& Development, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· Because laws are often passed fast <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

secrecy, cultural operators <strong>and</strong> artists can<br />

easily be caught <strong>in</strong> legal traps.<br />

Restrictions on receiv<strong>in</strong>g foreign fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

· The regulations on receiv<strong>in</strong>g foreign funds are<br />

plac<strong>in</strong>g particularly tight constra<strong>in</strong>ts on artists’<br />

mobility. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Freedom House, “all<br />

NGO fund<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> basic management decisions<br />

are also subject to regulators’ approval.” <strong>Art</strong>ists<br />

report that this process can be extremely<br />

lengthy.<br />

We have to report every step that we take <strong>and</strong> every<br />

grant that we get. The last one we got was from<br />

SouthMed CV, but we didn’t get it immediately,<br />

because we needed permission from the<br />

authorities. We applied for the permission <strong>in</strong><br />

January 2017 <strong>and</strong> waited until October. The<br />

whole time we were manag<strong>in</strong>g our relationship<br />

—<br />

E<br />

G<br />

Y<br />

P<br />

T<br />

—<br />

with SouthMed CV. They asked us “what is your<br />

action plan?”. We said, “don’t worry”. We only<br />

got the permission <strong>and</strong> the grant <strong>in</strong> the last 3<br />

months. We didn’t have the chance to use the<br />

funds wisely, as we had planned earlier. <strong>–</strong> Ahmed<br />

Eldeeb, Co-founder <strong>and</strong> director, Reflection for<br />

<strong>Art</strong>s Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g & Development, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· Faced with this situation, funds are ceas<strong>in</strong>g<br />

operations <strong>in</strong> Egypt, leav<strong>in</strong>g artists <strong>in</strong> an even<br />

tighter spot.<br />

Visa restrictions<br />

· Entry to Egypt has gotten <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly difficult<br />

<strong>in</strong> recent years, with lengthy application<br />

processes at embassies abroad <strong>and</strong> arbitrary<br />

refusals.<br />

· Several respondents noted particular difficulty<br />

for Tunisians to enter Egypt (corroborated by<br />

respondents <strong>in</strong> Tunisia <strong>–</strong> see Tunisia section)<br />

Egyptian embassies abroad are hard to deal<br />

with when it comes to ask<strong>in</strong>g for visas for Arab<br />

citizens. Tunisians <strong>and</strong> Moroccans have such<br />

a hard time gett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to Egypt <strong>–</strong> they get many<br />

rejections. <strong>–</strong> Basem Abuarab, Executive director,<br />

Al Moharek Book<strong>in</strong>g Agency for Independent<br />

Arabic Music, Cairo<br />

· Moreover, Egyptians themselves must obta<strong>in</strong><br />

permissions to travel to certa<strong>in</strong> countries <strong>and</strong>/<br />

or security clearance at the Cairo airport.<br />

Travel restrictions for men <strong>and</strong> women<br />

· Young men from the military service age need<br />

to get permission from military <strong>in</strong> order to travel.<br />

· Women need to get a permission/confirmation<br />

from their families that they are travell<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

certa<strong>in</strong> countries.<br />

Ambivalent identification with <strong>Africa</strong> /<br />

Discrim<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

· Many respondents noted that Egyptians do<br />

not identify as <strong>Africa</strong>ns, not<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> particular<br />

Egypt’s unique geographic position<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

greater identification to the MENA region<br />

· Racism is also extremely prevalent <strong>in</strong> Egypt,<br />

target<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> particular the Nubian <strong>and</strong> Sudanese<br />

communities as well as <strong>Africa</strong>n migrants.<br />

Nubian resistance movements are frequently<br />

met with violence <strong>and</strong> repression.


61<br />

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Di <strong>–</strong> Egy Festival 2017 open<strong>in</strong>g at Darb1718.<br />

Photo courtesy of Elham Kattab / Di <strong>–</strong> Egy Festival


62<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4. 3<br />

Libya<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Most Libyans identify as Arabs.<br />

But Libya is a mixed country of<br />

Tamazight, Tabu, Tuareg <strong>and</strong> Arabs.<br />

When people from <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

countries talk about people from the<br />

South, they say “<strong>Africa</strong>ns”. »<br />

Tewa Barnosa<br />

Visual artist <strong>and</strong> founder of WaraQ<br />

<strong>Art</strong> Foundation,<br />

Tripoli / Berl<strong>in</strong><br />

—<br />

FAST FACTS<br />

Population 6.375 million (World Bank, 2017)<br />

Surface area<br />

Capital<br />

Large cities<br />

Languages<br />

1.76 million km²<br />

Tripoli<br />

Benghazi, Misrata, Zliten, Bayda<br />

Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic (official)<br />

Libyan Arabic (vernacular)<br />

Berber<br />

Diall<strong>in</strong>g code +218<br />

Currency<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

airports<br />

Visa requirements for<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>ns to enter Libya<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries’ visa<br />

requirements for Libya<br />

nationals<br />

Libyan d<strong>in</strong>ar<br />

Mitiga International Airport (Tripoli)<br />

Ben<strong>in</strong>a Intenrational Airport (Benghazi)<br />

Misrata International Airport<br />

Visa-free access for nationals of<br />

Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Jordan<br />

Visa required for all other nationalities<br />

Visa-free access: Algeria, Mauritania,<br />

Tunisia, Ben<strong>in</strong><br />

e-Visa: Djibouti, Gabon, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea-Bissau,<br />

Lesotho, Tanzania, Ug<strong>and</strong>a, Zambia,<br />

Zimbabwe<br />

Visa on arrival: Burk<strong>in</strong>a Faso, Cabo Verde,<br />

Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Senegal,<br />

Somalia, Togo


63<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

GENERAL INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

Libya is the fourth-largest country <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

is among the 20 largest <strong>in</strong> the world. Spann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

1.770 km, its coastl<strong>in</strong>e is the longest of any of<br />

the Mediterranean countries. The largest city <strong>and</strong><br />

capital, Tripoli, is located <strong>in</strong> western Libya, while<br />

the second-largest city, Benghazi, is located <strong>in</strong><br />

eastern Libya. N<strong>in</strong>ety percent of Libya’s population<br />

lives along its coast.<br />

What present-day Libya is has been <strong>in</strong>habited<br />

by Amazigh tribes s<strong>in</strong>ce the late Bronze<br />

Age. Libya was occupied by the Phoenicians,<br />

Greeks, Persians, Egyptians <strong>and</strong> Romans before<br />

the Islamic conquests. In the 20th century, Libya<br />

was under Italian rule between 1911 <strong>and</strong> 1947.<br />

C<strong>in</strong>emas, theatres, libraries <strong>and</strong> cultural centres<br />

were built. The country declared its <strong>in</strong>dependence<br />

<strong>in</strong> 1951. Eight years later, the discovery of<br />

massive oil reserves transformed the until-then<br />

poor nation. In 1959, a group of rebel officers<br />

led by Muammar Gaddafi overthrew the<br />

government <strong>and</strong> established the Libyan Arab<br />

Republic, embrac<strong>in</strong>g the pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of Arab<br />

socialism. This coup-d’état was the beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of a 42-year dictatorship, marked by<br />

bloody repression of opposition, <strong>in</strong>vasion<br />

of all aspects of private life <strong>and</strong> negation<br />

of public space.<br />

Libya entered a civil war <strong>in</strong> 2011, as<br />

protests turned <strong>in</strong>to a rebellion which was<br />

met with force by Gaddafi. A NATO offensive<br />

began <strong>in</strong> March 2011, bolster<strong>in</strong>g the rebellion.<br />

Gaddafi was killed <strong>in</strong> October 2011.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce 2011, Libya has been torn among<br />

rival, armed militias affiliated with dist<strong>in</strong>ct<br />

regions, cities <strong>and</strong> tribes. The power vacuum<br />

has created an open<strong>in</strong>g for tribal militias <strong>and</strong><br />

jihadist groups to make <strong>in</strong>cursions. There<br />

are currently two ma<strong>in</strong> rival governments:<br />

the Interim Government (IG), based <strong>in</strong> the<br />

East, formed <strong>in</strong> 2014; <strong>and</strong> the Government<br />

of National Accord (GNA), formed <strong>in</strong> 2016<br />

under UN-led Initiative for a Libyan Political<br />

Agreement, based <strong>in</strong> the West. Presidential<br />

<strong>and</strong> parliamentary elections have been<br />

—<br />

L<br />

I<br />

B<br />

Y<br />

A<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« There are a couple old<br />

c<strong>in</strong>emas that were built<br />

by the Italians <strong>in</strong> the days of<br />

the Libyan k<strong>in</strong>gdom but none<br />

of them are work<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

We have 6 <strong>–</strong> 7 but none are<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g. I found out that<br />

they’re destroy<strong>in</strong>g them. I<br />

felt ashamed <strong>and</strong> sorry. There<br />

is a c<strong>in</strong>ema that’s one of the<br />

most amaz<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong><br />

Libya, but it was burned down<br />

by the revolutionaries. Why?<br />

Gaddafi was us<strong>in</strong>g it<br />

for his th<strong>in</strong>gs »<br />

Abdul Mohaimen Zarrough,<br />

photographer <strong>and</strong><br />

cultural manager,<br />

Tripoli<br />

—<br />

planned s<strong>in</strong>ce 2018, but have yet to be held. At<br />

the time of writ<strong>in</strong>g, the Libyan National Army, led<br />

by former Gaddafi general Khalifa Haftar, was<br />

lead<strong>in</strong>g a major offensive on the GNA-controlled<br />

city of Tripoli. Tens of thous<strong>and</strong>s of people have<br />

been displaced <strong>and</strong> hundreds killed, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

significant number of <strong>Africa</strong>n refugees.<br />

The relationship between modern Libya<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> is difficult to dissociate from Gaddafiera<br />

politics <strong>and</strong> the migration crisis, as Libya has<br />

become an important passageway. Historically,<br />

nomadic Tuareg <strong>and</strong> Tabu communities l<strong>in</strong>k the<br />

South of Libya <strong>and</strong> areas to the South. Gaddafi<br />

is known (<strong>and</strong> sometimes even romanticized)<br />

as a prom<strong>in</strong>ent pan-<strong>Africa</strong>nist. He was one of<br />

the found<strong>in</strong>g fathers of the <strong>Africa</strong>n Union <strong>and</strong><br />

supported a number of liberation movements,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the <strong>Africa</strong>n National Congress <strong>in</strong> South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. However, he also funded rebel groups <strong>in</strong><br />

Sierra Leone <strong>and</strong> Liberia <strong>and</strong> plotted to <strong>in</strong>vade<br />

Chad <strong>in</strong> 1980. Much of his pro-<strong>Africa</strong>n policy<br />

centered on personal self-aggr<strong>and</strong>izement as an<br />

Arab k<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>Africa</strong>. Some commentators have<br />

suggested that anti-Gaddafi backlash may<br />

be fuell<strong>in</strong>g anti-<strong>Africa</strong>n sentiment <strong>in</strong> Libya<br />

(see Racism below).<br />

—<br />

ARTS AND CULTURE SECTOR<br />

—<br />

Libya’s present-day arts <strong>and</strong> culture sector<br />

has been shaped by the authoritarianism,<br />

censorship, <strong>and</strong> nationalism that prevailed<br />

under Gaddafi <strong>and</strong> the profound turmoil that<br />

has reigned s<strong>in</strong>ce 2011.<br />

The 1973 Cultural Revolution <strong>in</strong>stituted<br />

a climate of <strong>in</strong>tense repression on<br />

the arts <strong>and</strong> culture, result<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the arrest<br />

<strong>and</strong> prosecution of large numbers of cultural<br />

actors, the murder of opposition figures, the<br />

bann<strong>in</strong>g of foreign language books <strong>and</strong> musical<br />

<strong>in</strong>struments, the destruction of <strong>in</strong>frastructures<br />

left by Italian colonization <strong>and</strong> the crim<strong>in</strong>alization<br />

of languages other than Arabic.<br />

In one of his speeches, Gaddafi stated that<br />

“artists are free but their freedom will end


64<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

when they approach the government (quoted <strong>in</strong><br />

Gana, 2011).”<br />

The revolution brought a phenomenal outpour<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of creative production: protest poetry was<br />

voiced, rap battles were hosted, graffiti exploded<br />

on city walls, <strong>and</strong> photographers documented<br />

the process, shar<strong>in</strong>g their images via blogs <strong>and</strong><br />

social media. International <strong>in</strong>stitutions supported<br />

this process, largely from the perspective of<br />

encourag<strong>in</strong>g arts as a form of documentation of<br />

human rights defense <strong>and</strong> democracy-build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

After violent clashes <strong>in</strong> 2013 <strong>–</strong> 2015 put a<br />

halt to cultural activity, the last years have seen a<br />

recrudescence <strong>in</strong> grassroots arts. Clusters of cultural<br />

actors are form<strong>in</strong>g organically <strong>in</strong> Tripoli <strong>and</strong><br />

Benghazi, f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g creative solutions to the vast<br />

problems of lack of <strong>in</strong>frastructure, tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g, managerial<br />

capacity <strong>and</strong> restrictions on movement.<br />

Neither of the two provisional governments has<br />

a M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture, although both have general<br />

authorities for culture. However, neither is<br />

truly <strong>in</strong> touch with the grassroots cultural<br />

scene <strong>and</strong> neither is fund<strong>in</strong>g any major<br />

events or facilities.<br />

The young art scene is therefore<br />

consolidat<strong>in</strong>g itself through a small number<br />

of organizations run by dedicated young<br />

artists, of which Tanarout <strong>in</strong> Benghazi <strong>and</strong><br />

WaraQ <strong>in</strong> Tripoli are the most active <strong>and</strong><br />

visible; support from <strong>in</strong>ternational human<br />

rights organizations; <strong>and</strong> the tireless work<br />

of a small group of figures from the previous<br />

generation, namely Ali Mustafa Ramadan<br />

(founder of The <strong>Art</strong> House <strong>in</strong> Tripoli) <strong>and</strong><br />

Hadia Gana (an artist, founder of the Ali<br />

Gana Foundation <strong>and</strong> Museum). Libyans<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g abroad, such as Reem Gibreel <strong>in</strong> the<br />

USA, founder of the Arete Foundation,<br />

<strong>and</strong> architect Najlaa el-Ageli, founder of<br />

Noon <strong>Art</strong>s Projects, are also play<strong>in</strong>g an<br />

important role <strong>in</strong> connect<strong>in</strong>g Libya with the<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational arts scene. Today’s Libyan arts<br />

scene is an <strong>in</strong>credible model of resilience<br />

<strong>and</strong> revival, much of which has been driven<br />

by remarkable solidarity.<br />

—<br />

L<br />

I<br />

B<br />

Y<br />

A<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Our history was re-written<br />

under Gaddafi <strong>–</strong> we don’t know<br />

our own history. Not just <strong>in</strong><br />

Libya, but across the whole<br />

Middle East, it’s been<br />

trauma after trauma, s<strong>in</strong>ce the<br />

Ottomans. We need to tackle<br />

this history. [Visual artist]<br />

Takwa [Barnosa] is ask<strong>in</strong>g<br />

what is the legacy of the<br />

Ghaddafi era? The younger<br />

generation didn’t go through<br />

the bra<strong>in</strong>wash<strong>in</strong>g the older<br />

generations did. »<br />

Najlaa El-Ageli<br />

Curator <strong>and</strong> architect, Founder<br />

of Noon <strong>Art</strong>s Projects, Tripoli/<br />

London<br />

—<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY TO/FROM LIBYA<br />

—<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> to / from Libya has been severely hampered<br />

by the cultural isolationism under Gaddafi<br />

<strong>and</strong> the war s<strong>in</strong>ce 2011, which caused borders to<br />

close, flights to / from Libya to cease <strong>and</strong> foreign<br />

embassies to leave Libyan cities.<br />

The Libyan arts scene is very little known<br />

outside the country. Incom<strong>in</strong>g mobility of cultural<br />

actors to Libya has thus been virtually nil, voided<br />

by lack of knowledge <strong>and</strong> security concerns.<br />

AMA had never received an application<br />

for a mobility project to / from Libya until<br />

2018 (see Ouafa Belgacem quote below). It<br />

should be noted that several cultural actors<br />

<strong>in</strong> neighbour<strong>in</strong>g countries expressed strong<br />

<strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> know<strong>in</strong>g more about the Libyan<br />

cultural scene, voiced their solidarity with<br />

their Libyan peers <strong>and</strong> expressed the desire<br />

to create bridges.<br />

Today, mobility of Libyan cultural actors is<br />

beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g aga<strong>in</strong>, with exchanges happen<strong>in</strong>g<br />

almost exclusively via Tunisia. Tunisia is one<br />

of the only countries that does not require<br />

visas from Libyan citizens <strong>and</strong> the only flight<br />

connections to / from Tripoli <strong>and</strong> Benghazi<br />

are with Tunis. Moreover, with most foreign<br />

embassies hav<strong>in</strong>g left Tripoli <strong>and</strong> Benghazi,<br />

the closest embassies are <strong>in</strong> Tunis, forc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Libyan travellers to make a stop there <strong>in</strong><br />

order to complete visa procedures.<br />

Libyan citizens are eligible for visa-free<br />

access to Mauritania <strong>and</strong> Algeria, although<br />

Algeria’s border authorities have been reported<br />

to be <strong>in</strong>consistent. Access to Egypt<br />

has become very difficult <strong>in</strong> recent years.<br />

Respondents did not cite any examples of<br />

travels to Morocco.


65<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

TEWA BARNOSA<br />

TRAVELLING NARRATIVES<br />

FARAJ ALSILEENI AND<br />

MOHAMED BUSNEINA<br />

KAW-KAW<br />

NAJLAA EL-AGELI<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

Examples of mobility projects:<br />

Visual artist Tewa Barnosa recently curated an exhibition<br />

titled The Green Book at LeCube <strong>in</strong> Rabat.<br />

The theme of the exhibition was The Green Book,<br />

the manifesto published by Gaddafi <strong>in</strong> 1976 <strong>in</strong> which<br />

he def<strong>in</strong>ed his regime’s ideology. Because Tewa<br />

could not get a visa to Morocco, she curated the<br />

exhibition virtually.<br />

The regional programme Travell<strong>in</strong>g Narratives<br />

brought Libyan artist Suhaib Tantoush to complete<br />

a residency at LeCube <strong>in</strong> Rabat. Travell<strong>in</strong>g Narratives<br />

is a regional program of art <strong>and</strong> research “that<br />

aims to encourage <strong>in</strong>teractions between cultural<br />

agents <strong>in</strong> Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania <strong>and</strong><br />

Libya” through residencies, exhibitions, screen<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>gs, workshops <strong>and</strong> conferences. The<br />

program is carried out <strong>in</strong> partnership with Townhouse<br />

Gallery <strong>in</strong> Cairo, Les Ateliers Sauvages <strong>in</strong><br />

Algiers, WaraQ art foundation <strong>and</strong> the cultural<br />

space Diadie Tabara Camara <strong>in</strong> Nouakchott.<br />

Musicians Faraj Alsileeni <strong>and</strong> Mohamed Busne<strong>in</strong>a<br />

of Tanarout performed at the Cyprus Mediterranean<br />

University’s Libyan Day.<br />

Visual artist Hadia Gana participated <strong>in</strong> Kaw-kaw<br />

at Le18 <strong>in</strong> Marrakech, a collective residency organized<br />

around the theme of the Greater Maghreb Union.<br />

Tripoli-born <strong>and</strong> London-based architect Najlaa<br />

El-Ageli has curated 15 exhibitions of Libyan art<br />

<strong>in</strong> various locations <strong>in</strong> Libya <strong>and</strong> Europe through<br />

her curatorial platform Noon <strong>Art</strong>s Projects,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Retrac<strong>in</strong>g</strong> A Disappear<strong>in</strong>g L<strong>and</strong>scape<br />

(2018), an <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary show on memory <strong>and</strong><br />

personal history <strong>in</strong> Libya.<br />

—<br />

L<br />

I<br />

B<br />

Y<br />

A<br />

—<br />

« Libyan artists cannot rely on the government to<br />

provide places for art. The governments only<br />

care about appropriat<strong>in</strong>g the build<strong>in</strong>gs for themselves<br />

to show off to the others that they’re<br />

stronger. »<br />

Abdul Mohaimen Zarrough<br />

Photographer <strong>and</strong> cultural manager,<br />

Tripoli<br />


66<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

Musicians Mohamed Busne<strong>in</strong>a <strong>and</strong> Faraj Alsileeni perform at<br />

Tanarout arts space <strong>in</strong> Benghazi.<br />

Photo courtesy of D<strong>in</strong>a Gallal/Tanarout<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Before, when [artists] were<br />

allowed to go to most countries,<br />

there was no art movement. But<br />

now there is an art movement, <strong>and</strong><br />

people can’t move. »<br />

Abdul Mohaimen Zarrough<br />

Photographer <strong>and</strong> cultural manager,<br />

Tripoli<br />


67<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

FUNDING FOR MOBILITY<br />

—<br />

The cultural affairs delegations are not fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

cultural projects at present. Cultural actors<br />

who are travell<strong>in</strong>g are do<strong>in</strong>g so through fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

provided by <strong>in</strong>ternational human rights organizations,<br />

universities or cultural <strong>in</strong>stitutes. Given<br />

the relative <strong>in</strong>experience of the Libyan culture<br />

sector <strong>and</strong> lack of managerial capacity, Libyan<br />

cultural actors are hard-pressed to compete<br />

with their colleagues <strong>in</strong> neighbour<strong>in</strong>g countries<br />

for funds. AMA, AFAC, Al Mawred al-Thaqafy<br />

<strong>and</strong> Mophradat have scarcely funded Libyan<br />

cultural actors.<br />

—<br />

IMPEDIMENTS<br />

—<br />

Currency <strong>and</strong> costs<br />

· A host of issues make f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g travel extremely<br />

complicated. In the current bank<strong>in</strong>g crisis,<br />

there is a shortage of d<strong>in</strong>ars, which means<br />

that accounts may be frozen for months at a<br />

time. The d<strong>in</strong>ar is extremely devalued, mean<strong>in</strong>g<br />

that transactions must be paid via the black<br />

market, often with exacerbated rates. Foreign<br />

currencies cannot be exchanged <strong>in</strong> Libya.<br />

· Respondents stated that foreign fund<strong>in</strong>g agencies<br />

require organizations to have a bank<br />

account <strong>in</strong> Tunis, as they will not transfer to<br />

Libyan accounts.<br />

We’re not allowed to exchange any money. We<br />

use the black market. The other problem is the<br />

exchange rate. You have to work very hard to<br />

make $1000. <strong>–</strong> Faiza Ramadan, visual artist,<br />

Tripoli<br />

Visas<br />

· The Libyan passport is very weak; entry <strong>in</strong>to<br />

countries other than Tunisia is not guaranteed<br />

without support from a well-established human<br />

rights organization or cultural <strong>in</strong>stitute.<br />

—<br />

L<br />

I<br />

B<br />

Y<br />

A<br />

—<br />

Libyans aren’t welcome <strong>in</strong> most countries. <strong>–</strong><br />

Faraj Alsileeni, Director, Tanarout, Benghazi<br />

· Visa procedures require a trip to Tunis, <strong>in</strong>curr<strong>in</strong>g<br />

travel <strong>and</strong> accommodation costs.<br />

For my Green Book exhibition, I had to remotely<br />

curate it <strong>–</strong> not because of fund<strong>in</strong>g but<br />

because Morocco doesn’t allow Libyans at all. <strong>–</strong><br />

Tewa Barnosa, visual artist <strong>and</strong> founder of WaraQ<br />

<strong>Art</strong> Foundation, Tripoli / Berl<strong>in</strong><br />

Transport of artworks<br />

With militias <strong>in</strong> control at the airports, transport<br />

of artworks is seen as suspicious. Respondents<br />

reported smuggl<strong>in</strong>g artworks <strong>in</strong> h<strong>and</strong>-luggage,<br />

<strong>and</strong>/or plead<strong>in</strong>g with authorities to let them pass.<br />

Every s<strong>in</strong>gle time I travel with the darbuka, I have<br />

a problem. I need to have it with me <strong>in</strong> the cab<strong>in</strong>.<br />

