Issue 03/2019

Highlights: Toys Injection Moulding Basics: Microplastics Mind the right terms Captured CO2

Injection Moulding

Mind the right terms
Captured CO2

  • No tags were found...

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

May / June<br />

<strong>03</strong> | <strong>2019</strong><br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 14 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Basics<br />

Microplastics | 56<br />

Mind the right terms | 54<br />

Captured CO 2<br />

vs. biobased | 48<br />

Highlights<br />

Toys | 10<br />

Injection Moulding | 30<br />

Cover Story<br />

bio-PE truck ride-on<br />

... is read in 92 countries


Sustainable – Safe – Sophisticated<br />

The world we live in is unique, exciting and full of surprises. Children discover<br />

their world in a fun way by playing with toys, which generate curiosity and<br />

stimulate the imagination while having to withstand countless adventures.<br />

Our bioplastics combine sustainability with trend-setting material<br />

properties that help to reduce CO2 emissions.<br />

With FKuR bioplastics you will get high-quality toys that meet<br />

your needs exactly and that children will enjoy for a long time.

Editorial<br />

dear<br />

readers<br />

The hottest bioplastics news to break these past two months was surely the publication<br />

in April of a study from the University of Plymouth. Taken up and amplified by numerous<br />

journalists - including the yellow press – in addition to receiving TV coverage and drawing<br />

the attention of many serious publications, it has certainly roiled the bioplastics debate. The<br />

study appeared under the title “Environmental Degradation of Biodegradable, Degradable<br />

and Conventional Plastic Carrier Bags in the Sea, Soil and Open-Air Over a Three-Year<br />

Period“, and sparked blaring headlines, including “‘Biodegradable plastic bags survive<br />

three years in soil and sea”.<br />

Five bags were examined: oxo-degradable bags, one fossil-based non-biodegradable<br />

polyethylene bag, one bag marketed as – but not proven to be - biodegradable, and only<br />

one product certified compostable according to the European Norm 13432.<br />

While only the certified compostable bag sample had completely disappeared<br />

after three months in the marine environment, the utterly crucial point to emphasize<br />

here is that even certified compostable bio-waste bags have not been developed to<br />

degrade in the soil or in a marine environment. These certified bags are designed<br />

to degrade under industrial composting conditions. Whenever ‘biodegradability’ or<br />

‘compostability’ is claimed, the conditions (environment, temperature etc) must be<br />

given. And – neither biodegradability nor compostability is meant to be a solution<br />

to littering. Littering, and subsequently also marine pollution can only be solved by<br />

changing people’s behaviour, not by any kind of material. As this topic could easily fill<br />

many pages, we are planning to give it the necessary space in one of the upcoming<br />

issues of bioplastics MAGAZINE. Until then, links to a number of salient comments can<br />

be found at www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/<strong>2019</strong><strong>03</strong>.<br />

Other highlight topics in this issue are Injection moulding and Toys. Following the very<br />

successful 1st bio!TOY conference in Nuremberg in March with about 90 delegates, we are<br />

happy to share the articles the event generated in this issue.<br />

In the Basics section 3 topics are covered. We first take a closer look at Microplastics, then<br />

discuss the question:Can products made from captured/recycled CO 2<br />

be called Biobased?<br />

Finally, we explain once and for all the difference between Biodegradable - compostable -<br />

oxo-degradable plastics.<br />

Just days before this issue went to print, we hosted the third edition of our bio!PAC<br />

conference on biobased packaging in Düsseldorf, which was a very successful event in every<br />

respect. And we are already focussing on the next big event this year: The K-Show in October<br />

in Düsseldorf, Germany with our 4th Bioplastics Business Breakfast. The call for papers is<br />

open. We are looking forward to your contributions.<br />

We hope to see you at the K-Show this autumn, or perhaps elsewhere even earlier, and<br />

until then, enjoy the summer - and of course, have a great time reading bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />


r1_05.2017<br />

05/05/17 11:39<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 14 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Basics<br />

Microplastics | 56<br />

Mind the right terms | 54<br />

Captured CO 2 vs. biobased | 48<br />

Highlights<br />

Toys | 10<br />

Injection Moulding | 30<br />

May / June<br />

Cover Story<br />

<strong>03</strong> | <strong>2019</strong><br />

bio-PE truck ride-on<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

www.twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Like us on Facebook!<br />

www.facebook.com/bioplasticsmagazine<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 3

Content<br />

Imprint<br />

May / June <strong>03</strong>|<strong>2019</strong><br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

8 Events<br />

42 Application News<br />

50 Patents<br />

52 Brand Owner<br />

53 10 years ago<br />

54 Basics<br />

58 Suppliers Guide<br />

62 Companies in this issue<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr. Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Samsales (German language)<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

sb@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Michael Thielen (English Language)<br />

(see head office)<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Kerstin Neumeister<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

1004 Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

Print run: 3.500 copies<br />

Toys<br />

10 Biobased toys a perfect win-win<br />

13 Binabo and other sustainable toys<br />

14 Relaunch of coean safe beach toys<br />

16 Baby Toys - safe and sustainable<br />

18 Danish bio toys - a success story<br />

20 Bioplastic items for kids<br />

22 Consumer Attitudes<br />

25 Toymakers find many paths to sustainability<br />

26 Cooler than wood. Better than plastic.<br />

Cover Story<br />

28 You never forget your first car<br />

Injection Moulding<br />

30 Optimize PLA for injection moulding<br />

32 Single use cutlery & food containers<br />

34 Injection Moulding Handbook<br />

36 Injection Molding PLA<br />

Applications<br />

40 Cosmetic tubes from bio-PE<br />

44 This spoon dies the rext !<br />

Materials<br />

46 Pack it in feathers<br />

47 Novel biobased barrier film<br />

bioplastics magazine<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified subscribers<br />

