08.11.2019 Views

Who is who in the new European Parliament committees

When we first floated the idea to publish a magazine on the committees of the European Parliament, enthusiasm was low. It couldn't be that interesting, could it? But the ones who thought this would be a dull exercise, were very wrong.

When we first floated the idea to publish a magazine on the committees of the European Parliament, enthusiasm was low.

It couldn't be that interesting, could it?

But the ones who thought this would be a dull exercise, were very wrong.

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NOVEMBER 2019 MAGAZINE<br />

<strong>Who</strong> <strong>is</strong> <strong>who</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>new</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

<strong>Parliament</strong><br />

<strong>committees</strong>


Hear<strong>in</strong>g aid<br />

Do you<br />

notice us?<br />

Pacemaker<br />

Plaster<br />

Blood sugar monitor<br />

X-ray<br />

Pregnancy test<br />

Medical app<br />

Contact lenses<br />

Ca<strong>the</strong>ter<br />

Thermometer<br />

Blood test<br />

Medical technologies are <strong>the</strong><br />

un noticed heroes <strong>in</strong> our healthcare<br />

system. They are at <strong>the</strong> start and at<br />

<strong>the</strong> end of almost every solution<br />

for any d<strong>is</strong>ease or condition.<br />

Where <strong>the</strong>re <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> need to prevent,<br />

diagnose, treat or cure, medical<br />

techno logies are <strong>the</strong>re.<br />

Learn more: www.medtecheurope.org<br />

Sh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g a<br />

light on medical<br />

technologies


euobserver<br />

EDITORIAL ADDRESS<br />

EUobserver Magaz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Rue Montoyer 18B<br />

1000 Brussels<br />

Belgium<br />

contact@euobserver.com<br />

EDITORIAL<br />

Editor: Koert Debeuf<br />

Editorial contributions: Andrew Rettman, Elena<br />

Sanchez Nicolas, Eszter Zalan, Koert Debeuf, Nikolaj<br />

Nielsen, Matt Tempest<br />

ART DIRECTION<br />

Tobias Andreasen<br />

ADVERTISING<br />

EUobserver Magaz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Rue Montoyer 18B<br />

1000 Brussels<br />

Belgium<br />

advert<strong>is</strong><strong>in</strong>g@euobserver.com<br />

DISTRIBUTION<br />

EUobserver Magaz<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Rue Montoyer 18B<br />

1000 Brussels<br />

Belgium<br />

Henner Sorg<br />

hsorg@euobserver.com<br />

PUBLISHER<br />

EUobserver.com ASBL<br />

www.euobserver.com<br />

INFLUENTIAL. INVESTIGATIVE. INDEPENDENT<br />

EUobserver <strong>is</strong> a not-for-profit, <strong>in</strong>dependent onl<strong>in</strong>e<br />

<strong>new</strong>spaper establ<strong>is</strong>hed <strong>in</strong> Brussels <strong>in</strong> 2000. We value<br />

free th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g and pla<strong>in</strong> speech and aim to support <strong>European</strong><br />

democracy by reflect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> voice of people and<br />

by giv<strong>in</strong>g people <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>formation <strong>the</strong>y need to hold <strong>the</strong><br />

EU establ<strong>is</strong>hment to account.<br />

OUR REACH<br />

The EUobserver <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> fourth-most <strong>in</strong>fluential <strong>new</strong>s<br />

platform <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitutions. With a small but<br />

dedicated team, we succeed <strong>in</strong> hav<strong>in</strong>g an impact. Our<br />

report<strong>in</strong>g has made sure that <strong>is</strong>sues were put on <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

agenda, that ord<strong>in</strong>ary people from Europe and beyond<br />

have been heard <strong>in</strong> Brussels, and even forced officials<br />

to resign because <strong>the</strong>y did not live up to <strong>the</strong> moral<br />

standards <strong>the</strong> EU should have.<br />

DISCLAIMER<br />

All <strong>in</strong>formation stated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> magaz<strong>in</strong>e <strong>is</strong> correct at time<br />

of pr<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

We have to be honest<br />

When we first floated <strong>the</strong> idea to publ<strong>is</strong>h a<br />

magaz<strong>in</strong>e on <strong>the</strong> <strong>committees</strong> of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

<strong>Parliament</strong>, enthusiasm was low.<br />

It couldn't be that <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g, could it?<br />

But <strong>the</strong> ones <strong>who</strong> thought th<strong>is</strong> would be a dull exerc<strong>is</strong>e, were very<br />

wrong.<br />

When we asked <strong>the</strong> committee chairs what <strong>the</strong> challenges were<br />

for <strong>the</strong> next five years, <strong>the</strong> responses appeared to be fasc<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Not only can we confirm that almost every committee chair actually<br />

knows well what he or she <strong>is</strong> talk<strong>in</strong>g about.<br />

When you put all <strong>the</strong> responses toge<strong>the</strong>r, you get a complete<br />

overview of what <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union will work on <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> years to<br />

come.<br />

When you go through <strong>the</strong> overview, you will also see that <strong>the</strong><br />

challenges for <strong>the</strong> EU are probably bigger than ever.<br />

We are reach<strong>in</strong>g critical years <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> fight aga<strong>in</strong>st climate change, <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> r<strong>is</strong>e of artificial <strong>in</strong>telligence and digital<strong>is</strong>ation.<br />

Topics like age<strong>in</strong>g and migration have not received a proper answer<br />

yet, while at <strong>the</strong> same time a <strong>new</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ancial and economic cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong><br />

might be around <strong>the</strong> corner.<br />

Brexit will give headaches <strong>in</strong> many fields, but perhaps most <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

EU budget for 2021-2027, as o<strong>the</strong>r countries will have to fill <strong>the</strong> gap<br />

that <strong>the</strong> UK leaves beh<strong>in</strong>d.<br />

A major question rema<strong>in</strong>s how Europe can cont<strong>in</strong>ue to play <strong>the</strong> role<br />

of good example <strong>in</strong> its foreign policy and trade, while at <strong>the</strong> same<br />

time governments of member states are break<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> rules.<br />

Ano<strong>the</strong>r challenge that needs a response <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g gap<br />

between western and central (eastern) Europe.<br />

Not only politically, but also socially and economically, as waves<br />

of change might affect <strong>new</strong>er member states more than expected.<br />

A last po<strong>in</strong>t that has become clear dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> last months: <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> <strong>is</strong> becom<strong>in</strong>g less and less a follower, and<br />

more and more of an actor.<br />

The signal that was given dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> hear<strong>in</strong>gs - and refusals - of<br />

candidates for <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion was just a first warn<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> will play a stronger role <strong>in</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

dec<strong>is</strong>ion-mak<strong>in</strong>g than ever before.<br />

And that's great <strong>new</strong>s for Europe's democracy.<br />

— Koert Debeuf


Welcome to <strong>the</strong><br />

EU eng<strong>in</strong>e room<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> (EP's) 22 <strong>committees</strong>, which churn out hundreds of<br />

<strong>new</strong> laws and non-b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g reports each year and which keep an eye on o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

<strong>European</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitutions.<br />

By Andrew Rettman<br />

EP <strong>committees</strong> made <strong>the</strong> headl<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong> autumn when<br />

<strong>the</strong>y rejected French, Hungarian, and Romanian<br />

nom<strong>in</strong>ees to jo<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion.<br />

And <strong>the</strong> EP eng<strong>in</strong>e room produced texts that<br />

underp<strong>in</strong>ned 2,625 plenary votes on leg<strong>is</strong>lative and<br />

non-leg<strong>is</strong>lative reports <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past five years.<br />

The candidates' hear<strong>in</strong>gs were prepared by each<br />

committee's "secretariat", a group of EP officials.<br />

The committee chairs led public debates with <strong>the</strong><br />

nom<strong>in</strong>ees <strong>in</strong> which MEPs from every EP group<br />

fielded questions.<br />

The groups' "committee coord<strong>in</strong>ators", or<br />

spokepersons, <strong>the</strong>n met <strong>in</strong> secret to negotiate how<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir MEPs would vote and <strong>the</strong> dec<strong>is</strong>ions ensued.<br />

The EU nom<strong>in</strong>ation cycle happens once every five<br />

years, after EP elections.<br />

Each committee conta<strong>in</strong>s between 21 (f<strong>is</strong>heries,<br />

<strong>the</strong> smallest) and 71 (foreign affairs, <strong>the</strong> largest)<br />

members.<br />

The chairs and deputy chairs as well as o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

members get <strong>the</strong>ir seats for a two-and-a-half year<br />

period via <strong>the</strong> "D'Hondt method".<br />

The algorithm, named after a 19th century Belgian<br />

ma<strong>the</strong>matician, has often been <strong>the</strong> butt of jokes on<br />

<strong>the</strong> Byzant<strong>in</strong>e obscurity of EU rules, but it makes<br />

sure every political group gets a fair share <strong>in</strong> relation<br />

to how well <strong>the</strong>y did <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EP election.<br />

But it gives an <strong>in</strong>sight <strong>in</strong>to how <strong>the</strong> EP's 20 permanent<br />

<strong>committees</strong> and two sub-<strong>committees</strong> conduct <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

bus<strong>in</strong>ess.<br />

The <strong>committees</strong> normally work by elect<strong>in</strong>g<br />

"rapporteurs", MEPs <strong>who</strong> draft legal and non-legal<br />

texts.<br />

Their day-to-day work cons<strong>is</strong>ts of b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g "codec<strong>is</strong>ion"<br />

on EU laws, <strong>in</strong> areas such as <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

market, economic governance, immigration, trade,<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustry, and climate change.<br />

They help agree how much <strong>the</strong> EU will spend <strong>in</strong> its<br />

multi-annual budgets and how to divide up subsidies<br />

to farmers and poor regions.<br />

The <strong>committees</strong>' daily work also <strong>in</strong>volves non-b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g<br />

"consultation" on EU dec<strong>is</strong>ions <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r areas, such<br />

as foreign policy, taxation, and competition law.<br />

The rapporteurs are chosen via ano<strong>the</strong>r complicated<br />

po<strong>in</strong>ts system, <strong>in</strong> which EP political groups bid for a<br />

report on a given topic, as <strong>in</strong> an auction.<br />

The <strong>committees</strong> debate amendments to those texts<br />

<strong>in</strong> public hear<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>in</strong>vite experts, and send factf<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g<br />

m<strong>is</strong>sions if need be.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators also play an important role <strong>in</strong><br />

rapporteur appo<strong>in</strong>tments. They appo<strong>in</strong>t shadow<br />

rapporteurs, prepare committee dec<strong>is</strong>ions, and whip<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir own group members <strong>in</strong>to toe<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>e.<br />

04 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


The <strong>committees</strong> <strong>the</strong>n vote on f<strong>in</strong>al drafts, which <strong>the</strong>y<br />

pass on to plenary sessions for <strong>the</strong> EP's formal seal<br />

of approval.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> 2,625 number of EP dec<strong>is</strong>ions <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past<br />

five years tells only part of <strong>the</strong> story.<br />

The <strong>committees</strong> normally gr<strong>in</strong>d leg<strong>is</strong>lation proposed<br />

by <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion, which also has to be<br />

agreed with member states.<br />

They do it ahead of first and second "read<strong>in</strong>gs" of<br />

<strong>the</strong> laws <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EP, which take between one and<br />

two years to complete, but if <strong>in</strong>itial talks do not end<br />

<strong>in</strong> agreement, <strong>the</strong>y appo<strong>in</strong>t special teams, called<br />

"conciliation <strong>committees</strong>", to f<strong>in</strong>al<strong>is</strong>e negotiations<br />

with EU countries' diplomats.<br />

They also get <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r nitty gritty <strong>in</strong><br />

Europe's law-mak<strong>in</strong>g mach<strong>in</strong>e, by tak<strong>in</strong>g part <strong>in</strong><br />

"trilogues" and by help<strong>in</strong>g to forge "delegated" and<br />

"implement<strong>in</strong>g" acts.<br />

Trilogues see rapporteurs sit down with EU<br />

comm<strong>is</strong>sion officials and EU diplomats <strong>in</strong> secret<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>gs to hammer out <strong>in</strong>formal comprom<strong>is</strong>es.<br />

And <strong>the</strong>re were 251 of <strong>the</strong>m convened <strong>in</strong> 2017, <strong>in</strong><br />

what was part of a grow<strong>in</strong>g trend <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> way <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

capital works.<br />

Delegated acts supplement or amend ex<strong>is</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g<br />

leg<strong>is</strong>lation, while bypass<strong>in</strong>g normal procedure for<br />

mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>who</strong>le <strong>new</strong> laws.<br />

Implement<strong>in</strong>g acts give details on how to put <strong>the</strong><br />

law <strong>in</strong>to practice <strong>in</strong> micro-dec<strong>is</strong>ions which can have<br />

serious f<strong>in</strong>ancial implications for <strong>in</strong>dustry.<br />

The <strong>committees</strong> normally wait for <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion to<br />

send legal proposals.<br />

But <strong>the</strong>y can also put out "own <strong>in</strong>itiative" reports,<br />

<strong>in</strong>dicat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> EP's views on a given subject, and<br />

call for <strong>the</strong> EU comm<strong>is</strong>sion to draft <strong>new</strong> laws on<br />

matters of concern, even though <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion <strong>is</strong><br />

free to ignore such an appeal.<br />

Some of <strong>the</strong>m have special tasks, such as <strong>the</strong><br />

subcommittee on security and defence, which<br />

monitors <strong>the</strong> EU's 16 overseas civilian and military<br />

m<strong>is</strong>sions, rang<strong>in</strong>g from a police force <strong>in</strong> Kosovo,<br />

to coast-guard tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Libya, and an anti-piracy<br />

force <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Indian Ocean.<br />

O<strong>the</strong>rs, such as <strong>the</strong> foreign affairs committee, debate<br />

grand ideas on Russia and Ch<strong>in</strong>a geopolitics, while<br />

o<strong>the</strong>rs still, such as <strong>the</strong> petitions committee, handle<br />

smaller <strong>is</strong>sues, such as <strong>the</strong> d<strong>is</strong>tance between desks<br />

<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>is</strong>h schools or <strong>the</strong> right to fly with pets.<br />

But even those which exerted soft power only still<br />

helped shape what comes out of Brussels <strong>in</strong>to wider<br />

Europe, with <strong>the</strong> petitions committee chairman,<br />

Span<strong>is</strong>h MEP Dolors Montserrat (EPP), say<strong>in</strong>g that<br />

its recommendations or its memos to EU embassies<br />

"sometimes" amounted to "considerable <strong>in</strong>fluence"<br />

even if <strong>the</strong>y had no legal force.<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 05


The Index<br />

AFET<br />

Foreign Affairs Page 7<br />

IMCO<br />

Internal Market and Consumer Protection Page 20<br />

DROI<br />

Human Rights Page 8<br />

TRAN<br />

Transport and Tour<strong>is</strong>m Page 21<br />

SEDE<br />

Security and Defence Page 9<br />

REGI<br />

Regional Development Page 22<br />

DEVE<br />

Development Page 10<br />

AGRI<br />

Agriculture and Rural Development Page 23<br />

INTA<br />

International Trade Page 11<br />

PECH<br />

F<strong>is</strong>heries Page 24<br />

BUDG<br />

Budgets Page 12<br />

CULT<br />

Culture and Education Page 25<br />

CONT<br />

Budgetary Control Page 13<br />

JURI<br />

Legal Affairs Page 26<br />

ECON<br />

Economic and Monetary Affairs Page 14<br />

LIBE<br />

Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Page 27<br />

EMPL<br />

Employment and Social Affairs Page 15<br />

AFCO<br />

Constitutional Affairs Page 28<br />

ENVI<br />

Environment, Public Health and Food Safety Page 16<br />

FEMM<br />

Women's Rights and Gender Equality Page 29<br />

ITRE<br />

Industry, Research and Energy Page 18<br />

PETI<br />

Petitions Page 30<br />

06 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


AFET<br />

EU diplomacy 2.0<br />

Foreign Affairs<br />

MEPs on <strong>the</strong> foreign affairs committee ought to be like second-tier EU diplomats on <strong>the</strong> Western<br />

Balkans and Russia, accord<strong>in</strong>g to its German chairman, but foreign policy splits could bedevil<br />

its work. By Andrew Rettman<br />

MEPs on <strong>the</strong> foreign affairs committee (AFET) ought to<br />

be like second-tier EU diplomats on <strong>the</strong> Western Balkans<br />

and Russia <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> next five years, accord<strong>in</strong>g to its German<br />

chairman, David McAll<strong>is</strong>ter.<br />

They should also help forge an EU "Weltpolitikfähigkeit"<br />

('world-politics capability') v<strong>is</strong>-a-v<strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> US and Ch<strong>in</strong>a, he<br />

said. But AFET conta<strong>in</strong>s <strong>the</strong> same div<strong>is</strong>ions that have<br />

held back member states from act<strong>in</strong>g toge<strong>the</strong>r, its Pol<strong>is</strong>h<br />

deputy chairman <strong>in</strong>dicated.<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> has no dec<strong>is</strong>ion-mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

powers on EU foreign policy, which member states do by<br />

unanimity.<br />

But AFET MEPs have <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past "played a prom<strong>in</strong>ent role<br />

<strong>in</strong> parliamentary diplomacy, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> mediation and<br />

conflict prevention" and <strong>the</strong> EP's "diplomacy role should<br />

be streng<strong>the</strong>ned" <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>new</strong> leg<strong>is</strong>lature, McAll<strong>is</strong>ter said.<br />