They’re always annoy<strong>in</strong>g me about this. They’re<br />

treat<strong>in</strong>g me as if I were do<strong>in</strong>g a wedd<strong>in</strong>g party<br />

or someth<strong>in</strong>g <strong>–</strong> people who are play<strong>in</strong>g music<br />

or s<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g music don’t have much respect from<br />

society. <strong>–</strong> Mohamed Busne<strong>in</strong>a, drummer, Content<br />

Developer & Head of Music Dept. of Tanarout,<br />

Benghazi<br />

Lack of connections<br />

· Direct flights between Libya <strong>and</strong> most countries<br />

have been cancelled s<strong>in</strong>ce the outbreak of the<br />

war. The most stable rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

connections are between Tripoli or Benghazi<br />

<strong>and</strong> Tunis, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria <strong>and</strong> Istanbul.<br />

War <strong>and</strong> security<br />

· The security situation is extremely unstable,<br />

with the potential for armed conflict to break<br />

out at any po<strong>in</strong>t.<br />

It’s hard to travel with<strong>in</strong> our own country because<br />

of the fights between cities, which make<br />

it dangerous to travel. As long as they’re fight<strong>in</strong>g<br />

amongst themselves, we’re suffer<strong>in</strong>g. <strong>–</strong> D<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Gallal, photographer <strong>and</strong> visual artist, Tanarout,<br />

Benghazi<br />

· Road travel is extremely dangerous; it is subject<br />

to control by militias <strong>and</strong> may cross conflict<br />

zones.<br />

· The Tripoli <strong>and</strong> Benghazi airports are controlled<br />

by militias.<br />

Travell<strong>in</strong>g is not safe at all. Even travell<strong>in</strong>g by flight<br />

is not safe. You never know who is controll<strong>in</strong>g


68<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

the airport on a given day. <strong>–</strong> Mohamed Busne<strong>in</strong>a,<br />

drummer, Content Developer & Head of Music<br />

Dept. of Tanarout, Benghazi<br />

Flight delays <strong>and</strong> complications<br />

· All respondents noted that travell<strong>in</strong>g out of<br />

Libya is an extremely hazardous <strong>and</strong> at best<br />

time-consum<strong>in</strong>g process.<br />

Flight delays are crazy <strong>–</strong> sometimes you wait 10 <strong>–</strong> 12<br />

hours <strong>in</strong> the airport, wait<strong>in</strong>g there for noth<strong>in</strong>g. <strong>–</strong><br />

Mohamed Busne<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Harassment<br />

· Harassment at the airport is extremely common,<br />

namely for artists <strong>and</strong> especially for women<br />

travell<strong>in</strong>g alone.<br />

At arrival at the airport, I was held for a while<br />

for no conv<strong>in</strong>c<strong>in</strong>g reason. In my op<strong>in</strong>ion, it was<br />

related to the fact that I am a Tunisian woman,<br />

unveiled <strong>and</strong> travell<strong>in</strong>g alone to Libya. As the<br />

airport is still primarily controlled by militia, many<br />

of which are pro-Daesh, a woman travell<strong>in</strong>g alone<br />

is as such a defiance. <strong>–</strong> Ouafa Belgacem, cultural<br />

resource mobilization expert, CEO of Culture<br />

Fund<strong>in</strong>g Watch, Tunis<br />

—<br />

L<br />

I<br />

B<br />

Y<br />

A<br />

—<br />

Lack of identification with <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> racism<br />

· Racism is a major issue <strong>in</strong> Libya. Discrim<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

toward black Libyans <strong>and</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>ns is<br />

deep-seated, marked namely by the presence<br />

of racial stratifications <strong>and</strong> derogatory terms.<br />

However, it has taken new forms <strong>in</strong> recent<br />

years, especially as a result of the war, which<br />

has caused <strong>in</strong>ternal displacement for black<br />

Libyan communities, <strong>and</strong> the escalation of<br />

migration from <strong>Africa</strong>n countries further south.<br />

Indeed, despite the strife <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>stability <strong>in</strong> the<br />

country, Libya is an important transit po<strong>in</strong>t<br />

for migrants try<strong>in</strong>g to reach Europe. Human<br />

rights organizations have reported the vast<br />

range of abuses that migrants face, from arbitrary<br />

detentions, to beat<strong>in</strong>gs, to kill<strong>in</strong>gs. In<br />

2016, the IOM reported that migrant <strong>Africa</strong>ns<br />

were be<strong>in</strong>g sold as slaves <strong>in</strong> Libya; <strong>in</strong> 2017,<br />

CNN published a video of a slave auction<br />

that sparked an <strong>in</strong>ternational outcry. In the<br />

media <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> everyday conversation, Libya<br />

is described as a dangerous place for black<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>ns.<br />

Lack of <strong>in</strong>frastructures <strong>and</strong> professional<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

· As described above, there is a glar<strong>in</strong>g lack<br />

of <strong>in</strong>frastructures <strong>and</strong> facilities for the arts <strong>in</strong><br />

Libya’s ma<strong>in</strong> centres, due to repression dur<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the Gaddafi era <strong>and</strong> subsequent destruction<br />

dur<strong>in</strong>g the years of conflict. Nevertheless, the<br />

centres described above are eager to connect<br />

with foreign artists <strong>and</strong> are build<strong>in</strong>g facilities<br />

that could host mobility projects <strong>in</strong> the future.<br />

· The new generation of Libyan artists <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

operators is largely self-taught, mak<strong>in</strong>g it<br />

difficult for them to compete with <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

artists <strong>in</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g calls. They are however highly<br />

motivated <strong>and</strong> are seek<strong>in</strong>g out opportunities<br />

for tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g whenever available.<br />

I’m self-taught. All of us have to learn the hard<br />

way. Lots of th<strong>in</strong>gs, we learn via the Internet. We<br />

can’t f<strong>in</strong>d materials <strong>in</strong> the country for many types<br />

of art. At Tanarout we’re all volunteers. <strong>–</strong> D<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Gallal, photographer, Tanarout, Benghazi


69<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4.4<br />

Mauritania<br />

FAST FACTS<br />

Population 4.42 million (World Bank, 2017)<br />

Surface area<br />

Capital<br />

Large cities<br />

Languages<br />

1.03 million km²<br />

Nouakchott<br />

Nouadhibou ; Kibera<br />

Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic (official)<br />

Hassaniya Arabic (vernacular)<br />

Pulaar, Son<strong>in</strong>ke, Wolof (national); French<br />

Diall<strong>in</strong>g code +222<br />

Currency<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

airports<br />

Ouguia<br />

Nouakchott International Airport<br />

Nouadhibou International airport<br />

Rail network Société Nationale Industrielle et M<strong>in</strong>ière, 704<br />

km (Nouadhibou <strong>–</strong> Zouerate)<br />

Visa requirements<br />

for <strong>Africa</strong>ns to enter<br />

Mauritania<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries’ visa<br />

requirements for Mauritanian<br />

nationals<br />

Visa-free access for nationals of Algeria,<br />

Tunisia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Gambia,<br />

Côte d’Ivoire<br />

Visa on arrival for all other countries<br />

Visa-free access: Algeria, Tunisia, Mali, Niger,<br />

Côte d’Ivoire, Chad, Burk<strong>in</strong>a Faso, Ben<strong>in</strong>,<br />

Côte d’Ivoire, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea, Mauritius <strong>and</strong><br />

Sierra Leone.<br />

Visa on arrival <strong>and</strong> / or e-Visa: Mauritanian<br />

citizens travell<strong>in</strong>g to Cameroon, Comoros,<br />

Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Ghana, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea-Bissau,<br />

Gabon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mozambique<br />

Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania,<br />

Ug<strong>and</strong>a, Togo, Rw<strong>and</strong>a, Zambia <strong>and</strong><br />

Zimbabwe


70<br />

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—<br />

GENERAL INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

Mauritania is located at the h<strong>in</strong>ge of <strong>North</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

West <strong>Africa</strong>. With 90 % of the territory ly<strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong><br />

the desert, the vast majority of the population<br />

lives along the southern coast. The capital <strong>and</strong><br />

largest city is Nouakchott, home to one-third of<br />

the country’s population.<br />

Mauritania is an em<strong>in</strong>ently multiethnic<br />

country, although strife has ta<strong>in</strong>ted the formation<br />

of a peacefully pluralistic society. The country’s<br />

demographics today are made up of three<br />

ma<strong>in</strong> groups: Bidhans of Arab-Berber orig<strong>in</strong>; the<br />

Harat<strong>in</strong>, descendants of former slaves, also<br />

Arabic speakers; <strong>and</strong> people of West <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

descent, among them Son<strong>in</strong>ke, Bambara <strong>and</strong><br />

Wolof. Arabic is the official language of Mauritania,<br />

with Hassaniya the local spoken dialect.<br />

French is used <strong>in</strong> the media <strong>and</strong> educated classes.<br />

English is mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>roads. Social hierarchization<br />

based on sk<strong>in</strong> colour <strong>and</strong> ethnicity is strong,<br />

with black Harat<strong>in</strong> assigned to the lowest caste.<br />

While Mauritania abolished slavery <strong>in</strong> 1981 (the<br />

last country <strong>in</strong> the world to do so), the practice<br />

is still <strong>in</strong> place. Ethnic discord <strong>and</strong> slavery were<br />

at the heart of the Mauritania-Senegal Border<br />

War of 1989 <strong>and</strong> cont<strong>in</strong>ue to permeate political<br />

discourse <strong>in</strong> the country.<br />

Mauritania has been rocked by a series of<br />

coups or attempted coups s<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>in</strong>dependence<br />

from France <strong>in</strong> 1960. A series of military rulers<br />

succeeded one another between 1978 <strong>and</strong> 2005.<br />

After a transitional government was <strong>in</strong>stituted <strong>in</strong><br />

2007, General Abdel Aziz seized power <strong>in</strong> 2008.<br />

He was elected <strong>in</strong> 2009 through an irregular<br />

election process. He is currently president.<br />

Mauritania is one of the poorest countries<br />

<strong>in</strong> the world, despite important natural resources.<br />

Droughts, most notably the Great Sahel droughts<br />

of the early 1970s, have devastated the country.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Freedom House, the country is not<br />

free. While the government has adopted laws to<br />

address the problem of <strong>in</strong>stitutionalized slavery<br />

<strong>and</strong> discrim<strong>in</strong>ation, it cont<strong>in</strong>ues to arrest antislavery<br />

activists.<br />

—<br />

M<br />

A<br />

U<br />

R<br />

I<br />

T<br />

A<br />

N<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

In February 2011, the Arab Spr<strong>in</strong>g spread to<br />

Mauritania, with thous<strong>and</strong>s of people tak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to the streets to denounce slavery, corruption<br />

<strong>and</strong> human rights abuses. The protests did not<br />

generate full-scale revolution or reform.<br />

—<br />

ARTS AND CULTURE SECTOR<br />

—<br />

The arts <strong>and</strong> culture sector <strong>in</strong> Mauritania is precarious<br />

but dynamic, borne by dedicated artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> activists work<strong>in</strong>g without official support.<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture has the capacity to offer<br />

project support. However, most of the budget<br />

is allocated to festivals, which respondents say<br />

are essentially showcases for the M<strong>in</strong>istry. The<br />

modern-traditional divide still figures strongly <strong>in</strong><br />

discussions of art <strong>and</strong> culture, but cultural actors<br />

are work<strong>in</strong>g to bridge art forms <strong>and</strong> audiences.<br />

Dom<strong>in</strong>ated by oral cultures, Mauritania<br />

is most closely associated with the music of the<br />

Amazigh griots. As nomadic memory-keepers,<br />

they traditionally traveled through the desert to<br />

share their music <strong>and</strong> stories. The droughts <strong>and</strong><br />

political upheavals of the 1970s irremediably impacted<br />

these traditional modes of creation <strong>and</strong><br />

transmission, forc<strong>in</strong>g nomadic peoples <strong>in</strong>to the<br />

cities <strong>and</strong> subsequently repress<strong>in</strong>g their forms of<br />

expression. Today, traditional musicians belong to<br />

the lowest social caste <strong>and</strong> are only able to monetize<br />

their creative work through performances<br />

at wedd<strong>in</strong>gs. Organized by Mauritanian-Canadian<br />

Atigh Ould <strong>and</strong> hosted annually or bi-annually<br />

outside Nouakchott, the Festival Nomade creates<br />

a platform for traditional musicians to share their<br />

music with local <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational audiences,<br />

who come from Europe, Canada <strong>and</strong> across<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. Moreover, the <strong>in</strong>ternationally known s<strong>in</strong>ger<br />

Maalouma has recently opened a foundation,<br />

funded by AFAC <strong>and</strong> the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture,<br />

which offers a studio <strong>and</strong> record<strong>in</strong>g space.<br />

Nouakchott is home to a dynamic hiphop<br />

scene. It is celebrated every year at the<br />

massive Festival Assalamalekoum, which has<br />

been known to draw audiences of up to 15.000.<br />

Performance spaces <strong>in</strong> Nouakchott are rare,


71<br />

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<strong>Mobility</strong> projects:<br />

many hav<strong>in</strong>g been destroyed or ab<strong>and</strong>oned by<br />

successive authoritarian regimes. The Institut<br />

Français cont<strong>in</strong>ues to have the most comprehensive<br />

facilities, although the Egyptian <strong>and</strong><br />

Moroccan cultural centres are used as well.<br />

Some cultural centres <strong>and</strong> youth centres are<br />

used by local artists but lack equipment.<br />

In the literary field, Traversées Mauritanides<br />

organizes literacy <strong>in</strong>itiatives, publishes<br />

books <strong>and</strong> organizes a yearly literary festival. La<br />

Maison des c<strong>in</strong>éastes is one of Nouakchott’s<br />

most vibrant associations, organiz<strong>in</strong>g film<br />

screen<strong>in</strong>gs, tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> an annual festival.<br />

Other art forms are marg<strong>in</strong>alized, be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

associated with colonization. Nevertheless, small<br />

galleries <strong>and</strong> visual art spaces are emerg<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Échos du Sahel <strong>and</strong> pa<strong>in</strong>ter Amy Sow’s <strong>Art</strong>Gallé<br />

are two such spaces to watch. F<strong>in</strong>ally, Centre<br />

Diadie Tabara Camara is creat<strong>in</strong>g music projects<br />

for formerly enslaved peoples <strong>in</strong> Nouakchott,<br />

us<strong>in</strong>g music as a vehicle of empowerment, expression<br />

<strong>and</strong> human rights defense.<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY TO / FROM MAURITANIA<br />

—<br />

HAMEDINE KANE<br />

MOHAMED IDOUMOU<br />

Mauritanian artists travel pr<strong>in</strong>cipally to three<br />

dest<strong>in</strong>ations: France, Morocco <strong>and</strong> Senegal.<br />

However, exchange with Mali, Tunisia <strong>and</strong> Egypt<br />

has become more common <strong>in</strong> recent years. <strong>Art</strong>ists<br />

are drawn to Tunisia for its theatre scene, while<br />

Casablanca <strong>and</strong> Dakar’s dynamic music scenes<br />

attract contemporary Mauritanian musicians.<br />

Despite long distances, artists travel to<br />

Dakar, Bamako <strong>and</strong> Banjul by car. Most flight<br />

connections are to Dakar <strong>and</strong> Casablanca, but<br />

TunisAir now also connects Nouakchott to Tunis.<br />

Filmmaker Hamed<strong>in</strong>e Kane participated <strong>in</strong><br />

Kaw-Kaw residency at Le18 <strong>in</strong> Marrakech.<br />

Poet, journalist <strong>and</strong> filmmaker Mohamed<br />

Idoumou has visited roughly 38 countries,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g meet<strong>in</strong>gs across <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture organizes a festival<br />

<strong>in</strong> each of the 4 historic cities; those are the<br />

events that are the best funded by banks,<br />

cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitutes <strong>and</strong> local companies, but<br />

they’re very poorly organized. They are made<br />

for the President to give a speech; they br<strong>in</strong>g big<br />

artists from the Arab world who don’t necessarily<br />

need to travel »<br />

Mohamed Idoumou<br />

Poet, journalist, documentary filmmaker<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural operator, Maison du c<strong>in</strong>éma de<br />

Nouakchott*<br />


72<br />

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Mohamed Idoumou performs a poem on the<br />

theme of fly<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong> collaboration with a dancer<br />

colleague <strong>in</strong> Leipzig, Germany.<br />

Photo courtesy of Mohamed Idoumou


73<br />

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—<br />

M<br />

A<br />

U<br />

R<br />

I<br />

T<br />

A<br />

N<br />

I<br />

A<br />


74<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

FUNDING<br />

—<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture is said to offer fund<strong>in</strong>g, but<br />

procedures <strong>and</strong> budgets are not clear <strong>and</strong> funds<br />

are poorly organized. <strong>Art</strong>ists reportedly depend<br />

heavily on cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitutes, embassies <strong>and</strong><br />

festival <strong>in</strong>vitations to travel. Mauritanians are very<br />

little represented <strong>in</strong> AMA’s statistics, as <strong>in</strong> those<br />

of other funds <strong>in</strong> the region.<br />

—<br />

IMPEDIMENTS<br />

—<br />

Isolation: high costs of travel <strong>and</strong> lack of<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

· Flight costs to / from Nouakchott are high.<br />

· Mauritanian cultural actors are not well connected<br />

to fund<strong>in</strong>g organizations. Conversely,<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational fund<strong>in</strong>g organizations have so<br />

far not made efforts to bolster mobility of<br />

Mauritanian cultural actors.<br />

· While Mauritanians are technically eligible for<br />

all major funds (AFAC, al-Mawred al-Thaqafy,<br />

RCF), its ambiguous status between <strong>North</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

West <strong>Africa</strong> may feed (potentially unconscious)<br />

exclusion from Arab / MENA-oriented <strong>in</strong>itiatives.<br />

· The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture does not support travel<br />

of cultural actors.<br />

—<br />

M<br />

A<br />

U<br />

R<br />

I<br />

T<br />

A<br />

N<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

Algeria have done a disservice to its relations<br />

with Morocco, mak<strong>in</strong>g visas to the<br />

K<strong>in</strong>gdom more difficult to obta<strong>in</strong>.<br />

Language<br />

· Not all Mauritanians speak English or French<br />

sufficiently to fill <strong>in</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g applications<br />

<strong>in</strong> those languages <strong>and</strong> as such may feel<br />

<strong>in</strong>timidated.<br />

Lack of professionalization<br />

· Opportunities for professional artistic tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> development are virtually nil <strong>in</strong> Mauritania.<br />

As such, artists do not necessarily<br />

have the skills or knowledge to search for<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g, f<strong>in</strong>ance their careers, etc.<br />

They want to travel but they are stuck <strong>in</strong>side<br />

the country <strong>–</strong> they don’t underst<strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

management. <strong>–</strong> Atigh Ould, founder <strong>and</strong> director<br />

of Festival Nomade, Nouakchott / Montreal*<br />

Visas<br />

· Mauritanian cultural actors must travel to Dakar<br />

to get visas to countries that do not have a<br />

diplomatic representation <strong>in</strong> Nouakchott.<br />

Many young people want to attend events <strong>in</strong> Europe<br />

<strong>and</strong> the USA; but it takes time, <strong>and</strong> if you don’t know<br />

the ambassador, it takes months. Even Morocco<br />

<strong>and</strong> Egypt are start<strong>in</strong>g to get complicated as well. <strong>–</strong><br />

Mohamed Idoumou, Poet, journalist, documentary<br />

filmmaker <strong>and</strong> cultural operator, Maison du<br />

c<strong>in</strong>éma de Nouakchott*<br />

· Mauritania’s neutral stance on the Western<br />

Sahara issue <strong>and</strong> diplomatic relations with


75<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4. 5<br />

Morocco<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Everyone knows it:<br />

there’s <strong>in</strong>credible potential <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Morocco is try<strong>in</strong>g to be a leader <strong>in</strong><br />

pro-<strong>Africa</strong>n development. All our<br />

banks, all our construction companies<br />

are <strong>in</strong>vest<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, especially West<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. The k<strong>in</strong>g has a pro-<strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

stance. There have been important<br />

regularization campaigns [for<br />

migrants from the South], as long as<br />

Europe isn’t apply<strong>in</strong>g pressure. »<br />

Am<strong>in</strong>a Mourid<br />

Cultural operator, co-founder, Atelier<br />

Kissaria & Th<strong>in</strong>k Tanger*<br />

—<br />

FAST FACTS<br />

Population 35.74 million (World Bank, 2017)<br />

Surface area<br />

Capital<br />

Large cities<br />

Languages<br />

710.085 km²<br />

Rabat<br />

Casablanca; Fès; Tangiers; Marrakech; Salé;<br />

Meknès ; Oujda; Kenitra; Agadir<br />

Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic <strong>and</strong> Tamazight<br />

(official)<br />

Moroccan darija (spoken); French<br />

Diall<strong>in</strong>g code +212<br />

Currency<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

airports<br />

Rail network<br />

Visa requirements<br />

for <strong>Africa</strong>ns to enter<br />

Morocco<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries’<br />

visa requirements for<br />

Moroccan nationals<br />

Moroccan dirham<br />

Casablanca <strong>–</strong> Mohammed V International<br />

Airport<br />

Marrakech Menara International Airport<br />

Agadir Al Massira International Airport<br />

Tangiers Ibn Battuta International Airport<br />

Office National des Chem<strong>in</strong>s de Fer (ONCF);<br />

2067 km<br />

Visa-free access for nationals of Algeria,<br />

Tunisia, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Niger <strong>and</strong><br />

Senegal<br />

Electronic travel authorization required<br />

for nationals of Gu<strong>in</strong>ea, Mali <strong>and</strong> Republic<br />

of Congo<br />

Visa required for all other nationalites<br />

Visa-free access: Mali, Niger, Senegal,<br />

Gambia, Ben<strong>in</strong>, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Mali,<br />

Seychelles <strong>and</strong> São Tomé<br />

e-Visa: Angola, Djibouti, Ethiopia,<br />

Gu<strong>in</strong>ea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Tanzania,<br />

Ug<strong>and</strong>a, Zambia <strong>and</strong> Zimbabwe.<br />

Visa on arrival: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritania,<br />

Mauritius, Mozambique, Republic of<br />

Congo, Somalia <strong>and</strong> Togo


76<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

GENERAL INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

Located on the northwestern edge of <strong>Africa</strong>,<br />

Morocco has been <strong>in</strong>habited by Amazigh tribes<br />

for as long as there are written records. After Arabization,<br />

it was the only northwest <strong>Africa</strong>n country<br />

to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite<br />

dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power <strong>in</strong><br />

1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided <strong>in</strong>to French<br />

<strong>and</strong> Spanish protectorates, with the French tak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the majority of the territory <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitut<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

system of acculturation, namely via the school<strong>in</strong>g<br />

system <strong>and</strong> adm<strong>in</strong>istration. Morocco rega<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

its <strong>in</strong>dependence <strong>in</strong> 1956.<br />

Morocco is a constitutional monarchy<br />

with an elected parliament. The K<strong>in</strong>g of Morocco<br />

holds vast executive <strong>and</strong> legislative powers.<br />

While Morocco has been relatively stable s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

<strong>in</strong>dependence, its recent history has been marked<br />

by economic <strong>and</strong> social crises, which erupted<br />

<strong>in</strong> the 2011 movements. Jo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the chorus<br />

of revolution to the East, Moroccans called<br />

for greater social justice, freedom <strong>and</strong> dignity.<br />

K<strong>in</strong>g Mohamed VI responded by shift<strong>in</strong>g some<br />

authority to the legislature <strong>and</strong> pass<strong>in</strong>g a new<br />

Constitution. However, these moves have been<br />

criticized as cosmetic more than structural: the<br />

K<strong>in</strong>g ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s dom<strong>in</strong>ance through a comb<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

of formal powers <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal l<strong>in</strong>es of <strong>in</strong>fluence<br />