(169 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

92 countries.<br />

Every effort is made to verify all Information<br />

published, but Polymedia Publisher<br />

cannot accept responsibility for any errors<br />

or omissions or for any losses that may<br />

arise as a result.<br />

All articles appearing in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com are strictly<br />

covered by copyright. No part of this<br />

publication may be reproduced, copied,<br />

scanned, photographed and/or stored<br />

in any form, including electronic format,<br />

without the prior consent of the publisher.<br />

Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily<br />

reflect those of Polymedia Publisher.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

for publication. Submissions are<br />

accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

unless otherwise agreed in advance and in<br />

writing. We reserve the right to edit items<br />

for reasons of space, clarity or legality.<br />

Please contact the editorial office via<br />

mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trade marks<br />

is not an indication that such names are<br />

not registered trade marks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped bioplastic envelopes<br />

sponsored by Taghleef Industries, Italy<br />

Cover<br />

Ferbedo<br />

Follow us on twitter:<br />

http://twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Like us on Facebook:<br />


daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

News<br />


cooperates with Scion<br />

from New Zealand<br />

Kaneka Americas<br />

Holding, to create new<br />

biopolymers division<br />

DIN CERTCO (Berlin, Germany) is now starting a<br />

new cooperation with Scion (Rotorua, New Zealand)<br />

for the testing of compostable products.<br />

Oliver Ehlert (product manager, compostable<br />

products, DIN CERTCO) said: “With the acknowledgment<br />

of our new testing partner Scion we strengthen our<br />

position in Australia and New Zealand. We can offer<br />

our customers a faster service for laboratory testing<br />

with local partners around the globe.”<br />

Florian Graichen (science leader biopolymers and<br />

chemicals, Scion) said: “DIN CERTCO is a key partner<br />

for Scion in our role to lead the transition of New<br />

Zealand to a circular bioeconomy. Scion is helping<br />

to solve the new challenges that arise through the<br />

transition into a new economy focused on sustainable<br />

design and renewable resources. The ability to design,<br />

manufacture, test and certify compostable products<br />

and materials are crucial for the success and future<br />

growth of New Zealand’s packaging and plastics<br />

related businesses.”<br />

For certifications, according to the AS 4736 and<br />

AS 5810 standards in the Australia and New Zealand<br />

(Australasia) markets, DIN CERTCO already cooperates<br />

with the Australasian Bioplastics Association (ABA)<br />

and the certification system there.<br />

Scion covers the full scope of laboratory tests for<br />

industrial compostable products and home compostable<br />

products and can perform the laboratory testing for<br />

the certification of compostable products according<br />

to all relevant national and international standards:<br />

ASTM D 6400, EN 13432, EN 14995, ISO 17088, ISO 18606,<br />

AS 4736, AS 5810, NF T 51-800. MT<br />

www.dincertco.de/en | www.scionresearch.com<br />

Kaneka Americas Holding, Inc. headquartered in<br />

Houston, Texas, recently announced the creation of a new<br />

biopolymers division, for the sale of Kaneka’s plant-based<br />

degradable plastic PHBH compounds in the United States.<br />

The new division will also be located in Houston.<br />

Kaneka's PHBH is a plant-based product that offers both<br />

flexibility and heat resistance. It is produced via a novel biofermentation<br />

process which uses renewable plant oils as<br />

feedstock. Kaneka's products are not only biobased and<br />

compostable in aerobic, anaerobic or marine environments,<br />

they are also strongly resistant to heat and can act as a<br />

barrier to water vapour.<br />

Stable under everyday conditions of use, given the right<br />

conditions, under either anaerobic, aerobic or marine<br />

conditions in the natural environment, the products will<br />

begin to biodegrade.<br />

PHBH has been granted Food Contact Approval by the<br />

FDA and is suitable for all food packaging products. PHBH<br />

can be formed into many products such as cups, cutlery,<br />

food trays, plates etc.<br />

Kaneka has been producing PHBH since 2011 and<br />

is currently expanding its facilities in Takasago, Japan.<br />

Kaneka hopes to find an alternative solution to the current<br />

single-use plastic products as the company recognizes the<br />

need to bring to market a plant-based product that will<br />

help reduce the ocean and<br />

landfill pollution. Currently,<br />

it is estimated that about 8<br />

Million tonnes of plastic end<br />

up in the marine environment<br />

every year, which has created<br />

a massive environmental issue<br />

in the oceans of the world. MT<br />

www.kaneka.com/kaneka-americas<br />

Picks & clicks<br />

Most frequently clicked news<br />

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two months.<br />

The story that got the most clicks from the visitors to bioplasticsmagazine.com was:<br />

tinyurl.com/news<strong>2019</strong><strong>03</strong>20<br />

PHA water bottle coming soon (20 March <strong>2019</strong>)<br />

It may sound like California Dreamin' but a new bottle, manufactured and<br />

marketed in California under the brand name Cove, is the first bottle of water<br />

made entirely of biodegradable material, say its makers.<br />

The material the bottle is made of is PHA, which will break down into CO 2<br />

,<br />

water, and organic waste. This will happen in compost or a landfill, and even<br />

in the ocean.<br />

PHA, or polyhydroxyalkanoate, is an FDA-approved, naturally occurring<br />

biopolymer. It’s biodegradable, compostable, produces zero toxic waste, and<br />

breaks down into CO 2<br />

, water, and organic waste.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 5

News<br />

daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Arkema selects Singapore as new<br />