MEPs should support Western Balkans enlargement,<br />

promote democracy <strong>in</strong> former Soviet countries, push for<br />

implementation of a Russia-Ukra<strong>in</strong>e ceasefire deal, and<br />

help develop EU strategy on <strong>the</strong> Middle East and Africa<br />

and on counter-terror<strong>is</strong>m and migration, he said.<br />

AFET deputies should also "promote multilateral<strong>is</strong>m and<br />

a global rules-based order", <strong>the</strong> German added. EU-US<br />

relations had faced "challenges and d<strong>is</strong>ruptions", but<br />

must be fixed, and EU-Ch<strong>in</strong>a ambitions must not forget<br />

"human rights", he noted.<br />

If AFET helped <strong>the</strong> EU emerge as "a global leader", that<br />

would be its biggest achievement, McAll<strong>is</strong>ter said. But<br />

<strong>is</strong>sues such as reform<strong>in</strong>g EU foreign policy unanimity,<br />

gett<strong>in</strong>g along with US president Donald Trump, and<br />

Russia could be "controversial", <strong>the</strong> German politician<br />

warned.<br />

Germany's David McAll<strong>is</strong>ter (l), chair of <strong>the</strong> committee, here seen with Angela Merkel.<br />

Photo: CDU Niedersachsen<br />

And EU gripes on Trump should not be used to mask that<br />

reality, he added. "Some see Trump as more of a danger<br />

than [Russian president Vladimir] Put<strong>in</strong>, to marg<strong>in</strong>al<strong>is</strong>e<br />

<strong>the</strong> Russian threat, and that <strong>is</strong> not acceptable to us," he<br />

said.<br />

Poland was unlikely to give up its foreign policy veto <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> EU Council for <strong>the</strong> sake of "Weltpolitikfähigkeit", <strong>in</strong> a<br />

position he justified. "Th<strong>is</strong> <strong>is</strong> not a cultural problem, or a<br />

community problem, it's a matter of national security," he<br />

said.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> div<strong>is</strong>ions also had ideological roots, h<strong>is</strong> comments<br />

suggested. "Federal<strong>is</strong>m <strong>is</strong> a recipe for catastrophe,"<br />

Waszczykowski said. McAll<strong>is</strong>ter's German chancellor<br />

Angela Merkel opened EU doors to refugees <strong>in</strong> 2015, but<br />

that was a m<strong>is</strong>take because "<strong>the</strong> next wave could be even<br />

bigger" and we "have to stop such an <strong>in</strong>vasion", <strong>the</strong> AFET<br />

deputy chair said.<br />

And member states' div<strong>is</strong>ions were replicated <strong>in</strong>side<br />

AFET, its deputy chair, former Pol<strong>is</strong>h foreign m<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>ter<br />

Witold Waszczykowski, <strong>in</strong>dicated.<br />

Speak<strong>in</strong>g out on Russia's "open conflict" aga<strong>in</strong>st Ukra<strong>in</strong>e<br />

and on <strong>the</strong> need for Russia sanctions should be <strong>the</strong><br />

committee's top priority, Waszczykowski said, <strong>in</strong> a<br />

narrower threat assessment.<br />

AFET coord<strong>in</strong>ators are: Michael Gahler (EPP, Germany),<br />

Ton<strong>in</strong>o Picula, (S&D, Croatia), Hilde Vautmans (Re<strong>new</strong>,<br />

Belgium), Re<strong>in</strong>hard Bütikofer (Greens/EFA, Germany),<br />

Thierry Mariani (ID, France), Anna Fotyga (ECR, Poland)<br />

and Idoia Villanueva Ruiz (GUE/NGL, Spa<strong>in</strong>) and Manu<br />

P<strong>in</strong>eda (GUE/NGL, Spa<strong>in</strong>).<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 07


DROI<br />

Six priorities for human rights<br />

Human Rights<br />

Belgian social<strong>is</strong>t MEP Marie Arena <strong>is</strong> chair<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s sub-committee on<br />

human rights. Her biggest challenge? F<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g ways to reach objectives that cover an enormous<br />

spectrum of <strong>is</strong>sues — from climate to child protection. By Nikolaj Nielsen<br />

The <strong>European</strong> Union has yet to ratify <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Convention on Human Rights - despite a treaty obligation<br />

to do so under L<strong>is</strong>bon.<br />

In h<strong>is</strong> farewell speech <strong>in</strong> September, Thorbjorn Jagland,<br />

<strong>the</strong> now former secretary general of <strong>the</strong> Council of<br />

Europe, said it <strong>is</strong> still not possible to hold <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Union to account, should it violate <strong>the</strong> convention.<br />

With that <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d, ongo<strong>in</strong>g efforts are be<strong>in</strong>g made at<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> to scrut<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>e how <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

implements human rights policy. Among <strong>the</strong>m <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> subcommittee<br />

on human rights, chaired by centre-left Belgian<br />

MEP Marie Arena (S&D).<br />

Despite hav<strong>in</strong>g four vice-chairs hail<strong>in</strong>g from different<br />

political groups, Arena says <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternal dynamics are<br />

so far smooth. All have agreed to cluster <strong>the</strong>ir priorities<br />

around six big <strong>the</strong>mes for <strong>the</strong> next two-and-a-half years.<br />

"I th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>the</strong> most difficult part will be f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ways to<br />

reach our objectives, and not <strong>the</strong> objectives <strong>the</strong>mselves -<br />

which puts us up to a very good start <strong>in</strong> my op<strong>in</strong>ion," she<br />

told EUobserver.<br />

Beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> scenes, <strong>the</strong> committee's coord<strong>in</strong>ators will be<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g to align <strong>the</strong> effort.<br />

Marie Arena was a former employment m<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>ter <strong>in</strong> Belgium's Wallonia region.<br />

Photo: © <strong>European</strong> Union 2019 - Source : EP<br />

O<strong>the</strong>r big topics like childrens' rights, women's rights,<br />

<strong>in</strong>digenous peoples' rights plus legal impunity will be<br />

addressed as cross-cutt<strong>in</strong>g <strong>is</strong>sues.<br />

The sub-committee's objective for <strong>the</strong> upcom<strong>in</strong>g years <strong>is</strong><br />

to ensure that <strong>the</strong> EU's action on <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational scene<br />

<strong>is</strong> guided by <strong>the</strong> same pr<strong>in</strong>ciples that <strong>in</strong>spired its creation,<br />

accord<strong>in</strong>g to Arena, as she l<strong>is</strong>ts democracy, <strong>the</strong> rule of law,<br />

human rights and fundamental freedoms as examples.<br />

The centre-right has Isabel W<strong>is</strong>eler-Lima (EPP,<br />

Luxembourg) as its coord<strong>in</strong>ator, <strong>the</strong> social<strong>is</strong>ts Isabel<br />

Santos (S&D, Portugal), <strong>the</strong> liberals' Ir<strong>in</strong>a von Wiese<br />

(Re<strong>new</strong> Europe, UK), <strong>the</strong> greens Germany's Hannah<br />

Neumann (Green/EFA, Germany), <strong>the</strong> conservatives<br />

Karol Karski (ECR, Poland), and <strong>the</strong> far-left Miguel Urbán<br />

Crespo (GUE/NGL, Spa<strong>in</strong>).<br />

"My w<strong>is</strong>h <strong>is</strong> to be able to do so without aggravat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong><br />

situation <strong>in</strong> countries that are fac<strong>in</strong>g threats to <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

fundamental rights," she said.<br />

Turkey's crackdown on opposition and journal<strong>is</strong>ts, <strong>the</strong><br />

plight of <strong>the</strong> Roh<strong>in</strong>gya <strong>in</strong> Myanmar, activ<strong>is</strong>ts press<strong>in</strong>g for<br />

women's rights <strong>in</strong> Iran, are all difficult cases.<br />

The areas are vast. At <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> l<strong>is</strong>t <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> environment<br />

and climate change, core <strong>is</strong>sues that have galvan<strong>is</strong>ed a<br />

global movement led by <strong>the</strong> Swed<strong>is</strong>h 16-year old, Greta<br />

Thunberg.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> wider backlash aga<strong>in</strong>st civil society and human<br />

rights also poses challenges with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU itself - as<br />

Hungary puts <strong>the</strong> squeeze on migration, and Poland<br />

underm<strong>in</strong>es <strong>the</strong> rule of law.<br />

The committee will also focus <strong>in</strong> on bus<strong>in</strong>ess and human<br />

rights, m<strong>in</strong>orities and freedom of religion, civil society,<br />

migration, and <strong>new</strong> technologies.<br />

"If we are able to promote fundamental values and see<br />

concrete signs of improvement, even if just on one case<br />

or one region, that would be <strong>the</strong> greatest achievement <strong>in</strong><br />

my op<strong>in</strong>ion," Arena said, when asked for her hopes for<br />

over <strong>the</strong> com<strong>in</strong>g five years.<br />

08 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


SEDE<br />

EU buys guns<br />

Gear<strong>in</strong>g up for EU spend<strong>in</strong>g on arms procurement will be a top priority for <strong>the</strong> subcommittee<br />

on security and defence, accord<strong>in</strong>g to its French chairwoman - but ethical questions rema<strong>in</strong>.<br />

By Andrew Rettman<br />

Security and Defence<br />

Gear<strong>in</strong>g up for <strong>the</strong> first big wave of EU spend<strong>in</strong>g on<br />

arms procurement will be a top priority for <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

<strong>Parliament</strong>'s subcommittee on security and defence<br />

(SEDE), accord<strong>in</strong>g to its chairman, French liberal politician<br />

Nathalie Lo<strong>is</strong>eau. But regulatory and strategic questions<br />

rema<strong>in</strong>ed "unanswered", she said.<br />

The committee would "monitor implementation of <strong>the</strong><br />

tools we've created to enhance our defence union",<br />

Lo<strong>is</strong>eau said, nam<strong>in</strong>g an alphabet soup of acronyms for<br />

EU projects on <strong>new</strong> defence assets: Pesco, EDF, and<br />

EDIDP.<br />

These ranged from a police force <strong>in</strong> Kosovo, to coastguard<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Libya, and an anti-piracy force <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

Indian Ocean.<br />

Her committee saw eye-to-eye on its agenda, Lo<strong>is</strong>eau<br />

<strong>in</strong>dicated, but that did not mean <strong>the</strong>re was no debate. "It's<br />

more about unanswered questions than div<strong>is</strong>ive topics,<br />

for <strong>in</strong>stance: what <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> role of <strong>the</strong> EU on arms exports?",<br />

she said.<br />

SEDE's ma<strong>in</strong> task should be "improvement of <strong>European</strong><br />

defence mechan<strong>is</strong>ms", she noted.<br />

Permanent Structured Cooperation (Pesco), <strong>is</strong> to see<br />

29 clubs of assorted EU states develop <strong>new</strong> attack<br />

helicopters, m<strong>is</strong>sile systems, and artillery guidance<br />

systems, among o<strong>the</strong>r hardware.<br />

The l<strong>is</strong>t also <strong>in</strong>cludes drones, autonomous weapons<br />

systems, electronic warfare, and military space<br />

surveillance, "address<strong>in</strong>g <strong>new</strong> challenges," Lo<strong>is</strong>eau said.<br />

SEDE's task was to "adopt EDF regulation <strong>in</strong> full", she<br />

added, referr<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Defence Fund, a €13bn<br />

pot for develop<strong>in</strong>g <strong>new</strong> systems.<br />

And <strong>the</strong> committee should guide <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion<br />

spend<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> defence <strong>in</strong>dustrial development<br />

programme (EDIDP), she said, referr<strong>in</strong>g to a separate<br />

€590m pot for defence research.<br />

Some of SEDE's time would be spent monitor<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> EU's<br />

16 overseas civilian and military m<strong>is</strong>sions, Lo<strong>is</strong>eau noted.<br />

But "I would very much like to see a <strong>European</strong> defence<br />

strategy adopted," she added, with big questions<br />

such as: "does <strong>the</strong> function<strong>in</strong>g of Nato answer all our<br />

priorities <strong>in</strong> terms of defence of Europe? How do we<br />

build a sat<strong>is</strong>factory defence partnership with <strong>the</strong> UK after<br />

Brexit?", still "unanswered" as well.<br />

Lo<strong>is</strong>eau, a former French EU affairs m<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>ter and a former<br />

director of an elite French academy, <strong>is</strong> likely to work hand<strong>in</strong>-glove<br />

with France's EU comm<strong>is</strong>sioner, <strong>in</strong> charge of <strong>the</strong><br />

s<strong>in</strong>gle market, <strong>in</strong>dustry, and defence portfolio.<br />

French president Emmanuel Macron <strong>is</strong> a lead<strong>in</strong>g<br />

proponent of EU defence <strong>in</strong>tegration.<br />

And while different views ex<strong>is</strong>t on Nato versus EU military<br />

structures, SEDE also conta<strong>in</strong>s a galaxy of former<br />

stars from Russia-fac<strong>in</strong>g EU states for <strong>who</strong>m jo<strong>in</strong>t arms<br />

procurement <strong>is</strong> welcomed.<br />

Romania's former president Traian Băsescu (EPP,<br />

Romania) <strong>is</strong> a member, along with three former Pol<strong>is</strong>h<br />

foreign m<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>ters: Anna Fotyga (ECR, Poland), Radosław<br />

Sikorski (EPP, Poland), and Witold Waszczykowski (ECR,<br />

Poland), plus an Estonian one, Urmas Paet (Re<strong>new</strong>,<br />

Estonnia).<br />

Nathalie Lo<strong>is</strong>eau (Re<strong>new</strong>, France), chair of <strong>the</strong> committee.<br />

Photo: Council of <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

The committee's <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> group coord<strong>in</strong>ators<br />

are: Arnaud Danjean (EPP, France); Sven Mikser (S&D,<br />

Estonia); Petras Austrevicius (Re<strong>new</strong>, Lithuania); Hannah<br />

Neumann (Greens/EFA, Germany); Jérôme Rivière<br />

(ID, France); Geoffrey Van Orden (ECR, UK); and Mick<br />

Wallace (GUE/NGL, Germany).<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 09


DEVE<br />

Development to fuel change<br />

Development<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s development committee says its overarch<strong>in</strong>g priority will be to<br />

deliver on <strong>the</strong> UN's Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development Goals. Achiev<strong>in</strong>g that will require an action plan<br />

and targeted <strong>in</strong>vestments, says its chair Swed<strong>is</strong>h centre-right MEP Tomas Tobé. By Andrew Rettman<br />

Last year, <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion<br />

earmarked almost €90bn for a socalled<br />

Neighbourhood, Development<br />

and International Cooperation<br />

Instrument (or NDICI for short).<br />

EU jargon and acronyms aside, <strong>the</strong><br />

NDICI has serious ramifications for a<br />

<strong>who</strong>le set of policies when it comes to<br />

development across <strong>the</strong> globe.<br />

For Swed<strong>is</strong>h centre-right MEP<br />

Tomas Tobé, <strong>who</strong> chairs <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s development<br />

committee, <strong>the</strong> <strong>is</strong>sue ranks among a<br />

number of top priorities that will need<br />

to be tackled over <strong>the</strong> five years.<br />

"An overarch<strong>in</strong>g priority will be<br />

to deliver on <strong>the</strong> Susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

Development Goals. In order to<br />

do that, we need a concrete action<br />

plan and we need well-targeted<br />

<strong>in</strong>vestments," he says.<br />

The development committee describes<br />

itself as a champion of <strong>the</strong> 2030<br />

agenda for susta<strong>in</strong>able development<br />

and <strong>the</strong> global goals agreed by all UN<br />

members <strong>in</strong> 2015.<br />

Those goals aim to reduce<br />

poverty, <strong>in</strong>equality, environmental<br />

degradation while at <strong>the</strong> same time<br />

tackl<strong>in</strong>g climate change and ensur<strong>in</strong>g<br />

prosperity, peace, and justice.<br />

Divided up <strong>in</strong>to 17 categories, <strong>the</strong>y<br />

are designed to act as a bluepr<strong>in</strong>t for<br />

<strong>the</strong> future of <strong>the</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g world.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> UN's target date <strong>is</strong> only 10<br />

years away - a tall order for a world<br />

<strong>who</strong>se political leadership has been<br />

dragg<strong>in</strong>g its feet on a rapidly-chang<strong>in</strong>g<br />

climate and biodiversity loss.<br />

O<strong>the</strong>r immediate challenges also<br />

rema<strong>in</strong>. Next February, <strong>the</strong> EU's<br />

ex<strong>is</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g pact with Africa, known as<br />

<strong>the</strong> Cotonou Partnership Agreement,<br />

comes to an end.<br />

Adopted <strong>in</strong> 2000, it covers EU relations<br />

between <strong>the</strong> EU and African, Caribbean<br />

and Pacific countries. Some 48 states<br />

are from sub-Saharan Africa alone.<br />

The pact spans development, trade<br />

and politics.<br />

Talks officially kicked off <strong>in</strong> September<br />

last year with migration becom<strong>in</strong>g an<br />

<strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly big stick<strong>in</strong>g po<strong>in</strong>t.<br />