<strong>in</strong> state <strong>and</strong> society, <strong>and</strong> most m<strong>in</strong>istries are run<br />

by technocrats loyal to the monarchy.<br />

In the last 5 <strong>–</strong> 6 years, Morocco has <strong>in</strong>vested<br />

considerably <strong>in</strong> economic <strong>and</strong> commercial<br />

ties with <strong>Africa</strong>n countries across the cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

It re<strong>in</strong>tegrated the <strong>Africa</strong>n Union <strong>in</strong> 2017 <strong>and</strong> has<br />

asked for membership <strong>in</strong> the Economic Community<br />

of West <strong>Africa</strong>n States. It has <strong>in</strong>vested<br />

considerably <strong>in</strong> flight connections with <strong>Africa</strong><br />

via the ma<strong>in</strong> carrier, Royal Air Maroc. In 2015,<br />

42% of trade was with Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

countries, most <strong>in</strong> West <strong>Africa</strong>. Morocco had 13<br />

<strong>in</strong>tra-<strong>Africa</strong>n <strong>in</strong>vestments, mostly <strong>in</strong> bank<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

telecommunications. Attijariwafa Bank Group<br />

—<br />

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operates <strong>in</strong> 10 Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>n countries;<br />

Banque Maroca<strong>in</strong>e du Commerce Exterieur has<br />

18 country operations. Last year, the K<strong>in</strong>g went<br />

on official state visit to East <strong>Africa</strong>, with his usual<br />

entourage of bus<strong>in</strong>essmen, signall<strong>in</strong>g a desire<br />

to exp<strong>and</strong> his reach beyond areas of culturall<strong>in</strong>guistic<br />

connection.<br />

It should f<strong>in</strong>ally be noted that Morocco<br />

has taken on a leadership role on migration. It<br />

is a member of the International Organization<br />

for Migration, was co-president of the Global<br />

Forum of Migration <strong>in</strong> 2018 <strong>and</strong> may be the seat<br />

of an <strong>Africa</strong>n Migration Observatory for the EU.<br />

Morocco is mak<strong>in</strong>g efforts to regularize immigrants<br />

arriv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the country, thereby comply<strong>in</strong>g<br />

with European wishes to curb travel on the<br />

Mediterranean. While endear<strong>in</strong>g Morocco to the<br />

EU, this approach also serves diplomatic objectives<br />

with <strong>Africa</strong>n countries <strong>and</strong> contributes to<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g efforts to portray Morocco as a tolerant<br />

society (Malka, 2018).<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« To this day, there hasn’t been<br />

any dialogue between the M<strong>in</strong>istry<br />

of Culture <strong>and</strong> cultural actors.<br />

And when I look at the results of the<br />

M<strong>in</strong>istry’s calls for applications,<br />

the beneficiaries do not reflect<br />

the dynamism of the cultural<br />

scene. »<br />

Bouchra Salih<br />

Independent cultural operator <strong>and</strong><br />

designer,<br />

Rabat*<br />


77<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

ARTS AND CULTURE SECTOR<br />

—<br />

Morocco’s artistic sector is dynamic, diverse<br />

<strong>and</strong> grow<strong>in</strong>g, despite an array of challenges. It<br />

is the strongest <strong>in</strong> the region <strong>in</strong> terms of local<br />

activity <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational exchange. Indeed,<br />

Morocco is emerg<strong>in</strong>g as an arts hub on the cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

It namely boasts a strong festival culture,<br />

epitomized by major events such as Mawaz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Festival (dubbed the “K<strong>in</strong>g Mohamed VI Festival”)<br />

<strong>and</strong> Marrakech International Film Festival.<br />

Independent <strong>in</strong>itiatives such as Visa for Music <strong>and</strong><br />

On Marche! are br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g contemporary creation<br />

to new audiences.<br />

Created <strong>in</strong> 2002, the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture is<br />

the government authority responsible for culture.<br />

Centralization is fairly strong, with more than ¼<br />

of cultural structures concentrated <strong>in</strong> Casablanca<br />

<strong>and</strong> an additional 10% <strong>in</strong> Rabat (Benslimane,<br />

2014). However, important events are present<br />

across the country, namely <strong>in</strong> Marrakech <strong>and</strong><br />

Tangiers, which are becom<strong>in</strong>g important cultural<br />

hubs, as well as <strong>in</strong> cities such as Agadir.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>dependent arts sector is active<br />

<strong>in</strong> all artistic fields, with strong recent developments<br />

<strong>in</strong> contemporary music, dance <strong>and</strong> visual<br />

arts <strong>in</strong> particular. Independent art galleries are<br />

flourish<strong>in</strong>g, festivals are popp<strong>in</strong>g up <strong>and</strong> launch<strong>in</strong>g<br />

careers, <strong>and</strong> centres such as l’Uz<strong>in</strong>e, EAC<br />

Boul’vart, Le18, Tabadoul (<strong>and</strong> many more) are<br />

catalyz<strong>in</strong>g creation by the young generations.<br />

The private sector is bolster<strong>in</strong>g creation, with<br />

Foundations such as HIBA <strong>and</strong> Touria et Abdelaziz<br />

Tazi play<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly active role <strong>in</strong><br />

the sector.<br />

Foreign cultural centres are present across<br />

the country <strong>and</strong> have played a significant role <strong>in</strong><br />

dissem<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g. They do not provide<br />

structural support. The Institut Français is by<br />

far the most present <strong>and</strong> active. It is followed<br />

by the Instituto Cervantes, which has centres <strong>in</strong><br />

Casablanca, Rabat, Tangiers, Fès <strong>and</strong> Tétouan;<br />

the British Council; the American cultural centre;<br />

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the Goethe Institut; the Italian cultural <strong>in</strong>stitute<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Russian cultural <strong>in</strong>stitute. There is additionally<br />

an Egyptian cultural centre <strong>in</strong> Rabat.<br />

—<br />

FUNDING<br />

—<br />

Public adm<strong>in</strong>istration<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture can receive applications<br />

for fund<strong>in</strong>g for <strong>in</strong>dividual / group projects.<br />

However, respondents deplored the opacity of<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g procedures, the nepotism of fund<strong>in</strong>g, the<br />

lack of openness to artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators<br />

<strong>and</strong> the lack of professionalism <strong>in</strong> the offices.<br />

Bilateral cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitutes<br />

With 12 centres across the country <strong>–</strong> the largest<br />

number <strong>in</strong> any s<strong>in</strong>gle country <strong>–</strong> the Institut Français<br />

rema<strong>in</strong>s a strong reference po<strong>in</strong>t for fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

for mobility projects. However, disillusionment<br />

is grow<strong>in</strong>g among cultural actors due to the<br />

Institut’s shr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g budgets, lack of structural<br />

funds <strong>in</strong> favour of meager project-based funds,<br />

bureaucracy, slow procedures, <strong>and</strong> paternalist<br />

attitudes. The Institut Cervantes does not provide<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g for cultural projects. The Goethe<br />

<strong>and</strong> the British Council may provide funds on<br />

a project basis.<br />

Civil society organizations<br />

A notable funder <strong>in</strong> Morocco is Association<br />

Afrikayna, which has been deliver<strong>in</strong>g fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

for mobility projects connect<strong>in</strong>g Morocco <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> through <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Art</strong> L<strong>in</strong>es. The fund has<br />

supported more than 95 projects s<strong>in</strong>ce its <strong>in</strong>ception<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2016. They also organize masterclasses<br />

with prom<strong>in</strong>ent artists from other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions<br />

as well as a library of <strong>Africa</strong>n <strong>in</strong>struments.<br />

Respondents univocally praised the fund for<br />

its efficiency <strong>and</strong> flexibility, <strong>and</strong> for open<strong>in</strong>g up<br />

valuable opportunities across the cont<strong>in</strong>ent.


78<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

Compagnie O performs Ottof, choreographed <strong>and</strong><br />

directed by Bouchra Ouizguen.<br />

Photo courtesy of Hasnae El Ouarga | Compagnie O


79<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« [At Afrikayna,] we work with<br />

professionnals from Morocco, Mali,<br />

Senegal, to br<strong>in</strong>g up questions, issues we<br />

have <strong>in</strong> common, <strong>and</strong> to highlight our<br />

common heritage, but here <strong>in</strong> Morocco.<br />

This work is open<strong>in</strong>g people’s m<strong>in</strong>ds;<br />

it’s piqu<strong>in</strong>g their curiosity <strong>and</strong> open<strong>in</strong>g<br />

perspectives. We’re very happy to see<br />

that more <strong>and</strong> more artists are com<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

see us because they want to discover the<br />

other <strong>Africa</strong>n cultures <strong>and</strong> artistic scenes<br />

or go perform <strong>in</strong> another part of the<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ent. »<br />

Ghita Khaldi<br />

Director of Afrikayna,<br />

Casablanca*<br />

—<br />

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80<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY TO/FROM MOROCCO<br />

—<br />

Morocco’s mobility channels are determ<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly by its geographic position<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> diplomatic<br />

ties. At the <strong>North</strong>-West corner of <strong>Africa</strong>,<br />

Morocco is at the juncture of <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

West <strong>Africa</strong>, <strong>and</strong> at the doors of Europe.<br />

Until recently, it was Europe that drew<br />

Moroccan artists most eagerly, especially neighbour<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Spa<strong>in</strong>, for its geographical proximity<br />

<strong>and</strong> historical ties, <strong>and</strong> France, which reta<strong>in</strong>s an<br />

important place <strong>in</strong> Moroccan society. However,<br />

the drastic restrictions placed on visas for Moroccan<br />

citizens have reconfigured young Moroccans’<br />

travel perspectives. In t<strong>and</strong>em with the<br />

clos<strong>in</strong>g of Europe, the Arab Spr<strong>in</strong>g has brought<br />

a refreshed sense of solidarity <strong>and</strong> curiosity toward<br />

other countries <strong>in</strong> the Maghreb <strong>and</strong> Arab<br />

world. Respondents reported that the desire to<br />

travel East <strong>and</strong> South is gett<strong>in</strong>g as strong, if not<br />

stronger, than the typical desire to travel <strong>North</strong>.<br />

In <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, exchange with Tunisia<br />

is most active, facilitated by visa-free travel<br />

between the two countries <strong>and</strong> the wealth of<br />

cultural activity <strong>in</strong> both. Ties with Algeria are<br />

more complex due to the closed border <strong>and</strong><br />

high cost of air travel. Several respondents expressed<br />

frustration <strong>in</strong> this regard. Morocco has<br />

close ties to West <strong>Africa</strong>, especially Senegal but<br />

also Mauritania, Côte d’Ivoire, Burk<strong>in</strong>a Faso <strong>and</strong><br />

Niger. These connections have been explored<br />

by practitioners <strong>in</strong> all fields, most prom<strong>in</strong>ently<br />

<strong>in</strong> music, where Gnawa music has <strong>in</strong>spired a<br />

wealth of musical exchanges <strong>and</strong> festivals across<br />

borders. Essaouira’s Gnawa Music Festival is<br />

one of the major events on the music calendar.<br />

One of the most significant developments<br />

<strong>in</strong> mobility to / from Morocco is the extensive development<br />

of Royal Air Maroc’s network <strong>in</strong> recent<br />

years, with a hub <strong>in</strong> Casablanca. The company<br />

is now second only to Ethiopian Airl<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong> terms<br />

of coverage on the cont<strong>in</strong>ent <strong>and</strong> is pois<strong>in</strong>g itself<br />

for greater growth, <strong>in</strong> l<strong>in</strong>e with Morocco’s policy<br />

of economic overtures to <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

—<br />

M<br />

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—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« It’s time to turn our eyes from<br />

Europe to <strong>Africa</strong>. We learn from Europe,<br />

but we learn more from <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

There’s an attitude that seems to<br />

say “We know but they don’t.” We<br />

have to see <strong>and</strong> value ourselves<br />

as <strong>Africa</strong>ns. »<br />

Hosni Almoukhlis<br />

Theatre practitioner, founder<br />

<strong>and</strong> artistic director, Théâtre de<br />

l’Opprimé,<br />

Casablanca*<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« We wondered what had<br />

happened to the question of the<br />

Greater Maghreb, which seemed<br />

to have somewhat disappeared,<br />

which was raised <strong>in</strong> the 1990s<br />

but stayed more or less on paper<br />

without be<strong>in</strong>g reactivated. We<br />

wondered how culture could<br />

compensate for the lacks that are<br />

part of today’s reality. »<br />

Laila Hida<br />

Photographer, co-founder,<br />

Le18 derb el ferrane,<br />

Marrakech*<br />


81<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

Examples of mobility projects<br />

HOSNI ALMOUKHLIS<br />

L’UZINE<br />

RENCONTRES<br />

CHORÉGRAPHIQUES<br />

DE CASABLANCA<br />

KAW-KAW<br />

BODA-BODA LOUNGE<br />

Theatre practitioner Hosni Almoukhlis, head of<br />

Théâtre de l’Opprimé <strong>in</strong> Casablanca, has travelled<br />

to several West <strong>Africa</strong>n countries for tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gs<br />

<strong>and</strong> festivals. In 2018, he organized the first<br />

Rencontres africa<strong>in</strong>es de théâtre social, with<br />

artists from Senegal, Egypt <strong>and</strong> Tunisia <strong>in</strong>vited<br />

to Casablanca (an artist from Gu<strong>in</strong>ea-Bissau was<br />

not able to attend due to a visa refusal).<br />

Casablanca cultural centre L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e has hosted<br />

a number of events that spotlight <strong>Africa</strong>n creative<br />

scenes. The annual <strong>and</strong> multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

Harambee Days showcases art from across the<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ent, with live performances <strong>and</strong> exhibitions.<br />

In 2018, l’Uz<strong>in</strong>e organized Casalgéria <strong>in</strong><br />

collaboration with Algiers’ Brokkart to spotlight<br />

contemporary Algerian photography, design, film,<br />

music <strong>and</strong> visual arts.<br />

The 2019 edition of the Rencontres chorégraphiques<br />

de Casablanca, organized by Compagnie<br />

Col’jam, will have a spotlight on <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

dance. In 2020, Marrakech’s Festival On Marche!,<br />

run by Compagnie Anania, will host the Biennale<br />

of <strong>Africa</strong>n dance.<br />

In 2013, Marrakech’s Le18 <strong>in</strong>itiated a project<br />

named Kaw-kaw which aimed to reactivate the<br />

political question of the Greater Maghreb. The<br />

project <strong>in</strong>cluded a 2-month residency, which<br />

brought together one artist from each of the<br />

countries, as well as an exhibition <strong>and</strong> a cycle of<br />

presentations by scholars, curators <strong>and</strong> artists.<br />

In 2018, Tangiers’ Mahal <strong>Art</strong> Space was the<br />

first Moroccan arts space to host the annual<br />

Boda-Boda Lounge, a 3-day, transnational video<br />

festival <strong>in</strong> which a selection of video art pieces<br />

by <strong>Africa</strong>n <strong>and</strong> diasporan artists are screened<br />

simultaneously <strong>in</strong> ten spaces across the cont<strong>in</strong>ent.


82<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

IMPEDIMENTS<br />

—<br />

Visas<br />

· Several respondents noted the dramatic difficulty<br />

of obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g visas to Schengen Europe:<br />

long process<strong>in</strong>g times, bureaucratic dem<strong>and</strong>s,<br />

frequent refusals <strong>and</strong>, <strong>in</strong> the event that the<br />

visa is granted, it is often for a pitifully short<br />

number of days.<br />

· Travel times to embassies <strong>in</strong> Rabat were also<br />

noted as a reason for frustration.<br />

· Travel to Egypt was noted as a grow<strong>in</strong>g area<br />

of difficulty.<br />

It’s become very difficult for young artists to enter<br />

Schengen Europe. Th<strong>in</strong>gs miraculously get much<br />

simpler when their artistic project is backed by<br />

a European state <strong>in</strong>stitution or when that <strong>in</strong>stitution<br />

takes ownership of the project. <strong>–</strong> Maria Daïf,<br />

<strong>in</strong>dependent cultural operator, Casablanca*<br />

Morocco / Algeria (see Algeria section)<br />

Neocolonialism / paternalism<br />

· Several respondents expressed the wish to<br />

have mobility opportunities outside of Europe,<br />

<strong>in</strong> light of old colonial/paternalistic relationships<br />

between France <strong>and</strong> Morocco <strong>and</strong> especially<br />

<strong>in</strong> light of their exacerbation <strong>in</strong> the form of visa<br />

policy.<br />

There is the legacy of colonialism <strong>–</strong> especially<br />

French <strong>–</strong> that we’d like to detach from. For example,<br />

the Moroccan adm<strong>in</strong>istrative system is<br />

partly modelled on the French system. We’d like<br />

to create our own models of development, our<br />

own way of do<strong>in</strong>g th<strong>in</strong>gs that fits our local reality. <strong>–</strong><br />

Am<strong>in</strong>a Mourid, Cultural operator, co-founder,<br />

Atelier Kissaria & Th<strong>in</strong>k Tanger*<br />

Geographic isolation<br />

· Several respondents noted Morocco’s geographical<br />

isolation as an impediment to mobility:<br />

with the Algerian border closed <strong>and</strong> the<br />

gates of Europe blocked to the <strong>North</strong>, Morocco<br />

is enclaved. To the South, Morocco controls<br />

the border with the portion of Western Sahara<br />

that is under Moroccan occupation.<br />

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· Morocco’s distance from the Middle East disconnects<br />

it from the lively scene <strong>and</strong> networks<br />

operat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> hubs such as Beirut, Amman,<br />

Ramallah <strong>and</strong> Cairo.<br />

Restrictions on freedom of expression<br />

· Civil society associations are active but rema<strong>in</strong><br />

subject to legal harassment, travel restrictions,<br />

<strong>and</strong> other forms of repression.<br />

· For example, an important signpost was the<br />

December 26 dissolution of cultural organization<br />

Rac<strong>in</strong>es, on charges of organiz<strong>in</strong>g an<br />

activity outside its scope of action <strong>and</strong> host<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a debate that was “prejudicial to the country’s<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions.”<br />

Language:<br />

· Moroccan artists apply<strong>in</strong>g for fund<strong>in</strong>g may f<strong>in</strong>d<br />

themselves restricted by language barriers.<br />

There’s a l<strong>in</strong>guistic conflict when it comes to [application]<br />

forms : Classical Arabic is <strong>in</strong>timidat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> more <strong>and</strong> more young people are reject<strong>in</strong>g<br />

French. English needs to be more present if the<br />

goal is to reach young people. <strong>–</strong> Maria Daïf*<br />

Lack of identification to <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> racism<br />

· Moroccans have had an uneasy relationship<br />

with <strong>Africa</strong>, which can express itself <strong>in</strong> racism.<br />

Pan-Arabism somewhat squ<strong>and</strong>ered <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

identity; it has left Moroccans with a sense of non-<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n-ness as well as a form of self-denigration<br />

towards their own popular culture, whereas the<br />

social reality is that <strong>Africa</strong> beg<strong>in</strong>s <strong>in</strong> Tangiers <strong>and</strong><br />

ends <strong>in</strong> Cape Town. It’s really <strong>in</strong> the head that it<br />

happens. There is also the question of Berberity<br />

here, because that is what carries <strong>Africa</strong>nness.<br />

Berberity is extraord<strong>in</strong>arily diverse. It’s a huge<br />

subject. <strong>–</strong> Hicham Bahou, Co-director of EAC-<br />

L’Boulvard, Casablanca*<br />

Morocco’s migratory policy is geared at <strong>in</strong>tegration;<br />

it is tak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> refugees, people <strong>in</strong> transit,<br />

who are flee<strong>in</strong>g difficult realities. Socially, it’s<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g a lot of <strong>in</strong>comprehension, question<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

<strong>in</strong> which culture is not play<strong>in</strong>g the role it should.<br />

Culture is supposed to be the cement for all<br />

these populations: we’re completely <strong>Africa</strong>n <strong>in</strong><br />

our musical <strong>and</strong> cultural heritage. <strong>–</strong> Ghita Kaldi,<br />

Director of Afrikayna, Casablanca*


83<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4. 5<br />

Tunisia<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« For a long time, the dictatorship <strong>and</strong> the very idea of<br />

the constitution of a modern Tunisian state made a po<strong>in</strong>t<br />

of sell<strong>in</strong>g us this fantasy of “Tunisianity,” which would<br />

have us be one homogeneous group.<br />

[… ]<br />

—<br />

FAST FACTS<br />

Population 11.52 million (CIA Factbook, 2017)<br />

Surface area<br />

Capital<br />

Large cities<br />

Languages<br />

165.000 km²<br />

Tunis<br />

Sfax, Sousse, Kairouan, Bizerte, Gabès<br />

Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic (official)<br />

Tamazight; Tunisian Arabic; French<br />

Diall<strong>in</strong>g code +216<br />

Currency<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

airports<br />

Rail network<br />

Visa requirements<br />

for <strong>Africa</strong>ns to enter<br />

Tunisia<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries’<br />

visa requirements for<br />

Tunisian nationals<br />

Tunisian d<strong>in</strong>ar<br />

Tunis Carthage International Airport<br />

Enfidha Hammamet International Airport<br />

Monastir Habib Bourguiba International<br />

Airprort<br />

Société Nationale des Chem<strong>in</strong>s de<br />

Fer Tunisiens ; 2150 km<br />

Visa-free access for nationals of Algeria, Libya,<br />

Mauritania, Morocco; Angola, Ben<strong>in</strong>, Burk<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Faso, Cabo Verde, Comoros, Equatorial<br />

Gu<strong>in</strong>ea, Gabon, Gambia, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea<br />

Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritius, Namibia,<br />

Niver, Senegal, South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Visa required for all other nationalities<br />

Visa-free access: Gu<strong>in</strong>ea, Ivory Coast,<br />

Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Senegal <strong>and</strong> Ben<strong>in</strong><br />

Visa on arrival: Cabo-Verde, Comoros,<br />

Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gu<strong>in</strong>ea-Bissau, Kenya,<br />

Lesotho, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rw<strong>and</strong>a,<br />

São Tomé <strong>and</strong> Pr<strong>in</strong>cipe, Seychelles, Somalia,<br />

Tanzania, Ug<strong>and</strong>a, Zambia <strong>and</strong> Zimbabwe


84<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

GENERAL INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

Tunisia is both the smallest <strong>and</strong> the northernmost<br />

country of <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, with a long history as<br />

a meet<strong>in</strong>g po<strong>in</strong>t of cultures <strong>and</strong> civilizations.<br />

Its first <strong>in</strong>habitants are the Amazigh. S<strong>in</strong>ce the<br />

12th century BC, it has known several waves of<br />

occupation <strong>and</strong> immigration, beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g with the<br />

Phoenicians <strong>and</strong> followed by the Romans, the<br />

Muslims, the Ottomans <strong>and</strong> the French. Tunisia<br />

became <strong>in</strong>dependent <strong>in</strong> 1956.<br />

The country’s recent history has been<br />

profoundly shaped by the Revolution of 2011, an<br />

<strong>in</strong>tensive campaign of civil protest <strong>and</strong> resistance<br />

that led to the resignation <strong>and</strong> flight of dictator<br />

Z<strong>in</strong>e El Abid<strong>in</strong>e Ben Ali <strong>in</strong> 2011 <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>stitution<br />

of free elections <strong>in</strong> 2014. The self-immolation of<br />

Tarek el-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi <strong>in</strong> Sidi Bouizid<br />

on December 17, 2010 is widely regarded as<br />

the spark for the region-wide wave of protests<br />

referred to as the Arab Spr<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Today, Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential<br />

representative democratic republic. S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>in</strong>dependence,<br />

Tunisia has had a policy of cultivat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

close foreign relations with Europe, <strong>in</strong> particular<br />

with France <strong>and</strong> Italy. Today, the European Union<br />

is Tunisia’s first trad<strong>in</strong>g partner <strong>and</strong> conversely,<br />

Tunisia is one of the EU’s top trad<strong>in</strong>g partners <strong>in</strong><br />

the region. Tunisia is <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the European<br />

Union’s European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP),<br />

which aims at br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g the EU <strong>and</strong> its neighbours<br />

closer. It has been favoured by European external<br />

cooperation <strong>in</strong>itiatives <strong>in</strong> (<strong>North</strong>) <strong>Africa</strong> s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