Rilsan production site<br />

In early May, Arkema, headquartered in Colombes,<br />

France, announced the location of its planned new worldscale<br />

plant for the production of the monomer of PA11 -<br />

11-Aminoundecanoic acid, derived<br />

from castor oil - and its Rilsan ®<br />

polyamide 11 resins.<br />

The company has chosen Jurong<br />

Island in Singapore to set up its new<br />

bio-sourced polyamide production<br />

site, because of the advantages<br />

the location offers in terms of<br />

infrastructure, logistics, industrial<br />

integration and operational<br />

excellence, as well as optimization<br />

of the carbon footprint of the<br />

planned business.<br />

Plans for the new plant, which will double global production<br />

capacities, were announced in July 2017, in response to<br />

strong demand from Asia for high-performance bio-sourced<br />

lightweighting solutions. Rilsan polyamide 11 is derived from<br />

castor oil and so is the 100% bio-sourced polyamide approved<br />

for many of the most demanding applications, in particular<br />

in the electronics, 3D printing, oil and gas extraction, and<br />

automotive markets, as a substitute to metal.<br />

“This major investment bolsters<br />

our global presence in biosourced<br />

materials while bringing<br />

us significantly closer to our<br />

customers in Asia Singapore’s<br />

industrial and innovation-friendly<br />

environment is, we believe, a key<br />

asset for our project, " commented<br />

Erwoan Pezron, global group<br />

President for Arkema’s technical<br />

polymers business line.<br />

This project is part of the Group’s<br />

exceptional investments of in total<br />

some 500 million Euros earmarked for the 2018-2021 period.<br />

Construction is scheduled to be completed by late 2021 MT<br />

www.arkema.com<br />

From cigars to PLA-films ERRATUM (<strong>Issue</strong> 02/<strong>2019</strong>)<br />

Founded at the end of the 19th century as cigar<br />

manufactory the company shifted from cigars to plastics<br />

film packaging in the 1970s and became arbo Plastic, a<br />

Swiss pioneer company to offer first-class quality films.<br />

2016, after many years of successfully producing<br />

specialty Barex barrier plastic films, Barex resin was no<br />

longer manufactured by the supplier. These circumstances<br />

forced arbo Plastic to carefully evaluate and rethink<br />

their future business orientation. The aim is to convert<br />

to modern, environmentally friendly, sustainable and<br />

compostable materials.<br />

2018 arbo Plastic took up the challenge by stepping into<br />

the future. The right moment to recognise the signs of the<br />

times. An enormous amount of new materials needed to be<br />

tested, the best qualities had to be found and the market<br />

has to be conquered anew. An inspiring task for a visionary<br />

like the owner and CEO Ursula Friederich and her team.<br />

The company recognized that PLA is the material of choice<br />

which meets the needs of a rapidly growing market.<br />

With their comprehensive experience in the field of film<br />

extrusion, mainly in the 80 µm and higher range, arbo<br />

Plastic are best prepared for an intensive exchange of<br />

knowledge and the repositioning of the company. With<br />

uncomplicated flexibility, speed, precision and reliability<br />

the Swiss offer personal support and development of<br />

individual solutions for specific customer requirements,<br />

even for small quantities: arbo Plastic stands for Swiss<br />

quality. MT www.arboplastic.ch<br />

Heat Resistant and<br />

home compostable<br />

PLA resins<br />

In the last issue bioplastics MAGAZINE published an<br />

article about Kompuestos' "Heat Resistant and home<br />

compostable PLA resins". We sincerely apologize for<br />

an error that occured in this article. The production<br />

capacity is 170,000 tonnes, not 17,000 tonnes.<br />

The paragraph should red correctly:<br />

Kompuestos is a Spanish company founded in 1986 in<br />

Palau Solità i Plegamans near Barcelona. Over the past<br />

three decades, Kompuestos has acquired an in-depth<br />

knowledge of the market and has positioned itself as<br />

oneof the main international suppliers of a large variety<br />

of masterbatches, all of which are intended to meet the<br />

needs of very diverse markets in the plastics industry,<br />

among which the packaging sector. With a production<br />

capacity of over 170,000 tonnes per year and growing,<br />

Kompuestos has established itself as one of the leading<br />

companies in the sector, while still seeking to expand its<br />

business MT<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

News<br />

DowDuPont Inc. selling out on sustainability?<br />

During a May 2 conference call, DowDuPont said it is moving six units into a new non-core segment as it considers options,<br />

including divestment.<br />

Incoming company CEO Marc Doyle who will take over from ED Breen as DuPont’s CEO said the non-core units are photovoltaic<br />

and advanced materials, biomaterials – including corn-derived Sorona textiles - clean technologies, sustainable solutions, the<br />

Hemlock Semiconductor Group joint venture and the DuPont Teijin Films joint venture.<br />

Questions were raised, as four of the six operations be considered for divestment involve environmentally-oriented products.<br />

DowDuPont CEO Ed Breen, who will be chairman of DuPont, responding by explaining that “they are more volatile assets than<br />

I would want in my portfolio.”<br />

The businesses totalled $2B in revenues and generated about $500 million of operating earnings last year, said Doyle.<br />

Previously, in November 2018, Breen had sold off DowDuPont’s cellulosic ethanol business, which converts the inedible parts<br />

of the corn plant into motor fuel, including a $200 million Iowa biorefinery that opened in 2015. The DuPont cellulosic ethanol<br />

plant in the town of Nevada, in Iowa, USA was sold to the US subsidiary of German biofuels company's Verbio.<br />