In a sign that shows how development<br />

<strong>is</strong> merg<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to o<strong>the</strong>r policy areas,<br />

foreign and defence m<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>ters<br />

across <strong>the</strong> EU met over <strong>the</strong> summer<br />

<strong>in</strong> Brussels to d<strong>is</strong>cuss improv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

security <strong>in</strong> Burk<strong>in</strong>a Faso, Chad, Mali,<br />

Mauritania, and Niger.<br />

Two days later, development m<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>ters<br />

jo<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong>, demonstrat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> crosscutt<strong>in</strong>g<br />

nature of policy <strong>in</strong> a region<br />

where conflict has affected millions.<br />

Asked what he hopes will be <strong>the</strong><br />

s<strong>in</strong>gle most important achievement<br />

for h<strong>is</strong> committee over <strong>the</strong> next five<br />

years, Tobé mentions v<strong>is</strong>ibility.<br />

"Policy achievements aside, I want<br />

<strong>European</strong> development policy to<br />

be more v<strong>is</strong>ible and <strong>the</strong> results<br />

highlighted and communicated <strong>in</strong> a<br />

much better way than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past," he<br />

says.<br />

Specifically, it means recogn<strong>is</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

development policy as an <strong>in</strong>strument<br />

to fuel change <strong>in</strong> a variety of<br />

fields <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g economic growth,<br />

<strong>in</strong>novation, environmental protection,<br />

multilateral<strong>is</strong>m, democracy.<br />

Gett<strong>in</strong>g consensus with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

committee on such <strong>is</strong>sues won't be<br />

easy and r<strong>is</strong>ks becom<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> most<br />

div<strong>is</strong>ive po<strong>in</strong>t <strong>the</strong>y will have to deal<br />

with.<br />

"It's essential that we challenge our<br />

perspectives by means of political<br />

debate, and that we constantly put<br />

our policies to <strong>the</strong> test," he says.<br />

Those policies will likely be tested<br />

by <strong>the</strong> committee's coord<strong>in</strong>ators,<br />

which <strong>in</strong>clude György Hölvényi<br />

(EPP, Hungary), Udo Bullmann<br />

(S&D, Germany), Charles Goerens<br />

(Re<strong>new</strong>, Luxembourg), Michèle<br />

Rivasi (Greens/EFA, France),<br />

Bernhardt Zimniok (ID, Germany),<br />

Beata Kempa (ECR, Poland) and<br />

Miguel Urbán Crespo (GUE/NGL,<br />

Spa<strong>in</strong>).<br />

Swed<strong>is</strong>h centre-right MEP Tomas Tobé (r) <strong>is</strong> DEVE chair.<br />

Photo: © <strong>European</strong> Union 2019 - Source : EP<br />

10 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


INTA<br />

Mak<strong>in</strong>g EU trade deals work<br />

for citizens<br />

International Trade<br />

The Mercosur trade deal and <strong>the</strong> US trade policy will be debated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s<br />

trade committee, where chairman Bernd Lange wants to make genu<strong>in</strong>e progress on enforc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able development measures through <strong>the</strong> EU's trade agreements. By Eszter Zalan<br />

Bernd Lange<br />

(S&D, Germany)<br />

expects heated<br />

debate on ratify<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>the</strong> Mercosur deal<br />

and on deal<strong>in</strong>g<br />

with <strong>the</strong> US.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong><br />

<strong>Parliament</strong><br />

critical about th<strong>is</strong> agreement, because of its impact on<br />

Europe's agricultural sector and <strong>in</strong> light of recent political<br />

developments <strong>in</strong> Brazil, and those <strong>who</strong> are <strong>in</strong> favour," he<br />

said.<br />

These div<strong>is</strong>ions, however, are "noth<strong>in</strong>g <strong>new</strong>", added<br />

Lange, <strong>who</strong> chaired <strong>the</strong> committee <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> previous<br />

parliamentary terms as well.<br />

As global trade d<strong>is</strong>putes <strong>in</strong>crease, protection<strong>is</strong>m <strong>is</strong> on<br />

<strong>the</strong> r<strong>is</strong>e, and climate protection becomes a ma<strong>in</strong>stream<br />

political objective, trade <strong>is</strong> becom<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

political topic.<br />

Lange also expects "very different" views on how to<br />

deal with <strong>the</strong> US adm<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>tration's trade policy, which has<br />

<strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly used tariffs on goods from Europe but at <strong>the</strong><br />

same wants to reach a trade deal with <strong>the</strong> EU.<br />

The trade committee of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> (INTA)<br />

will thus host some heated debates.<br />

Susta<strong>in</strong>ability, and <strong>the</strong> implementation and enforcement<br />

of <strong>the</strong> EU's trade agreements will be <strong>the</strong> two basic<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciples guid<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> priorities for <strong>the</strong> trade committee,<br />

German MEP Bernd Lange told EUobserver, when asked<br />

about <strong>the</strong> focus <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> next five years.<br />

"When I speak to <strong>European</strong>s <strong>in</strong> my constituency and<br />

elsewhere, I feel that <strong>the</strong>re <strong>is</strong> a certa<strong>in</strong> amount of<br />

expectation <strong>in</strong> terms of how trade policy can contribute<br />

to wider susta<strong>in</strong>ability goals, such as <strong>the</strong> fight aga<strong>in</strong>st<br />

climate change," <strong>the</strong> German social democrat said.<br />

Talks have been on hold, because <strong>the</strong> US <strong>in</strong>s<strong>is</strong>ts<br />

agriculture products must be a part of <strong>the</strong> deal, which <strong>the</strong><br />

EU does not agree to.<br />

The planned carbon-adjustment measure, an idea to<br />

compel o<strong>the</strong>r countries to meet he EU's climate standards<br />

or face taxes added to <strong>the</strong>ir products at <strong>the</strong> EU's borders,<br />

will also undoubtedly face very conflict<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>terests and<br />

views, Lange predicts.<br />

Lange said that under h<strong>is</strong> leadership, <strong>the</strong> committee has<br />

been at <strong>the</strong> forefront of d<strong>is</strong>cussions on <strong>the</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development measures <strong>in</strong> trade agreements - but<br />

progress has been frustrat<strong>in</strong>gly slow and <strong>in</strong>sufficient.<br />

<strong>European</strong> citizens also ask <strong>the</strong>mselves, '<strong>who</strong> benefits<br />

from <strong>the</strong> trade deals?', Lange added - referr<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong><br />

grow<strong>in</strong>g number of trade deals <strong>the</strong> EU has secured and<br />

<strong>is</strong> plann<strong>in</strong>g to close.<br />

"If at <strong>the</strong> end of th<strong>is</strong> leg<strong>is</strong>lature we can say that we made<br />

genu<strong>in</strong>e progress <strong>in</strong> terms of enforc<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>se non-trade<br />

commitments through our agreements, I th<strong>in</strong>k we can be<br />

sat<strong>is</strong>fied," he said.<br />

"They look very good on paper. They also need to deliver<br />

clear benefits for <strong>European</strong> citizens, workers, consumers<br />

and bus<strong>in</strong>esses alike," <strong>the</strong> MEP said.<br />

Lange expects some battles over <strong>the</strong> ratification of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Mercosur trade agreement with Argent<strong>in</strong>a, Brazil<br />

Paraguay and Uruguay reached over <strong>the</strong> summer.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators of <strong>the</strong> INTA committee are: Chr<strong>is</strong>tophe<br />

Hansen (EPP, Luxembourg), Kathleen Van Brempt<br />

(S&D, Belgium), Haidi Hautala (Greens/EFA, F<strong>in</strong>land),<br />

Kar<strong>in</strong> Karlsbro (Re<strong>new</strong>, Sweden), Markus Buchheit (ID,<br />

Germany), Geert Bourgeo<strong>is</strong> (ECR, Belgium) and Helmut<br />

Scholz (GUE/NGL, Germany).<br />

"If INTA will be asked to give its consent to <strong>the</strong> trade<br />

agreement with Mercosur, I believe <strong>the</strong>re will be a strong<br />

div<strong>is</strong>ion <strong>in</strong> my committee between those <strong>who</strong> are really<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 11


BUDG<br />

The <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion proposed to <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>the</strong> EU budget from 1.03 to 1.11 percent. As<br />

Brexit will mean that net-contribut<strong>in</strong>g countries will have to pay more, a big debate <strong>is</strong> on its way.<br />

By Koert Debeuf<br />

Budgets<br />

The EU debate on its own resources<br />

In May 2019, <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion proposed to<br />

<strong>in</strong>crease <strong>the</strong> EU budget from 1.03 percent to 1.11 percent<br />

of all <strong>European</strong> economies comb<strong>in</strong>ed.<br />

Germany calculated that its contribution will double, while<br />

<strong>the</strong> contribution of <strong>the</strong> Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands would go up by 75<br />

percent.<br />

Th<strong>is</strong> figure will be <strong>the</strong> bas<strong>is</strong> of <strong>the</strong> debate on <strong>the</strong> socalled<br />

Multi-Annual F<strong>in</strong>ancial Framework (MFF), which<br />

<strong>is</strong> Brussels-bubble speak for <strong>the</strong> EU budget for <strong>the</strong> next<br />

seven years.<br />

That <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> reason why five net contributors – Germany,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands, Austria, Denmark and Sweden – have<br />

asked not to <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>the</strong> EU's budget and stick to <strong>the</strong><br />

one percent.<br />

The last MFF started <strong>in</strong> 2014 and ends <strong>in</strong> 2020. The next<br />

one will start <strong>in</strong> 2021 and end <strong>in</strong> 2027.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>crease was <strong>the</strong>n seen as high, but less so than<br />

expected.<br />

Compared to th<strong>is</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r federation, <strong>the</strong> United States,<br />

one percent <strong>is</strong> still a very low number, as <strong>the</strong> federal<br />

government <strong>in</strong> Wash<strong>in</strong>gton has a budget of around 20<br />

percent of <strong>the</strong> GDP of <strong>the</strong> country.<br />

Until <strong>the</strong> First World War however, <strong>the</strong> US federal budget<br />

was not much higher than one percent too, with <strong>the</strong> postal<br />

service as <strong>the</strong> largest federal budgetary post.<br />

A third challenge, Van Overtveldt said, will be "<strong>the</strong> question<br />

of <strong>the</strong> own resources of <strong>the</strong> EU and whe<strong>the</strong>r or not <strong>the</strong>re<br />

will be more EU f<strong>is</strong>cal revenues or not."<br />

The fact that <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> economy – and certa<strong>in</strong>ly <strong>the</strong><br />

German economy – <strong>is</strong> do<strong>in</strong>g less well than predicted, will<br />

make <strong>the</strong> d<strong>is</strong>cussions on <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> EU budget even<br />

tougher.<br />

So, for Van Overtveldt, it <strong>is</strong> clear that he will be happy<br />

if h<strong>is</strong> committee succeeds "<strong>in</strong> reach<strong>in</strong>g an MFF <strong>in</strong> which<br />

<strong>the</strong> member states can f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong>mselves, one that will<br />

streng<strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong> credibility of <strong>the</strong> EU and <strong>the</strong> socialeconomic<br />

fabric."<br />

In o<strong>the</strong>r words, <strong>the</strong> EU budget <strong>is</strong> still ra<strong>the</strong>r small. But th<strong>is</strong><br />

doesn't mean that <strong>the</strong> d<strong>is</strong>cussions on <strong>the</strong> next MFF will<br />

not be substantial.<br />

Johan Van Overtveldt (ECR, Belgium), <strong>the</strong> chairman of<br />

<strong>the</strong> committee that coord<strong>in</strong>ates <strong>the</strong> d<strong>is</strong>cussions on <strong>the</strong><br />

MFF, or BUDG, obviously sees "reach<strong>in</strong>g an agreement<br />

on <strong>the</strong> next MFF" as <strong>the</strong> committee's priority number one.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators are: José Manuel Fernandes (EPP,<br />

Portugal), Eider Gardiazabal (S&D, Spa<strong>in</strong>), Valérie<br />

Hayer (Re<strong>new</strong>, France), Rasmus Andresen (Greens/<br />

EFA, Germany), Joachim Kuhs (ID, Germany), Bogdan<br />

Rzonca (ECR, Poland), Younous Omarjee (GUE/GNL,<br />

France).<br />

A second challenge, accord<strong>in</strong>g to him, will be "<strong>the</strong><br />

absorption of what comes out of <strong>the</strong> Brexit saga".<br />

Brexit has two major consequences on <strong>the</strong> budget.<br />

First of all, <strong>the</strong> UK's contribution to <strong>the</strong> EU d<strong>is</strong>appears<br />

from <strong>the</strong> budget. Th<strong>is</strong> will need to be compensated,<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly by net-contributors (countries that pay more than<br />

<strong>the</strong>y receive.)<br />

A second consequence <strong>is</strong> that <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion<br />

wants to abol<strong>is</strong>h all rebates when <strong>the</strong> UK, <strong>the</strong> mo<strong>the</strong>r of all<br />

rebates, leaves <strong>the</strong> Union.<br />

Johan Van Overtveldt (ECR, Belgium) chairs <strong>the</strong> BUDG committee.<br />

Source: EP<br />

12 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


CONT<br />

Fight<strong>in</strong>g corruption and cutt<strong>in</strong>g<br />

red tape By Eszter Zalan<br />

Budgetary Control<br />

Fight<strong>in</strong>g corruption, enforcement of <strong>the</strong> rule of law, simplify<strong>in</strong>g rules and procedures on <strong>the</strong><br />

EU budget, and an effective public prosecutor's office - th<strong>is</strong> <strong>is</strong> what <strong>the</strong> chair of <strong>the</strong> budget<br />

control committee expects from <strong>the</strong> next five years.<br />

As EU countries debate <strong>the</strong> next longterm<br />

budget for <strong>the</strong> bloc, and how to<br />

l<strong>in</strong>k <strong>the</strong> respect for <strong>the</strong> rule of law and<br />

<strong>the</strong> fight aga<strong>in</strong>st corruption to EU<br />

funds, <strong>the</strong> budget control committee<br />

(CONT) will cont<strong>in</strong>ue to play a central<br />

part <strong>in</strong> defend<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> EU budget.<br />

MEP Monika Hohlmeier (EPP,<br />

Germany), chair of <strong>the</strong> committee<br />

knows th<strong>is</strong> can be a touchy subject<br />

for member states.<br />

"I believe that one of <strong>the</strong> most<br />

sensitive, yet extremely important<br />

topics on our agenda <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

committee will be <strong>the</strong> cont<strong>in</strong>ued fight<br />

aga<strong>in</strong>st corruption. In a small number<br />

of cases, national governments may<br />

be <strong>in</strong>volved, which could make <strong>the</strong><br />

debate highly political," Hohlmeier<br />

told EUobserver.<br />

"Therefore, it <strong>is</strong> crucial to improve <strong>the</strong><br />

strict enforcement of <strong>the</strong> rule of law <strong>in</strong><br />

all member states," she added.<br />

Chairwoman Monika Hohlmeier (EPP, Germany) says all member states should be under<br />

scrut<strong>in</strong>y. Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

Hohlmeier expects that <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Public Prosecutor's Office (EPPO),<br />

which will start operat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> 2020,<br />

makes "a strong contribution <strong>in</strong><br />

combatt<strong>in</strong>g cross-border VAT-fraud,<br />

money launder<strong>in</strong>g and crimes<br />

aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>the</strong> EU's f<strong>in</strong>ancial <strong>in</strong>terests".<br />

Because of <strong>the</strong>se activities, <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

<strong>is</strong> los<strong>in</strong>g out an enormous amounts<br />

of revenue, accord<strong>in</strong>g to some<br />

estimates around €95bn <strong>in</strong> VAT-fraud<br />

alone every year, <strong>the</strong> committee chair<br />

highlighted.<br />

"EU money <strong>is</strong> taxpayers' money,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> budget control committee<br />

ensures that it <strong>is</strong> spent correctly,<br />

efficiently and <strong>in</strong> a purposeful way,"<br />

she said.<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> key po<strong>in</strong>ts on <strong>the</strong> agenda<br />

for <strong>the</strong> committee for <strong>the</strong> next five<br />

years will be <strong>the</strong> simplification of rules<br />

and procedures and <strong>the</strong> reduction<br />

of 'gold-plat<strong>in</strong>g', <strong>the</strong> addition of<br />

national rules and requirements to an<br />

already quite complex EU leg<strong>is</strong>lation,<br />

Hohlmeier said.<br />

"Unfortunately, <strong>the</strong> ex<strong>is</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g rule of<br />

law mechan<strong>is</strong>m <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> L<strong>is</strong>bon Treaty<br />

<strong>is</strong> not work<strong>in</strong>g properly. Thus, <strong>the</strong>re <strong>is</strong><br />

still a lot to be done to get ahead with<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g an effective and transparent<br />

rule of law leg<strong>is</strong>lation," <strong>the</strong> politician<br />

from <strong>the</strong> Bavarian Chr<strong>is</strong>tian Social<br />

Union party said.<br />

"CONT must ensure that <strong>the</strong> rule of<br />

law mechan<strong>is</strong>m becomes effective<br />

and <strong>is</strong> applied equally <strong>in</strong> all member<br />

states - without exception! I believe<br />

that we <strong>in</strong> CONT should focus on<br />

<strong>the</strong> big <strong>is</strong>sues and po<strong>in</strong>t our f<strong>in</strong>ger<br />

to <strong>is</strong>sues of systemic failures <strong>in</strong> a<br />

constructive approach to <strong>in</strong>crease<br />

our impact," Hohlmeier added.<br />

Hohlmeier said she <strong>is</strong> delighted that<br />

<strong>the</strong> parliament's candidate for <strong>the</strong> top<br />

prosecutor position, Laura Kovesi,<br />

was confirmed recently.<br />

"For EPPO to become a success it <strong>is</strong><br />

of utmost importance to ensure that<br />

it <strong>is</strong> adequately equipped for hav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a serious impact. Achiev<strong>in</strong>g th<strong>is</strong> <strong>is</strong> an<br />

important goal for CONT," <strong>the</strong> MEP<br />

said.<br />

As committee chair, Hohlmeier<br />

wants to avoid that EU citizens pay<br />

more taxes because "fraudsters and<br />

crim<strong>in</strong>als keep cheat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> EU" for<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir own purposes.<br />