2011, namely <strong>in</strong> the field of culture (see below).<br />

Tunisia has also played an active role <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n <strong>and</strong> regional organizations. It is a member<br />

of the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League<br />

<strong>and</strong> the <strong>Africa</strong>n Union (among other <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

bodies). Diplomatic relations with fellow Maghreb<br />

nations Morocco <strong>and</strong> Algeria have historically<br />

been strong. Trade is currently <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g with<br />

Morocco. Relations with Libya have been more<br />

erratic, but have become essential <strong>in</strong> recent<br />

years as Tunisia works to support reconciliation<br />

between oppos<strong>in</strong>g factions <strong>in</strong> Libya <strong>and</strong> keeps<br />

its borders open to Libyans.<br />

—<br />

T<br />

U<br />

N<br />

I<br />

S<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

Before it was named Tunisia, the territory’s<br />

name was Ifriqiya (or <strong>Africa</strong>), giv<strong>in</strong>g the presentday<br />

name of the cont<strong>in</strong>ent <strong>Africa</strong>. Tunisia’s diplomatic<br />

<strong>and</strong> economic policies towards the rest<br />

of the cont<strong>in</strong>ent have been more limited than<br />

neighbour<strong>in</strong>g countries such as Morocco <strong>and</strong><br />

Algeria, although Tunisia’s M<strong>in</strong>istry of Economy<br />

recently launched an <strong>in</strong>vestment fund for <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

[…] We’re now discover<strong>in</strong>g that no, as a matter of<br />

fact, <strong>in</strong> Tunisia there are black people, there are other<br />

types of cultures, there are musical traditions, that are<br />

steeped <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>nity. There is a grow<strong>in</strong>g consciousness<br />

around Berberity, <strong>Africa</strong>nity, that is part of this<br />

postcolonial unmoor<strong>in</strong>g. The question today is how to<br />

l<strong>in</strong>k these “identitary” constructions with economic<br />

<strong>and</strong> political considerations; how to l<strong>in</strong>k questions of<br />

belong<strong>in</strong>g to questions of class <strong>and</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ation.<br />

Many youth want to emancipate themselves from<br />

colonial dom<strong>in</strong>ation.<br />

It seems to me that it may be important to th<strong>in</strong>k of<br />

a sort of Arab-pan-<strong>Africa</strong>nism. The colonial spirit<br />

sought to divide the “<strong>in</strong>digènes” through systems of<br />

hierarchization, but it’s important today to pay attention<br />

to what is happen<strong>in</strong>g at the l<strong>in</strong>guistic <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

levels <strong>and</strong> to young people’s choices <strong>in</strong> their forms of<br />

expression. We shouldn’t speak <strong>in</strong> their place nor take<br />

away their voices, but listen to them. »<br />

Mariem Guellouz<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> researcher, Director of Les Journées<br />

chorégraphiques de Carthage,<br />

Tunis / Paris*<br />


85<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

T<br />

U<br />

N<br />

—<br />

ARTS AND CULTURE SECTOR<br />

—<br />

The Tunisian cultural sector has been flourish<strong>in</strong>g<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce 2011, with the energy of revolution <strong>and</strong><br />

the loosen<strong>in</strong>g of laws allow<strong>in</strong>g for a veritable<br />

explosion of new forms to emerge, especially<br />

<strong>in</strong> the areas of photography, dance, street art<br />

<strong>and</strong> performance.<br />

Tunisia has long boasted a strong tradition<br />

of festivals, with more than 400 amateur,<br />

semi-professional <strong>and</strong> professional festivals<br />

tak<strong>in</strong>g place yearly around the country. The most<br />

well-known are the different “Journées” tak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

place <strong>in</strong> Carthage: the Journées c<strong>in</strong>ématographiques<br />

de Carthage, the Journées théâtrales,<br />

the Journées musicales, the Journées chorégraphiques,<br />

the Journées poétiques <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Journées d’art contempora<strong>in</strong>. Even as these<br />

established festivals thrive, new <strong>in</strong>itiatives from<br />

civil society are creat<strong>in</strong>g important momentum:<br />

l’<strong>Art</strong> Rue’s Dream City has become a flagship<br />

event <strong>in</strong> the region, <strong>and</strong> other events like Interférences,<br />

Jaou (by the Kamel Lazaar Foundation)<br />

<strong>and</strong> a new festival of photography on the isl<strong>and</strong><br />

of Kerkennah are also mak<strong>in</strong>g an impact.<br />

The arts sector <strong>in</strong> Tunisia is strongly<br />

centralized <strong>in</strong> Tunis <strong>and</strong> the <strong>North</strong>, although<br />

decentralization efforts are underway. Several<br />

associations (Cité’Ness, Fanni Raghman Anni,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Tunisian Culture Network, among others)<br />

as well as private <strong>in</strong>dividuals are work<strong>in</strong>g hard to<br />

reach rural areas of the country, although they<br />

underl<strong>in</strong>e the difficulty of such efforts given the<br />

limited government support <strong>and</strong> cost of travels.<br />

I<br />

S<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY TO / FROM TUNISIA<br />

—<br />

Tunis has become a hub for regional travel due to<br />

its political stability, its centrality <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> the relative openness of its borders. In <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, the most active axis of exchange is with<br />

Morocco. Strong ties also exist with Algeria,<br />

namely thanks to the geographic proximity which<br />

has allowed some artists to travel by car from<br />

Alger to Tunis. However, respondents noted that<br />

the repressive context <strong>in</strong> Algeria <strong>and</strong> the limited<br />

visibility of certa<strong>in</strong> discipl<strong>in</strong>es (especially dance<br />

<strong>and</strong> theatre) has made exchange more difficult.<br />

Tunis is connected by air to most major<br />

cities <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>. Road travel to Algeria is<br />

possible, but travel<strong>in</strong>g to Libya by road is not<br />

advisable due to military presence at the border.<br />

A tra<strong>in</strong> l<strong>in</strong>e is due to connect Casablanca, Algiers<br />

<strong>and</strong> Tunis but the project is currently stalled.<br />

Tunisia’s visa policy is the most open of<br />

the region. However, exchange with the rest of<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> rema<strong>in</strong>s weak (see Impediments below).<br />

This is despite a strong desire for connection<br />

with the rest of the cont<strong>in</strong>ent. Until recently, travel<br />

to most <strong>Africa</strong>n dest<strong>in</strong>ations <strong>in</strong>volved fly<strong>in</strong>g via<br />

Paris. However, Tunisair has recently upgraded<br />

its connections to West <strong>Africa</strong>. Flights to other<br />

dest<strong>in</strong>ations <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> typically go via Casablanca,<br />

at steep costs.


86<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

L’ART RUE<br />

CENTRE ARABO-AFRICAIN DE<br />

FORMATION ET DE<br />

RECHERCHE THÉÂTRALE<br />

LAB619<br />

JISER<br />

FANNI RAGHMAN ANNI<br />

AND AL-MADINA<br />

WADI MHIRI<br />

HAFEDH ZALLIT<br />

PROJET BERKA 174<br />

LANG’ART<br />

ASSOCIATION DANSEURS<br />

CITOYENS<br />

JOURNÉES CHORÉGRAPHIQUES<br />

DE CARTHAGE<br />

Examples of mobility projects<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary arts centre L’<strong>Art</strong> Rue has hosted<br />

a number of <strong>Africa</strong>n artists through its residency<br />

program, as well as through its flagship bi-annual<br />

event, Dream City (Biennale of contemporary art<br />

<strong>in</strong> public space).<br />

The Centre arabo-africa<strong>in</strong> de formation et de<br />

recherche théâtrale has tra<strong>in</strong>ed more than 367<br />

theatre practitioners <strong>in</strong> the Arab world <strong>and</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce its open<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> 2001.<br />

Lab619 attended their first residency at Festival<br />

de la BD <strong>in</strong> Alger. They now have a partnership<br />

with Algerian artists.<br />

The JISER network aims to stimulate exchanges<br />

around contemporary art <strong>and</strong> research. It l<strong>in</strong>ks<br />

Algiers, Tunis <strong>and</strong> Barcelona.<br />

Tunis-based arts <strong>and</strong> cultural rights organization<br />

Fanni Raghman Anni <strong>and</strong> Al-Mad<strong>in</strong>a (Alex<strong>and</strong>ria)<br />

have a cultural exchange partnership.<br />

Visual artist Wadi Mhiri is now a co-organizer<br />

for Ségou <strong>Art</strong>s <strong>in</strong> Ségou, Mali, after attend<strong>in</strong>g<br />

several editions of the festival.<br />

Dancer/choreographer Hafedh Zallit recently led<br />

masterclasses at Karemba Studios <strong>in</strong> Bamako,<br />

Mali as part of Projet Berka 174. Named after the<br />

old slave market <strong>in</strong> Tunis’ med<strong>in</strong>a, the project<br />

aims to excavate the mémoire du lieu to br<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>to focus <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>terrogate present-day questions<br />

of racism <strong>and</strong> religious, nationalist <strong>and</strong><br />

economic conflict.<br />

Lang’art arts centre <strong>and</strong> Association Danseurs<br />

Citoyens are launch<strong>in</strong>g the first Tuniso-<strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

festival of dance this year.<br />

The 2019 edition of the Journées chorégraphiques<br />

de Carthage, directed by Mariem Guellouz,<br />

had a focus on <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> the Arab world.<br />

—<br />

T<br />

U<br />

N<br />

I<br />

S<br />

I<br />

A<br />


87<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

Dancers Samuel Dijoulaye Coulibaly, Abdailkader Traoré, B<strong>in</strong>tou<br />

Kébé <strong>and</strong> Sylvie Kouané participate <strong>in</strong> a Masterclass led by Tunisian<br />

choreographer Hafedh Zallit at the Centre Culturel Togola de<br />

Sabalibougou <strong>in</strong> Bamako, Mali, as part of Projet Berka 174.<br />

Photo courtesy of H.PROD/Hafedh Zallit<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Travel means connections, friends, the chance to love<br />

music even more. In Tunis, every time I go, I get to f<strong>in</strong>d<br />

books. There are no libraries <strong>in</strong> Benghazi. From my<br />

perspective <strong>and</strong> from what I hear from the people around<br />

me, you come back as a different person every time you go,<br />

even if you go for 5 days. We need to do someth<strong>in</strong>g here to<br />

make culture the basis of change <strong>in</strong> this society. »<br />

Faraj Alsileeni<br />

drummer <strong>and</strong> Director,<br />

Tanarout, Benghazi*<br />


88<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

FUNDING FOR MOBILITY<br />

—<br />

Public adm<strong>in</strong>istration<br />

Tunisia has <strong>in</strong>vested significantly <strong>in</strong> its M<strong>in</strong>istry<br />

of Culture s<strong>in</strong>ce the Revolution. Individual artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> organizations are technically eligible to<br />

receive fund<strong>in</strong>g for projects <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g mobility.<br />

However, this potential fund<strong>in</strong>g source is weakened<br />

by a serious lack of transparency <strong>and</strong> poor<br />

adm<strong>in</strong>istration.<br />

In the face of poor fund<strong>in</strong>g from public<br />

adm<strong>in</strong>istration, the Tunisian <strong>in</strong>dependent sector<br />

relies substantially on <strong>in</strong>ternational funders,<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>cipally the European Union. Tunisia has been<br />

the ma<strong>in</strong> beneficiary of EU fund<strong>in</strong>g for arts <strong>and</strong><br />

culture <strong>in</strong> the Maghreb. Fund<strong>in</strong>g is <strong>in</strong>tended to<br />

support culture as a lever for democratic transition.<br />

EU fund<strong>in</strong>g is distributed through three channels:<br />

1) A partnership between the French M<strong>in</strong>istry<br />

of Culture <strong>and</strong> Tunisian M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture;<br />

2) Tfanen <strong>–</strong> Tunisie Créative (budget of 6 million<br />

euros). Launched <strong>in</strong> 2015, Tfanen’s “Fonds<br />

d’appui à la création” can support mobility projects.<br />

F<strong>in</strong>ally, 3) as of 2018, Tunisia is a member<br />

of Creative Europe. Tunisian organizations have<br />

full eligibility to apply for fund<strong>in</strong>g through the<br />

Culture sub-programme <strong>and</strong> are partially eligible<br />

for the Media sub-programme.<br />

Bilateral cooperation<br />

Bilateral cooperation <strong>in</strong>stitutes are present <strong>in</strong> Tunis<br />

<strong>and</strong> other major cities. The Institut Français has<br />

the strongest presence, with branches <strong>in</strong> Tunis,<br />

Sousse <strong>and</strong> Sfax. The Goethe Institut is present<br />

<strong>in</strong> Tunis. Respondents noted the impact it has<br />

had via tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g programs for cultural managers.<br />

The British Council, the Italian Institute for Culture<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Cervantes Institute are also present.<br />

Local foundations are also emerg<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to support cultural projects, with very promis<strong>in</strong>g<br />

beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>gs. Launched <strong>in</strong> 2015, the<br />

Fondation Rambourg is build<strong>in</strong>g up capacity to<br />

support mobility projects via several schemes:<br />

1) partnerships; 2) grants; 3) scholarships; 4)<br />

projects <strong>in</strong>itiated by the foundation. Fondation<br />

Kamel Lazaar has a grants programme for<br />

—<br />

T<br />

U<br />

N<br />

I<br />

S<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

practitioners <strong>in</strong> the fields of Visual arts, Heritage,<br />

Music <strong>and</strong> perform<strong>in</strong>g arts (theatre, dance, etc.)<br />

<strong>and</strong> Cultural <strong>and</strong> civic education.<br />

—<br />

IMPEDIMENTS<br />

—<br />

Adm<strong>in</strong>istrative<br />

· Parental permission for travel is necessary for<br />

all travellers under the age of 35 years.<br />

· Travellers leav<strong>in</strong>g Tunisia must purchase a « timbre<br />

de sortie » (exit stamp), at a cost of 30 d<strong>in</strong>ars.<br />

· Tunisians must purchase a « timbre de voyage »<br />

(traveller’s stamp), at a cost of 60 d<strong>in</strong>ars.<br />

· While small, these amounts may place an additional<br />

burden on artists who are already <strong>in</strong> a<br />

precarious f<strong>in</strong>ancial situation <strong>and</strong> may not receive<br />

coverage from <strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>in</strong>vit<strong>in</strong>g them.<br />

Several artists were arrested at the airport <strong>and</strong><br />

missed their flight because they didn’t have the<br />

parental authorization document. <strong>–</strong> Asma Kaouech,<br />

executive director, Fanni Raghman Anni, Tunis*<br />

Currency <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

· The Central Bank controls all transactions <strong>in</strong> d<strong>in</strong>ars.<br />

D<strong>in</strong>ars cannot be traded outside of Tunisia.<br />

· There is a ceil<strong>in</strong>g of 6.000 d<strong>in</strong>ar (approx. 1760<br />

euros) imposed on purchases made <strong>in</strong> foreign<br />

currencies. This imposes a serious limit on the<br />

number of travels that can be made outside the<br />

country, especially consider<strong>in</strong>g the high costs of<br />

travels. Travellers must purchase tickets through<br />

a local travel agent, unless the <strong>in</strong>vit<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>stitution<br />

purchases the tickets or the traveller makes<br />

arrangements via a colleague, friend or family<br />

member outside the country.<br />

In Tunisia, we can’t buy tickets that we f<strong>in</strong>d onl<strong>in</strong>e<br />

at low prices, s<strong>in</strong>ce we have to buy them <strong>in</strong> euros,<br />

which the law prohibits. Furthermore, we get a<br />

tourists’ allowance of only 6000 d<strong>in</strong>ars per year.<br />

Consequently, if we travel 6-8 times per year, as<br />

I did last year, we have to split that sum over all<br />

the trips. We have to travel with 200 <strong>–</strong> 300 euros<br />

per trip, which is not a comfortable amount. <strong>–</strong><br />

Wadi Mhiri, visual artist, Tunis*


89<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

· Foreign currencies can no longer be withdrawn <strong>in</strong><br />

Tunisia. As such, local organizations can no longer<br />

pay <strong>in</strong>vited artists <strong>in</strong> currencies other than d<strong>in</strong>ars.<br />

Tunisian organizations can no longer pay <strong>in</strong> euros,<br />

which means that even if we <strong>in</strong>vite an artist, we can’t<br />

pay them. Even if there are structural mobility funds<br />

that can be used to cover the artist to come to Tunisia,<br />

the problem is that the central bank no longer grants<br />

money for cultural activities. There’s a cash deficit. <strong>–</strong><br />

Béatrice Dunoyer, program director, L’<strong>Art</strong> Rue, Tunis*<br />

· The weaken<strong>in</strong>g of the d<strong>in</strong>ar is also plac<strong>in</strong>g important<br />

constra<strong>in</strong>ts on artists.<br />

Tickets with<strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> are too expensive. We can get a<br />

ticket from Tunis to Paris without any problem, but to<br />

go to Mali, it’s 1700 d<strong>in</strong>ars off the bat <strong>and</strong> the currency<br />

is <strong>in</strong> a free fall. For an artist to live, to prosper, it’s very<br />

difficult if they don’t have support for the flight or their<br />

stay. It’s very difficult for an artist to meet his/her needs. <strong>–</strong><br />

Cyr<strong>in</strong>e Gannoun, theatre actor <strong>and</strong> director, Director,<br />

Théâtre Al-Hamra/Centre arabo-africa<strong>in</strong> de formation<br />

et de recherche théâtrales, Tunis*<br />

Transport of artworks<br />

· There are restrictions on the types of goods that may<br />

be transported outside of Tunisia. <strong>Art</strong>works <strong>and</strong> heritage<br />

items cannot not be taken outside the territory<br />

without authorization from the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture.<br />

Visas<br />

· Several respondents noted that Tunisia’s visa policy<br />

is subject to frequent changes, which are <strong>in</strong> turn difficult<br />

to track.<br />

· Visa restrictions are gett<strong>in</strong>g tighter <strong>and</strong> tighter for<br />

travel to Europe <strong>and</strong> are grow<strong>in</strong>g with MENA countries<br />

such as Egypt <strong>and</strong> Lebanon.<br />

Lack of <strong>in</strong>frastrucure<br />

· Several artists noted that they do not have sufficient<br />

access to competent <strong>and</strong> motivated cultural operators<br />

to assist them <strong>in</strong> search<strong>in</strong>g for fund<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> prepar<strong>in</strong>g<br />

their fund<strong>in</strong>g applications.<br />

· Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Shiran Ben Abderrazak, executive director<br />

of the Fondation Rambourg, there is a strong<br />

desire for tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g for cultural managers. To meet this<br />

dem<strong>and</strong>, the Université Tunis-Dauph<strong>in</strong>e launched a<br />

Master’s <strong>in</strong> cultural eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g this year, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Institut des Hautes Études Commerciales-Carthage<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Fondation Rambourg are <strong>in</strong> the process of<br />

—<br />

T<br />

U<br />

N<br />

I<br />

S<br />

I<br />

A<br />

—<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g a cont<strong>in</strong>u<strong>in</strong>g education program <strong>in</strong><br />

cultural management.<br />

Restrictions on freedom of expression<br />

· Freedom House rates Tunisia as “free”. However,<br />

control cont<strong>in</strong>ues to be exerted <strong>in</strong> covert<br />

ways, for example through the ceil<strong>in</strong>gs imposed<br />

on withdrawals of d<strong>in</strong>ars <strong>and</strong> expenses <strong>in</strong><br />

foreign currencies (see “Currency” above).<br />

The state has passed new laws on associations<br />

<strong>in</strong> an attempt to fight aga<strong>in</strong>st organizations that<br />

were launder<strong>in</strong>g money <strong>–</strong> the money was go<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to the extremists. Among other laws, there is<br />

now a very strict limitation on daily withdrawals<br />

of d<strong>in</strong>ars (an association cannot withdraw<br />

more than 500 d<strong>in</strong>ars/day, or 150 euros). It’s a<br />

golden opportunity to smother civil society as a<br />

whole. <strong>–</strong> Béatrice Dunoyer*<br />

· More explicit cases of censorship have also<br />

been documented, for example with the police<br />

clos<strong>in</strong>g down an exhibit at Maison de l’Image<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2017.<br />

Lack of identification to <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> racism<br />

· Tunisia portrays itself as an open country.<br />

However, nearly all respondents agreed that<br />

racism permeates Tunisian society. The history<br />

of slavery has yet to be unearthed, <strong>and</strong><br />

black Tunisians from the South cont<strong>in</strong>ue to be<br />

treated as second-class citizens. In its extreme<br />

forms, this racism is expressed <strong>in</strong> discrim<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

<strong>and</strong> violence aga<strong>in</strong>st black Tunisians, <strong>and</strong><br />

students <strong>and</strong> other immigrants from other<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n regions.<br />

· In the artistic community, respondents report an<br />

awkwardness about Tunisia’s <strong>Africa</strong>n identity<br />

<strong>and</strong> a mistrust towards other <strong>Africa</strong>ns.<br />

We have huge issues with racism here. Black<br />

people are considered second-class citizens. It’s<br />

horrible. [First, there are] the black people who<br />

come from the South, who are Tunisian, <strong>and</strong> who<br />

already face an atrocious level of racism. Then,<br />

we have lots of Sub-Saharan students, from Côte<br />

d’Ivoire, from Senegal, <strong>and</strong> all those who have<br />

fled their countries. The average Tunisian is a<br />

profoundly racist person. <strong>–</strong> Malek Sebaï, dancer<br />

<strong>and</strong> choreographer, co-founder, Association<br />

Hayyou’Raqs, Tunis*


90<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

4.7<br />

Western Sahara<br />

*A significant proportion of the population<br />

lives <strong>in</strong> exile <strong>in</strong> the T<strong>in</strong>douf refugee<br />

camps <strong>in</strong> Algeria. Estimates vary about<br />

the number of people liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the camps<br />

(UN estimate: 90,000)<br />

FAST FACTS<br />

Population 580.039 (CIA, 2018)*<br />

Surface area<br />

Capital<br />

Large cities<br />

Languages<br />

Diall<strong>in</strong>g code<br />

Ma<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

airports<br />

Visa requirements<br />

710.085 km²<br />

Tifariti (de facto capital of the Sahrawi Arab<br />

Democratic Republic); Laayoune (capital of<br />

the Moroccan-controlled zone)<br />

Dakhla, Smara<br />

(on Moroccan-controlled territory)<br />

T<strong>in</strong>douf refugee camps (<strong>in</strong> Algeria)<br />

Modern St<strong>and</strong>ard Arabic; Tamazight;<br />

Hassaniya Arabic; Moroccan Darija; English,<br />

French, Spanish<br />

+213 (Algeria); +212 (Morocco)<br />

Laayoune ; Dakhla (Morocco)<br />

T<strong>in</strong>douf (Algeria)<br />

See <strong>Mobility</strong> below


91<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

GENERAL INFORMATION<br />

—<br />

The area known by the term “Western Sahara”<br />

is a disputed territory on the northwest coast of<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. It is divided <strong>in</strong>to two regions: the majority<br />

(roughly 80%) of the territory is under Moroccan<br />

control, whereas a small portion is adm<strong>in</strong>istered<br />

as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR),<br />

with a government <strong>in</strong> exile <strong>in</strong> T<strong>in</strong>douf, Algeria.<br />

Morocco has built a 2,700 km wall to del<strong>in</strong>eate<br />

the two zones, which it cont<strong>in</strong>ues to guard <strong>and</strong><br />

monitor with military bases, artillery posts <strong>and</strong><br />

radars scann<strong>in</strong>g the SADR side. The wall is l<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

with l<strong>and</strong>m<strong>in</strong>es. Western Sahara is on the United<br />

Nations’ list of “non-self-govern<strong>in</strong>g territories;”<br />

it is the most populous territory on the list. The<br />

SADR has been a member of the <strong>Africa</strong>n Union<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce 1984, a fact that pushed Morocco to withdraw<br />

its membership (before rejo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> 2017).<br />

Western Sahara was orig<strong>in</strong>ally <strong>in</strong>habited<br />

by Amazigh tribes, which were later jo<strong>in</strong>ed by<br />

Serer from the south. After the arrival of Islam,<br />

the l<strong>and</strong> became the site of important caravan<br />

routes, especially between Marrakech <strong>and</strong><br />

Timbuktu. Spa<strong>in</strong> seized control of the area <strong>in</strong><br />