Verbio plans to start construction to transition the plant from ethanol to renewable natural gas in the spring, with commercial<br />

production of renewable transportation fuel ready to go by summer 2020.<br />

DowDuPont, the company that resulted following the merger of equals in August 2017, is currently in the process of breaking<br />

up into three independent publicly traded companies, with Dow being dedicated to commodity chemical production, DuPont to<br />

specialty chemical production, and Corteva to agricultural chemicals. Dow, the Materials Science division, was successfully<br />

spun off on April; the Agriculture and Speciality divisions will be split up in June <strong>2019</strong>. MT<br />

www.dow-dupont.com<br />

BASF and Lactips partner to market<br />

water-soluble, biodegradable film<br />

BASF and Lactips announced in mid-May that<br />

both companies have signed an exclusive contract to<br />

market Lactips’ water-soluble, 100% biobased and fully<br />

biodegradable material prepared from natural ingredients.<br />

This long-term partnership supports BASF’s strategy to<br />

leverage sustainable solutions to drive business growth.<br />

BASF and Lactips will bring<br />

in their respective expertise<br />

to offer this innovative<br />

technology to the home care<br />

as well as industrial and<br />

institutional (I&I) market.<br />

While Lactips focuses on<br />

the development of the film<br />

material technology based<br />

on technical casein obtained<br />

from excess of milk protein<br />

production, BASF will bring<br />

in its expertise in network and supply chain to market the<br />

product. The solution of Lactips aims on the replacement<br />

of polyvinyl alcohol films in home care and I&I applications,<br />

such as dishwasher tabs.<br />

“Sustainability plays a major role in all of BASF’s business<br />

processes,” said Robert Parker, Director, New Business<br />

Development at Care Chemicals, BASF. “Lactips’ solution<br />

for films for dishwasher tabs supplements our existing<br />

portfolio of sustainable offerings. It allows us to provide our<br />

customers with a broad portfolio of bio-degradable products<br />

for the home care industry.”<br />

“Lactips is proud to have its technology marketed by a<br />

leading global partner with a strong network,” said Marie-<br />

Hélène Gramatikoff, CEO Lactips. “We will benefit from<br />

BASF’s experience and latest<br />

developments in the home<br />

care industry.”<br />

Lactips offers the<br />

first water-soluble, fully<br />

biodegradable plasticfree<br />

plastic. Created in<br />

2014 by Marie-Hélène<br />

Gramatikoff, plastics and<br />

business strategy specialist,<br />

and Frédéric Prochazka,<br />

researcher at Saint-Etienne<br />

University, Lactips designs, develops and markets a watersoluble,<br />

biodegradable plastic-free plastic material based<br />

on milk protein. This new material is also food contact<br />

approved, edible and aligned with the sustainable ambitions<br />

of the food processing sector. In the middle term, Lactips<br />

plans to build a 2,500 m² plant to expand production to 3,000<br />

tonnes a year and up. MT<br />

www.lactips.com | www.basf.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 7

Events<br />

Anandi Eco+ Compostable sanitary<br />

pads from India win again<br />

Sustainable fibres from Finland and home compostable coffee capsules<br />

from Germany are the runner-up winners of the innovation award<br />

F<br />

or the 12 th year in a row, the innovation award “Biobased<br />

Material of the Year” has been granted to the<br />

young, innovative biobased chemicals and materials<br />

industry by nova-Institute (Hürth, Germany).<br />

As usual for this award the three winners were chosen<br />

by the expert audience at the “12 th International Conference<br />

on Bio-based Materials” (Cologne, Germany 15/16 May)<br />

from six previously selected nominees. With more than 270<br />

participants and 30 exhibitors, the conference established<br />

itself further as one of the world’s most important meeting<br />

places for the leaders of the bioeconomy.<br />

Organizer Michael Carus, nova-Institute, was enthusiastic<br />

about the overwhelming response: “The most important<br />

pioneers of the global bioeconomy met in Cologne and<br />

exchanged views on the strong dynamics of the industry.<br />

Previous hopefuls of the biobased chemistry are weakening<br />

and others are making amazing breakthroughs!”<br />

The winners in detail:<br />

First place: Aakar Innovations Pvt. Ltd. (India):<br />

Anandi Eco+ – 100% Compostable Sanitary Pads<br />

Anandi Eco+ is the first and only Govt. of India Lab certified<br />

compostable sanitary pad. (cf. comprehensive reports<br />

in bioplastics MAGAZINE issues <strong>03</strong>/2018 and 06/2018). In a<br />

compost environment, at least 90% of the pad are biodegraded<br />

within 180 days. Under other conditions in nature it takes<br />

longer respectively. The pads can be disposed easily in the<br />

backyard mud pit of any rural household to avoid polluting the<br />

environment and create bio-manure for agriculture. Aakar<br />

also uses local resources like starch, jute, bagasse, banana<br />

fibre and water hyacinth to produce their sanitary pads to<br />

reduce cost and utilizes agricultural plant waste materials.<br />

Anandi Eco+ pads do not use any harmful chemicals like<br />

superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and convert into manure<br />