"One of <strong>the</strong> <strong>is</strong>sues that <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Court of Auditors repeatedly f<strong>in</strong>ds to<br />

cause errors <strong>in</strong> relation to <strong>the</strong> use of<br />

EU f<strong>in</strong>ancial means <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> complexity<br />

of rules and procedures, particularly<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> areas of agriculture, cohesion,<br />

and research and <strong>in</strong>novation," she<br />

said.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators: Tomas<br />

Zdechovsky (EPP, Czech Republic),<br />

Claudiu Manda (S&D, Romania),<br />

Olivier Chastel (Re<strong>new</strong>, Belgium),<br />

Mikulas Peksa (Greens/EFA, Czech<br />

Republic), Joachim Kuhs (ID,<br />

Germany), Ryszard Czarnecki (ECR,<br />

Poland), Luke M<strong>in</strong>g Flanagan (GUE/<br />

NGL, Ireland).<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 13


ECON<br />

The <strong>European</strong> Union will need more <strong>in</strong>tegration and economic and f<strong>is</strong>cal <strong>in</strong>struments to<br />

survive <strong>the</strong> next economic and f<strong>in</strong>ancial cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong>. By Koert Debeuf<br />

The <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion, toge<strong>the</strong>r with ECON, worked<br />

on <strong>new</strong> <strong>in</strong>struments to control and regulate banks and<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ancial products.<br />

Economic and Monetary Affairs<br />

New EU f<strong>in</strong>ancial <strong>in</strong>struments<br />

needed<br />

And that <strong>is</strong> no doubt what <strong>the</strong>y will do <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> five years to<br />

come.<br />

Unfortunately, <strong>the</strong> chairman of <strong>the</strong> ECON committee<br />

didn't answer EUobserver's questions, but luckily, Mario<br />

Draghi gave a farewell speech <strong>in</strong> which he talked about<br />

<strong>the</strong> challenges <strong>in</strong> economic and monetary affairs.<br />

Irene T<strong>in</strong>agli (S&D, Italy) chairs <strong>the</strong> ECON committee.<br />

Photo: © <strong>European</strong> Union 2019 – Source: EP<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s committee for economic<br />

and monetary affairs (ECON) has been at <strong>the</strong> heart of<br />

<strong>the</strong> biggest cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union has seen s<strong>in</strong>ce its<br />

foundation.<br />

The f<strong>in</strong>ancial and economic cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong> of 2008/2009 has<br />

shaken <strong>the</strong> EU to its foundations.<br />

Not only were banks collaps<strong>in</strong>g and people lost <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

sav<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>the</strong> euro was under severe pressure too.<br />

For <strong>the</strong> first time s<strong>in</strong>ce its <strong>in</strong>troduction, <strong>in</strong> 2002 <strong>in</strong> 12 EU<br />

countries, people started to believe that <strong>the</strong> debt cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong><br />

could make <strong>the</strong> eurozone break up, with Greece as <strong>the</strong><br />

first country to give up <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle currency.<br />

When Greece was saved, <strong>in</strong>vestors started to speculate<br />

on <strong>the</strong> budgetary collapse of Italy and Spa<strong>in</strong>, two of <strong>the</strong><br />

largest <strong>European</strong> countries.<br />

Mario Draghi, president of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Central Bank<br />

(ECB) stepped <strong>in</strong> and gave <strong>the</strong> only message that would<br />

stop <strong>the</strong> speculation: "With<strong>in</strong> our mandate, <strong>the</strong> ECB <strong>is</strong><br />

ready to do whatever it takes to preserve <strong>the</strong> euro. And<br />

believe me, it will be enough."<br />

However, <strong>the</strong> ECB was not <strong>the</strong> only <strong>in</strong>stitution that took<br />

action.<br />

Draghi argued that after years of cr<strong>is</strong>es or weak growth,<br />

<strong>the</strong> ECB has exhausted its conventional policy arsenal to<br />

stimulate growth and that <strong>new</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitutional <strong>in</strong>struments<br />

are needed.<br />

"It <strong>is</strong> pla<strong>in</strong> to see that now <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> time for more Europe,<br />

not less," Draghi said, add<strong>in</strong>g that a common budget for<br />

<strong>the</strong> EU was necessary so <strong>the</strong>re would be a central<strong>is</strong>ed<br />

capacity to stabil<strong>is</strong>e <strong>the</strong> monetary union.<br />

"Today, we are <strong>in</strong> a situation where low <strong>in</strong>terest rates are<br />

not deliver<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> same degree of stimulus as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past,<br />

because <strong>the</strong> rate of return on <strong>in</strong>vestment <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> economy<br />

has fallen," Draghi cont<strong>in</strong>ued.<br />

"Monetary policy can still achieve its objective, but it can<br />

do so faster and with fewer side effects if f<strong>is</strong>cal policies<br />

are aligned with it," he added.<br />

Just as armies are perfectly tra<strong>in</strong>ed to w<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> last war,<br />

<strong>in</strong>stead of <strong>the</strong> next, <strong>the</strong> EU's <strong>in</strong>struments are not ready to<br />

deal with <strong>the</strong> next f<strong>in</strong>ancial and economic cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong>.<br />

Therefore it will be an enormous challenge for <strong>the</strong> ECON<br />

committee to th<strong>in</strong>k ahead, toge<strong>the</strong>r with <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Comm<strong>is</strong>sion and <strong>the</strong> national governments to make sure<br />

<strong>the</strong> EU economy and <strong>the</strong> euro will survive a future cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong>.<br />

The chairwoman <strong>is</strong> Irene T<strong>in</strong>agli (S&D, Italy). The<br />

coord<strong>in</strong>ators are: Markus Ferber (EPP, Germany), Jonas<br />

Fernandez (S&D, Spa<strong>in</strong>), Lu<strong>is</strong> Garicano (Re<strong>new</strong>, Spa<strong>in</strong>),<br />

Sven Giegold (Greens/EFA, Germany), Gunnar Beck<br />

(ID, Germany), Derk-Jan Epp<strong>in</strong>k (ECR, <strong>the</strong> Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands),<br />

José Gusmao (GUE/NGL, Portugal).<br />

14 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


EMPL<br />

Employment and Social Affairs<br />

The labour market <strong>is</strong> not ready<br />

for <strong>the</strong> future<br />

The <strong>European</strong> labour market will face enormous challenges with its comb<strong>in</strong>ation of an age<strong>in</strong>g<br />

population, climate change and a digital transformation and will <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>the</strong> east-west divide<br />

<strong>in</strong> Europe. By Koert Debeuf<br />

The chairman of <strong>the</strong> committee for employment and<br />

social affairs (EMPL), Lucia Dur<strong>is</strong> Nicholsonova (ECR,<br />

Slovakia), writes <strong>in</strong> her welcome to <strong>the</strong> committee<br />

website that EMPL <strong>is</strong> "responsible for employment and<br />

all aspects of social policy <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g work<strong>in</strong>g conditions,<br />

social security, social <strong>in</strong>clusion and social protection;<br />

<strong>the</strong> free movement of workers and pensioners; workers'<br />

rights; health and safety measures at <strong>the</strong> workplace;<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Social Fund; vocational tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g policy,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g professional qualifications; social dialogue; and<br />

all forms of d<strong>is</strong>crim<strong>in</strong>ation at <strong>the</strong> workplace and <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

labour market except those based on sex."<br />

However, her most important worry <strong>is</strong> that "we are not<br />

ready for <strong>the</strong> challenge of age<strong>in</strong>g population, climate and<br />

digital transformation."<br />

With <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion, <strong>the</strong> committee will d<strong>is</strong>cuss <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> Pillar of Social Rights and a number of <strong>in</strong>itiatives<br />

with<strong>in</strong> it, such as Child Guarantee and full implementation<br />

of <strong>the</strong> Work-Life Balance Directive.<br />

On top of that, Dur<strong>is</strong> Nicholsonova prom<strong>is</strong>es to "keep on<br />

fight<strong>in</strong>g poverty more efficiently and guarantee children<br />

access to basic services such as childcare," and to work<br />

on <strong>the</strong> pay and pension gap of female workers.<br />

Despite <strong>the</strong> fact that all <strong>the</strong>se dossiers seem to be<br />

consensual challenges, several political parties see<br />

different solutions.<br />

But probably more important will be <strong>the</strong> divide between<br />

'eastern' and 'western' member states.<br />

Dur<strong>is</strong> Nicholsonova quotes figures from <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Comm<strong>is</strong>sion say<strong>in</strong>g that "around 17 percent of jobs <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> EU are at r<strong>is</strong>k of be<strong>in</strong>g automated and nearly one-<strong>in</strong>three<br />

jobs will change significantly. The jobs threat from<br />

automation <strong>is</strong> vary<strong>in</strong>g from less than 10 percent <strong>in</strong> F<strong>in</strong>land<br />

to a shock<strong>in</strong>g 33 percent <strong>in</strong> Slovakia.<br />

"Moreover," she cont<strong>in</strong>ues, "<strong>in</strong> spite of a downward trend<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> last years, still a shock<strong>in</strong>g 22.4 percent of <strong>the</strong> Union<br />

population was at r<strong>is</strong>k of poverty or social exclusion<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Union <strong>in</strong> 2017, and 24.9 percent of children are<br />

concerned by poverty and social exclusion (from 14.2<br />

percent <strong>in</strong> Czech Republic to 41.7 percent <strong>in</strong> Romania)."<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Dur<strong>is</strong> Nicholsonova "<strong>the</strong> differ<strong>in</strong>g level of<br />

employment social standards and rules on <strong>the</strong> crossborder<br />

prov<strong>is</strong>ion of services, where <strong>the</strong>y have a significant<br />

effect as competitive factors" have proved to be div<strong>is</strong>ive<br />

between those states.<br />

Here she hopes that as chair of <strong>the</strong> EMPL committee and<br />

as an "elected member of a '<strong>new</strong> member state'" to play a<br />

role <strong>in</strong> bridg<strong>in</strong>g that gap.<br />

The committee will also try to "have more efficient<br />

EU fund<strong>in</strong>g and avoid m<strong>is</strong>us<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong> funds on clearly<br />

<strong>in</strong>efficient or fraudulent projects".<br />

Lucia Dur<strong>is</strong><br />

Nicholsonova<br />

(ECR, Slovakia)<br />

chairs <strong>the</strong> EMPL<br />

committee.<br />

Photo: Lucia Dur<strong>is</strong><br />

Nicholsonova<br />

These figures summar<strong>is</strong>e <strong>the</strong> challenges of <strong>the</strong> EMPL<br />

committee.<br />

An <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g <strong>new</strong> po<strong>in</strong>t on <strong>the</strong> agenda might come<br />

from <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion, as <strong>the</strong> committee called on it "to<br />

exam<strong>in</strong>e <strong>the</strong> possibility for a proposal for a <strong>European</strong><br />

Social Security Number without undue delay."<br />

It <strong>is</strong> clear that <strong>the</strong> EMPL committee will be one to watch<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> years to come.<br />

Coord<strong>in</strong>ators: Denn<strong>is</strong> Radtke (EPP, Germany),<br />

Agnes Jongerius (S&D, Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands), Dragos P<strong>is</strong>laru<br />

(Re<strong>new</strong>, Romania), Kira Marie Peter-Hansen (Greens/<br />

EFA, Denmark), France Jamet (ID, France), Elzbieta<br />

Rafalska (ECR, Poland), Nikolaj Villumsen (GUE/<br />

NGL, Denmark).<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 15


ENVI<br />

Environment, Public Health and Food Safety<br />

ENVI to deliver 'Green Deal' as<br />

ma<strong>in</strong> priority<br />

The French liberal MEP Pascal Canf<strong>in</strong>, <strong>who</strong> <strong>is</strong> chair<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s committee<br />

on environment, public health, and food safety, <strong>is</strong> adamant to deliver <strong>the</strong> Green Deal quickly<br />

- because "we cannot afford to waste time". By Elena Sánchez Nicolás<br />

Climate, environment, and health are<br />

some of <strong>the</strong> top priorities for <strong>European</strong><br />

citizens. The high turnout <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> 2019<br />

EU elections (50.6 percent), ma<strong>in</strong>ly<br />

driven by <strong>the</strong> participation by young<br />

people, sent a clear message to<br />

<strong>European</strong> politicians.<br />

Economy and growth, as well as<br />

climate change, were <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong><br />

reasons to participate <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> elections,<br />

accord<strong>in</strong>g to a Eurobarometer survey<br />

carried out by <strong>the</strong> EU parliament last<br />

June.<br />

The committee on environment,<br />

public health and food safety (ENVI),<br />

chaired by MEP Pascal Canf<strong>in</strong><br />

(Re<strong>new</strong>, France) sees <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>new</strong><br />

Green Deal prom<strong>is</strong>ed by <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

Comm<strong>is</strong>sion president-elect Ursula<br />

von der Leyen a "unique opportunity"<br />

to answer <strong>the</strong> call citizens made <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> votes.<br />

The committee will focus its efforts<br />

on four ma<strong>in</strong> dimensions of <strong>the</strong><br />

environmental cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong> that impact<br />

our daily lives: climate emergency,<br />

biodiversity loss, environmental<br />

health, and resources cr<strong>is</strong><strong>is</strong>.<br />

For <strong>the</strong> Green Deal to work, Europe<br />

needs to elaborate a comprehensive<br />

approach, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g a re<strong>new</strong>ed<br />

climate law to achieve carbon<br />

neutrality, and f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g fund<strong>in</strong>g for<br />

<strong>the</strong> energy transition, Canf<strong>in</strong> told<br />

EUobserver.<br />

"We will have to mobil<strong>is</strong>e and<br />

generate f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g capacities to<br />

bridge <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>vestment gap of €200bn<br />

of private and public <strong>in</strong>vestments,<br />

each year until 2030, <strong>in</strong> order to<br />

meet <strong>the</strong> commitments of <strong>the</strong> Par<strong>is</strong><br />

Agreement," he said.<br />

The implementation of <strong>the</strong> Green<br />

Deal must be just and fair from west<br />

to east and south to north. "We<br />

should leave no one beh<strong>in</strong>d," Canf<strong>in</strong><br />

added.<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> most challeng<strong>in</strong>g<br />

objectives of th<strong>is</strong> taskforce will be<br />

f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g and deploy<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustrial and<br />

agricultural solutions <strong>in</strong> l<strong>in</strong>e with <strong>the</strong><br />

carbon-neutral target for 2050 that<br />

Europe has committed to achiev<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The committee sees that now <strong>is</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> moment to boost susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

measures such as produc<strong>in</strong>g cheap<br />

and large-scale re<strong>new</strong>able energies,<br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g affordable electric<br />

cars or build<strong>in</strong>g high-efficiency<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructure, deploy<strong>in</strong>g carbonneutral<br />

technologies <strong>in</strong> all relevant<br />

sectors.<br />

The ENVI (Environment, Public<br />

Health and Food Safety) committee<br />

has a long-stand<strong>in</strong>g reputation of<br />

a forward-look<strong>in</strong>g and progressive<br />

policy-mak<strong>in</strong>g, said Canf<strong>in</strong>, <strong>who</strong><br />

considers that <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> priority for <strong>the</strong><br />

next five years should be to deliver<br />

<strong>the</strong> Green Deal - sett<strong>in</strong>g up a clear<br />

roadmap.<br />

"We cannot afford to waste time. We<br />

need a fast yet robust implementation<br />

of <strong>the</strong> Green Deal across Europe," he<br />

said.<br />

To do so, <strong>the</strong> committee <strong>in</strong> charge of<br />

environmental policies will have to<br />

conv<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong> rest of MEPs to reach<br />

a cons<strong>is</strong>tent <strong>European</strong> approach <strong>in</strong><br />

terms of climate action.<br />

However, mak<strong>in</strong>g Europe <strong>the</strong> first<br />

carbon-neutral cont<strong>in</strong>ent by 2050,<br />

while support<strong>in</strong>g a heterogenous<br />

energy transition and a circular<br />

economy based on zero pollution,<br />

will not be an easy task for any of<br />

<strong>the</strong> parties <strong>in</strong>volved - parliament,<br />

comm<strong>is</strong>sion, and member states.<br />

"I will work with all <strong>the</strong> stakeholders<br />

that want to ensure that presidentelect<br />

von der Leyen's ambition<br />

becomes a reality," he assured,<br />

add<strong>in</strong>g that th<strong>is</strong> generation <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> first<br />

one <strong>who</strong> has all <strong>the</strong> levers to drive<br />

change, but also <strong>the</strong> last one to avoid<br />

a climate d<strong>is</strong>aster.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators are Peter Liese<br />

(EPP, Germany), Jytte Guteland<br />

(S&D, Sweden), Nils Torvalds<br />

(Re<strong>new</strong>, F<strong>in</strong>land), Bas Eickhout<br />

(Greens/EFA, Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands), Silvia<br />