1884, establish<strong>in</strong>g it as a Spanish colony. At<br />

the outbreak of the Second World War <strong>in</strong> 1939,<br />

adm<strong>in</strong>istration was shifted <strong>in</strong>to the h<strong>and</strong>s of<br />

Spanish Morocco.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce Spa<strong>in</strong> withdrew its troops <strong>in</strong> 1975,<br />

the area has been at the centre of disputes<br />

between Morocco <strong>and</strong> the Sahrawi Polisario<br />

Front. Morocco annexed roughly two-thirds of<br />

the territory <strong>in</strong> 1976 <strong>and</strong> the rest <strong>in</strong> 1979, follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Mauritania’s withdrawal. The Western<br />

Sahara War, oppos<strong>in</strong>g Morocco <strong>and</strong> the Sahrawi<br />

Polisario Front, lasted until a UN-brokered<br />

cease-fire <strong>in</strong> 1991. A proposed referendum over<br />

sovereignty was planned but has never taken<br />

place. Algeria has backed the Polisario front<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce the beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g, an issue that is at the heart<br />

of present-day diplomatic tensions between<br />

Morocco <strong>and</strong> Algeria. The conflict has resulted<br />

<strong>in</strong> severe human rights abuses, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

displacement of tens of thous<strong>and</strong>s of Sahrawi<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« There are a bunch<br />

of local cultural festivals<br />

that happen with<strong>in</strong> the<br />

camps <strong>and</strong> that move<br />

from camp to camp.<br />

Everyth<strong>in</strong>g happens on<br />

Algerian soil, aside<br />

from <strong>Art</strong>ifariti which<br />

happens <strong>in</strong> 2 places <strong>–</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

the camps <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

Tifariti. International<br />

artists come <strong>and</strong> spend<br />

2 weeks <strong>in</strong> Tifariti. »<br />

Mohamed Sulaiman<br />

Photographer <strong>and</strong> visual<br />

artist, Motif arts studio,<br />

Samara refugee camp,<br />

T<strong>in</strong>douf<br />

—<br />

civilians <strong>and</strong> the death of thous<strong>and</strong>s of civilians<br />

dur<strong>in</strong>g the war years. Morocco has been criticized<br />

by Amnesty International, Human Rights<br />

Watch <strong>and</strong> a vast number of other <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

organizations for ongo<strong>in</strong>g human rights abuses<br />

<strong>and</strong> violent crackdowns on pro-<strong>in</strong>dependence<br />

demonstrations. Freedom House rates Western<br />

Sahara as “not free”, with a score of 4 / 100 <strong>in</strong><br />

2018.<br />

—<br />

ARTS AND CULTURE<br />

—<br />

<strong>Art</strong>s <strong>and</strong> culture <strong>in</strong> Western Sahara centre on<br />

two major annual events, namely the FiSahara<br />

International Film Festival <strong>and</strong> ARTifariti Festival<br />

of <strong>Art</strong>s <strong>and</strong> Human Rights. FiSahara takes place<br />

<strong>in</strong> the refugee camps around T<strong>in</strong>douf, Algeria,<br />

while ARTifariti is spread between the camps<br />

<strong>and</strong> Tifariti, which sits <strong>in</strong> the Liberated Zone.<br />

Both events centre on art as a medium for expression<br />

of the struggle for human rights. Both<br />

events draw <strong>in</strong>ternational visitors, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g<br />

visitors from across <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Cultural expression also thrives year-round<br />

thanks to small artists’-run studios <strong>in</strong> T<strong>in</strong>douf<br />

<strong>and</strong> across the border. There are also<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g opportunities, for example through<br />

the Abid<strong>in</strong> Kaid Saleh Audiovisual School.<br />

Meanwhile, Morocco has been <strong>in</strong>vest<strong>in</strong>g<br />

culturally <strong>in</strong> the territory it occupies, promot<strong>in</strong>g<br />

for example the city of Dakhla as a<br />

touristic <strong>and</strong> cultural dest<strong>in</strong>ation with events<br />

such as the <strong>Africa</strong>n Fashion Festival.


92<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

—<br />

MOBILITY TO/FROM<br />

WESTERN SAHARA<br />

—<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> to <strong>and</strong> from the Polisario-controlled portion<br />

of Western Sahara <strong>and</strong> its arts events goes<br />

through T<strong>in</strong>douf <strong>in</strong> Algeria, with flight connections<br />

to Algiers, Oran, Constant<strong>in</strong>e <strong>and</strong> Béchar.<br />

Visas applications to enter the T<strong>in</strong>douf camps<br />

must be submitted to both the Algerian <strong>and</strong><br />

Sahrawi authorities. Sahrawi representations<br />

are present <strong>in</strong> 39 European <strong>and</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n cities.<br />

In <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>, the only embassy is <strong>in</strong> Algiers.<br />

For Sahrawis liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> SADR-controlled areas,<br />

visa applications are complicated. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

Citizenship Rights <strong>Africa</strong>, a Sahrawi passport<br />

exists but is only recognized by states that recognize<br />

the self-determ<strong>in</strong>ation of the SADR. Sahrawis<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the camps may possess Algerian<br />

passports, which are granted to refugees, but not<br />

ID cards. Extensive additional documentation is<br />

necessary to apply for a visa.<br />

Sahrawis liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Moroccan-controlled territory<br />

are eligible for Moroccan passports. Moroccan<br />

visa regulations apply for entry <strong>in</strong>to the Moroccancontrolled<br />

zones, with l<strong>and</strong> entry possible via<br />

the south of Morocco or the north of Mauritania<br />

although subject to closures <strong>and</strong> road travel<br />

subject to frequent checkpo<strong>in</strong>ts.<br />

—<br />

IMPEDIMENTS<br />

—<br />

Costs<br />

· The cost of travel is <strong>in</strong>accessible to most Sahrawis,<br />

who already live <strong>in</strong> extremely precarious<br />

conditions.<br />

· Cost of travel to T<strong>in</strong>douf is also high, requir<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a flight connection via Algiers, Oran, Constant<strong>in</strong>e<br />

or Béchar.<br />

—<br />

W<br />

E<br />

S<br />

T<br />

E<br />

R<br />

N<br />

S<br />

A<br />

H<br />

A<br />

R<br />

A<br />

—<br />

A flight from Algiers to T<strong>in</strong>douf alone costs<br />

more than a flight from Algiers to Paris. <strong>–</strong> Walid<br />

Aidoud, visual artist, Founder of Box24 (Algiers)<br />

<strong>and</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>ator of Algerian participants at<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ifariti festival<br />

Visas<br />

· Visa procedures are complicated for Sahrawis<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the T<strong>in</strong>douf camps <strong>and</strong> visitors.<br />

See <strong>Mobility</strong> above.<br />

Isolation<br />

· Network<strong>in</strong>g opportunities for Sahrawis are<br />

more or less limited to the two annual art<br />

events. While these br<strong>in</strong>g energy <strong>and</strong> new<br />

ideas to local artists, they rema<strong>in</strong> limited.<br />

· Exchange with Mauritania could be improved,<br />

given the common border.<br />

This is a place that is cut off from the world.<br />

There are little possibilities for people to <strong>in</strong>teract<br />

with the outside world. […] I’ve met<br />

artists from Senegal, Tanzania, South <strong>Africa</strong>,<br />

Mauritania, Tchad. The majority from Spa<strong>in</strong>, but<br />

there’s always someone from <strong>North</strong> America. I<br />

wish we’d see more exchange with Mauritania.<br />

There is great potential <strong>–</strong> we speak the same<br />

dialect, we have the same traditions <strong>and</strong> poetry<br />

<strong>and</strong> music; they’re almost identical, not unlike<br />

the differences between Morocco, Tunisia <strong>and</strong><br />

Algeria. It’s stronger with the Mauritanians.<br />

There’s a lot of exchange <strong>in</strong> music <strong>and</strong> poetry.<br />

This is an oral culture. <strong>–</strong> Mohamed Sulaiman<br />

Diplomatic tensions <strong>and</strong> disputes over<br />

sovereignty<br />

· <strong>Art</strong>ists are at the centre of political disputes<br />

over Sahrawi sovereignty. Access<br />

to <strong>in</strong>ternational events <strong>and</strong> opportunities is<br />

conditional upon partner countries’ position<br />

on Sahrawi sovereignty.<br />

There is an embargo on the existence of Western<br />

Sahara. Our association exists to spread<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation, to be very clear on our position.<br />

We try to base our work <strong>in</strong> humanitarian aid,<br />

<strong>in</strong> strengthen<strong>in</strong>g the role of art <strong>and</strong> culture. I<br />

have been subjected to many embargos. […]<br />

We haven’t had Arab artists because no Arab<br />

country [other than Algeria] recognizes<br />

Western Sahara. <strong>–</strong> Walid Aidoud


93<br />

Country-Specific Information<br />

Prejudice<br />

· Lack of knowledge leads to prejudice visà-vis<br />

Sahrawi artists.<br />

We’re not always labelled as we would wish<br />

to be. You can come across people who have<br />

prejudice. Even though we are <strong>in</strong> a conflict<br />

area, people are just like normal people do<strong>in</strong>g<br />

everyday th<strong>in</strong>gs. I’m an artist, so I’m supposed<br />

to add someth<strong>in</strong>g beautiful to the world. <strong>–</strong><br />

Mohamed Sulaiman<br />

Sahrawi photographer <strong>and</strong> maker Mohamed Sulaiman<br />

<strong>and</strong> Malian photographer <strong>and</strong> maker Gadiaba Kodio<br />

organized workshops on artistic recycl<strong>in</strong>g at Motif <strong>Art</strong><br />

Studio <strong>in</strong> Samara refugee camp, T<strong>in</strong>douf (Algeria).<br />

Photo courtesy of Mohamed Sulaiman.


94<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

5<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

You can’t create projects without<br />

connections. And mobility is a means of connect<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

If there’s no mobility,<br />

noth<strong>in</strong>g happens.<br />

Bahri Ben Yahmed<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer,<br />

Danseurs Citoyens, Tunis*<br />


95<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

CON—<br />

CLU—<br />

SION &<br />

RE COM—<br />

MENDA—<br />

TIONS<br />

The importance of support<strong>in</strong>g mobility<br />

for artists <strong>and</strong> cultural actors <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> cannot be stressed enough. <strong>Art</strong>ists<br />

young <strong>and</strong> older want to see new vistas, meet fellow<br />

creatives, share perspectives, learn new techniques <strong>and</strong><br />

learn about themselves <strong>and</strong> one another. This desire for<br />

exchange was shared by all 90 artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators<br />

<strong>in</strong>terviewed.<br />

It is a desire that is shared with artists all over the world <strong>–</strong><br />

travel, tour<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> circulation have repeatedly been underscored<br />

as necessities for the creative vocation. However,<br />

mobility takes on special characteristics, resonances <strong>and</strong><br />

stakes <strong>in</strong> the <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n context. In the wake of the<br />

2011 revolutions <strong>and</strong> the upris<strong>in</strong>gs, conflicts, <strong>and</strong> peaceful<br />

movements of dissent that followed, a strong push toward<br />

discovery <strong>and</strong> solidarity has unfolded across the region.<br />

Old barriers of authoritarianism, isolationism <strong>and</strong> restricted<br />

freedoms have been lifted (albeit with uneven follow-through<br />

<strong>and</strong> worry<strong>in</strong>g trends emerg<strong>in</strong>g); neighbours have felt like<br />

they can f<strong>in</strong>ally see each other <strong>and</strong> get to know one another.


96<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

Inspir<strong>in</strong>g networks, residencies <strong>and</strong> circuits have emerged<br />

<strong>and</strong> been nourished across the region, thanks to the<br />

dedicated work of visionary cultural operators <strong>and</strong> artists.<br />

These <strong>in</strong>itiatives must be supported.<br />

At the same time, this push towards regional East-West<br />

solidarity has not necessarily correlated with <strong>in</strong>creased<br />

mobility towards the South. This report has striven to<br />

document some of the reasons why mobility between<br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n countries <strong>and</strong> other countries across the<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ent has been weaker than one might expect.<br />

While many of these impediments are tied to long-entrenched<br />

structures <strong>and</strong> trends that may be more difficult<br />

to move, other obstacles are very much <strong>in</strong> flux. The most<br />

prom<strong>in</strong>ent is the <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g closure of Schengen Europe,<br />

which is shap<strong>in</strong>g mobility on the cont<strong>in</strong>ent at the level of<br />

logistics but also, crucially, at the level of the imag<strong>in</strong>ation.<br />

In parallel <strong>and</strong> relatedly, there is an emergent awareness<br />

of the benefits of South-South connection <strong>and</strong> exchange,<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>itiatives designed to stimulate <strong>and</strong> facilitate such<br />

exchange are gett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g momentum.<br />

As the cont<strong>in</strong>ent’s first mobility fund <strong>and</strong> the only cont<strong>in</strong>entwide<br />

mobility fund open to all artistic discipl<strong>in</strong>es, AMA is<br />

<strong>in</strong> a unique position to help bolster this momentum. It is<br />

our hope that this research will have contributed to this<br />

vital goal by illum<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g the opportunities that exist for<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational mobility with<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> with other<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n regions; shedd<strong>in</strong>g light on the impediments that<br />

afflict this mobility; <strong>and</strong> articulat<strong>in</strong>g the recommendations<br />

detailed below, all of which are drawn from feedback<br />

from respondents <strong>and</strong> are geared at various stakeholders<br />

(funders, cultural operators, artists, etc.).<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« If there’s any way to change th<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

it’s to travel with<strong>in</strong> our country <strong>and</strong><br />

to travel on the cont<strong>in</strong>ent. This is the k<strong>in</strong>d<br />

of mobility that is go<strong>in</strong>g to change th<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

When I went to Tangiers, I talked to<br />

some artists; those conversations<br />

gave me so much. When I went to Tunis,<br />

I found myself <strong>in</strong> a bar/café with all the<br />

Tunisian youth. It was sublime. I went<br />

back to Algiers feel<strong>in</strong>g euphoric.<br />

I came back with so much energy. It<br />

did me so much good. We need these<br />

experiences! »<br />

Mehdi Djelil<br />

Visual artist,<br />

Algiers*<br />


97<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer H<strong>in</strong>d Benali (Compagnie Fleur d’Orange)<br />

perform<strong>in</strong>g M’Safir (Traveler), a new creation on the “limits placed on the<br />

freedom <strong>and</strong> mobility of Global South citizens from the moment they try to<br />

cross the border with the <strong>North</strong>.”<br />

Photo courtesy of Patrick Hamm.


—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« There’s a grow<strong>in</strong>g consciousness at the<br />

local level: we don’t have much to do <strong>in</strong> the<br />

<strong>North</strong>. There is so much to do here at home.<br />

And the <strong>North</strong> is so saturated! I don’t see<br />

myself go<strong>in</strong>g to work abroad permanently,<br />

because what I have to do makes more sense<br />

here. It’s the consciousness of my generation.<br />

It’s what makes it so that people leave<br />

<strong>and</strong> come back.»<br />

Myriam Amroun<br />

Cultural manager,<br />

Algiers*<br />

—<br />

The lack of awareness of exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

opportunities <strong>and</strong> potential<br />

partners was a recurr<strong>in</strong>g theme<br />

<strong>in</strong> all <strong>in</strong>terviews. Many artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> operators expressed support<br />

for this mapp<strong>in</strong>g exercise<br />

<strong>and</strong> wished to know where others<br />

could be found. In light of<br />

this, a crucial step towards improv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

mobility must be taken at the level of <strong>in</strong>formationshar<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

namely through the follow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>itiatives:<br />

1.1. Create an onl<strong>in</strong>e platform centraliz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

about opportunities on the cont<strong>in</strong>ent, preferably<br />

searchable by discipl<strong>in</strong>e, dest<strong>in</strong>ation, etc. <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g a calendar, contacts <strong>and</strong> other relevant<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation<br />

98<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

1 .<br />

Promote<br />

<strong>in</strong>formationshar<strong>in</strong>g<br />

about<br />

opportunities<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> other<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n regions<br />

2 .<br />

Support<br />

face-to-face<br />

<strong>and</strong> onl<strong>in</strong>e<br />

network<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Lack of concrete, <strong>in</strong>-person contact with peers <strong>and</strong><br />

colleagues underlies the lack of <strong>in</strong>formation shar<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> lack of awareness of possibilities outside<br />

one’s immediate environment. Several respondents<br />

stressed that their most fruitful collaborations have<br />

come out of experiences where<br />

they physically met a fellow artist<br />

/ curator / operator. As such,<br />

it seems necessary to multiply<br />

such opportunities <strong>–</strong> ideally,<br />

through face-to-face meet<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

but also leverag<strong>in</strong>g onl<strong>in</strong>e<br />

technologies to reduce costs.<br />

2.1. Create opportunities for<br />

cultural operators to meet <strong>and</strong><br />

share <strong>in</strong>formation, region- <strong>and</strong><br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ent-wide. Cultural operators<br />

will lead the way for artists<br />

2.2. Encourage the creation<br />

of discipl<strong>in</strong>e-specific networks,<br />

us<strong>in</strong>g the model of the Network<br />

of Alternative Arab Screens, AFRIFA <strong>and</strong><br />

Centres of Learn<strong>in</strong>g for Photography <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

These networks can share <strong>in</strong>formation,<br />

advocate for <strong>and</strong> facilitate mobility<br />

2.3. Strengthen networks <strong>and</strong> support mobility <strong>in</strong><br />

areas where mobility is already facilitated by<br />

visa-free policy (e.g., the Maghreb)<br />

1. 2. Centralize <strong>and</strong> consolidate exist<strong>in</strong>g mapp<strong>in</strong>gs (e.g.,<br />

Rac<strong>in</strong>e’s <strong>Art</strong>Map; Carte Culturelle de l’Algérie);<br />

support new mapp<strong>in</strong>gs for other countries<br />

1. 3. Emphasize dissem<strong>in</strong>ation of <strong>in</strong>formation about<br />

arts scenes <strong>in</strong> Algeria, Libya, Mauritania <strong>and</strong><br />

Western Sahara to combat isolation<br />

2.4. Multiply scop<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g missions to<br />

Algeria, Libya, Mauritania <strong>and</strong> Western Sahara<br />

to reduce isolation <strong>and</strong> create new networks<br />

2.5. Involve youth <strong>in</strong> new networks by reach<strong>in</strong>g<br />

out to art schools <strong>and</strong> universities


99<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« We can create more virtual<br />

platforms. We know it’s hard to<br />

travel, but it shouldn’t be a<br />

constra<strong>in</strong>t on creat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> do<strong>in</strong>g<br />

th<strong>in</strong>gs together. Boda Boda project<br />

showed us that it was possible to<br />

work, reflect <strong>and</strong> feel together<br />

all the while stay<strong>in</strong>g at home. It<br />

starts with a commitment. »<br />

Nouha Ben Yebdri<br />

Curator, Mahal <strong>Art</strong> Space,<br />

Tangiers*<br />

—<br />

3.<br />

Improve fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

opportunities<br />

Lack of fund<strong>in</strong>g for mobility<br />

is the regrettable counterpart<br />

to the exorbitant costs of travel. The follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

ideas were proposed for funders <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g AMA:<br />

3.1. Create partnerships with festivals <strong>and</strong> specific<br />

events, for example through a quota<br />

system (this is the system employed by<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Art</strong> L<strong>in</strong>es, among others)<br />

3.2. Give festival organizers the opportunity to<br />

select the artists they want to <strong>in</strong>vite<br />

2.6. Ensure presence of mobility funders at events,<br />

organize presentations<br />

2.7. Host onl<strong>in</strong>e meet<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> e-conferences to<br />

share <strong>in</strong>formation about opportunities, fund<strong>in</strong>g<br />

sources, etc. These could be delivered through<br />

regional or city-based po<strong>in</strong>t-people<br />

2.8. Provide more support for “go-<strong>and</strong>-see” <strong>in</strong>itiatives<br />

<strong>and</strong> meet<strong>in</strong>gs that are not necessarily tied<br />

to specific projects or expected outcomes.<br />

Many artists expressed feel<strong>in</strong>g that the strong<br />

pressure to produce was <strong>in</strong> tension with the<br />

total lack of knowledge they had of scenes<br />

outside their own. As such, they felt that the<br />

push to collaborate may be premature; they<br />

need to get to know each other before they<br />

start creat<strong>in</strong>g together<br />

3.3. Create discipl<strong>in</strong>e-specific fund<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>in</strong>es<br />

to support discipl<strong>in</strong>es that are weaker <strong>in</strong><br />

different countries <strong>and</strong>/or that suffer from<br />

neglect from authorities <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g bodies<br />

(e.g., dance <strong>in</strong> Algeria)<br />

3.4. Exp<strong>and</strong> the support that is <strong>in</strong>cluded with<br />

mobility funds: cover accommodation, per<br />

diems, etc. (Al-Mawred al-Thaqafy has this<br />

policy)<br />

3.5. Advocate for the necessity of long-term<br />

program support as opposed to projectby-project<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g mobility funds<br />

3.6. Provide more flexible deadl<strong>in</strong>es<br />

3.7 Consider <strong>in</strong>tegrat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>terviews <strong>in</strong>to selection<br />

procedures to reduce the dependency<br />

on professional grant-writ<strong>in</strong>g skills <strong>and</strong><br />

restore human exchange <strong>in</strong> the grant application<br />

process


4.<br />

Support the<br />

structur<strong>in</strong>g of the<br />

arts <strong>and</strong> culture<br />

sector(s) <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« Grants are there for artists to concentrate<br />

on the artistic <strong>and</strong> not the economic sides<br />

of their work. That’s where grants get<br />

<strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g. I would never have travelled as<br />

much <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> if I hadn’t had the help I got.<br />

I received AMA grants, grants from the Institut<br />

Français, which was much more open <strong>and</strong><br />

generous; it was a different system.<br />

It changed my outlook once I was on the spot;<br />

I wasn’t caught up <strong>in</strong> the same calculations,<br />

the same deception <strong>and</strong> disillusionment.<br />

It’s important that those k<strong>in</strong>ds of structures<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ue to support artists’ travels.»<br />

H<strong>in</strong>d Benali,<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer, Compagnie Fleur<br />

d’orange, Casablanca/Nouméa*<br />

—<br />

With visa issues the most frequently cited<br />

obstacle to mobility, it seems vital to work<br />

to reverse the dramatic trends currently<br />

underway through advocacy, monitor<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formation-shar<strong>in</strong>g:<br />

100<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

Strengthen<strong>in</strong>g mobility goes h<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> h<strong>and</strong> with<br />

strengthen<strong>in</strong>g the cultural sector as a whole. Various<br />

stakeholders can participate <strong>in</strong> advocacy efforts<br />

for the follow<strong>in</strong>g objectives:<br />

4.1 Advocacy for <strong>in</strong>creased public support for<br />

arts <strong>and</strong> culture, especially <strong>in</strong> countries which have<br />

the budgetary capacity to do so (e.g., Algeria)<br />

4.2. Advocacy for greater transparency about public adm<strong>in</strong>istrations’<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational organizations’ budgets <strong>and</strong><br />

allocation of funds<br />

4.3. Multiply opportunities for tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gs for cultural managers<br />

4.4 Encourage grassroots-level organizations to federate,<br />

organize <strong>and</strong> advocate for greater structuration at the<br />

local level<br />

5.5 Reduce dependency on foreign organizations <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutes<br />

5.<br />

Advocate for freedom<br />

of movement for<br />

artists <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

practitioners<br />

5.1. Create spaces for debate, exchange, solidarity <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formation-shar<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to emerge amongst cultural actors as a first step towards improved advocacy,<br />

for example through round-tables at events<br />

5.2. Monitor cases of visa refusals <strong>and</strong> build database<br />

5.3. Create a secure hotl<strong>in</strong>e that artists / cultural operators can contact <strong>in</strong><br />

case of emergency (Tamizdat <strong>in</strong> the USA could be a model)<br />

5.4. Advocate for true bilaterality <strong>and</strong> equitable treatment at the level of European<br />

<strong>and</strong> other foreign cultural <strong>in</strong>stitutes<br />

5.5. Advocate for freedom of movement for artists <strong>and</strong> cultural operators at<br />

the national <strong>and</strong> supra-national levels, namely by leverag<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Art</strong>icle 16<br />

of the UNESCO 2005 Convention on the Protection <strong>and</strong> Promotion of the<br />