post disposal, which can be further utilised. This way, the<br />

pads contribute to environmental protection and increased<br />

resource reuse. It also follows the American Standard ASTM<br />

D6400 & European Standard EN 13432. Aakar contributes to<br />

12 out of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the UN<br />

through their work. Decentralised production is carried out by<br />

women in India and soon also in various African countries on<br />

the basis of regional raw materials.<br />

Second place: Spinnova Oy (Finland):<br />

Spinnova – Sustainable Textile Fibre<br />

Spinnova is a sustainable fibre company from Finland that<br />

develops ecological breakthrough technology for manufacturing<br />

cellulose-based textile fibre. Spinnova’s patented technology<br />

does without harmful chemicals and creates no waste or side<br />

streams, making the fibre and the production method probably<br />

the most sustainable in the world. The biggest difference to<br />

other man-made cellulosic fibres is that no chemical dissolution<br />

takes place throughout the whole process. Spinnova’s raw<br />

material commitment is to only use FSC certified wood or waste<br />

stream-based cellulose. Spinnova’s objective is to globally<br />

commercialize the fibre products in collaboration with major<br />

textile brands. The properties and prices of the new cellulose<br />

fibres are based on cotton.<br />

Third place: Golden Compound GmbH (DE):<br />

HOMEcap – Home Compostable Coffee Capsules<br />

HOMEcap is the world’s first and only home compostable<br />

coffee capsule successfully introduced in the market that is<br />

‘OK compost HOME’ certified and made with natural fibres<br />

of the sunflower seed hull. The biodegradation in home<br />

compost avoids considerable waste streams. The capsule<br />

was successfully launched on the market in the spring of<br />

this year. It is made from a unique compound comprising<br />

PTTMCCs PBS and PBSA mixed with sunflower seed shells<br />

and inorganic fillers<br />

The nova-Institute would like to acknowledge InfraServ<br />

GmbH & Co. Knapsack KG (DE) for sponsoring the renowned<br />

innovation award “Bio-based Material of the Year <strong>2019</strong>”. MT<br />

Jaydeep Mandal (Aakar Innovations)<br />

with Anandi Eco + and the award<br />

www.bio-based-conference.com<br />

www.aakarinnovations.com<br />

www.spinnova.com<br />

www.golden-compound.com<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Call for papers now open!<br />

organized by<br />

16. - 19.10.<strong>2019</strong><br />

Messe Düsseldorf, Germany<br />




B 3<br />

Bioplastics in<br />

Packaging<br />

PLA, an Innovative<br />

Bioplastic<br />

Bioplastics in<br />

Durable Applications<br />

PHA, Opportunities<br />

& Challenges<br />

www.bioplastics-breakfast.com<br />

At the World‘s biggest trade show on plastics and rubber:<br />

K‘<strong>2019</strong> in Düsseldorf bioplastics will certainly play an important role again.<br />

On four days during the show bioplastics MAGAZINE will host a<br />

Bioplastics Business Breakfast: From 8am to 12pm the delegates will<br />

enjoy highclass presentations and unique networking opportunity.<br />

The trade fair opens at 10 am.<br />

Media Partner:<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 9

Toys<br />

By:<br />

Biobased toys -<br />

Harald Kaeb<br />

narocon<br />

Berlin, Germany<br />

The intense debate on plastics, their deficiencies and<br />

drawbacks when it comes to sustainability and circularity,<br />

is centred around packaging. However, the discussion<br />

is not limited to this biggest sector of consumption. In<br />

this article, Harald Kaeb, inventor and co-organiser of the first<br />

bio!TOY conference examines the options for a wider use of<br />

renewable raw materials and biobased plastics in the toy sector.<br />

He also analyses the supply chain practices in the sector,<br />

exploring how it could become an emerging market and outlet<br />

for biobased polymers. The ideas and findings discussed in<br />

this article were the basis for the bio!TOY conference concept.<br />

Looking back at the event - the first encounter between the toy<br />

sector and the biobased plastics industry – the feedback from<br />

participants confirms that, as a concept, this was a success.<br />

Moreover, it offered scope for opening the door for collaborative<br />

development, hopefully based on strategic considerations.<br />

The toy sector - a user analysis<br />

Five years ago, a UNEP report was published examining the<br />

role and use of plastics in different sectors, including the toy<br />

industry [1]. The report revealed that “toy manufacturers have<br />

the highest plastic intensity in the consumer goods sector, at<br />

48 tonnes of CO 2<br />

equivalents per USD1 million revenue, due to<br />

their use of plastic in products (incl. packaging). As a result,<br />

they have the highest value at risk at 3.9% of annual revenue.<br />

This would wipe out the profits of several companies if they had<br />

to pay the full cost of environmental damage caused by plastic.<br />

That is a finding that should make the chief financial officer sit<br />

up and take note”. In other words: The toy industry ranks #1<br />

due to its heavy use of plastics, with famous toy brands shown<br />

to be indifferent to environmental issues, and, more so than<br />

any other consumer sector, to have no thought for the financial<br />

consequences of this irresponsible behaviour. Any awareness<br />

of the fact that, if these external costs were internalised, their<br />

economic model and financial stability would be at risk, seems<br />

lacking. Such disregard for environmental responsibility can<br />

be fatal to an industry’s image.<br />

This obliviousness to environmental concerns, while at the<br />

same time continuing to be a heavy (ab)user, will become even<br />

more risky with the increasing visibility of climate change and<br />

the public outrage this has awakened. Children and young<br />

people have taken to the streets to call for strict and powerful<br />

action, as they see climate change as the biggest threat to their<br />

future. In a survey conducted among almost 11,000 people aged<br />

15-30, climate change ranked as the number one concern [2].<br />

Toy makers who respond to issues by reviewing the materials<br />

they use in the light of sustainability performance criteria,<br />

Figure 1 Total natural capital cost and<br />

intensity of selected sectors Source [1]<br />

18,000<br />

23%<br />

4%<br />


16,000<br />

14,000<br />

12,000<br />

10,000<br />

8,000<br />

6,000<br />

4,000<br />

2,000<br />

12%<br />

10%<br />

9% 9%<br />

8%<br />

6% 6% 5%<br />

4% 3% 2%<br />

1% 1% 1%<br />

1%<br />

3%<br />

2%<br />

1%<br />


0<br />

FOOD<br />





RETAIL<br />




TOYS<br />







0%<br />



10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14<br />

Corresponds approximately to over 80 million tonnes of plastic. Trucost calculations derived from, but not limited to, World Bank [7];<br />

PlasticsEurope [8]; Eurostat [9], and the US EPA [10] datasets (full set of references and methodologies available in appendices 3<br />

and 4 of this report).