Sardone (ID, Italy), Alexandr Vondra<br />

(ECR, Czech Republic) and Silvia<br />

Modig (GUE/NGL, F<strong>in</strong>land).<br />

'We cannot afford to waste time. We need a fast yet robust<br />

implementation of <strong>the</strong> Green Deal across Europe,' MEP Canf<strong>in</strong> said.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

16 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


17 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMANT COMMITTEES 2019—2024


ITRE<br />

EU must manage climate and<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustry toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

For Romanian centre-right MEP Ad<strong>in</strong>a-Ioana Valean, chair of <strong>in</strong>dustry, research and energy<br />

(ITRE), climate and <strong>in</strong>dustrial policy-mak<strong>in</strong>g must go hand-<strong>in</strong>-hand to br<strong>in</strong>g susta<strong>in</strong>ability<br />

and prosperity to Europe.<br />

By Elena Sánchez Nicolás<br />

Industry, Research and Energy<br />

'Climate and <strong>in</strong>dustrial policy must go hand-<strong>in</strong>-hand if<br />

we want to create growth, jobs, and wellbe<strong>in</strong>g for our<br />

citizens,' MEP Ad<strong>in</strong>a-Ioana Valean said.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

Innovation, research, digital<strong>is</strong>ation,<br />

and <strong>in</strong>frastructure are set to be <strong>the</strong><br />

ma<strong>in</strong> drivers of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> growth<br />

for <strong>the</strong> next decade.<br />

However, <strong>the</strong> committee will also have<br />

to focus on creat<strong>in</strong>g a solid framework<br />

for <strong>new</strong> technologies like artificial<br />

<strong>in</strong>telligence and blockcha<strong>in</strong>, ensur<strong>in</strong>g<br />

that automation does not become a<br />

threat to employment <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU.<br />

Europe will need blockcha<strong>in</strong><br />

applications to foster digit<strong>is</strong>ation <strong>in</strong><br />

its <strong>in</strong>dustries, but also big data, 5G<br />

connectivity, and security, she said.<br />

As <strong>the</strong> previous chair of <strong>the</strong><br />

environmental committee (ENVI),<br />

Valean believes that "climate and<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustrial policy must go hand-<strong>in</strong>-hand<br />

if we want to create growth, jobs, and<br />

wellbe<strong>in</strong>g for our citizens".<br />

Th<strong>is</strong> transition will require substantial<br />

<strong>in</strong>vestments. But, public fund<strong>in</strong>g will<br />

not be enough.<br />

<strong>European</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustry will need both<br />

public and private <strong>in</strong>vestors to be<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able and successful, said<br />

Valean, <strong>who</strong> describes th<strong>is</strong> transition<br />

as "an opportunity to enshr<strong>in</strong>e th<strong>is</strong><br />

partnership for <strong>in</strong>vestment and<br />

change <strong>in</strong> EU law".<br />

As <strong>the</strong> chair of ITRE, Valean believes<br />

that <strong>the</strong> energy transition must be<br />

designed <strong>in</strong> phases, where gas could<br />

be considered susta<strong>in</strong>able, at least for<br />

<strong>the</strong> first stage, to facilitate <strong>the</strong> rapid<br />

replacement of coal.<br />

The <strong>European</strong> parliament's<br />

committee on <strong>in</strong>dustry, research,<br />

and energy (ITRE) <strong>is</strong> one of <strong>the</strong><br />

largest <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> parliament, <strong>in</strong> terms of<br />

leg<strong>is</strong>lative footpr<strong>in</strong>t, s<strong>in</strong>ce its pr<strong>in</strong>cipal<br />

tasks are to re<strong>in</strong>force <strong>the</strong> EU's<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustrial competitiveness and create<br />

prosperous jobs.<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> tasks of ITRE,<br />

chaired by Ad<strong>in</strong>a-Ioana Valean, will be<br />

to ensure stable and clear leg<strong>is</strong>lation<br />

that can boost susta<strong>in</strong>able growth <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> EU.<br />

The responsibilities are many. Above<br />

all, <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustry strategy<br />

2030 will be one of <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> priorities,<br />

MEP Valean told EUobserver.<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustry strategy<br />

2030 aims to develop a more digital,<br />

knowledge-based, low-carbon and<br />

circular economy while keep<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d<br />

<strong>the</strong> net-zero em<strong>is</strong>sions target by 2050.<br />

However, she regrets that today some<br />

actors <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU parliament still see<br />

th<strong>is</strong> as an "antagon<strong>is</strong>tic competition<br />

between oppos<strong>in</strong>g players".<br />

"I see that th<strong>in</strong>gs are mov<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> right<br />

direction with <strong>the</strong> [<strong>new</strong>] comm<strong>is</strong>sion<br />

presented by <strong>the</strong> president-elect<br />

Ursula von der Leyen," she said.<br />

The committee will have to reach<br />

<strong>the</strong> balance between <strong>the</strong> successful<br />

implementation of complex policies<br />

already on <strong>the</strong> table, and develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and advanc<strong>in</strong>g <strong>new</strong> policies.<br />

"We need to accelerate deployment<br />

of <strong>new</strong>, susta<strong>in</strong>able and clean-gas<br />

technologies for those <strong>in</strong>dustrial<br />

sectors that cannot be electrified,<br />

[and] for those that can be electrified<br />

we need to accelerate <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>novation<br />

deployment," she said.<br />

"The Green New Deal has to be a<br />

cross-sector one where f<strong>in</strong>ance,<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustry, technology, and climate<br />

meet and cooperate," she said.<br />

However, Europe must accelerate <strong>the</strong><br />

full digital<strong>is</strong>ation of its <strong>in</strong>dustries and<br />

services to be able to benefit from<br />

<strong>the</strong> advantages that technology and<br />

research can offer.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators are Chr<strong>is</strong>tian<br />

Ehler (EPP, Germany), Dan Nica<br />

(S&D, Romania), Mart<strong>in</strong>a Dlabajová<br />

(Re<strong>new</strong>, Czech Republic), Ville<br />

Ni<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>tö (Greens/EFA, F<strong>in</strong>land),<br />

Paolo Borchia (ID, Italy), Zdz<strong>is</strong>law<br />

Krasnodebski (ECR, Poland) and<br />

Mar<strong>is</strong>a Matias (GUE/NGL, Portugal).<br />

At <strong>the</strong> time of writ<strong>in</strong>g Valean was<br />

selected by EU comm<strong>is</strong>sion president<br />

Ursula von der Leyen to become <strong>the</strong><br />

next EU comm<strong>is</strong>sioner for transport.<br />

18 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


SUSTAINABLE<br />

RESPONSIBLE<br />

COMPETITIVE<br />

UNESDA Soft Dr<strong>in</strong>ks Europe <strong>is</strong><br />

committed to driv<strong>in</strong>g susta<strong>in</strong>ability<br />

throughout its value cha<strong>in</strong>.<br />

Beverage packag<strong>in</strong>g <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> most collected packag<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

and we aim to <strong>in</strong>crease collection rates fur<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

We have also committed that<br />

by 2025:<br />

We call on policymakers to support<br />

us <strong>in</strong> our priorities for environmental<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>ability:<br />

• Optim<strong>is</strong><strong>in</strong>g packag<strong>in</strong>g collection, recycl<strong>in</strong>g and reuse<br />

• Boost<strong>in</strong>g s<strong>in</strong>gle use plastic collection to 90% by 2029<br />

100%<br />

100% of soft dr<strong>in</strong>ks<br />

primary packag<strong>in</strong>g<br />

will be recyclable<br />

25%<br />

Soft dr<strong>in</strong>ks PET bottles<br />

will conta<strong>in</strong> 25%<br />

recycled material<br />

• Ensur<strong>in</strong>g food grade quality rPET <strong>is</strong> available, accessible and<br />

affordable<br />

• Author<strong>is</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> recycl<strong>in</strong>g processes already assessed by EFSA<br />

• Support<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> Circular Plastics Alliance and encourag<strong>in</strong>g local<br />

authorities to jo<strong>in</strong><br />

• Apply<strong>in</strong>g Better Regulation pr<strong>in</strong>ciples to all leg<strong>is</strong>lation -<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g impact assessments to ensure it <strong>is</strong> fit for purpose<br />

Learn more about our Aspirations 2019 - 2024: www.unesda.eu<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 19


IMCO<br />

Internal Market and Consumer Protection<br />

The challenge of artificial <strong>in</strong>telligence<br />

The fast-grow<strong>in</strong>g impact of artificial <strong>in</strong>telligence will be <strong>the</strong> biggest challenge for bus<strong>in</strong>ess and<br />

consumers <strong>in</strong> Europe's s<strong>in</strong>gle market of tomorrow. By Koert Debeuf<br />

The parliamentary committee for<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternal market and consumer<br />

protection (IMCO) <strong>is</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g on one<br />

of <strong>the</strong> most fundamental pr<strong>in</strong>ciples<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union: <strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

market.<br />

to cont<strong>in</strong>ue streng<strong>the</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternal<br />

market, <strong>in</strong> particular <strong>in</strong> a cross-border<br />

context, remov<strong>in</strong>g unjustified barriers<br />

and ensur<strong>in</strong>g that <strong>the</strong> ex<strong>is</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g rules<br />

are properly and timely implemented<br />

and enforced."<br />

<strong>the</strong> speedy growth of artificial<br />

<strong>in</strong>telligence will become <strong>the</strong> biggest<br />

challenge, need<strong>in</strong>g "leg<strong>is</strong>lation l<strong>in</strong>ked<br />

to transparency, liability, safety and<br />

ethical rules for digital platforms,<br />

services and products".<br />

The entire Brexit saga shows once<br />

more how difficult it <strong>is</strong> to leave <strong>the</strong><br />

s<strong>in</strong>gle market once you have been a<br />

part of it. But also how beneficial it <strong>is</strong><br />

to be a member of <strong>the</strong> EU.<br />

After decades of liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a common<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternal market, many people seem<br />

to have forgotten how important it <strong>is</strong>,<br />

and how easy.<br />

But when you travel to for example<br />

<strong>the</strong> United States, and you forget<br />

your adapter, you can't even charge<br />

your mobile phone - a problem that<br />

never occurs when you travel on <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> cont<strong>in</strong>ent.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>ternal market <strong>is</strong> not only about<br />

<strong>the</strong> free movement of goods and<br />

services. It's also about standards,<br />

for products but also for consumer<br />

protection. That's why worldwide<br />

people talk about "<strong>European</strong><br />

standards", as a label of global<br />

quality.<br />

It <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> task of <strong>the</strong> IMCO committee<br />

to make sure <strong>the</strong>se <strong>European</strong><br />

standards are upheld <strong>in</strong> every s<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

space <strong>in</strong> Europe.<br />

Next to <strong>the</strong> announced rev<strong>is</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

E-Commerce Directive or <strong>new</strong> Digital<br />

Services Act, <strong>the</strong> committee will need<br />

to have a lot of attention to what De<br />

Sutter calls "a s<strong>in</strong>gle market fit for <strong>the</strong><br />

digital age".<br />

"S<strong>in</strong>ce emerg<strong>in</strong>g technologies,<br />

such as artificial <strong>in</strong>telligence and<br />

blockcha<strong>in</strong>, are becom<strong>in</strong>g key drivers<br />

for economic development and<br />

enhance <strong>the</strong> value of goods and<br />

services, we will be follow<strong>in</strong>g with <strong>the</strong><br />

utmost attention any developments<br />

<strong>in</strong> th<strong>is</strong> area", she said, add<strong>in</strong>g that<br />

th<strong>is</strong> <strong>is</strong> important for both bus<strong>in</strong>ess<br />

and consumers.<br />

As a fourth major po<strong>in</strong>t for IMCO<br />

over <strong>the</strong> next five years, De Sutter<br />

mentions a "susta<strong>in</strong>able S<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

Market". More concretely, she po<strong>in</strong>ts<br />

out that "address<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> needs of<br />

a grow<strong>in</strong>g circular economy and<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegration of environmental<br />

concerns <strong>in</strong>to consumer policy will be<br />

a key priority."<br />

A politically-sensitive po<strong>in</strong>t that might<br />

<strong>in</strong>terfere with <strong>the</strong> IMCO agenda <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

free movement of people.<br />

On <strong>the</strong> one hand, <strong>European</strong><br />

companies need access to data for<br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g AI. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand<br />

"consumer protection rules have to<br />

ensure that consumers have clear<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation on how to use AI-enabled<br />

products and services, that <strong>the</strong>y have<br />

control over data generated by such<br />

products and services, and how that<br />

data <strong>is</strong> used", she said.<br />

IMCO coord<strong>in</strong>ators are: Andreas<br />

Schwab (EPP, Germany), Chr<strong>is</strong>tel<br />

Schaldemose (S&D, Denmark),<br />

Dita Charanzova (Re<strong>new</strong>, Czech<br />

Republic), Marcel Kolaja (Greens/<br />

EFA, Czech Republic), Virg<strong>in</strong>ie Joron<br />

(ID, France), Adam Bielan (ECR,<br />

Poland), Kater<strong>in</strong>a Konecna (GUE/<br />

NGL, Czech Republic).<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Petra De Sutter (Greens/<br />

EFA, Belgium), chairs of IMCO,<br />

"develop<strong>in</strong>g a long term strategy for<br />

better enforcement of S<strong>in</strong>gle Market<br />

rules" will be key for <strong>the</strong> committee's<br />

agenda for <strong>the</strong> next five years.<br />

De Sutter fears that "member states<br />

may take d<strong>is</strong>proportionate measures<br />

and apply adm<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>trative controls<br />

and procedures which make free<br />

movement more difficult and costly<br />

for SMEs go<strong>in</strong>g cross-border."<br />

Petra De Sutter (Greens/EFA, Belgium)<br />

chairs <strong>the</strong> IMCO committee.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> Union 2019 – Source: EP<br />

Therefore, she says, it <strong>is</strong> "necessary<br />

But all <strong>in</strong> all, De Sutter th<strong>in</strong>ks that<br />

20 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


TRAN<br />

Tackl<strong>in</strong>g climate change through<br />

transport<br />

Transport and Tour<strong>is</strong>m<br />

Gett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> mobility package done <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> short-term, and help<strong>in</strong>g to change modes of transportation<br />

<strong>in</strong> order to reduce greenhouse gas em<strong>is</strong>sions, will be key priorities for <strong>the</strong> transport and tour<strong>is</strong>m<br />

committee. By Eszter Zalan<br />

Chang<strong>in</strong>g (and charg<strong>in</strong>g for)<br />

transportation methods are key to<br />

effectively fight<strong>in</strong>g climate change, and<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s transport<br />

committee chair, Karima Delli (Greens/<br />

EFA, France), will put that struggle at <strong>the</strong><br />

top of <strong>the</strong> agenda.<br />

"The <strong>is</strong>sue of global warm<strong>in</strong>g <strong>is</strong> one of<br />

my top priorities. We are fac<strong>in</strong>g a big<br />

responsibility," <strong>the</strong> French politician told<br />

EUobserver.<br />

"The transport sector accounts for 30<br />

percent of greenhouse gas em<strong>is</strong>sions<br />

and has an important responsibility on<br />

air pollution (600,000 deaths per year<br />

<strong>in</strong> Europe). Th<strong>is</strong> priority translates <strong>in</strong>to<br />

objectives by mode of transport," Delli<br />

added.<br />

She said she will defend <strong>the</strong> obligation<br />

for all regional and national tra<strong>in</strong>s at<br />

EU level to have at least eight reserved<br />

bicycle spaces to accelerate <strong>the</strong> pace of<br />

soft mobility.<br />

"Cities must seize th<strong>is</strong> means of<br />

transport, which <strong>is</strong> low-carbon and<br />

accessible to all", said Delli – <strong>who</strong><br />

describes herself as an advocate of<br />

both tra<strong>in</strong> and bicycle. The committee<br />

will also enter <strong>in</strong>to negotiations on <strong>the</strong><br />

text of passenger rights.<br />

The MEP said <strong>the</strong> committee wants to<br />

boost freight by rail by 30 percent per<br />

country, launch a rail renovation plan,<br />

and "to support a real revival of night<br />

tra<strong>in</strong>s".<br />

Dell adds that she <strong>is</strong> campaign<strong>in</strong>g for a<br />

heavy-vehicle fee. She wants for each<br />

<strong>European</strong> country to "<strong>in</strong>troduce a heavy<br />

goods vehicle tax based on <strong>the</strong> polluterpays<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciple, with revenue earmarked<br />

to f<strong>in</strong>ance susta<strong>in</strong>able urban mobility,<br />

freight and road safety".<br />

In terms of <strong>the</strong> aviation package, <strong>the</strong><br />

committee will look at a kerosene tax,<br />

and all possible means to <strong>in</strong>vest <strong>in</strong><br />

alternatives to fly<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

"The sector should no longer benefit<br />

from an exemption from fuel tax. Europe<br />

can implement it, and br<strong>in</strong>g it to <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational level with a s<strong>in</strong>gle voice, to<br />

show that it <strong>is</strong> possible to work on th<strong>is</strong><br />

<strong>is</strong>sue. Th<strong>is</strong> would provide significant<br />

fund<strong>in</strong>g for alternatives," said Delli, <strong>who</strong><br />

has chaired <strong>the</strong> committee s<strong>in</strong>ce 2017.<br />

Delli also wants to hold a <strong>European</strong><br />

summit on <strong>the</strong> "conversion of <strong>the</strong><br />

automotive <strong>in</strong>dustry" <strong>in</strong> order to work<br />

on re-skill<strong>in</strong>g employees, on provid<strong>in</strong>g<br />

support for regions, and on recycl<strong>in</strong>g<br />

vehicles. She said that with 12 million<br />

workers <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustry, th<strong>is</strong> <strong>is</strong> an urgent<br />