Diversity of Cultural Expressions


101<br />

Conclusion & Recommendations<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« <strong>Mobility</strong> is marvelous, yes. But beyond that statement, is there a real reflection<br />

on the purpose of mobility <strong>–</strong> if there is a purpose? If there is exchange, where is it? What<br />

exchange? […] We need to create a real need for travel; travel for someth<strong>in</strong>g true,<br />

someth<strong>in</strong>g useful. For the person who travels <strong>and</strong> the one who hosts, <strong>and</strong> the one<br />

who watches the show. Otherwise it’s just l<strong>in</strong>es on a report. »<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« There is a big need for structures<br />

or government-supported <strong>in</strong>itiatives<br />

that underst<strong>and</strong> the value of cultural<br />

policy <strong>–</strong> it is still not well established <strong>in</strong><br />

the whole cont<strong>in</strong>ent.»<br />

Leila Toubel<br />

Theatre actor, dramaturg <strong>and</strong> activist,<br />

Tunis*<br />

—<br />

6.<br />

Re-center the<br />

purpose of mobility:<br />

creative <strong>and</strong> human<br />

exchange<br />

Mohamed Ghazala<br />

Professor, Vice President of the<br />

International Association of Animation<br />

filmmakers (ASIFA),<br />

Cairo / Jeddah<br />

F<strong>in</strong>ally, it seems essential to ensure that the immensely<br />

valuable experiences that can emerge from mobility<br />

<strong>and</strong> tour<strong>in</strong>g are protected <strong>and</strong> that mobility does not<br />

become a purely utilitarian or mercantile concept.<br />

—<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

« As far as the <strong>Africa</strong>n cont<strong>in</strong>ent is concerned, I’ve<br />

had the opportunity to travel several times<br />

to Senegal, to Côte d’Ivoire, to Tunisia…<br />

[<strong>and</strong>] those have also been the only times <strong>in</strong> my life<br />

that I’ve been able to travel without a visa! That has been<br />

just amaz<strong>in</strong>g. You feel normal! You travel with<br />

your passport <strong>and</strong> that’s it, it’s great. There are no<br />

appo<strong>in</strong>tments to be made months <strong>in</strong> advance, no<br />

endless application forms to complete, no<br />

humiliations at the consulate, no credentials to show,<br />

nor bank statements, nor other personal documents, to<br />

prove that your credit is <strong>in</strong> good st<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> that<br />

you’re not go<strong>in</strong>g to try to “immigrate illegally”…<br />

Basically, it’s just normal, it’s “fair” <strong>and</strong> it feels good. »<br />

Z<strong>in</strong>eb Benjelloun<br />

Visual artist,<br />

Casablanca*<br />

6.1 Advocate for the human <strong>and</strong> creative necessity<br />

of mobility through creative <strong>and</strong> compell<strong>in</strong>g<br />

forms, foreground<strong>in</strong>g artists’ experiences <strong>and</strong><br />

creative expressions<br />

6.2 Create opportunities for duplication <strong>and</strong> multiplication<br />

of meet<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>terest of allow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

people to meet several times<br />

6.3 Cover accommodation <strong>and</strong> per-diems for<br />

the full duration of festivals <strong>and</strong> potentially<br />

beyond, <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>terest of allow<strong>in</strong>g artists to<br />

network, imbue themselves with new places<br />

<strong>and</strong> envision new ideas without the stress of<br />

hav<strong>in</strong>g to return home immediately<br />


102<br />

Introduction Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> Background<br />

6<br />

—<br />

Fact:<br />

This mapp<strong>in</strong>g lists<br />

108 arts spaces <strong>and</strong> venues,<br />

<strong>and</strong> 69 festivals<br />

across <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />


103<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Maps,<br />

graphs <strong>and</strong><br />

contact<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation<br />

MAPPING<br />

OF ARTS<br />

VENUES,<br />

SPACES<br />

& EVENTS<br />

IN NORTH<br />

AFRICA


104<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

TUNISIA<br />

MOROCCO<br />

ALGERIA<br />

LIBYA<br />

WESTERN SAHARA<br />

MAURITANIA<br />

Cultural Venues<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

1<br />

—<br />

Date: October 2019<br />

—<br />

—<br />

Fact<br />

This mapp<strong>in</strong>g covers<br />

six countries <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> the non-self-govern<strong>in</strong>g<br />

territory of Western Sahara.<br />


105<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

EGYPT


106<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Installations<br />

& Equipment<br />

of the Venues<br />

This mapp<strong>in</strong>g covers arts spaces <strong>and</strong> venues that<br />

have the capacity to host mobility projects, with<br />

a focus on the visual <strong>and</strong> perform<strong>in</strong>g arts. It is a<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g document <strong>and</strong> as such may be built upon<br />

<strong>in</strong> future studies.<br />

City, Country<br />

Venue<br />

Algiers, Algeria<br />

· aria <strong>–</strong> artist residency <strong>in</strong> Algiers<br />

· <strong>Art</strong>issimo<br />

· Ateliers NAS<br />

· Ateliers Sauvages<br />

· La Baignoire<br />

· Opéra d’Alger<br />

· Théâtre municipal Alger centre<br />

(formerly salle Echabab)<br />

· Théâtre national algérien<br />

· Théâtre de verdure Lâadi Flici<br />

· Salle Ibn Zeydoun<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria, Egypt<br />

· El Mad<strong>in</strong>a for Perform<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Digital <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

· Gudran for <strong>Art</strong> <strong>and</strong> Development<br />

· Jesuit Cultural Centre<br />

· Library of Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· MASS Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· Reflection for <strong>Art</strong>, Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Development<br />

· Rézodance<br />

Equipment<br />

Installations<br />

Park<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Cairo, Egypt<br />

· AfriCairo<br />

· Almoharek Book<strong>in</strong>g Agency<br />

· Cairo Contemporary Dance Center<br />

· Contemporary Image Collective<br />

· Cairo Opera House<br />

· Darb 1718<br />

· El Mastaba Theatre<br />

· El Sawy Culture Wheel<br />

· Emad Edd<strong>in</strong> Foundation/<br />

Studio Emad Edd<strong>in</strong><br />

· Ezzat Ezzat Contemporary Dance Studio<br />

· Falaki Theatre<br />

· Makan Centre for Culture & <strong>Art</strong><br />

· Medrar for Contemporary <strong>Art</strong><br />

· Out of the Circle Initiative<br />

· Townhouse Gallery / Rawabet<br />

Fayoum, Egypt<br />

· Fayoum <strong>Art</strong> Centre<br />

Tripoli, Libya<br />

· Ali Gana Foundation <strong>and</strong> Museum<br />

· <strong>Art</strong> House<br />

· WaraQ <strong>Art</strong> Foundation<br />

Benghazi, Libya<br />

· Tanarout<br />

Nouakchott, Mauritania<br />

· <strong>Art</strong>GalléAmySow<br />

· Échos du Sahel<br />

· Maison des c<strong>in</strong>éastes<br />

· Traversées Mauritanides<br />

T<strong>in</strong>douf, Western Sahara<br />

· Motif <strong>Art</strong>s Studio<br />

· Abid<strong>in</strong> Kaid Saleh Audiovisual School


107<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

City, Country<br />

· Venue<br />

Casabalanca, Morocco<br />

· Atelier de l’observatoire<br />

· L’Boultek<br />

· Casa del <strong>Art</strong>e<br />

· C<strong>in</strong>ema Rialto<br />

· Houna<br />

· Le H2/61.26<br />

· La Source du lion<br />

· Les Étoiles (Fondation Ali Zaoua)<br />

· Studio des <strong>Art</strong>s Vivants<br />

· Studio Hiba<br />

· L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

· Villa des <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

Equipment<br />

Installations<br />

Park<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Key<br />

Available<br />

Not available<br />

No <strong>in</strong>formation available<br />

Rabat, Morocco<br />

· Centre culturel l’Agdal<br />

· Dabateatr<br />

· Fondation Hiba<br />

· L’appartement22<br />

· Le Cube<br />

· Palais Tazi<br />

· Salle Bahn<strong>in</strong>i<br />

· Théâtre Aquarium<br />

· Théâtre national Mohammed V<br />

· Villa des <strong>Art</strong>s Rabat<br />

· Centre culturel l’Agdal<br />

Marrakesh, Morocco<br />

· Al Maqam<br />

· Dar Saïda <strong>–</strong> Literary space<br />

· Dar Bellarj Foundation<br />

· Le18<br />

· MACAAL<br />

· Priscilla Queen of the Med<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Tanger, Morocco<br />

· Atelier Kissaria/Th<strong>in</strong>k Tanger<br />

· C<strong>in</strong>émathèque de Tanger<br />

· Les Étoiles<br />

· Mahal <strong>Art</strong> Space<br />

· Spectacle pour tous<br />

· Tabadoul<br />

Tunis, Tunisia<br />

· L’Agora<br />

· Théâtre Al-Hamra /<br />

Centre Arabo-<strong>Africa</strong><strong>in</strong> de Recherche<br />

et de Création Théâtrale<br />

· L’<strong>Art</strong> Rue<br />

· Bchira <strong>Art</strong> Center<br />

· Cité de la Culture<br />

· El Teatro<br />

· Étoile du Nord, L’<br />

· Lab619<br />

· Lang’art<br />

· Centre des arts vivants de Radès<br />

· C<strong>in</strong>éMad’art Carthage<br />

· C<strong>in</strong>evog<br />

· Maison de la culture Ibn Rachik<br />

· Maison de l’Image<br />

· Le Mondial<br />

· Le Rio<br />

· Salle 4e art/Le Paris<br />

· Théâtre municipal<br />

· Théâtre national tunisien<br />

· WAX Bar<br />

· Dar Eyquem


108<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Events &<br />

Festivals<br />

Algeria<br />

Algiers<br />

1 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de la<br />

B<strong>and</strong>e-Dess<strong>in</strong>ée à Alger<br />

2 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de<br />

Danse Contempora<strong>in</strong>e d’Alger<br />

3 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

de la Musique Diwane<br />

4 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du c<strong>in</strong>éma d’Alger<br />

5 Festival de la création fém<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>e d’Alger<br />

6 Salon du livre d’Alger<br />

Bejaïa<br />

7 Festival International de<br />

théâtre de Bejaïa<br />

Constant<strong>in</strong>e<br />

8 Dimajazz<br />

Oran<br />

9 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du<br />

Conte d’Oran<br />

Rotat<strong>in</strong>g locations<br />

10 Festival Raconte-arts<br />

Egypt<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

11 Theatre is a Must Festival<br />

12 Theatre Without Funds Festival<br />

13 Library of Alex<strong>and</strong>ria Summer Festival<br />

14 Backstreet Festival<br />

15 Nassim el Raqs Creative lab<br />

Cairo<br />

16 Cairocomix<br />

17 Cairo International Jazz Festival<br />

18 Cairo International Film festival<br />

19 Di-Egy Festival<br />

20 Downtown Contemporary <strong>Art</strong>s Festival<br />

21 Hakawy Festival for Young Audiences<br />

22 Cairo International Festival for<br />

Contemporary & Experimental Theatre<br />

23 Citadel Music Festival<br />

Luxor<br />

24 Luxor <strong>Africa</strong>n Film Festival<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria, Cairo, Luxor<br />

25 2B Cont<strong>in</strong>ued Lab & Festival<br />

25<br />

20 8<br />

6<br />

9<br />

13<br />

4 18<br />

11<br />

19 14 17<br />

7<br />

12<br />

24 21 2 15 3 10 23 22 1<br />

16 5<br />

january<br />

february<br />

march<br />

april<br />

may<br />

june<br />

july<br />

august<br />

september<br />

october<br />

novembre<br />

december


109<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

2<br />

—<br />

Fact<br />

Events <strong>and</strong> festivals<br />

of <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

—<br />

Morocco<br />

Agadir<br />

1 Agadir International Documentary<br />

Festival (FIDADOC)<br />

2 Festival Timitar<br />

Casablanca<br />

3 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational d’art vidéo<br />

4 Jazzablanca<br />

5 L’Boulvard<br />

6 Rencontres chorégraphiques<br />

de Casablanca<br />

Essaouira<br />

7 Festival Gnaoua Rythmes du Monde<br />

Marrakesh<br />

8 Atlas Electronic<br />

9 Festival Awaln’art<br />

10 Festival On Marche!<br />

11 Festival Marrakech du Rire<br />

12 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du<br />

film de Marrakech<br />

Rabat<br />

13 Festival Mawaz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

14 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du c<strong>in</strong>éma d’auteur<br />

15 Visa for Music <strong>–</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>-Middle<br />

East Music Meet<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Tanger<br />

16 Tanjazz<br />

17 Youme<strong>in</strong> Festival<br />

Tighmert<br />

18 Caravane Tighmert<br />

Mauritania<br />

Nouakchott<br />

19 Festival Assalamalekoum<br />

20 Nouakshort Film Festival<br />

21 Rencontres littéraires<br />

Rotat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

22 Festival Nomade<br />

Western Sahara<br />

Tifariti<br />

23 <strong>Art</strong>ifariti <strong>–</strong> International <strong>Art</strong> <strong>and</strong> Human<br />

Rights Meet<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Refugee camps near T<strong>in</strong>douf, Algeria<br />

24 FiSahara Film Festival<br />

1 13<br />

20<br />

11<br />

10 9 3 18<br />

21 22 19 4 7<br />

2 17 8 5 16 6 24<br />

14<br />

15<br />

12 23<br />

january<br />

february<br />

march<br />

april<br />

may<br />

june<br />

july<br />

august<br />

september<br />

october<br />

november<br />

december


110<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Tunisia<br />

Carthage<br />

1 Jazz à Carthage<br />

2 Journées d’art contempora<strong>in</strong><br />

de Carthage<br />

3 Journées chorégraphiques de Carthage<br />

4 Journées c<strong>in</strong>ématographiques<br />

de Carthage<br />

5 Journées musicales de Carthage<br />

6 Journées poétiques de Carthage<br />

7 Journées théâtrales de Carthage<br />

Hammamet<br />

8 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de Hammamet<br />

9 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de films<br />

de femmes<br />

Kef<br />

10 SICCA Jazz<br />

Tabarka<br />

12 Jazz à Tabarka<br />

Tameghza<br />

13 Oasis créatives<br />

Tazarka<br />

14 Salon International de la<br />

B<strong>and</strong>e Dess<strong>in</strong>ee de Tazarka (SIBDT)<br />

Tunis<br />

15 Chouftouhonna <strong>–</strong><br />

International Fem<strong>in</strong>ist <strong>Art</strong> Festival<br />

16 Doc à Tunis<br />

17 Dream City<br />

18 Festival Ezzed<strong>in</strong>e Gannoun<br />

19 Interférences<br />

20 Jaou<br />

Casablanca<br />

Essaouira<br />

Agadir<br />

Tanger<br />

Rabat<br />

Marrakech<br />

Oran<br />

Kelibia<br />

11 Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du film de Kelibia<br />

Tighmert<br />

Tifariti<br />

Refugee camps<br />

(near T<strong>in</strong>douf)<br />

Nouakchott<br />

18<br />

6 10 13<br />

1 16<br />

20<br />

3<br />

8<br />

12 15<br />

11 14 5<br />

9 17<br />

2 19<br />

7<br />

4<br />

january<br />

february<br />

march<br />

april<br />

may<br />

june<br />

july<br />

august<br />

september<br />

october<br />

november<br />

december


111<br />

Mapp<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Map of Cities<br />

Algiers<br />

Tabarka Tunis<br />

Bejaïa Kef<br />

Constant<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Carthage<br />

Kelibia<br />

Tazarka<br />

Hammamet<br />

Tameghza<br />

Tripoli<br />

Benghazi<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

Cairo<br />

Luxor


Events<br />

& Festivals<br />

Algeria<br />

Algiers<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de la<br />

B<strong>and</strong>e-Dess<strong>in</strong>ée à Alger<br />

Literature<br />

October<br />

http://www.bdalger.com/<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de Danse<br />

Contempora<strong>in</strong>e d’Alger<br />

Dance<br />

April<br />

Festival de danse contempora<strong>in</strong>e d’Alger <strong>–</strong><br />

Facebook page<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de la Musique Diwane<br />

Music<br />

June<br />

Festival de musique Diwane <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du c<strong>in</strong>éma d’Alger<br />

Film<br />

November<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de c<strong>in</strong>éma d’Alger <strong>–</strong><br />

Facebook page<br />

Festival de la création fém<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>e d’Alger<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

December<br />

http://www.fem<strong>in</strong>algerie-creation.org/<br />

Salon du livre d’Alger<br />

Literature<br />

October / November<br />

http://sila.dz/<br />

Bejaïa<br />

Festival International de théâtre de Bejaïa<br />

Theatre<br />

April<br />

Festival de théâtre de Bejaïa <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Constant<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Dimajazz<br />

Music<br />

April<br />

Dima Jazz Festival <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Oran<br />

Biennale méditerranéenne d’art<br />

contempora<strong>in</strong> d’Oran<br />

Visual art<br />

July.<br />

https://oranbiennale.wixsite.com/<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du Conte d’Oran<br />

Storytell<strong>in</strong>g<br />

March<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de la BD d’Alger <strong>–</strong> Facebook<br />

page<br />

Le Petit lecteur <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Rotat<strong>in</strong>g locations<br />

Festival Raconte-arts<br />

Theatre<br />

July<br />

Festival Raconte-arts <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Egypt<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

Theatre is a Must Festival<br />

Theatre<br />

March <strong>–</strong> April<br />

http://theatermust.com/<br />

Theatre Without Funds Festival<br />

Theatre<br />

November<br />

Facebook Page<br />

Library of Alex<strong>and</strong>ria Summer Festival<br />

Music<br />

June<br />

https://www.bibalex.org/<br />

Backstreet Festival<br />

Perform<strong>in</strong>g arts<br />

April<br />

Nassim el Raqs Creative lab<br />

Dance, performance<br />

Spr<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Nassim el Raqs Facebook page<br />

Cairo<br />

Cairocomix<br />

Literature, Comics<br />

November<br />

https://www.cairocomix.com/<br />

Cairo International Jazz Festival<br />

Music<br />

October<br />

https://www.cairojazzfest.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Cairo International Film festival<br />

Film<br />

November<br />

http://www.ciff.org.eg/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Di-Egy Festival<br />

Digital arts<br />

March<br />

Facebook page<br />

Downtown Contemporary <strong>Art</strong>s Festival<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

April<br />

Facebook page<br />

Hakawy Festival for Young Audiences<br />

Theater<br />

March<br />

Facebook page<br />

Cairo International Festival for<br />

Contemporary & Experimental Theatre<br />

Theater<br />

September<br />

http://www.cifcet.gov.eg<br />

Facebook page<br />

Luxor<br />

Luxor <strong>Africa</strong>n Film Festival<br />

Film<br />

March<br />

http://luxorafricanfilmfestival.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria, Cairo, Luxor<br />

2B Cont<strong>in</strong>ued Lab & Festival<br />

Perform<strong>in</strong>g arts<br />

February<br />

Facebook page<br />

Mauritania<br />

Nouakchott<br />

Festival Assalamalekoum<br />

Music<br />

June<br />

Facebook page<br />

Nouakshort Film Festival<br />

Film<br />

October<br />

Facebook page<br />

Rencontres littéraires<br />

Literature<br />

January<br />

http://traversees-mauritanides.com/


Rotat<strong>in</strong>g Locations<br />

Festival Nomade<br />

Music<br />

January<br />

https://www.lakhaima.ca/nomad-fest<br />

Morocco<br />

Agadir<br />

Agadir International Documentary Festival<br />

(FIDADOC)<br />

Documentary film<br />

June.<br />

http://www.fidadoc.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Festival Timitar<br />

Music<br />

July<br />

http://www.festivaltimitar.ma/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Casablanca<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational d’art vidéo<br />

Video <strong>Art</strong><br />

April<br />

http://www.fiav.ma<br />

Facebook page<br />

Jazzablanca<br />

Music<br />

June<br />

http://www.jazzablanca.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

L’Boulvard<br />

Music<br />

September<br />

http://www.boulevard.ma<br />

Facebook Page<br />

Rencontres chorégraphiques de Casablanca<br />

Dance<br />

October<br />

http://www.coljam.ma/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Essaouira<br />

Festival Gnaoua Rythmes du Monde<br />

Music<br />

June<br />

http://www.festival-gnaoua.net/fr<br />

Marrakech<br />

Atlas Electronic<br />

Music<br />

August / September<br />

http://www.atlas-electronic.com<br />

Facebook Page<br />

Festival Awaln’art<br />

Public <strong>Art</strong><br />

March/April<br />

Facobook Page<br />

Festival On Marche!<br />

Dance<br />

March<br />

Facebook page<br />

Festival Marrakech du Rire<br />

Comedy<br />

June<br />

http://www.marrakechdurire.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du film de Marrakech<br />

Film<br />

November<br />

http://www.festivalmarrakech.<strong>in</strong>fo<br />

Facebook page<br />

Rabat<br />

Festival Mawaz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Music<br />

June<br />

http://www.festivalmawaz<strong>in</strong>e.ma/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du c<strong>in</strong>éma d’auteur<br />

Film<br />

November<br />

http://www.festivalrabat.ma<br />

Facebook page<br />

Visa for Music <strong>–</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>-Middle East<br />

Music Meet<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Music<br />

November<br />

http://www.visaformusic.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Tanger<br />

Tanjazz<br />

Music<br />

September<br />

http://www.tanjazz.org<br />

Facebook page<br />

Youme<strong>in</strong> Festival<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

July<br />

Facebook page<br />

Tighmert<br />

Caravane Tighmert<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

April<br />

https://caravanetighmert.weebly.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Tunisia<br />

Carthage<br />

Jazz à Carthage<br />

April<br />

Music<br />

http://2019.jazzacarthage.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Journées d’art contempora<strong>in</strong> de Carthage<br />

Visual <strong>Art</strong><br />

September<br />

Facebook page<br />

Journées chorégraphiques de Carthage<br />

Dance<br />

June / July<br />

Facebook page<br />

Journées c<strong>in</strong>ématographiques de Carthage<br />

Film<br />

October / November<br />

http://www.jcctunisie.org/<br />

Journées musicales de Carthage<br />

Music<br />

October<br />

Journées poétiques de Carthage<br />

Literature<br />

March<br />

http://www.jpcarthage.gov.tn/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Journées théâtrales de Carthage<br />

Theatre<br />

December<br />

http://www.jtc.tn<br />

Facebook page<br />

Hammamet<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de Hammamet<br />

Perform<strong>in</strong>g arts<br />

Organisé par la Compagnie<br />

https://festivaldehammamet.com/<br />

Facebook Page<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational de films de femmes<br />

Film<br />

October<br />

Facebook Page


Events<br />

& Festivals<br />

Venues<br />

Kelibia<br />

Festival <strong>in</strong>ternational du film de Kelibia<br />

Film<br />

July / August<br />

Facebook page<br />

Kef<br />

SICCA Jazz<br />

Music<br />

March<br />

http://siccajazz.siccaveneria.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Tabarka<br />

Jazz à Tabarka<br />

Music<br />

August / September<br />

https://www.tabarkajazzfest.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Tameghza<br />

Oasis créatives<br />

Visual arts<br />

March<br />

Facebook page<br />

Tazarka<br />

Salon International de la B<strong>and</strong>e Dess<strong>in</strong>ee<br />

de Tazarka (SIBDT)<br />

Literature, Comics<br />

August<br />

Facebook page<br />

Western Sahara<br />

Tifariti<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ifariti <strong>–</strong> International <strong>Art</strong> <strong>and</strong> Human Rights<br />

Meet<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

November<br />

http://www.artifariti.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Refugee camps<br />

near T<strong>in</strong>douf, Algeria<br />

FiSahara Film Festival<br />

Film<br />

October<br />

http://fisahara.es/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Algeria<br />