Toys<br />

A perfect win win? An analysis of the supply side<br />

and user sector<br />

i.e. longevity, circularity and greenhouse gas emissions, will<br />

benefit from a growing green consumerism. Failure to find<br />

an adequate response may put the whole business at risk -<br />

as climate change will surely trigger measures to internalise<br />

such costs, e.g. through CO 2<br />

tariffs. Pioneers like the famous<br />

toy brand LEGO, with its clear commitment to making the<br />

transition to sustainable materials, will push others to take<br />

action. The bio!TOY conference showed how many brands<br />

and players from the toy industry are already searching for<br />

solutions. The sector is ready for development partnerships.<br />

The biobased industry - supply side analysis<br />

For a long time, the plastics market remained almost<br />

untouched by issues such as pollution and over-consumption.<br />

Single-use food service packaging and many other shortlife<br />

plastic products abounded. As public and legal concerns<br />

mounted, the food service packaging sector increasingly turned<br />

to biodegradable and compostable plastics and is by far the<br />

biggest application segment for this type of plastic today. The<br />

study “Consumption of biodegradable plastics in Europe 2015 /<br />

2020” [3] revealed that around 80% of the sales were bags and<br />

serviceware like drinking cups or cutlery. Now, however, service<br />

packaging is being hit by new regulations: products made from<br />

biodegradable plastics are currently not exempt from recently<br />


Priorities for the EU Source: [2]<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

For young people, the main priorities for EU action<br />

in the 10 years to come are:<br />




67% 1<br />

Women<br />

71%<br />

15-19 yo<br />

70%<br />



including the free movement<br />

of students, apprentices or pupils<br />

56% 2<br />

Men<br />

63%<br />

25-30 yo<br />

64%<br />

… who stayed abroad<br />

61%<br />

…those<br />

still studying<br />

72%<br />


… involved in volunteering<br />

ECONOMIC &<br />

60%<br />


56% 3<br />




49% 4<br />

adopted EU legislation on the reduction of certain single use<br />

plastics items in the environment, which is a threat to the<br />

bioplastics industry as a whole. With bans and reduction targets<br />

almost everywhere around the globe, the biggest market for<br />

biodegradable plastics is up for discussion. Future growth<br />

perspectives now rely on how biodegradability will be treated<br />

under the new legislation – and whether such products will be<br />

exempt from reduction measures [4].<br />

Biobased plastics are facing other challenges as well. The<br />

EU Circular Economy policy and its related plastic strategy rank<br />

recyclability and the uptake of recycled materials as priority<br />

number #1 amongst the envisaged measures. The perspectives<br />

of biobased and biodegradable polymers in its #1 market -<br />

packaging - will strongly depend on whether full compatibility<br />

with existing (!) recycling schemes is achieved or not. Products<br />

which are hard to recycle, and where recycled content is hard<br />

to realise will be also reviewed, and changes in design or<br />

materials are likely to occur. As a consequence, the biobased<br />

plastics industry needs to review and re-position itself according<br />

to these heavy-weighing, global drivers (#NewPlasticEconomy).<br />

One element which biodegradable or non-biodegradable<br />

plastic products have in common is the renewable or biobased<br />

content, which usually results in a low carbon polymer profile.<br />

Young people most likely to<br />

see this as a priority are…<br />

Young people most likely to see<br />

this as a priority are those…<br />

… living in small towns<br />

52%<br />

… who have a negative<br />

opinion about the EU<br />

56%<br />

1 In 11 countries more than two thirds of young people believe environment and climate change should be a priority: Denmark, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Austria, Portugal, Sweden,<br />

Belgium, Czechia, Ireland and Spain<br />

2 In 17 countries more than half young people believe that education and training should be a priority at EU level. Netherlands, Hungary, Portugal, Germany, Bulgaria, France, UK, Ireland,<br />

Luxembourg, Austria, Spain, Romania, Latvia, Greece, Denmark, Czechia, Belgium<br />

3 In 20 countries half of young people or more believe that fighting poverty economic and social inequalities should be a priority at EU level. Portugal, Germany, Luxembourg, Greece,<br />

Belgium, Austria, Cyprus, France, Denmark, Spain, Latvia, Hungary, Estonia, Ireland, Bulgaria, Netherlands, UK, Croatia, Malta, Slovenia<br />

4 In 15 countries, half or more of young people believe that boosting employment and tackling unemployment should be a priority at EU level. Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece, Spain, Croatia,<br />

Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg, Hungary, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 11

Toys<br />

Greenhouse gas emissions<br />

KgCO 2<br />

e per kg of product<br />

10<br />

Greenhouse 8<br />

gas emissions<br />

KgCO 2<br />

e per kg of product<br />

10<br />

6<br />

4<br />

8<br />

2<br />

6<br />

0<br />

4<br />

Bio-based polymers<br />

Fossil-based polymers<br />

Fossil-based polymers<br />

-2<br />

2<br />

-4<br />

Bio-based polymers<br />

0<br />

0 20 40 60 80 100 120<br />

-2<br />

Depletion of fossil resources<br />

-4<br />

megajoules (10 6 joules) per kg of product<br />

0 20 40 60 80 100 120<br />

Fossil-based polymers include:<br />

polypropylene (PP),<br />

high-density polyethylene (HDPE),<br />

low-density polyethylene (LDPE),<br />

polyethylene terapthalate (PET),<br />

polystyrene Fossil-based (PS), polymers include:<br />

polycarbonate polypropylene (PC). (PP),<br />

high-density polyethylene (HDPE),<br />

low-density polyethylene (LDPE),<br />

Source: polyethylene JRC, 2017 (upper terapthalate panel); (PET), WEF et al., 2016 (lower panel).<br />

polystyrene (PS),<br />

Selling “bioplastics”<br />

polycarbonate<br />

on climate<br />

(PC).<br />

change contributions rather<br />

than biodegradability is not a complete novelty in this industry,<br />

but has hardly Source: been JRC, a 2017 game (upper changer panel); WEF in sales et al., 2016 discussions (lower panel). in<br />