<strong>is</strong>sue.<br />

Chairwoman Karima Delli (Greens/EFA, France) wants<br />

climate protection to transform mobility and transport.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

Delli expects more debate on <strong>the</strong><br />

"complex exerc<strong>is</strong>e" of <strong>the</strong> EU's mobility<br />

package, a 2017 proposal for a series<br />

of leg<strong>is</strong>lations from mak<strong>in</strong>g traffic safer,<br />

through fight<strong>in</strong>g illicit employment to<br />

cutt<strong>in</strong>g red tape.<br />

Complet<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> mobility package would<br />

be a success, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> short term, Delli<br />

said.<br />

Delli had also served as <strong>the</strong> vice-chair of<br />

<strong>the</strong> committee of "<strong>in</strong>quiry <strong>in</strong>to em<strong>is</strong>sion<br />

measurements <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> automotive<br />

sector", which was brought <strong>in</strong> after <strong>the</strong><br />

2015 Dieselgate scandal.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> maritime sector, Delli said, <strong>the</strong><br />

committee will start to tighten up <strong>the</strong><br />

standards for sulphur oxide (SOx)<br />

em<strong>is</strong>sions.<br />

"The objective <strong>is</strong> also to update<br />

<strong>the</strong> air quality directive to <strong>the</strong> levels<br />

recommended by <strong>the</strong> World Health<br />

Organization (WHO)," she said, add<strong>in</strong>g<br />

that limits will have to be added for o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

particles such as PM2.5, which are not<br />

<strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> current directive.<br />

"There are a number of <strong>is</strong>sues that will<br />

divide us, accord<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>in</strong>stitutional,<br />

political or geographical div<strong>is</strong>ions. It <strong>is</strong><br />

essential, especially on div<strong>is</strong>ive <strong>is</strong>sues,<br />

to take <strong>the</strong> time, l<strong>is</strong>ten and consult<br />

everyone," Delli said, add<strong>in</strong>g that she <strong>is</strong><br />

determ<strong>in</strong>ed to defend <strong>the</strong> parliament's<br />

positions <strong>in</strong> negotiations with <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions.<br />

Coord<strong>in</strong>ators: Marian-Jean Mar<strong>in</strong>escu<br />

(EPP, Romania), Johan Danielsson<br />

(S&D, Sweden), Jose Ramon Bauza<br />

Diaz (Re<strong>new</strong>, Spa<strong>in</strong>), Ciaran Cuffe<br />

(Greens/EFA, Ireland), Roman Haider<br />

(ID, Austria), Roberts Zile (ECR, Latvia),<br />

Elena Kountoura (GUE/NGL, Greece).<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 21


REGI<br />

Regional Development<br />

Safeguard<strong>in</strong>g <strong>European</strong> solidarity<br />

Political <strong>is</strong>sues such as migration and <strong>the</strong> respect for <strong>the</strong> rule of law will make <strong>the</strong> debate on <strong>the</strong><br />

solidarity funds more political than ever. By Koert Debeuf<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s committee for regional<br />

development (REGI) does not often make headl<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong><br />

Brussels' <strong>new</strong>s.<br />

However, for many <strong>European</strong>s it can be prec<strong>is</strong>ely <strong>the</strong>se<br />

regional funds that make <strong>the</strong> EU <strong>the</strong> most v<strong>is</strong>ible force<br />

of change.<br />

Those <strong>who</strong> v<strong>is</strong>ited central <strong>European</strong> countries before<br />

2004, or 2007, and went aga<strong>in</strong> 10 years later, have no<br />

doubt seen <strong>the</strong> <strong>new</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructure built with <strong>European</strong><br />

funds.<br />

Therefore, <strong>the</strong>se so-called Structural Funds and <strong>the</strong><br />

Cohesion Fund are at <strong>the</strong> heart of <strong>European</strong> policy, aim<strong>in</strong>g<br />

at more equality between regions with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU, by try<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to reduce d<strong>is</strong>parities <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>come, wealth and opportunities.<br />

However, two <strong>new</strong> political realities s<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong><br />

implementation of <strong>the</strong> 2014-2020 budget will make <strong>the</strong><br />

d<strong>is</strong>cussion on <strong>the</strong> regional funds more complicated: <strong>the</strong><br />

migration <strong>is</strong>sue that deeply divided <strong>the</strong> EU s<strong>in</strong>ce 2015,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> call by some to put conditions on <strong>the</strong> respect for<br />

<strong>the</strong> rule of law on <strong>the</strong> d<strong>is</strong>tribution of structural funds.<br />

Th<strong>is</strong> <strong>new</strong> reality will no doubt make <strong>the</strong> debates about<br />

regional development more political and div<strong>is</strong>ive than<br />

ever.<br />

Despite that, Omarjee hopes that with<strong>in</strong> five years he can<br />

look back and say h<strong>is</strong> committee has "secured a budget<br />

for cohesion that allows <strong>European</strong> solidarity to cont<strong>in</strong>ue<br />

and to reduce territorial <strong>in</strong>equalities." He <strong>is</strong> look<strong>in</strong>g forward,<br />

he cont<strong>in</strong>ued "to prove <strong>the</strong> added value of cohesion and<br />

succeed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> objective of simplification."<br />

Toge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong> two funds form one of <strong>the</strong> largest budget<br />

l<strong>in</strong>es of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union.<br />

These l<strong>in</strong>es are fixed with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU budget for seven<br />

years (2014-2020) <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> so-called MultiAnnual F<strong>in</strong>ancial<br />

Framework, but will need to be negotiated aga<strong>in</strong> for <strong>the</strong><br />

follow<strong>in</strong>g seven years (2021-2027).<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators of <strong>the</strong> REGI committee are Andrei<br />

Novakov (EPP, Bulgaria), Constanze Krehl (S&D,<br />

Germany), Ondrej Knotek (Re<strong>new</strong>, Czech Republic),<br />

Niklas Nienass (Greens/EFA, Germany), Francesca<br />

Donato (ID, Italy), Raffaele Fitto (ECR, Italy), Mart<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Michels (GUE/NGL, Germany).<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce 2018 a <strong>new</strong> fund, <strong>the</strong> Energy Transition Fund, was<br />

put <strong>in</strong> place <strong>in</strong> order to help poorer regions to reach <strong>the</strong><br />

climate goals through a transition to green energy.<br />

Younous Omarjee (GUE/NGL, France) chairs <strong>the</strong> REGI committee.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> Union 2019 – Source: EP<br />

The political control of <strong>the</strong> spend<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong>se funds <strong>is</strong> what<br />

<strong>the</strong> REGI committee does.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> committee's chairman Younous Omarjee<br />

(GUE/NGL, France) <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> challenge for <strong>the</strong> com<strong>in</strong>g<br />

five years will be controll<strong>in</strong>g "<strong>the</strong> efficiency and absorption<br />

of <strong>the</strong> cohesion funds, as well as <strong>the</strong> implementation of<br />

reforms aim<strong>in</strong>g at reduc<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> regional d<strong>is</strong>parities".<br />

Ano<strong>the</strong>r challenge, Omarjee cont<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>is</strong> "a just transition<br />

fund", or - <strong>in</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r words - f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g a way that all <strong>European</strong><br />

regions "participate <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Par<strong>is</strong> Agreement objectives".<br />

On top of that he foresees that <strong>the</strong> "fight aga<strong>in</strong>st urban<br />

poverty and an ambition for <strong>European</strong> <strong>is</strong>lands" will top <strong>the</strong><br />

committee's agenda for <strong>the</strong> next five years.<br />

22 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


AGRI<br />

Agriculture and Rural Development<br />

More susta<strong>in</strong>able agriculture,<br />

with less budget<br />

Mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> EU's agriculture policy more efficient, green and susta<strong>in</strong>able, but with less budget.<br />

That <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> biggest challenge <strong>the</strong> committee on agriculture and rural development (AGRI),<br />

chaired by German centre-right MEP Norbert L<strong>in</strong>s, will face. By Elena Sánchez Nicolás<br />

The agricultural sector <strong>is</strong> one of <strong>the</strong> world's most significant<br />

sources of greenhouse gas em<strong>is</strong>sions. However, thanks<br />

to <strong>new</strong> technologies and modern farm<strong>in</strong>g techniques,<br />

em<strong>is</strong>sions l<strong>in</strong>ked to agriculture are expected to decrease -<br />

keep<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> climate targets set by <strong>the</strong> EU for 2030<br />

and 2050.<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> next five years, <strong>the</strong> workload be<strong>in</strong>g developed<br />

by <strong>the</strong> committee on agriculture and rural development<br />

(AGRI), chaired by Norbert L<strong>in</strong>s, <strong>is</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>ly focussed<br />

will work constructively on <strong>the</strong> proposal of <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion<br />

to ensure that <strong>the</strong> <strong>new</strong> green deal and <strong>the</strong> EU agricultural<br />

policy will go hand-<strong>in</strong>-hand.<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> biggest challenges for th<strong>is</strong> committee will be<br />

mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> agriculture policy fit <strong>the</strong> adaption and mitigation<br />

of climate change with less budget.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to L<strong>in</strong>s, <strong>the</strong> <strong>new</strong> eco-schemes and climate<br />

measures, as well as <strong>the</strong> afforestation and bioenergy crops<br />

schemes under rural development, are positive aspects of<br />

<strong>the</strong> proposal post-2020 CAP.<br />

Eco-schemes refers to a <strong>new</strong> stream of fund<strong>in</strong>g for <strong>the</strong><br />

environment and climate from <strong>the</strong> CAP's direct payments<br />

budget, which <strong>is</strong> mandatory for member states (but <strong>the</strong><br />

design up to <strong>the</strong>m) and voluntary for farmers.<br />

AGRI chairman Norbert L<strong>in</strong>s (EPP, Germany) will be look<strong>in</strong>g at do<br />

more with less, under a reduced budget.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

on mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> common agricultural policy (CAP) more<br />

efficient and susta<strong>in</strong>able.<br />

However, <strong>the</strong> Mercosur trade agreement – and its impact<br />

on <strong>European</strong> farmers and <strong>the</strong> EU's food cha<strong>in</strong> – will also<br />

be priorities on th<strong>is</strong> committee's agenda, especially s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

AGRI must ensure that <strong>the</strong> food com<strong>in</strong>g from third countries<br />

has <strong>the</strong> same standards as here, L<strong>in</strong>s said.<br />

However, L<strong>in</strong>s wonders if all <strong>the</strong>se <strong>new</strong> actions can make<br />

much of a difference on <strong>the</strong>ir own - "<strong>the</strong> potential of <strong>the</strong>se<br />

elements might be limited also by <strong>the</strong> budget cuts," he<br />

warned.<br />

Until now, approximately 38 percent of <strong>the</strong> EU's budget<br />

(€58bn) was spent on agriculture and rural development<br />

- equivalent to 0.4 percent of <strong>the</strong> Union's GDP.<br />

However, <strong>the</strong> EU comm<strong>is</strong>sion proposed to reduce by<br />

around five percent <strong>the</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g for <strong>the</strong> CAP as <strong>the</strong> EU will<br />

face fewer contributors, with a future union of 27 members.<br />

The CAP <strong>is</strong> one of <strong>the</strong> EU's most important common<br />

policies, be<strong>in</strong>g dom<strong>in</strong>antly high on <strong>the</strong> agenda of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>.<br />

The outgo<strong>in</strong>g <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion presented <strong>in</strong> 2018<br />

a leg<strong>is</strong>lative reform on <strong>the</strong> post-2020 CAP, which <strong>is</strong> seen<br />

as one of <strong>the</strong> most important mechan<strong>is</strong>ms to both support<br />

and green environmental and climate action <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

agricultural and forest sectors.<br />

The AGRI committee <strong>in</strong> cooperation with <strong>the</strong> ENVI<br />

(committee on environment, public health, and food safety)<br />

The implementation of <strong>the</strong> CAP reform <strong>is</strong> expected by <strong>the</strong><br />

beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of 2021 as <strong>the</strong> debate over <strong>the</strong> size and nature of<br />

<strong>the</strong> CAP spend<strong>in</strong>g feeds affects <strong>the</strong> Multiannual F<strong>in</strong>ancial<br />

Framework (MFF) - <strong>the</strong> EU's long-term budget.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators of <strong>the</strong> AGRI committee are Herbert<br />

Dorfmann (EPP, Italy), Paolo de Castro (S&D, Italy), Ulrike<br />

Müller (Re<strong>new</strong>, Germany), Mart<strong>in</strong> Häusl<strong>in</strong>g (Greens/EFA,<br />

Germany), Ivan David (ID, Czech Republic) and Luke M<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Flanagan (GUE/NGL, Ireland).<br />

It <strong>is</strong> not clear <strong>who</strong> <strong>the</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>ator of ECR <strong>is</strong>.<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 23


PECH<br />

EU f<strong>is</strong>h wars ahoy<br />

F<strong>is</strong>heries<br />

EU seas will conta<strong>in</strong> "more" and "bigger" f<strong>is</strong>h five years from now - if <strong>the</strong> f<strong>is</strong>heries committee<br />

does its job. But rows on post-Brexit rights could grab attention. By Andrew Rettman<br />

Chairman Chr<strong>is</strong> Davies (Re<strong>new</strong>, UK):<br />

'Atlantic waters look good, but <strong>the</strong><br />

Mediterranean and Black seas are <strong>in</strong><br />

a terrible state'.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

EU seas will conta<strong>in</strong> "more" and "bigger" f<strong>is</strong>h five<br />

years from now if <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s f<strong>is</strong>heries<br />

committee (PECH) <strong>is</strong> to be proud of its legacy, accord<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to its chairman, Brit<strong>is</strong>h liberal MEP Chr<strong>is</strong> Davies. But a<br />

fight on post-Brexit f<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g could divert attention from its<br />

core work, <strong>the</strong> committee's Dutch deputy chair, Peter<br />

van Dalen, warned.<br />

"It's all about achiev<strong>in</strong>g susta<strong>in</strong>ability - end<strong>in</strong>g overf<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and rebuild<strong>in</strong>g our f<strong>is</strong>h stocks so that we have more<br />

f<strong>is</strong>h <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> sea and can give a long term secure future<br />

for our f<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustry," Davies (Re<strong>new</strong>, UK) said. EU<br />

authorities ought to "tighten controls" on f<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g quotas<br />

and "stop <strong>the</strong> d<strong>is</strong>card<strong>in</strong>g of millions of tonnes of f<strong>is</strong>h<br />

each year," he added.<br />

The EU <strong>is</strong> meant to end overf<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g by 2020, and 59<br />

out of 81 assessed species were now return<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able levels, accord<strong>in</strong>g to "strict scientific advice",<br />

Davies noted. But "we're bound to m<strong>is</strong>s <strong>the</strong> target, I<br />

fear," <strong>the</strong> MEP added. "Atlantic waters look good, but<br />

<strong>the</strong> Mediterranean and Black seas are <strong>in</strong> a terrible<br />

state," he said.<br />

The <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion and EU member states<br />

negotiate total allowable catches of f<strong>is</strong>h each year <strong>in</strong> a<br />

process that dom<strong>in</strong>ates EU <strong>in</strong>tervention <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

seafood sector, which employs tens of thousands of<br />

people, most of <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> France, Greece, Italy, Spa<strong>in</strong>,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> UK.<br />

The tension between <strong>in</strong>dustry and environment could<br />

see clashes <strong>in</strong>side PECH on how to spend <strong>the</strong> €6bn<br />

<strong>European</strong> Maritime and F<strong>is</strong>heries Fund, Davies warned.<br />

There were "too many people <strong>in</strong> politics" <strong>in</strong> some EU<br />

states <strong>who</strong> wanted to "throw public money at <strong>the</strong> f<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>dustry ... subsid<strong>is</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>new</strong> and more powerful vessels",<br />

as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> "bad old days", he noted. But that "helps to kill<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustry and <strong>the</strong> coastal communities that depend<br />

upon it," Davies said.<br />

The committee's Dutch deputy chair, van Dalen (EPP,<br />

Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands), agreed with <strong>the</strong> Brit<strong>is</strong>h MEP on <strong>the</strong> need<br />

for better "control" of <strong>the</strong> sector, say<strong>in</strong>g that old EU rules<br />

were "too out of date". But Davies <strong>is</strong> to lose h<strong>is</strong> PECH<br />

job when <strong>the</strong> UK leaves <strong>the</strong> EU, and van Dalen warned<br />

that Brexit could frustrate <strong>the</strong> committee's normal work.<br />

Talk of EU f<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g controls triggers strong emotions <strong>in</strong><br />

Brit<strong>is</strong>h eurosceptics and <strong>the</strong> tabloid media, which cover<br />

<strong>the</strong> subject as if it was World War Two. The so-called<br />

'Scallop Wars' <strong>in</strong> 2018 even saw violence when Brit<strong>is</strong>h<br />

and French f<strong>is</strong>hermen rammed each o<strong>the</strong>r's boats and<br />

fired flares, and "future reciprocity, after Brexit, of f<strong>is</strong>h<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> EU and Brit<strong>is</strong>h waters", <strong>is</strong> set to be PECH's most<br />

div<strong>is</strong>ive <strong>is</strong>sue, van Dalen said.<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators are: Franc<strong>is</strong>co Millan Mon (EPP,<br />