Algiers<br />

aria <strong>–</strong> artist residency <strong>in</strong> Algiers<br />

Central Alger<br />

arialgiers@gmail.com<br />

https://ariaprojects.org/<br />

aria <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Fully equipped 100 m 2 apartment<br />

<strong>Art</strong>issimo<br />

28, rue Didouche Mourad, Alger<br />

+213 (0)770 49 28 41<br />

contact@artissimo.dz<br />

http://artissimo.dz/<br />

<strong>Art</strong>issimo <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary arts school,<br />

studios <strong>and</strong> exhibition space<br />

Ateliers NAS<br />

3, rue Caron, Alger<br />

+213 (0)550 08 85 68<br />

artcontempora<strong>in</strong>.dz@gmail.com<br />

Ateliers NAS - Facebook page<br />

<strong>Art</strong>s <strong>and</strong> cultural centre <strong>in</strong> the heart<br />

of the Casbah, workshops <strong>and</strong><br />

residency space<br />

Ateliers Sauvages<br />

43 rue Didouche Mourad, Alger<br />

+213 (0)770 98 38 57<br />

lesatelierssauvages@yahoo.com<br />

Ateliers Sauvages <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Exhibition & workshop space, 500 m2<br />

La Baignoire<br />

contact@labaignoirexperience.com<br />

La Baignoire <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Alternative arts concept / cultural space,<br />

laboratory with<strong>in</strong> an office sett<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Opéra d’Alger<br />

Lot 1, parcelle 515, Ouled Fayet, Alger<br />

+213 (0)23 28 93 63<br />

contact@operaalger.com.dz<br />

http://www.operaalger.com.dz<br />

Opéra d’Alger Facebook page<br />

Sound & light equipment<br />

Capacity: 1400 seats<br />

Park<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Théâtre municipal Alger centre<br />

(formerly salle Echabab)<br />

rue Larbi Ben M’hidi, Alger<br />

+213 (0)23 50 81 23<br />

Théâtre d’Alger centre <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Capacity: 500 seats


Théâtre national algérien<br />

10, rue Hadj Omar, Alger<br />

http://www.TNA.dz<br />

Sound & light equipment available<br />

Théâtre de verdure Lâadi Flici<br />

2, boulevard du Docteur Frantz Fanon,<br />

Alger-Centre<br />

+213 (0)21 71 07 28<br />

Sound & light equipment<br />

Park<strong>in</strong>g available<br />

Salle Ibn Zeydoun<br />

Riad El-Feth, El Madania, Alger<br />

+213 (0)21 25 29 10<br />

Salle Ibn Zeydoun <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Films & concerts<br />

Sound & light equipment<br />

Salle El-Moggar<br />

Allée de la Bonne Fonta<strong>in</strong>e, Alger<br />

+213(0)21 73 61 93<br />

Salle El-Moggar <strong>–</strong> Facebook page<br />

Films & concerts<br />

Sound & light equipment<br />

Egypt<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

El Mad<strong>in</strong>a for Perform<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Digital <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

6 Fouad St., Al Attar<strong>in</strong>, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

+20 (0) 34 87 58 18<br />

elmad<strong>in</strong>a@elmad<strong>in</strong>aarts.com<br />

http://www.elmad<strong>in</strong>aarts.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Four studios, with a total space of 400 m2<br />

Gudran for <strong>Art</strong> <strong>and</strong> Development<br />

1, Mamar El Central St., El Manshia, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

+20 (0) 34 84 42 26<br />

http://www.Gudran.com<br />

Residency space<br />

Jesuit Cultural Centre<br />

298 Port Said Street, Cleopatra, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

+20 (0) 35 21 48 77<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@jesuitalex.org<br />

Facebook page<br />

Theatre<br />

Capacity: 160 seats / 200 st<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

Library of Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

Al Azaritah WA Ash Shatebi,<br />

Qesm Bab Sharqi, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

+20 (0) 34 83 99 99<br />

Secretariat@bibalex.org<br />

https://www.bibalex.org/<br />

Sem<strong>in</strong>ar <strong>and</strong> conference rooms<br />

Capacity:<br />

Great hall: 1638 Seated<br />

Small theatre: 242 seats<br />

MASS Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

2, El Mad<strong>in</strong>a al Monawara, Miamia, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

+20 (0) 35 56 53 49<br />

massalex2016@gmail.com<br />

https://massalex<strong>and</strong>ria.wordpress.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

400 m 2 exhibition <strong>and</strong> educational space<br />

Reflection for <strong>Art</strong>, Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Development<br />

Masjid Elasdeqaa St. Build<strong>in</strong>g No. 84, Flat No. 2,<br />

Garden City Smouha, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

+20 (0) 34 25 29 76<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@reflectionart.org<br />

http://www.reflectionart.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

1 hall, 32 m 2 ,<br />

technical equipment available<br />

Rézodance<br />

15, rue Sésostris, Al Attar<strong>in</strong>e <strong>–</strong><br />

Opposite Banque du Caire <strong>–</strong> 2nd floor, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

+ 20 (0) 34 83 53 55<br />

egypte@rezodanse.com<br />

https://rezodanseegypte.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Independent cultural centre, 3 studios<br />

Cairo<br />

AfriCairo<br />

2 Gamal Al D<strong>in</strong> Abou Al Mahasen,<br />

Qasr an Nile, Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 27 93 42 09<br />

africairo@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Small space for record<strong>in</strong>g, workshops <strong>and</strong><br />

performances of Afro fusion music <strong>and</strong> arts<br />

Almoharek Book<strong>in</strong>g Agency<br />

8 Zaki Aboul Seoud St. Agouza, Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 33 46 88 48<br />

contact@almoharek.com<br />

http://www.almoharek.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Book<strong>in</strong>g agency for <strong>in</strong>dependent Arab music<br />

Cairo Contemporary Dance Center<br />

1 Mousa Galal Square Moh<strong>and</strong>es<strong>in</strong>, Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 33 45 97 37<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@ccdc.dance<br />

https://cargocollective.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Independent dance centre with two studios,<br />

hosts residencies<br />

Contemporary Image Collective<br />

4th Floor, 22 Abdel Khalek Tharwat Street,<br />

Downtown Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 23 96 42 72<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@ciccairo.com<br />

http://www.ciccairo.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition <strong>and</strong> workshop spaces<br />

Capacity: 200 seats<br />

Cairo Opera House<br />

El Borg el Guezira, Zamalek<br />

+20 (0)2 27 39 01 44<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@cairoopera.org<br />

http://www.cairoopera.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Theatre<br />

Capacity: 1.200 seats<br />

Darb 1718<br />

Kasr El Sham3 Street,<br />

Al Fakhareen <strong>–</strong> Old Cairo, Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 27 41 30 53<br />

kholeif@darb1718.com<br />

http://www.darb1718.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Two exhibition spaces, stage,<br />

gardens, terrace<br />

El Mastaba Theatre<br />

30 A El Belaasy St, Abdeen, Cairo<br />

+20 (0) 11 50 99 53 54<br />

mmabrouk5@gmail.com<br />

http://www.el-mastaba.org<br />

Facebook page<br />

Theatre<br />

El Sawy Culture Wheel<br />

26th of July street, Zamalek, Egypt<br />

+20 (0) 10 00 99 99 95<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@culturewheel.com<br />

http://www.culturewheel.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Cultural centre with five stages<br />

Fully equipped<br />

Capacity: 1.500 seats<br />

Emad Edd<strong>in</strong> Foundation/Studio Emad Edd<strong>in</strong><br />

18 Emad Edd<strong>in</strong> Street, Ataba, Downtown Cairo<br />

+20 (0) 2 25 76 38 50<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@seefoundation.org<br />

http://seefoundation.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Four rehearsal, workshop spaces<br />

organizes residencies<br />

Ezzat Ezzat Contemporary Dance Studio<br />

6 Obida Ben Elgarah St., Faisal, El-Giza<br />

+20 (0)2 35 84 46 63<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@eedancestudio.com<br />

http://www.eedancestudio.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Studios & apartment<br />

Capacity: 60 seats


Venues<br />

Falaki Theatre<br />

American University <strong>in</strong> Cairo,<br />

Downtown Campus,<br />

24 Falaki St., Downtown Cairo<br />

+20 (0) 12 88 72 14 46<br />

Exhibition Space,Rehearsal space,<br />

Screen<strong>in</strong>g Room, Theater<br />

Makan Centre for Culture & <strong>Art</strong><br />

1 Sharia Saad Zaghloul<br />

Mounira, Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 27 92 08 78<br />

makan@egyptmusic.org<br />

http://egyptmusic.org/en/<br />

Cultural centre<br />

Capacity: 70 <strong>–</strong> 120 seats<br />

Medrar for Contemporary <strong>Art</strong><br />

7 Gamal El D<strong>in</strong> Abou El Mahasen St.<br />

Garden City, 1st Floor, Apt.4, Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 27 95 77 14<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@medrar.org<br />

http://www.medrar.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition space, workshop spaces<br />

Out of the Circle Initiative<br />

11 El-Reyad street, Moh<strong>and</strong>eseen, Cairo<br />

outofthecirlce.org@gmail.com<br />

http://www.outofthecircle.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Cultural centre with a residency space<br />

for digital artists<br />

Townhouse Gallery / Rawabet<br />

Nabarawy Street, off Champollion,<br />

Downtown, Cairo<br />

+20 (0)2 25 76 80 86<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@thetownhousegallery.com<br />

http://www.thetownhousegallery.com/rawabet/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Rehearsal space, Screen<strong>in</strong>g Room, theatre<br />

Capacity: 150 people<br />

Fayoum<br />

Fayoum <strong>Art</strong> Centre<br />

Tunis village, Fayoum<br />

+20 (0) 11 20 02 12 13<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@fayoumartcenter.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Studio spaces, art library, residency space<br />

Mauritania<br />

Nouakchott<br />

<strong>Art</strong>GalléAmySow<br />

ANAT lot 775 Iskane Socogim plage, Nouakchott<br />

artgalle2017@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Founded <strong>and</strong> run by pa<strong>in</strong>ter Amy Sow<br />

<strong>Art</strong> gallery, residency space <strong>and</strong> café<br />

Échos du Sahel<br />

Route de la Plage, Cité Plage,<br />

fac<strong>in</strong>g Cl<strong>in</strong>ique Bouna, Nouakchott<br />

+222 (0)27 05 96 87<br />

echosdusahel@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary cultural centre, host<strong>in</strong>g<br />

residencies, performances, workshops<br />

Espace culturel Diadie Tabara Camara<br />

Ksar, Nouakchott<br />

+222 (0)47 51 48 92<br />

Facebook page<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary space for meet<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

exchanges <strong>and</strong> knowledge shar<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Maison des c<strong>in</strong>éastes<br />

Ilot A, Rue 410-05, Nouakchott<br />

+222 (0)525 68 68<br />

maisondesc<strong>in</strong>eastes@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Screen<strong>in</strong>g room <strong>and</strong> cultural centre, host<strong>in</strong>g<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gs, workshops, screen<strong>in</strong>gs, etc.<br />

Traversées Mauritanides<br />

BP 7663, Nouakchott<br />

+222 (0)45 49 03 38<br />

traverseesmauritanides@gmail.com<br />

http://traversees-mauritanides.com/<br />

Literary organization, organizes Rencontres<br />

littéraires de Nouakchott festival<br />

Morocco<br />

Casablanca<br />

Atelier de l’observatoire<br />

62 Boulevard Bir Anzarane, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 6 10 32 88 04<br />

atelier.observatoire@gmail.com<br />

https://www.atelierobservatoire.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Residency & workshop space <strong>in</strong> Bouskoura<br />

(32 km from Casablanca)<br />

L’Boultek<br />

Technopark, Route de Nouaceur, Sidi Maarouf<br />

Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 6 99 63 67 99<br />

eac.lboulvart@gmail.com<br />

https://boulevard.ma/boultek/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Fully-equipped record<strong>in</strong>g studios <strong>and</strong><br />

performance space<br />

120 seats / 250 st<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

Casa del <strong>Art</strong>e<br />

7 rue Franceville Oasis, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 5 22 99 09 36<br />

+212 (0) 5 22 98 46 57<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@casadelarte.ma<br />

http://www.casadelarte.ma/<br />

Facebook page<br />

7 multi-purpose rooms <strong>and</strong> patio<br />

C<strong>in</strong>ema Rialto<br />

20 Rue Mohamed El Quorri, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 6 34 75 09 83<br />

c<strong>in</strong>ema.lerialto@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

C<strong>in</strong>ema <strong>and</strong> cultural space<br />

Houna<br />

communication@houna.ma<br />

http://www.houna.ma/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Cultural <strong>in</strong>cubator & residency space<br />

Le H2/61.26<br />

61, avenue Hassan II, floor 11, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0)6 78 32 80 08<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition <strong>and</strong> cultural space<br />

La Source du lion<br />

336, rue Mustapha al Maani, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 6 73 62 08 10 / 06<br />

http://www.lasourcedulion.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Workshop, exhibition, residency space<br />

Les Étoiles (Fondation Ali Zaoua)<br />

Bd Mohamed Zefzaf, Attacharouk<br />

Sidi Moumen, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 5 22 72 49 23<br />

fondationalizaoua@gmail.com<br />

http://fondationalizaoua.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Fully equipped auditorium, screen<strong>in</strong>g room,<br />

residency space, rehearsal spaces<br />

Studio des <strong>Art</strong>s Vivants<br />

38, Boulevard Abdelhadi Boutaleb, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 6 66 65 32 02<br />

+212 (0) 5 22 97 93 20<br />

http://www.lestudio.ma/<br />

Capacity: 600 seats<br />

Fully equipped<br />

2 park<strong>in</strong>g lots


Studio Hiba<br />

Bd Ahl loghlam, Sidi Bernoussi, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 5 22 74 27 17 / 18<br />

contact@studiohiba.com<br />

http://www.studiohiba.ma/<br />

Fully equipped record<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> production studios,<br />

<strong>and</strong> residency space with 5 rooms<br />

L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

19 boulevard Mouatamid Ibnou Abbad,<br />

ancienne route de Rabat,<br />

Aïn Sebâa, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 5 22 66 01 66<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition space, performance space<br />

Fully equipped<br />

Capacity: 130 seats / 200 st<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

Villa des <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

30, Boulevard Brahim Roudani, Casablanca<br />

+212 (0) 5 22 29 50 87/94<br />

http://www.fondationona.ma/<br />

Exhibition <strong>and</strong> performance space<br />

372 Avenue Colonel Mondjiba<br />

+ 243 81 878 50 72<br />

Lieu d’exposition, de projections,<br />

boutique et café.<br />

Rabat<br />

Centre culturel l’Agdal<br />

Rue Amir Abdelkader, Rabat<br />

+212 (0) 5 37 67 28 66<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition hall, residency space,<br />

projection room, record<strong>in</strong>g studios<br />

Capacity: (172 seats)<br />

Dabateatr<br />

Technopark , 8 Rue Gh<strong>and</strong>i, Hassane-Rabat<br />

+212 (0)6 00 05 06 22<br />

http://dabateatr.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary arts organization<br />

Fondation Hiba<br />

360, Bd Mohamed V, Rabat<br />

+212 (0) 5 37 73 80 49<br />

https://www.fondationhiba.ma/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Salle Renaissance: fully equipped c<strong>in</strong>ema<br />

<strong>and</strong> theatre<br />

Capacity: 382 seats<br />

Hiba Lab<br />

(See also Hiba studios <strong>in</strong> Casablanca<br />

L’appartement22)<br />

279 avenue Mohamed V, Rabat<br />

+212 (0)6 63 59 82 88<br />

https://www.appartement22.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary rehearsal <strong>and</strong> workshop space<br />

Residency <strong>and</strong> exhibition space<br />

Le Cube<br />

2, rue Benzerte, Rabat<br />

+212 (0)6 61 18 64 41<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@lecube-art.com<br />

https://lecube-art.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Residency <strong>and</strong> exhibition space<br />

Palais Tazi<br />

2, rue El Quds, Rabat<br />

+212 (0) 6 66 75 92 56<br />

Facebook page<br />

For large events<br />

Salle Bahn<strong>in</strong>i<br />

1n rue Gh<strong>and</strong>i, Rabat<br />

+ 212 (0) 5 37 20 94 94<br />

Facebook page<br />

Managed by the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Culture<br />

Auditorium capacity: 600 seats<br />

Théâtre Aquarium<br />

12 rue Ezzaouia, Rabat<br />

+212 (0) 5 37 69 41 09<br />

http://www.theatreaquarium.org/aquarium.html<br />

Facebook page<br />

Small theatre, gallery, meet<strong>in</strong>g spaces<br />

Théâtre national Mohammed V<br />

172, Avenue Al Mansour Addahbi, Rabat<br />

+ 212 (0) 5 37 70 73 00<br />

https://tnm5.ma/<br />

State theatre<br />

Villa des <strong>Art</strong>s Rabat<br />

10, rue Beni Mellal, corner Av Mohamed V., Rabat<br />

+212 (0) 5 37 66 85 79-82<br />

http://www.fondationona.ma/<br />

Exhibition <strong>and</strong> performance space<br />

Centre culturel l’Agdal<br />

Rue Amir Abdelkader, Rabat<br />

+212 (0) 5 37 67 28 66<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition hall, residency space,<br />

projection room, record<strong>in</strong>g studios<br />

Capacity: 172 seats<br />

Marrakech<br />

Al Maqam<br />

El Mgassem, Marrakech Tensift Al Haouz,<br />

Tahannaout<br />

almaqamresidence@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Residency space, 10 rooms<br />

Dar Saïda <strong>–</strong> Literary space<br />

97 rue Tansift Quartier Semlalia, Marrakesh<br />

+212 (0) 5 24 43 63 60<br />

darsaidaasso@gmail.com<br />

https://www.darsaida.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Conference halls, café<br />

Dar Bellarj Foundation<br />

9 <strong>–</strong> 7, Toualate Zaouiate Lahdar Méd<strong>in</strong>a,<br />

Marrakesh<br />

+212 (0) 5 24 44 45 55<br />

contact@darbellarj.org<br />

Facebook Page<br />

Exhibition <strong>and</strong> workshop space<br />

Le18<br />

18, Derb El Ferrane <strong>–</strong> Riad Laarouss, Marrakesh<br />

+212 (0) 5 24 38 98 64<br />

le18marrakech@gmail.com<br />

https://le18marrakech.com/en/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Residency <strong>and</strong> exhibition space<br />

MACAAL<br />

Al Maaden, Sidi Youssef Ben Ali, Marrakech<br />

+212 (0) 6 76 92 44 92<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@macaal.org<br />

http://macaal.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Contemporary <strong>Africa</strong>n art museum<br />

with residency space<br />

Priscilla Queen of the Med<strong>in</strong>a<br />

27 Derb el Ferrane Azbezt, Marrakesh<br />

+212 (0) 6 21 51 49 05<br />

queenofthemed<strong>in</strong>a@gmail.com<br />

http://www.queen-of-the-med<strong>in</strong>a.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Work<strong>in</strong>g space, presentation space,<br />

accommodation<br />

Tanger<br />

Atelier Kissaria/Th<strong>in</strong>k Tanger<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@atelier-kissaria.com<br />

http://www.atelier-kissaria.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

150 m 2 space for creation <strong>and</strong> production<br />

center<strong>in</strong>g on experimental <strong>and</strong> artisanal pr<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g<br />

techniques. Also hosts residencies.<br />

C<strong>in</strong>émathèque de Tanger<br />

Gr<strong>and</strong> Socco <strong>–</strong> Place du 9 avril 1947, Tanger<br />

+212 (0)5 39 93 46 83<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@c<strong>in</strong>emathequedetanger.com<br />

https://www.c<strong>in</strong>emathequedetanger.com/en/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Two screen<strong>in</strong>g rooms <strong>and</strong> café<br />

Capacity: 300 seats / 50 seats<br />

Les Étoiles<br />

29, Rue Aicha Al Moussafir <strong>–</strong> Beni Makada, Tanger<br />

+212 (0)6 11 30 95 29<br />

fondationalizaoua@gmail.com<br />

http://fondationalizaoua.org/<br />

Fully equipped auditorium, screen<strong>in</strong>g room,<br />

residency space, rehearsal spaces


Venues<br />

Mahal <strong>Art</strong> Space<br />

122, Avenue Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah,<br />

Local B, Tanger<br />

+212 (0)6 91 58 29 53<br />

mahal.artspace@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition <strong>and</strong> residency space<br />

Spectacle pour tous<br />

contact@spectaclepourtous.ma<br />

Facebook page<br />

Theatre schoolbus, small permanent<br />

rehearsal space<br />

Tabadoul<br />

19, rue Magellan, Tanger<br />

+212 (0)6 64 73 21 73<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@tabadoul.org<br />

http://www.tabadoul.org<br />

Facebook page<br />

400 m2 multi-purpose performance,<br />

rehearsal <strong>and</strong> residency space<br />

Two rooms:<br />

Large room for performances: 140 m 2<br />

<strong>and</strong> small for meet<strong>in</strong>gs: 30 m 2<br />

workshops etc.<br />

Libya<br />

Tripoli<br />

Ali Gana Foundation <strong>and</strong> Museum<br />

aliganafoundation@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Founded by artist Hadia Gana<br />

The museum is under construction<br />

<strong>Art</strong> House<br />

Triq el Sikka, Tripoli<br />

+218 (0)2 13 60 44 77<br />

Facebook page<br />

Popular gallery space <strong>and</strong> meet<strong>in</strong>g place s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

the 1990s. Sometimes hosts screen<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong><br />

other events.<br />

WaraQ <strong>Art</strong> Foundation<br />

+218 (0)9 23 06 32 78<br />

hello@waraq.ly<br />

https://waraqartfoundation.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

NGO organiz<strong>in</strong>g exhibitions, workshops,<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gs around contemporary art<br />

Benghazi<br />

Tanarout<br />

Alhadaiyq, Benghazi<br />

+218 (0)9 13 84 90 03<br />

Info@tanarout.org<br />

https://tanarout.org/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Large multi-purpose cultural space,<br />

used for concerts, exhibitions, studios,<br />

screen<strong>in</strong>gs, rehearsals, etc.<br />

Tunisia<br />

Tunis<br />

L’Agora<br />

5 avenue Taïeb Mhiri Marsa Ville<br />

+216 (0)29 912 123<br />

lagora@lagora.tn<br />

https://www.lagora.tn/<br />

Facebook page<br />

C<strong>in</strong>ema, performance, exhibition space<br />

Théâtre Al-Hamra / Centre Arabo-<strong>Africa</strong><strong>in</strong> de<br />

Recherche et de Création Théâtrale<br />

28 rue d’El Jazira<br />

+216 (0)71 320 734<br />

theatrelhamra@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Fully equipped theatre, tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g centre<br />

L’<strong>Art</strong> Rue<br />

40, rue Kouttab Louzir <strong>–</strong> Tunis med<strong>in</strong>a<br />

+216 (0)29 212 775<br />

communication.lartrue@gmail.com<br />

https://www.lartrue.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Residency space, workshops,<br />

performances, exhibitions<br />

Bchira <strong>Art</strong> Center<br />

Sabelet Ben Ammar, on the road to Sidi Tabet,<br />

Ariana<br />

+216 (0)71 527 767<br />

contact@bchiraartcenter.com.tn<br />

Facebook page<br />

Gallery space : 200 m 2<br />

Capacity : 200 seats / 400 st<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

Park<strong>in</strong>g available<br />

BL79<br />

Bhar Lazreg, Tunis<br />

https://www.kamellazaarfoundation.org/fr/<br />

project/b7l9<br />

Exhibition space: 500 m 2 , projection room, space<br />

for resident artists, library <strong>and</strong> café<br />

Centre des Musiques Arabes<br />

et Méditerranéennes<br />

8, rue du 2 mars 1934, Sidi bou Said<br />

http://www.cmam.nat.tn/<br />

Multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary cultural complex with two<br />

performance spaces<br />

Capacity: 230 seats (<strong>in</strong>door), 600 seats (outdoor)<br />

Cité de la Culture<br />

Avenue Mohamed 5, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)70 028 330<br />

contact.citeculture@mac.gov.tn<br />

http://www.citedelaculture.gov.tn/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Sound & light equipment<br />