the past. Now, as climate change becomes a number one topic<br />

everywhere from politics to the nursery, new opportunities are<br />

opening up for biobased plastics.<br />

The biobased plastics industry cannot just deliver on CO 2<br />

reduction targets. Looking at toys, and how these are made, it<br />

is becoming evident that a combination of functionalities and<br />

design characteristics are needed to make a fun and functional<br />

toy. The wide spectrum of biobased polymers - polyolefins, PET,<br />

polyesters, PAs, (T)PUs or TPEs, and compounds made thereof<br />

- allow for a wide use of applications, ranging from fiberbased<br />

toys and fillers, soft or hard surfaces, puppets, figures,<br />

games or building blocks and many, many more. Biobased<br />

CO 2<br />

-saving polymers can partly or completely replace the<br />

conventional plastics used for toys in many applications. The<br />

bio!TOY conference has shown that even the initial portfolio<br />

is spectacular, and that there are almost no limits to the<br />

opportunities for to explore partners.<br />

Fusion & Conclusion<br />

For the biobased industry, the development of the toy<br />

application sector holds many opportunities and overall, good<br />

perspectives. Development will be widespread, driven by the<br />

need for so many different toy functionalities, as toy makers<br />

embrace the low carbon and GHG emission profile of biobased<br />

plastics. The toy sector offers a perfect place for storytelling<br />

and for winning over future consumers who are now still in the<br />

nursery - in all segments of plastic use. A partnership between<br />

the biobased industry and the world’s toy makers presents the<br />

opportunity needed to develop sustainable and safe products<br />

and solutions against future threats. And to win parents and<br />

grandparents today and tomorrow.<br />

All in all, this was the basic idea behind the bio!TOY conference.<br />

All those who attended and participated in the conference<br />

agreed that it had successfully distilled this vision into a practical<br />

platform for knowledge exchange and partnering. This first<br />

meeting between the biobased industry and the toy industry was<br />

an important initial step to support and promote transitions in<br />

Bio-based polymers include:<br />

bio-based polylactic acid (PLA),<br />

bio-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA),<br />

bio-based polyethylene (PE).<br />

Bio-based polymers include:<br />

bio-based polylactic acid (PLA),<br />

bio-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA),<br />

bio-based polyethylene (PE).<br />

Depletion of fossil resources<br />

megajoules (10 6 joules) per kg of product<br />

Source: JRC, 2017 [upper panel]; WEF et<br />

al., 2016 [lower panel]. (in: EU ENV Agency<br />

27 Aug 2018 [5])<br />

both industries. Participants were calling for more and we are<br />

ready to serve them.<br />

[1]: Valuing Plastics: The Business Case for Measuring, Managing and<br />

Disclosing Plastic Use in the Consumer Goods Industry, (pdf at tinyurl.com/<br />

valuingplastics)<br />

[2]: http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/survey/<br />

getsurveydetail/instruments/flash/surveyky/2224 or tinyurl.com/surveyyoung-people<br />

[3]: Kaeb, H.: Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and<br />

compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020, (editor nova institute,<br />

April 2016), tinyurl.com/study-consumption<br />

[4]: N.N.: Single-use plastics directive fails to acknowledge potential of<br />

biodegradable plastics; (European Bioplastics) tinyurl.com/single-usedirective<br />

[5]: N.N.: The circular economy and the bioeconomy, Partners in sustainability,<br />

https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/circular-economy-andbioeconomy?mc_cid=d946509efd&mc_eid=5bc8123860<br />

or tinyurl.com/eea-circular<br />

www.narocon.de | www.bio-toy.info<br />

The first bio!TOY conference organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

together with Harald Kaeb (narocon) took place on 27 and<br />

28 March <strong>2019</strong> in Nuremberg, Germany. The event, which<br />

covered topics ranging from technical and ecological issues<br />

to practical examples in the market attracted 90 delegates<br />

from major players from the entire value chain around the<br />

world, including brands such as Lego, Mattel, Playmobil,<br />

Habermaaß, Ravensburger and Zapf Creation. Companies that<br />

already offer toys made of bioplastics, such as Zoë B, eKoala,<br />

Lego, Bioserie, BioBlo, and TicToys shared their experience.<br />

Speakers and exhibitors from the bioplastics industry included<br />

DuPont, Braskem, Hexpol, Neste, and Total-Corbion, as well as<br />

compounders such as Greendot Bioplastics, Tecnaro and FKuR.<br />

The participants agreed that there is great development potential.<br />

The conference with exhibition was also much welcomed as a<br />

platform for dialogue and cooperation.<br />

Read also the post-bio!TOY press release at tinyurl.com/biotoy-press<br />

Harald Kaeb, Michael Thielen<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Toys<br />