Spa<strong>in</strong>), Clara Aguilera (S&D, Spa<strong>in</strong>); Pierre Karlesk<strong>in</strong>d<br />

(Re<strong>new</strong>, France); Grace O'Sullivan (Greens/EFA,<br />

Ireland); France Jamet (ID, France); Ruza Tomasic<br />

(ECR, Croatia); and Joao Ferreira (GUE/NGL, Portugal).<br />

24 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


CULT<br />

Culture and Education<br />

A bigger Erasmus budget to favour<br />

<strong>in</strong>clusion<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> top priorities of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> parliament's committee on culture and education<br />

(CULT), chaired by centre-right German MEP Sab<strong>in</strong>e Verheyen, <strong>is</strong> to triple <strong>the</strong> Erasmus+<br />

budget to make it more <strong>in</strong>clusive and accessible. By Elena Sánchez Nicolás<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> most notable aspects of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union<br />

<strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> cultural and l<strong>in</strong>gu<strong>is</strong>tic diversity of its member<br />

states, and how successful programs such as Erasmus+<br />

enhance <strong>European</strong> multicultural<strong>is</strong>m through education.<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> priorities for <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s<br />

committee on culture and education (CULT), chaired by<br />

centre-right Sab<strong>in</strong>e Verheyen (EPP, Germany), <strong>is</strong> to triple<br />

<strong>the</strong> budget of <strong>the</strong> Erasmus+ programme from 2021-2027,<br />

to make it more <strong>in</strong>clusive.<br />

The current budget (2014-2020) for <strong>the</strong> Erasmus+<br />

programme <strong>is</strong> €14.7bn.<br />

However, a bigger budget <strong>is</strong> necessary to ensure that <strong>the</strong><br />

Erasmus+ <strong>in</strong>itiative <strong>is</strong> "more <strong>in</strong>clusive and accessible"<br />

for people with specific needs or d<strong>is</strong>advantaged groups,<br />

Verheyen told EUobserver.<br />

Erasmus <strong>is</strong> an <strong>in</strong>itiative designed to allow young people<br />

to d<strong>is</strong>cover and live <strong>European</strong> values: learn<strong>in</strong>g about<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r countries, languages, and cultures while develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

tolerance and mutual understand<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

"Th<strong>is</strong> committee has played a vital role support<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Erasmus+ and ensur<strong>in</strong>g that it <strong>is</strong> implemented well," she<br />

said.<br />

However, one of <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> challenges for <strong>the</strong> CULT<br />

committee will be to f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> balance between <strong>the</strong> different<br />

stakeholders dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ongo<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>ter-<strong>in</strong>stitutional<br />

negotiations - especially consider<strong>in</strong>g that <strong>the</strong> proposal<br />

of <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion only doubles <strong>the</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g for Erasmus<br />

2021-2027 up to €30bn.<br />

For <strong>the</strong> Multiannual F<strong>in</strong>ancial Framework (MFF), th<strong>is</strong><br />

committee will have to reach a political agreement with<br />

<strong>the</strong> EU Council not only on <strong>the</strong> Erasmus+ programme,<br />

but also Creative Europe (for culture and <strong>the</strong> creative<br />

sector) and <strong>European</strong> Solidarity Corps (for volunteer<strong>in</strong>g).<br />

"I know my colleagues follow<strong>in</strong>g those files are committed<br />

to achiev<strong>in</strong>g an excellent result. It <strong>is</strong> imperative that we get<br />

it right," Verheyen said.<br />

The committee will also focus its efforts for <strong>the</strong> next five<br />

years on <strong>the</strong> implementation of <strong>the</strong> updated audiov<strong>is</strong>ual<br />

media service directive (AVMSD), and <strong>the</strong> <strong>new</strong><br />

forthcom<strong>in</strong>g rev<strong>is</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> e-commerce directive.<br />

Once <strong>the</strong> <strong>new</strong> AVMSD <strong>is</strong> implemented, <strong>the</strong> parliament<br />

will have to ensure that <strong>the</strong> rev<strong>is</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> e-commerce<br />

directive does not jeopard<strong>is</strong>e <strong>the</strong> achievements made<br />

concern<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> regulation of video-shar<strong>in</strong>g platform<br />

services like YouTube, she said.<br />

Likew<strong>is</strong>e, digital skills, media literacy, and <strong>new</strong><br />

technologies such as artificial <strong>in</strong>telligence (AI) will present<br />

fresh challenges for <strong>the</strong> CULT Committee.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Verheyen, even though AI <strong>is</strong> still not<br />

completely understood or adequately addressed with<strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> policy-mak<strong>in</strong>g, "it will have an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g<br />

impact on cultural and creative <strong>in</strong>dustries, as well as on<br />

education".<br />

The coord<strong>in</strong>ators of <strong>the</strong> CULT committee are Michaela<br />

Šojdrova (EPP, Czech Republic), Petra Kammerevert<br />

(S&D, Germany), Laurence Farreng (Re<strong>new</strong>, France),<br />

Salima Yenbou (Greens/EFA, France), Chr<strong>is</strong>t<strong>in</strong>e<br />

Anderson (ID, Germany), Dace Melbrde (ECR, Latvia)<br />

and Niyazi Kizilyürek (GUE/NGL, Cyprus).<br />

Chairwoman Sab<strong>in</strong>e Verheyen (EPP, Germany). The proposal of<br />

<strong>the</strong> EU comm<strong>is</strong>sion doubles <strong>the</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g for Erasmus 2021-2027,<br />

up to €30bn.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 25


JURI<br />

AI's ethical dilemma<br />

Legal Affairs<br />

Last year, <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion presented a strategy paper on how <strong>the</strong> EU should take <strong>the</strong><br />

lead shap<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> ethics of Artificial Intelligence. It <strong>is</strong> a challenge <strong>the</strong> JURI committee has tasked<br />

itself to complete over <strong>the</strong> next five years. By Nikolaj Nielsen<br />

The legal affairs committee, also known as JURI,<br />

made headl<strong>in</strong>es th<strong>is</strong> year when it dethroned <strong>European</strong><br />

Comm<strong>is</strong>sion designates, over conflicts of <strong>in</strong>terests.<br />

"We already know that <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion <strong>is</strong> prepar<strong>in</strong>g<br />

proposals on <strong>the</strong> question of susta<strong>in</strong>able corporate<br />

governance," says Neths<strong>in</strong>gha.<br />

The move helped cement <strong>the</strong> enforcement status of a<br />

<strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> that had <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past struggled to<br />

ga<strong>in</strong> an equal foothold with member state capitals.<br />

Lucy Neths<strong>in</strong>gha presides over JURI and <strong>is</strong> a UK national<br />

from Southampton, <strong>who</strong>se home country <strong>is</strong> pry<strong>in</strong>g itself<br />

away from <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union.<br />

It means, among o<strong>the</strong>r th<strong>in</strong>gs, that <strong>the</strong> committee will<br />

have to figure out if company obligations should only deal<br />

with susta<strong>in</strong>ability <strong>in</strong> a climate change sense, or <strong>in</strong> a wider<br />

environmental sense.<br />

A Liberal Democrat belong<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> Re<strong>new</strong> Europe<br />

group, Neths<strong>in</strong>gha however still ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s a long-term<br />

v<strong>is</strong>ion for a committee she may soon have to leave. The<br />

committee <strong>is</strong> responsible for <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terpretation, application<br />

and monitor<strong>in</strong>g of Union law.<br />

She ranks Artificial Intelligence (AI) and climate change as<br />

among JURI's biggest priorities over <strong>the</strong> next five years.<br />

Neths<strong>in</strong>gha says JURI's work on AI will have a particular<br />

impact on start-ups, as it hopes to help shape AI<br />

development and roll-out.<br />

The committee's coord<strong>in</strong>ators are look<strong>in</strong>g at four broad<br />

areas, amid plans to draw up <strong>in</strong>itiative reports on each: on<br />

an ethical framework, on state authority, on liability, and<br />

on <strong>in</strong>tellectual property rights.<br />

"A proper and balanced regulation on ethical aspects and<br />

on liability will help to build trust <strong>in</strong> th<strong>is</strong> <strong>new</strong> technology,"<br />

she says.<br />

Those coord<strong>in</strong>ators <strong>in</strong>clude Axel Voss (EPP, Germany),<br />

Tiemo Wölken (S&D, Germany), Karen Melchior (Re<strong>new</strong>,<br />

Denmark), Marie Toussa<strong>in</strong>t (Greens/EFA, France),<br />

Gilles Lebreton (ID, France), Angel Dzhambazki (ECR,<br />

Bulgaria) and Manon Aubry (GUE/NGL, France).<br />

Chairwoman Lucy Neths<strong>in</strong>gha (Re<strong>new</strong>, UK): 'The ma<strong>in</strong> questions on <strong>the</strong> EU’s<br />

agenda, AI and climate change, will also be <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> items on <strong>the</strong> JURI agenda'.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> Union 2019 – Source: EP<br />

Build<strong>in</strong>g mach<strong>in</strong>es that can reason and learn poses a<br />

slew of ethical questions. Some warn that <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>telligence<br />

revolution <strong>in</strong> mach<strong>in</strong>es could lead to self-awareness,<br />

o<strong>the</strong>rw<strong>is</strong>e known as '<strong>the</strong> s<strong>in</strong>gularity'.<br />

Gett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> right balance when it comes to <strong>the</strong> ethical<br />

aspects of artificial <strong>in</strong>telligence will likely be among <strong>the</strong><br />

most difficult questions that will be posed <strong>in</strong> JURI.<br />

Neths<strong>in</strong>gha says that balance needs to be weighed<br />

aga<strong>in</strong>st AI's <strong>in</strong>novation, development and deployment.<br />

"On <strong>the</strong> most div<strong>is</strong>ive question, it <strong>is</strong> of course difficult<br />

to tell, but I th<strong>in</strong>k that our agenda will <strong>in</strong>clude questions<br />

regard<strong>in</strong>g how far <strong>the</strong> duties of companies will stretch,"<br />

she says.<br />

If it works out, Neths<strong>in</strong>gha says gett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> own <strong>in</strong>itiative<br />

reports sorted and taken up by <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion would<br />

become <strong>the</strong> committee's biggest achievement.<br />

Figur<strong>in</strong>g out to what extent a company should have <strong>the</strong>se<br />

duties and responsibilities <strong>in</strong> regard to <strong>the</strong>ir supply cha<strong>in</strong>s<br />

will also be difficult, notes Neths<strong>in</strong>gha.<br />

Climate change will also figure large as JURI's <strong>in</strong>put aims<br />

to untangle thorny <strong>is</strong>sues like company law.<br />

"The most div<strong>is</strong>ive question may be <strong>the</strong> nature of any<br />

obligations. Should <strong>the</strong>y be mandatory or adv<strong>is</strong>ory?<br />

What should <strong>the</strong> consequences be if <strong>the</strong> rules are not<br />

followed?," she says.<br />

26 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


LIBE<br />

Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs<br />

Search<strong>in</strong>g for solidarity <strong>in</strong> EU<br />

asylum policy<br />

The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s civil liberties committee offers a snapshot of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> "state of<br />

m<strong>in</strong>d", says its chair Juan Fernando Lopez Aguilar. Its biggest challenge will be gett<strong>in</strong>g member<br />

states to unblock <strong>the</strong> EU asylum package. By Nikolaj Nielsen<br />

Article 80 of <strong>the</strong> L<strong>is</strong>bon Treaty says<br />

<strong>European</strong> Union policies must by<br />

governed by <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of solidarity<br />

and fair shar<strong>in</strong>g of responsibility.<br />

It <strong>is</strong> an article that Span<strong>is</strong>h social<strong>is</strong>t<br />

MEP Juan Fernando Lopez Aguilar<br />

often repeats <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> face of <strong>the</strong> major<br />

backlash among member states<br />

when it comes to overhaul<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong><br />

EU's complex asylum system.<br />

As chair of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s<br />

civil liberties committee (LIBE),<br />

Aguilar <strong>is</strong> faced with a daunt<strong>in</strong>g task<br />

to pressure capitals <strong>in</strong>to apply<strong>in</strong>g<br />

article 80 <strong>in</strong> practice.<br />

H<strong>is</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>ators may choose to work<br />

with him or aga<strong>in</strong>st him.<br />

On <strong>the</strong> EPP side <strong>is</strong> Roberta Metsola<br />

(Malta). The social<strong>is</strong>ts have Birgit<br />

Sippel (S&D, Germany), <strong>the</strong><br />

liberals Sophie In't Veld (Re<strong>new</strong>,<br />

Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands), plus <strong>the</strong>re <strong>is</strong> Terry<br />

Re<strong>in</strong>tke (Greens/EFA, Germany)<br />

and T<strong>in</strong>eke Srik (Greens/EFA,<br />

Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands).<br />

Juan Fernando Lopez Aguilar <strong>is</strong> chair<strong>in</strong>g Libe for <strong>the</strong> third<br />

time.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> Union 2019 – Source: EP<br />

There <strong>is</strong> also Annal<strong>is</strong>a TARDINO (ID,<br />

Italy), Patryk Tomasz JAKI (ECR,<br />

Poland), Cornelia Ernst (GUE/NGL,<br />

Germany) l<strong>is</strong>ted as a prov<strong>is</strong>ional<br />

coord<strong>in</strong>ator.<br />

LIBE's biggest challenge over <strong>the</strong><br />

next five years will be gett<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

Council, represent<strong>in</strong>g member states,<br />

to unblock <strong>the</strong> asylum package.<br />

If Aguilar succeeds, it will also be <strong>the</strong><br />

committee's biggest achievement.<br />

'Dubl<strong>in</strong>', a regulation that determ<strong>in</strong>es<br />

<strong>who</strong> <strong>is</strong> responsible for process<strong>in</strong>g<br />

asylum applications, rema<strong>in</strong>s<br />

<strong>the</strong> most contentious item <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

package as EU states baulk over a<br />

prov<strong>is</strong>ion to share out people seek<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational protection.<br />

Aguilar <strong>is</strong> not shy about h<strong>is</strong> committee<br />

flex<strong>in</strong>g its muscles <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> face of<br />

an uncomprom<strong>is</strong><strong>in</strong>g council, tell<strong>in</strong>g<br />

EUobserver that member states<br />

have to understand that migration<br />

and asylum are no longer solely<br />

<strong>is</strong>sues for national leg<strong>is</strong>lators.<br />

"We need a positive approach,<br />

we need a constructive approach<br />

and we need to cooperate, both<br />

co-leg<strong>is</strong>lators, <strong>the</strong> council and <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> parliament, to have that<br />

leg<strong>is</strong>lation adopted. That would be,<br />

<strong>in</strong> my view, <strong>the</strong> number one priority,"<br />

he said.<br />

But he also directed some of h<strong>is</strong><br />

compla<strong>in</strong>ts towards <strong>the</strong> upcom<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>European</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion under<br />

president-elect Ursula von den Leyen,<br />

say<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> cross-cutt<strong>in</strong>g nature of <strong>the</strong><br />

files will make it more difficult to hold<br />

<strong>the</strong> future comm<strong>is</strong>sioners to account.<br />

Von den Leyen has prom<strong>is</strong>ed a <strong>new</strong><br />

pact on migration. Details rema<strong>in</strong><br />

sparse. "Protect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Way of Life" (previously migration),<br />

home affairs, transparency, justice<br />

and equality are all spread across<br />

five comm<strong>is</strong>sioners and <strong>in</strong> ways that<br />

are difficult to del<strong>in</strong>eate.<br />

Aguilar says security <strong>is</strong> a second<br />

priority.<br />

It means mak<strong>in</strong>g sure <strong>the</strong> security<br />

package aligns with fundamental<br />

rights and respects <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>ciples<br />

of necessity and proportionality, he<br />

says.<br />

Among <strong>the</strong> big files <strong>is</strong> tackl<strong>in</strong>g terror<strong>is</strong>t<br />

content onl<strong>in</strong>e, plus e-privacy, and<br />

e-evidence. The <strong>in</strong>ter-operability<br />

of EU-level security and police<br />

databases <strong>is</strong> also key.<br />

But hav<strong>in</strong>g to deal with some of <strong>the</strong><br />

most politically toxic <strong>is</strong>sues also<br />

means LIBE <strong>is</strong> bound to attract a<br />

diverse range of views.<br />

Aguilar describes h<strong>is</strong> committee as<br />

a snapshot of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> "state of<br />

m<strong>in</strong>d" - with MEPs <strong>who</strong> oppose <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> Union and dabble <strong>in</strong> hate<br />

speech.<br />

"The LIBE committee <strong>is</strong> always <strong>the</strong><br />

busiest committee <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> house, very<br />

active, very <strong>in</strong>tense, debates are<br />

often passionate, <strong>the</strong> <strong>is</strong>sues are hot<br />

and div<strong>is</strong>ive," he said.<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 27


AFCO<br />

Constitutional Affairs<br />

<strong>Parliament</strong> should have '<strong>in</strong>itiation'<br />

role<br />

As EU leaders are keen to transform <strong>the</strong> way politics <strong>is</strong> formulated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> bloc, <strong>the</strong> constitutionals<br />

affairs committee will play a key role <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> next five years <strong>in</strong> reform<strong>in</strong>g electoral processes<br />

and <strong>in</strong>itiat<strong>in</strong>g laws. By Eszter Zalan<br />

As a former president of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>,<br />

Antonio Tajani <strong>is</strong> a powerful chairman of <strong>the</strong> constitutional<br />

affairs committee (AFCO), and one <strong>who</strong> wants <strong>the</strong> EU<br />

parliament to be able to <strong>in</strong>itiate leg<strong>is</strong>lation.<br />