Opera: 1800 seats<br />

Auditorium: 700 seats<br />

Theatre: 400 seats<br />

Music production studios<br />

El Teatro<br />

Le Belvédère, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)71 894 313<br />

https://www.elteatro-tunis.com/<br />

Facebook page<br />

El Teatro ma<strong>in</strong> space: 250 seats<br />

Carré d’art: 100 seats<br />

Exhibition space<br />

L’Étoile du Nord<br />

41 Avenue de Farhat-Hached, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)71 256 242<br />

Facebook page<br />

Capacity: 300 <strong>–</strong> 400 seats / 600 st<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

La Boîte<br />

Z.I. La Charguia, Tunis<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition space<br />

Lab619<br />

619lab@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Comic <strong>and</strong> graphic novel collective, organize<br />

residencies, workshops<br />

Lang’art<br />

36, rue 18 janvier 1952, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)58 088 048<br />

langartproduction@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Rehearsal studio with stage, 70m 2<br />

Centre des arts vivants de Radès<br />

1, rue du Pakistan, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)71 441 727<br />

contact@cavr.tn<br />

http://www.cavr.tn<br />

Facebook page<br />

Workshop spaces, photography lab,<br />

three <strong>in</strong>dividual workshops for<br />

resident artists, exhibition space


C<strong>in</strong>éMad’art Carthage<br />

2, rue Pl<strong>in</strong>e, Carthage<br />

+216 (0)71 275 210<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@c<strong>in</strong>emadart.net<br />

Facebook page<br />

C<strong>in</strong>ema <strong>and</strong> theatre<br />

C<strong>in</strong>evog<br />

10 rue Said Abou Bakr Le Kram<br />

c<strong>in</strong>evog.programme@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

C<strong>in</strong>ema <strong>and</strong> theatre<br />

Maison de la culture Ibn Rachik<br />

20, Avenue de Paris, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)71 338 952<br />

ibnrachiq@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Exhibition <strong>and</strong> performance space<br />

Maison de l’Image<br />

40 Rue Tarak Ibn Zied<br />

Mutuelleville, Aryanah<br />

+216 (0)71 84 05 36<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@maisonimage.tn<br />

http://www.maisonimage.tn<br />

Facebook page<br />

Workshop, exhibition, residency space<br />

Le Mondial<br />

20, rue Ibn Khaldoun, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)95 159 568<br />

espacelemondial@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

C<strong>in</strong>ema, performance space<br />

Le Rio<br />

92, rue Radhia Haddad, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)70 038 033<br />

artdistributions@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

C<strong>in</strong>ema, theatre<br />

WAX Bar<br />

Complexe Tr<strong>in</strong>idad <strong>–</strong> Gammarth, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)25 508 109<br />

waxbarv<strong>in</strong>yles@gmail.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Popular bar/club <strong>and</strong> show venue<br />

Hammamet<br />

Dar Eyquem<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@dareyquem.com<br />

Facebook page<br />

Residency space<br />

Western Sahara<br />

T<strong>in</strong>douf<br />

Motif <strong>Art</strong>s Studio<br />

Samara Refugee Camp,<br />

near T<strong>in</strong>douf, Algeria<br />

+213 (0)6 68 37 15 96<br />

<strong>Art</strong> space run by multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

artist Mohamed Sulaiman<br />

Abid<strong>in</strong> Kaid Saleh Audiovisual School<br />

Dakhla Refugee Camp,<br />

near T<strong>in</strong>douf, Algeria<br />

<strong>in</strong>fo@escueladec<strong>in</strong>edelsahara.org<br />

http://fisahara.es/escuela-audiovisual/<br />

Facebook page<br />

Film & audiovisual tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g centre for Sahrawi<br />

refugees. Affiliated with FiSahara Film Festival.<br />

Salle 4e art/Le Paris<br />

27, avenue de Paris, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)50 609 460<br />

Facebook page<br />

Theatre <strong>and</strong> exhibition space<br />

Sound & light equipment<br />

Capacity: 350 seats<br />

Théâtre municipal<br />

2, rue de Grèce, Tunis<br />

+216 (0)71 259 499<br />

Facebook page<br />

Capacity: 1350 seats<br />

Théâtre national tunisien<br />

58 Place Halfaou<strong>in</strong>e, Tunis,<br />

+216 (0)71 565 693<br />

Facebook page<br />

Theatre, studios


120<br />

Acronyms<br />

APPENDIX<br />

A<br />

—<br />

QUOTE:<br />

We speak Arabic, whereas<br />

artists <strong>in</strong> other <strong>Africa</strong>n regions<br />

speak French. It’s true that<br />

we’re an <strong>Africa</strong>n country but<br />

we feel like we’re more part<br />

of the MENA region.<br />

Mohamed Guediri<br />

Rapper, founder of Association<br />

Cité’Ness, Tunis*<br />


121<br />

Acronyms<br />

ACRO—<br />

NYMS—<br />

AARC—Agence Algérienne pour le Rayonnement Culturel<br />

AFAC—Arab Fund for <strong>Art</strong>s <strong>and</strong> Culture<br />

AMA—<strong>Art</strong> <strong>Moves</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

AU—<strong>Africa</strong>n Union<br />

ECF—European Cultural Foundation<br />

ENP—European Neighbourhood Policy<br />

EU—European Union<br />

MASA—Marché des <strong>Art</strong>s et du Spectacle, Abidjan<br />

MENA—Middle East <strong>and</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong><br />

MENASA—Middle East, <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> South Asia<br />

NGO—Non-governmental organization<br />

OIF—Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie<br />

RAM—Royal Air Maroc<br />

RCF—Roberto Cimetta Fund<br />

SADR—Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic


122<br />

Respondents<br />

APPENDIX<br />

B<br />

—<br />

Fact:<br />

List of 90 artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural operators<br />

<strong>in</strong>terviewed<br />


123<br />

Respondents<br />

—<br />

Some <strong>in</strong>dividuals<br />

responded<br />

<strong>in</strong> their capacity<br />

as <strong>in</strong>dependent<br />

practitioners; some on<br />

behalf<br />

of their organizations;<br />

<strong>and</strong> some, both.<br />

—<br />

RES —<br />

PON —<br />

DENTS<br />

LIST OF ARTISTS &<br />

CULTURAL OPERATORS<br />

INTERVIEWED<br />

ALGERIA<br />

· Ammar Bouras<br />

Photographer, Algiers<br />

· Arslan Naili<br />

Visual artist,<br />

Founder of Atelier N.A.S., Algiers<br />

· Mouna Bennamani<br />

Visual artist, Algiers<br />

· Hacène Metref<br />

Director Festival Raconte-<strong>Art</strong>s, Tizi Ouzou<br />

· Houari Bouchenak<br />

Photographer, Collectif 220, Tlemcen / Algiers<br />

· Louise Dib<br />

Graphic designer, Algiers<br />

· Riad Abdelouahab<br />

Graphic designer, Algiers<br />

· Malik Chaoui<br />

Co-project manager, Groupe de travail sur la<br />

politique culturelle en Algérie, Algiers<br />

· Mehdi Djelil<br />

Visual artist, Algiers<br />

· Meriem Bouraoui<br />

Slam poet, Algiers<br />

· Myriam Amroun<br />

Cultural project manager, Algiers<br />

· Sadek Bouz<strong>in</strong>ou<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ger/songwriter, Democratoz, Oran/Dakar<br />

· Samy Abdelguerfi<br />

Booker, cultural policy researcher,<br />

Groupe de travail sur la politique culturelle<br />

en Algérie, Algiers / Paris<br />

· Walid Aidoud<br />

Visual artist, founder of Box24, Algiers<br />

· Wassyla Tamzali<br />

Founder <strong>and</strong> artistic director,<br />

Les Ateliers Sauvages, Algiers<br />

· Zafira Ouartsi<br />

Founder <strong>and</strong> director, <strong>Art</strong>issimo, Algiers<br />

EGYPT<br />

· Abdelsamee Abdallah<br />

Cultural activist <strong>and</strong> theatre practitioner,<br />

ActionAid, Cairo/Amman<br />

· Adel Abdelwahab<br />

<strong>Art</strong>istic director, Hewar for Independent<br />

Theater & Perform<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Art</strong>s, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· Ahmed Eldeeb<br />

Co-founder <strong>–</strong> Director, Reflection for<br />

<strong>Art</strong>s Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g & Development, Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· Ahmed Omar<br />

Bassist, founder of AfriCairo<br />

· Amany El Sawy<br />

Associate Professor <strong>and</strong> playwright,<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria University<br />

· Andrea Thal<br />

<strong>Art</strong>istic director,<br />

Contemporary Image Collective, Cairo<br />

· Basem Abuarab<br />

Executive director, Al Moharek Book<strong>in</strong>g Agency<br />

for Independent Arabic Music, Cairo<br />

· Berit Schuck<br />

Programme director, MASS Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

· Dia Hamed<br />

Visual artist <strong>and</strong> co-founder, Medrar Centre for<br />

Contemporary <strong>Art</strong>, Cairo<br />

· Elham Khattab<br />

digital artist <strong>and</strong> co-founder,<br />

Out of the Circle, Cairo<br />

· Ghada El Sherb<strong>in</strong>y<br />

Cultural programm<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Goethe Institut Kairo<br />

· Laila Soliman<br />

Playwright <strong>and</strong> director, Cairo<br />

· Mohamed Ghazala<br />

Professor, Vice President of the International<br />

Association of Animation filmmakers (ASIFA),<br />

Cairo /Jeddah


124<br />

Respondents<br />

· Mohammed Hassan<br />

Sound eng<strong>in</strong>eer, IICI Consult<strong>in</strong>g, Cairo<br />

· Nada Sabet<br />

Theatre director, co-founder,<br />

Noon Creative Enterprise<br />

· Reem Hassan<br />

Visual artist <strong>and</strong> co-founder, EAN Group for<br />

International <strong>Art</strong>istic Cooperation, Cairo<br />

· Yara Mekawei<br />

Sound artist <strong>and</strong> DJ, Radio Submar<strong>in</strong>e, Cairo<br />

LIBYA<br />

· Abdul Mohaimen Zarrough<br />

Photographer <strong>and</strong> cultural manager, Tripoli<br />

· D<strong>in</strong>a Gallal<br />

Photographer <strong>and</strong> visual artist, Benghazi<br />

· Faiza Ramadan<br />

Visual artist, Tripoli<br />

· Faraj Alsileeni<br />

Drummer, Director of Tanarout, Benghazi<br />

· Mohamed Busne<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Drummer, Content Developer &<br />

Head of Music Dept., Tanarout<br />

· Najlaa El-Ageli<br />

Architect, Founder of Noon <strong>Art</strong>s Projects,<br />

Tripoli/London<br />

· Sihem Saleh<br />

Architect <strong>and</strong> cartoonist, Tripoli<br />

· Tewa Barnosa<br />

Visual artist <strong>and</strong> founder of<br />

WaraQ <strong>Art</strong> Foundation, Tripoli/Berl<strong>in</strong><br />

MAURITANIA<br />

· Atigh Ould<br />

Founder <strong>and</strong> artistic director,<br />

Festival Nomade<br />

· Mohamed Idoumou<br />

Poet, journalist, documentary filmmaker<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural operator, Maison du c<strong>in</strong>éma de<br />

Nouakchott<br />

MOROCCO<br />

· Am<strong>in</strong>a Mourid<br />

Cultural operator, co-founder,<br />

Atelier Kissaria & Th<strong>in</strong>k Tanger<br />

· Abdessamad Bourhim<br />

l’Uz<strong>in</strong>e, Bassist / stage manager<br />

& technician, Casablanca<br />

· Ahlam El Morsli<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer,<br />

Compagnie Col’Jam, Casablanca<br />

· Bouchra Salih<br />

Independent cultural operator & designer,<br />

Rabat<br />

· Brahim El Mazned<br />

Director of Visa for Music, Rabat<br />

· Carlos Mar<strong>in</strong><br />

Director of Caravane Tighmert, Ceuta<br />

· Dounia Jouhar<br />

l’Uz<strong>in</strong>e, Communications manager,<br />

Casablanca<br />

· Ghita Khaldi<br />

Director of Afrikayna, Casablanca<br />

· Hicham Bahou<br />

Co-director of EAC-L’Boulvard,<br />

Casablanca<br />

· Hosni Almoukhlis<br />

Theatre practitioner, Founder <strong>and</strong> <strong>Art</strong>istic<br />

Director, Théâtre de l’Opprimé, Casablanca<br />

· H<strong>in</strong>d Benali<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer, Compagnie Fleur<br />

d’orange, Casablanca/Nouméa<br />

· Javier Galván Guijo<br />

Director, Instituto Cervantes, Rabat<br />

· Laila Hida<br />

Photographer <strong>and</strong> co-founder, Le18, Marrakech<br />

· Jamal Abdenassar<br />

Independent cultural operator/Founder of<br />

Casablanca Fashion Week, Casablanca<br />

· Léa Mor<strong>in</strong><br />

Curator <strong>and</strong> researcher, co-founder <strong>and</strong><br />

director of L’Atelier de l’observatoire,<br />

Casablanca<br />

· Maria Daïf<br />

Independent cultural operator, Casablanca<br />

· Mehdi Azdem<br />

Manag<strong>in</strong>g director, Rac<strong>in</strong>es<br />

· Mohamed Lâabidi<br />

Musician, L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

· Nouha Ben Yadri<br />

Curator <strong>and</strong> founder, Mahal <strong>Art</strong> Space, Tangiers<br />

· Sabr<strong>in</strong>a Kamili<br />

Project manager, L’Atelier de l’observatoire,<br />

Casablanca<br />

· Silvia Coarelli<br />

Founder, Tabadoul, Tanger<br />

· Z<strong>in</strong>eb Benjelloun<br />

Visual artist, Casablanca<br />

· Z<strong>in</strong>eb Haddaji<br />

Project manager, L’Uz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

TUNISIA<br />

· Abir Gasmi<br />

Graphic novelist, co-founder, Lab619, Tunis<br />

· Asma Kaouech<br />

Executive director, Fanni Raghman Anni, Tunis<br />

· Bahri Ben Yahmed<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer, co-founder,<br />

Danseurs Citoyens / Lang’art, Tunis<br />

· Béatrice Dunoyer<br />

Program director, L’<strong>Art</strong> Rue, Tunis<br />

· Cyr<strong>in</strong>e Gannoun<br />

Theatre actor <strong>and</strong> director, Director,<br />

Théâtre Al-Hamra/Centre arabo-africa<strong>in</strong><br />

de formation et de recherche théâtrales, Tunis<br />

· Hafedh Zallit<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer, H-Prod, Tunis<br />

· Hamdi Ryder<br />

DJ, Downtown Vibes collective, Tunis<br />

· Leila Toubel<br />

Theatre actor, dramaturg <strong>and</strong> activist, Tunis<br />

· Lil’Jack<br />

DJ, Downtown Vibes collective, Tunis<br />

· Malek Sebaï<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> choreographer, co-founder,<br />

Association Hayyou’Raqs, Tunis<br />

· Mariem Guellouz<br />

Dancer <strong>and</strong> researcher,<br />

Director of Les Journées chorégraphiques<br />

de Carthage, Tunis/Paris<br />

· Mohamed Ben Soltane<br />

Visual artist, cultural manager <strong>and</strong> curator, Tunis<br />

· Mohamed Guediri<br />

Rapper, Founder of Cité’Ness Association,<br />

Tunis<br />

· Ouafa Belgacem<br />

Cultural resource mobilization expert, CEO of<br />

Culture Fund<strong>in</strong>g Watch, Tunis<br />

· Rania Sdiri<br />

Cultural operator, Tunisian Culture Network,<br />

Tunis<br />

· Shiran Ben Abderrazak<br />

Executive Director, Fondation Rambourg, Tunis<br />

· Wadi Mhiri<br />

Visual artist, Tunis<br />

WESTERN SAHARA<br />

· Mohamed Sulaiman<br />

Photographer <strong>and</strong> visual artist,<br />

Motif arts studio, Samara refugee camp,<br />

T<strong>in</strong>douf<br />

OTHER<br />

· Angie Cotte<br />

Secretary General, Roberto Cimetta Fund, Paris<br />

· Ayman Helmy<br />

Programs manager,<br />

Al Mawred Al-Thaqafy, Beirut<br />

· Gitte Zschosch<br />

Director, EUNIC Brussels<br />

· Johanna Keller<br />

Head of Unit, Goethe Institut (former Director of<br />

Cultural Programme, Goethe-Kairo)<br />

· Noémi Kahn<br />

Assistant Director, Network of Alternative Arab<br />

Screens, Beirut<br />

· Pia Chaib<br />

Program coord<strong>in</strong>ator, Wijhat, Al Mawred<br />

Al- Thaqafy, Beirut


125<br />

Respondents<br />

Compagnie O performs Corbeaux, choreographed <strong>and</strong> directed by Bouchra Ouizguen.<br />

Photo courtesy of Hasnae El Ouarga / Compagnie O


126<br />

Bibliography<br />

APPENDIX<br />

C<br />

—<br />

Fact:<br />

Books, studies, articles,<br />

reports on mobility, migration,<br />

history <strong>and</strong> culture<br />


127<br />

Bibliography<br />

BI—<br />

BLIO—<br />

GRA—<br />

PHY<br />

1.<br />

Azzahrae, Fatima <strong>and</strong> El Ghayam, Sellama (2001).<br />

“Morocco,” <strong>in</strong> Culture Resource/Al Mawred<br />

Al-Thaqafy, European Cultural Foundation <strong>and</strong><br />

Boekmanstudies (eds.), Cultural Policies <strong>in</strong> Algeria,<br />

Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palest<strong>in</strong>e,<br />

Syria <strong>and</strong> Tunisia: an Introduction, p. 126 <strong>–</strong> 149.<br />

2. Barcelona Declaration (1995).<br />

https://ec.europa.eu/research/iscp/pdf/<br />

policy/barcelona_declaration.pdf<br />

3. Belgacem, Ouafa (2001). “Tunisia,” <strong>in</strong> Cultural<br />

Policies <strong>in</strong> Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon,<br />

Morocco, Palest<strong>in</strong>e, Syria <strong>and</strong> Tunisia: an Introduction,<br />

p. 26 <strong>–</strong> 50.<br />

4. Benslimane, Dounia (2014). “Morocco Country<br />

Report,” Technical Assistance Unit of Med Culture<br />

Programme for the promotion of culture as<br />

vector of Human, Social <strong>and</strong> Economic Development<br />

<strong>in</strong> South Mediterranean Countries.<br />

http://www.medculture.eu/country/<strong>in</strong>fographics/morocco.html<br />

5. Boukrouh, Makhlouf <strong>and</strong> Kessab, Ammar (2010).<br />

“Algeria,” <strong>in</strong> Cultural Policies <strong>in</strong> Algeria, Egypt,<br />

Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palest<strong>in</strong>e, Syria <strong>and</strong><br />

Tunisia: an Introduction, p. 26 <strong>–</strong> 50.<br />

6. <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>n Cultural <strong>Mobility</strong> Map (2019).<br />

http://www.nacmm.org/en/<br />

7. El Batraoui, Menha <strong>and</strong> Khafagui, Nermeen<br />

(2010). “Egypt,” <strong>in</strong> Cultural Policies <strong>in</strong> Algeria,<br />

Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palest<strong>in</strong>e,<br />

Syria <strong>and</strong> Tunisia: an Introduction, p. 26 <strong>–</strong> 50.


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8. El Bennaoui, Khadija (2018). “Surviv<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

paradoxes of mobility,” UNESCO Global<br />

Report, https://en.unesco.org/creativity/<br />

story/surviv<strong>in</strong>g-paradoxes-mobility,<br />

p. 107 <strong>–</strong> 123.<br />

9. El Hamrani, Iss<strong>and</strong>r (2001). “Cultural politics<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural policy <strong>in</strong> the Arab world,” <strong>in</strong><br />

Cultural Policies <strong>in</strong> Algeria, Egypt, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon, Morocco, Palest<strong>in</strong>e, Syria <strong>and</strong> Tunisia:<br />

an Introduction, p. 13 <strong>–</strong> 22.<br />

10. Freedom House Country Reports (2019).<br />

https://freedomhouse.org/regions/middleeast-<strong>and</strong>-north-africa<br />

11. Freemuse Country Reports (2019).<br />

https://freemuse.org/regions/middleeast-north-africa/<br />

12. Furjani, Reem (2018). “Libya Country Report,”<br />

Technical Assistance Unit of Med Culture<br />

Programme for the promotion of culture as<br />

vector of Human, Social <strong>and</strong> Economic Development<br />

<strong>in</strong> South Mediterranean Countries.<br />

13. Gana, Hadia (2014). “Fill<strong>in</strong>g the Gaps: <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

Infrastructure <strong>and</strong> Institutions <strong>in</strong> Libya Post-<br />

Dictatorship,” Ibraaz, http://www.ibraaz.<br />

org/essays/89<br />

14. Kessab, Ammar (2014). “Algeria Country<br />

Report,” Technical Assistance Unit of Med<br />

Culture Programme for the promotion of culture<br />

as vector of Human, Social <strong>and</strong> Economic<br />

Development <strong>in</strong> South Mediterranean Countries.<br />

http://www.medculture.eu/country/<br />

report-structure/algeria.html<br />

15. El-Tahri, Jihan <strong>and</strong> Kouoh, Koyo (2015). “Open<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Remarks by Koyo Kouoh <strong>and</strong> Keynote<br />

Address by Jihan El-Tahri,” 1:54 Forum, London.<br />

https://soundcloud.com/1-54-forum/<br />

forum-london-2015-open<strong>in</strong>g-remarks-bykoyo-kouoh-<strong>and</strong>-keynote-address-byjihan-el-tahri<br />

16. Malka, Haim (2018). “Dest<strong>in</strong>ation Maghreb:<br />

Chang<strong>in</strong>g Migration Patterns <strong>in</strong> <strong>North</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>,”<br />

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dest<strong>in</strong>ation-maghreb<br />

17. Mart<strong>in</strong>s, Sara (2011). “The border of arts <strong>–</strong><br />

reflections on the state of the art of artistic<br />

mobility <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong>,” presented at Research<br />

Workshop 5: State of <strong>Art</strong>s <strong>in</strong> <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>and</strong> South<br />

America, 11&12 May 2011.<br />

18. Mtimet, Walid (2014). “Tunisia Country Report,”<br />

Technical Assistance Unit of Med Culture<br />

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Development <strong>in</strong> South Mediterranean Countries.<br />

http://www.medculture.eu/country/<br />

<strong>in</strong>fographics/tunisia.html<br />

19. On the Move & Arab Education Forum (2017).<br />

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https://on-the-move.org/fund<strong>in</strong>g/<br />

arabcountries/<br />

20. Fazeulaa, Hossam (2018). “Egypt Country<br />

Report,” Technical Assistance Unit of Med<br />

Culture Programme for the promotion of culture<br />

as vector of Human, Social <strong>and</strong> Economic<br />

Development <strong>in</strong> South Mediterranean Countries.<br />

http://www.medculture.eu/country/<br />

<strong>in</strong>fographics/egypt.html<br />

21. Wies<strong>and</strong>, Andreas / ERICarts Institute (2008).<br />

<strong>Mobility</strong> Matters <strong>–</strong> Programmes <strong>and</strong> Schemes<br />

to Support the <strong>Mobility</strong> of <strong>Art</strong>ists <strong>and</strong> Cultural<br />

Professionals. A Study for the European Commission,<br />

Directorate-General for Education<br />

<strong>and</strong> Culture. Bonn: ERICarts Institute.<br />

22. The Informal Meet<strong>in</strong>g of Independent Cultural<br />

Spaces <strong>in</strong> the Arab World (2011). Young<br />

Arab Theatre Fund. Independent <strong>Art</strong>s And<br />

Culture Spaces In The Arab World. http://<br />

mophradat.org/wordpress/wp-content/<br />

uploads/2018/01/Independent-<strong>Art</strong>s-<strong>and</strong>-<br />

Culture-<strong>in</strong>-the-Arab-World.pdf


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130<br />

—<br />

artmovesafrica.org<br />