"The <strong>European</strong> parliament <strong>is</strong> <strong>the</strong> only chamber directlyelected<br />

by citizens that does not hold <strong>the</strong> right of<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiative," <strong>the</strong> Italian MEP from Forza Italia po<strong>in</strong>ts out to<br />

EUobserver.<br />

He said <strong>the</strong> committee's work <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> next five years will<br />

shape <strong>the</strong> future Europe, from <strong>the</strong> right of <strong>in</strong>quiry to <strong>the</strong><br />

Future of Europe conference, through <strong>the</strong> reform of <strong>the</strong><br />

lead candidate process (dubbed 'Spitzenkandidaten'<br />

based on <strong>the</strong> idea's German orig<strong>in</strong>s), to electoral law and<br />

transparency <strong>is</strong>sues.<br />

"We must work hard to have a better Europe dur<strong>in</strong>g th<strong>is</strong><br />

leg<strong>is</strong>lative term," Tajani said.<br />

Th<strong>is</strong> <strong>is</strong> a priority for h<strong>is</strong> committee <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> next five years,<br />

and he also wants <strong>the</strong> parliament to have <strong>the</strong> right of<br />

<strong>in</strong>quiry.<br />

Steer<strong>in</strong>g clear of <strong>the</strong> controversial <strong>is</strong>sues, Tajani said <strong>the</strong><br />

committee <strong>is</strong> "united <strong>in</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g for a better and more<br />

function<strong>in</strong>g union".<br />

"I know that <strong>the</strong>se are ambitious goals," he adds, but says<br />

<strong>the</strong> EU elections <strong>in</strong> May have given <strong>the</strong>se efforts a boost.<br />

"The recent elections showed an important <strong>in</strong>crease of<br />

participation. For th<strong>is</strong> reason, we must answer to <strong>the</strong><br />

ra<strong>is</strong><strong>in</strong>g voice of <strong>European</strong> citizens," Tajani said, add<strong>in</strong>g:<br />

"<strong>the</strong> EU needs to change immediately, and to streng<strong>the</strong>n<br />

<strong>the</strong> l<strong>in</strong>k between <strong>in</strong>stitutions and citizens".<br />

Tajani said that with h<strong>is</strong> fellow MEPs on <strong>the</strong> committee,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y will put "all our efforts to push forward all <strong>the</strong><br />

proposals aimed at <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> role of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

parliament".<br />

He also welcomed EU comm<strong>is</strong>sion president-elect<br />

Ursula von der Leyen's proposals for a conference on<br />

<strong>the</strong> Future of Europe, which would start <strong>in</strong> 2020 and run<br />

for two years to br<strong>in</strong>g toge<strong>the</strong>r citizens, accord<strong>in</strong>g to her<br />

plans.<br />

"Of course, <strong>the</strong>re are different views, based on political<br />

differences and values. As chair, my role <strong>is</strong> to give voice<br />

to everyone <strong>in</strong> order to have every political groups'<br />

contribution to <strong>the</strong> major debates," he added.<br />

The Coord<strong>in</strong>ators are Danuta Hubner (EPP, Poland),<br />

Domenec Ruiz Devesa (S&D, Spa<strong>in</strong>), Pascal Durand<br />

(Re<strong>new</strong>, France), Daniel Freund (Greens/EFA, Germany),<br />

Gerolf Annemans (ID, Belgium), Geert Bourgeo<strong>is</strong> (ECR,<br />

Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands), Mart<strong>in</strong>a Anderson (GUE/NGL, Ireland).<br />

Chair of <strong>the</strong> constitutional affairs committee, and former president<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>, Antonio Tajani (EPP, Italy) wants <strong>the</strong><br />

parliament to be able to <strong>in</strong>itiate laws.<br />

Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

"In my op<strong>in</strong>ion, it <strong>is</strong> a key <strong>in</strong>strument to l<strong>is</strong>ten to our<br />

citizens' needs and concerns and, on that base, to reform<br />

deeply <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union," Tajani said.<br />

Tajani said he hopes to speed up <strong>the</strong> process of<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutional reforms.<br />

"In th<strong>is</strong> regard, <strong>the</strong> AFCO committee already <strong>in</strong>vited<br />

many scholars and researchers, from all over Europe, <strong>in</strong><br />

order to <strong>in</strong>vestigate a potential implementation of <strong>the</strong> right<br />

of <strong>in</strong>itiative," he said.<br />

28 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


FEMM<br />

Women's Rights and Gender Equality<br />

B<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g measures to expand gender balance<br />

Ursula von der Leyen, <strong>the</strong> first female president of <strong>the</strong> EU comm<strong>is</strong>sion, has put a lot of emphas<strong>is</strong> on try<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to create a gender-balanced EU executive. Expand<strong>in</strong>g gender balance will also be a top priority for <strong>the</strong><br />

FEMM committee. By Eszter Zalan<br />

Chairwoman Evelyn Regner (S&D, Austria) wants concrete action<br />

on gender balance from <strong>the</strong> women's rights and gender equality<br />

committee. Photo: <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong><br />

There <strong>is</strong> a need to expand gender<br />

balance <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> political and economic<br />

sphere, and th<strong>is</strong> can only be achieved<br />

by b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g measures, <strong>the</strong> chair of<br />

<strong>the</strong> comm<strong>in</strong>tee on women's rights<br />

and gender equality, Evelyn Regner<br />

(S&D, Austria) told EUobserver.<br />

"The time for well-<strong>in</strong>tentioned but<br />

<strong>in</strong>effective declarations of <strong>in</strong>tent has<br />

to be over. It's time that women are<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ally f<strong>in</strong>ancial <strong>in</strong>dependent, because<br />

many o<strong>the</strong>r forms of <strong>in</strong>equality derive<br />

from not be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dependent," <strong>the</strong><br />

social democrat politician said.<br />

"It <strong>is</strong> prec<strong>is</strong>ely <strong>in</strong> dependencyrelationships<br />

that a dramatic gap <strong>in</strong><br />

power and representation manifests<br />

itself," she added.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to figures from <strong>the</strong> EU's<br />

stat<strong>is</strong>tics agency, Eurostat, <strong>the</strong>re are<br />

considerable differences between<br />

EU countries.<br />

The gender pay gap rang<strong>in</strong>g from<br />

less than eight percent <strong>in</strong> Belgium,<br />

Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Romania,<br />

and Slovenia to more than 20 percent<br />

<strong>in</strong> Austria, <strong>the</strong> Czech Republic,<br />

Germany, Estonia and <strong>the</strong> UK.<br />

Regner said an understand<strong>in</strong>g must<br />

be establ<strong>is</strong>hed that "real equality<br />

requires action <strong>in</strong> all political areas: <strong>in</strong><br />

short, gender ma<strong>in</strong>stream<strong>in</strong>g".<br />

It means that all policy concepts or<br />

planned actions should be assessed<br />

at all stages by how it effects different<br />

genders. The EU treaty commits<br />

to elim<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>equalities and<br />

promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>ciple of equality<br />

between women and men.<br />

The gender ma<strong>in</strong>stream<strong>in</strong>g<br />

amendments have allowed <strong>the</strong><br />

women's rights and gender equality<br />

committee (FEMM) to <strong>in</strong>troduce a<br />

gender perspective <strong>in</strong>to <strong>the</strong> reports of<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>committees</strong> on specific <strong>is</strong>sues.<br />

"We will take concrete action<br />

regard<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>come equality, worklife<br />

balance and <strong>the</strong> fight aga<strong>in</strong>st<br />

violence aga<strong>in</strong>st women," Regner<br />

added.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> next five years <strong>the</strong> priority will<br />

be produc<strong>in</strong>g more, and b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

measures to promote gender<br />

equality.<br />

"We must achieve a b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g EU<br />

gender equality strategy," Regner<br />

said, po<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g to a recently publ<strong>is</strong>hed<br />

equality <strong>in</strong>dex by <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Institute for Gender Equality.<br />

The report said that <strong>the</strong> EU cont<strong>in</strong>ues<br />

at a snail's pace when it comes to<br />

gender equality progress.<br />

The report said that Sweden<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ues to top <strong>the</strong> EU scoreboard<br />

for gender equality, followed by<br />

Denmark, and with Greece and<br />

Hungary hav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> most catch<strong>in</strong>g-up<br />

to do. The biggest improvement was<br />

achieved by Portugal and Estonia.<br />

"We have a quite clear understand<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of <strong>the</strong> ex<strong>is</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g layers of <strong>in</strong>equality<br />

reach<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>the</strong> economic situation<br />

to political representation and <strong>the</strong><br />

social situation of women <strong>in</strong> Europe,"<br />

Regner said, referr<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> report.<br />

"The verdict <strong>is</strong> clear, we need to take<br />

more measures faster. The status<br />

quo <strong>in</strong> matters of equality <strong>is</strong> far from<br />

sat<strong>is</strong>factory," she said.<br />

Regner expects that <strong>the</strong> most div<strong>is</strong>ive<br />

<strong>is</strong>sues will be all matters "touch<strong>in</strong>g<br />

upon sexual and reproductive rights<br />

of women", which show "a clear<br />

divide between member states and<br />

political groups".<br />

"It shows that women's rights are<br />

at r<strong>is</strong>k once aga<strong>in</strong>. What has been<br />

achieved can easily be lost aga<strong>in</strong>.<br />

In th<strong>is</strong> regard, I want to streng<strong>the</strong>n<br />

<strong>the</strong> role of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> parliament<br />

as a guarantor of women's rights <strong>in</strong><br />

Europe," she said.<br />

Regner added that what often<br />

lies beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>the</strong> regression <strong>is</strong> a<br />

m<strong>is</strong>conception of what family means.<br />

Yet <strong>the</strong> world <strong>is</strong> so colourful, she<br />

added, say<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>re are many<br />

different ways of life. "And basically,<br />

that <strong>is</strong> what it's all about. That<br />

everyone <strong>is</strong> able to lead <strong>the</strong>ir lives<br />

without compulsion, pressure or<br />

fear", Regner added.<br />

Coord<strong>in</strong>ators (to be confirmed):<br />

Frances Fitzgerald (EPP, Ireland),<br />

Maria Noichl (S&D, Germany),<br />

Irene Tolleret (Re<strong>new</strong>, France), Alice<br />

Kuhnke (Greens/EFA, Sweden),<br />

Chr<strong>is</strong>t<strong>in</strong>e Anderson (ID, Germany),<br />

Jadwiga W<strong>is</strong>niewska (ECR,<br />

Poland), Sandra Pereira (GUE/NGL,<br />

Portugal).<br />

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES — 29


PETI<br />

An 'open door' for EU citizens<br />

Petitions<br />

Ord<strong>in</strong>ary EU citizens should get a say <strong>in</strong> Brussels lawmak<strong>in</strong>g and hold officials to account via <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong>'s petitions committee <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> next five years, accord<strong>in</strong>g to its chairman, Span<strong>is</strong>h<br />

centre-right MEP Dolors Montserrat. By Andrew Rettman<br />

Ord<strong>in</strong>ary EU citizens should get a say <strong>in</strong> Brussels<br />

lawmak<strong>in</strong>g and hold officials to account via <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

<strong>Parliament</strong>'s petitions committee (PETI) <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> next five<br />

years, accord<strong>in</strong>g to its chairman, Span<strong>is</strong>h centre-right<br />

MEP Dolors Montserrat. The "open door" to Brussels<br />

should also create "proximity" between people and EU<br />

officials <strong>in</strong> troubled times, she said.<br />

"We need to give more v<strong>is</strong>ibility to personal experiences,<br />

enabl<strong>in</strong>g citizens to contribute to <strong>the</strong> EU's leg<strong>is</strong>lative<br />

work, while also br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>m closer to MEPs and<br />

mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>stitutions more accountable," Montserrat said.<br />

"Institutions have to be at <strong>the</strong> service of people and not<br />

<strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r way around," she added.<br />

PETI has a mandate to d<strong>is</strong>cuss EU nationals or<br />

companies' gripes on any subject governed by <strong>European</strong><br />

laws.<br />

It exerts soft power, which "sometimes" amounted to<br />

"considerable <strong>in</strong>fluence", Montserrat said, by <strong>is</strong>su<strong>in</strong>g<br />

reports and recommendations.<br />

It can prompt plenary debates, d<strong>is</strong>patch fact-f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g<br />

m<strong>is</strong>sions, send memos to EU states' embassies, or<br />

even call for comm<strong>is</strong>sion legal action aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>European</strong><br />

countries.<br />

day via PETI's website, dealt with electoral standards,<br />

free press, and anti-Islamic hate speech. They also dealt<br />

with d<strong>is</strong>abled people's rights, sexual education, and<br />

cannab<strong>is</strong> laws, as well as with smaller <strong>is</strong>sues, such as a<br />

Pol<strong>is</strong>h petition on <strong>the</strong> d<strong>is</strong>tance between school desks or<br />

an Italian one on lett<strong>in</strong>g dogs fly with <strong>the</strong>ir owners.<br />

Montserrat, a 46-year old Catalan, <strong>who</strong> was health<br />

m<strong>in</strong><strong>is</strong>ter under former Span<strong>is</strong>h leader Marian Rajoy, <strong>is</strong> no<br />

stranger to div<strong>is</strong>ion between remote capitals and popular<br />

feel<strong>in</strong>g. The Rajoy government <strong>in</strong> Madrid tried to crush<br />

Catalan <strong>in</strong>dependence <strong>in</strong> 2017, embolden<strong>in</strong>g popular<br />

res<strong>is</strong>tance.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> MEP said: "We need to work for equal<br />

consideration of petitions, regardless of <strong>the</strong>ir political<br />

colour". The <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> represented "a<br />

diversity of op<strong>in</strong>ions and ideologies," Montserrat said,<br />

and "<strong>in</strong> a democracy like our own, it <strong>is</strong> normal for us to<br />

have different po<strong>in</strong>ts of view".<br />

PETI's <strong>European</strong> <strong>Parliament</strong> group coord<strong>in</strong>ators are:<br />

Peter Jahr (EPP, Germany), Jude Kirton-Darl<strong>in</strong>g (S&D,<br />

UK), Yana Toom (Re<strong>new</strong>, Estonia), Margrete Auken<br />

(Greens/EFA, Denmark), Gianna Gancia (ID, Italy),<br />

Kosma Zotowski (ECR, Poland), and Sira Rego (GUE/<br />

NGL, Spa<strong>in</strong>).<br />

And it regularly <strong>in</strong>vites <strong>in</strong>dividuals to confront MEPs and<br />

<strong>European</strong> Comm<strong>is</strong>sion officials <strong>in</strong> grand auditoriums <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> EU capital.<br />

Dolors Montserrat (EPP, Spa<strong>in</strong>), chair of <strong>the</strong> petitions committee,<br />

wants to hear more from EU citizens.<br />

Photo: Council of <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Union<br />

PETI stands alongside <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Ombudsman<br />

(a malpractice watchdog) and <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong> Citizens'<br />

Initiative (fil<strong>in</strong>g mass petitions to <strong>the</strong> comm<strong>is</strong>sion) as one<br />

of few ways enshr<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> EU treaties for people to<br />

get directly <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> times of sharp div<strong>is</strong>ion between<br />

'masses' and 'elites'.<br />

The "most important po<strong>in</strong>t <strong>is</strong> that petitioners feel heard<br />

and protected," Montserrat said.<br />

In one petition last year, 'E.P.' (a German national),<br />

got to voice "her opposition to <strong>the</strong> establ<strong>is</strong>hment of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>European</strong> Defence Fund", a €13bn EU juggernaut<br />

project on jo<strong>in</strong>t arms procurement.<br />

O<strong>the</strong>r petitions, which trickle <strong>in</strong> at a rate of five or so per<br />

30 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES


BRUSSELS 10 NOVEMBER 2019<br />

Letter to You –<br />

with k<strong>in</strong>d regards from EUobserver<br />

<strong>European</strong> journal<strong>is</strong>m <strong>is</strong> essential <strong>in</strong> mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>European</strong> democracy actually function.<br />

Today, <strong>the</strong>re <strong>is</strong> a gap between <strong>the</strong> dec<strong>is</strong>ion-makers<br />

<strong>in</strong> Brussels and <strong>the</strong> people <strong>the</strong>y represent.<br />

EUobserver’s goal <strong>is</strong> to fill th<strong>is</strong> gap by report<strong>in</strong>g<br />

on how dec<strong>is</strong>ions are made <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>European</strong><br />

Union, and by giv<strong>in</strong>g people <strong>the</strong> possibility of<br />

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“Beer has been br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g<br />

people toge<strong>the</strong>r for 3,000<br />

years and we want to ensure<br />

that people can cont<strong>in</strong>ue<br />

to enjoy it for generations<br />

to come, which <strong>is</strong> why we’re<br />

committed to brew<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>the</strong> highest-quality<br />

beer susta<strong>in</strong>ably.”<br />

JASON WARNER<br />

Zone President for Europe at AB InBev<br />

We’re on our way<br />

to brew our beer<br />

with 100% re<strong>new</strong>able<br />

electricity by 2025<br />

OUR<br />

Susta<strong>in</strong>ability<br />

GOALS<br />

Climate<br />

Change<br />

Circular<br />

Packag<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Smart<br />

Agriculture<br />

Water<br />

Stewardship<br />

www.ab-<strong>in</strong>bev.eu @ AB<strong>in</strong>bev_EU<br />

32 — EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEES

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