Binabo and other sustainable toys<br />

A success-story<br />

www.tictoys.de<br />

TicToys is a toy manufacturer based in Leipzig, Germany.<br />

Founded in 2011 by Matthias Meister and Tony Ramenda,<br />

the company has since grown from what was simply<br />

a fun idea into a serious player in the international toy market<br />

- and a pioneer in the use of bioplastics to produce toys.<br />

From the very start, TicToys has adhered to its founding principles:<br />

1. Create toys that foster movement and active play<br />

2. Promote creative and open-ended play by simple design<br />

3. Use high quality materials and processing<br />

technologies<br />

4. Only use all natural and renewable materials<br />

5. Produce gender-neutral toys<br />

6. All toys are to be locally „Made in Germany“<br />

The result is a brand with a promises to deliver “Die neue<br />

Spielzeugkultur“ (“The new way to play“).<br />

Holding to these core tenets has meant that is has not<br />

always been easy to participate in today’s fast-changing and<br />

highly competitive toy market. In particular, the fourth on<br />

the list – the company’s determination to use “all natural<br />

and renewable materials“ - presented a major challenge,<br />

when it came to broadening the product range.<br />

Although the company originally produced only wooden<br />

toys, TicToys first came into the contact with bioplastics<br />

during the development of its Tualoop” outdoor game. The<br />

ame is played with two sticks that are used to catch and<br />

throw a ring – the Tualoop – in various ways.<br />

During the product development, the rings were initially<br />

made from wood. However, this soon proved to be the wrong<br />

choice, both due to the rigidity of the material and its high<br />

cost. In search of an alternative, TicToys stumbled across<br />

the possibility of using a bioplastic material and, after<br />

researching the subject, decided in favour of Arboblend ®<br />

compounds. This advanced biomaterial from Tecnaro<br />

(Ilsfeld, Germany) consists of a blend of different biobased<br />

plastics and wood fibres and is therefore one hundred<br />

percent natural.<br />

Many trials and tests with different compounds followed,<br />

with as result a fantastic game – Tualoop was released<br />

in 2013 – that pioneered the use of bioplastics in the toy<br />

industry.<br />

From the very beginning, Tony and Matthias believed in<br />

manufacturing their toys from renewable raw materials -<br />

from the product to the packaging. “Our intention has always<br />

been to encourage sustainable consumer behaviour in this<br />

area as well,” the two explained, who have since brought their<br />

sixth toy creation to market, named Binabo.<br />

“This was by far our most difficult project. We spent five<br />

years working on a single perfect toy construction element<br />

made from bioplastic. The flexible components, which<br />

differ only in colour, can be assembled as desired and allow<br />

unlimited combination options.”<br />

Binabo is also manufactured from a special Arboblend<br />

grade. The material is flexible, extremely stable, free of toxins<br />

and suitable for indoor and outdoor use.<br />

The idea for the Binabo originated from the project to<br />

create a ball that can be juggled barefoot - just as has been<br />

a tradition in Myanmar for 1500 years. The local pastime -<br />

called Chinlone, - is a combination of sport and dance and<br />

is played with a ball traditionally woven from rattan. However,<br />

the bioplastic “Made in Germany” can be used for more than<br />

just for making the Chinlone ball.<br />

“The elements can be simply clicked together to create an<br />

infinite number of movement games: Throwing discs, catching<br />

cups, cones or even a basketball basket are possible. The<br />

colorful chips invite you to construct the most daring figures<br />

and shapes,” explained Tony.<br />

In the end, it almost doesn’t matter what comes out of it.<br />

“It’s about being creative. This is something that nowadays,<br />

children are all too often denied. That’s why we hadn’t originally<br />

planned to include any building instructions.” Children<br />

are more creative than many adults suspect and therefore<br />

do not ask for instructions. However, many parents ask for<br />

instructions, because they do not have enough confidence in<br />

their children’s creativity.<br />

Today, the two entrepreneurs export their toys from the<br />

plant in Leipzig to all over the world. However, they still buy<br />

cardboard boxes for the packaging from ”nearby” Chemnitz.<br />

“Regionality has always been part of our philosophy,” said<br />

Mattias. “Production steps that cannot be implemented<br />

regionally at least remain in Germany,” he concluded. MT<br />

Tualoop (Photo: TicToys)<br />

Levi playing with Binabo during bio!TOY <strong>2019</strong><br />

(Photo: Oliver Reinhardt)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 13

Toys<br />

Relaunch of<br />

ocean-safe<br />

beach toys<br />

About 350 million tonnes of plastic is produced<br />

globally every year with approximately 25 % of it<br />

used in packaging, most of which is designed for single<br />

use. (The average North American throws away about 100<br />

kg of plastic each year.) An estimated 32 % of all packaging<br />

leaks out of the system, leading to both land and ocean pollution.<br />

As a result, more than 8 million tonnes of plastic trash<br />

winds up in the oceans annually, adding to the estimated 150<br />

million tonnes that’s currently in the marine environments.<br />

Of even greater consequence is that fact that much of this<br />

debris breaks down over time into tiny particles smaller than<br />

5 mm. These microplastics are found in marine habitats<br />

everywhere on earth, and they don’t biodegrade. According to<br />

5 Gyres, a non-profit fighting global plastic pollution, the 2017<br />

United Nations Clean Seas Campaign estimated that there are<br />

51 trillion microplastic particles in the ocean today—500 times<br />

more than the number of stars in our galaxy. Unfortunately<br />

for the ocean’s ecosystem, marine animals, and even humans<br />

who consume seafood, these marine plastics persist and have<br />

the potential to cause real harm.<br />

So how do we start turning the corner toward products<br />

that are useful without continuing to destroy our oceans?<br />

In 2011, Valerie Lecoeur, founder of Zoë b Organic (Winston<br />

Salem, North Carolina, USA), decided to tackle the problem<br />

right where she found it every summer–on the beach, in the<br />

hands of her kids (cf. bM 02/2011). As a mother of three young<br />

children, it sickened her to see the number of stray shovels<br />

and orphaned, plastic beach-bucket handles washed up on<br />

the shore. So, she decided to use the technology available at<br />

the time to make smarter beach toys that are safer for both<br />

kids and the environment.<br />

compounds<br />

are designed to meet established<br />

certification standards for biodegradation<br />

into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass–thus avoiding the<br />

generation of microplastics and providing the ideal material<br />

for beach toys that accidentally get washed out to sea.<br />

Today Valerie and Zoë b<br />

Organic are grateful to be<br />

partnering with DuPont to<br />

relaunch her Ocean-Safe<br />

Beach Toys in the U.S. this<br />

summer. While technology<br />

continues to evolve, Valerie<br />

remains steadfast in her<br />

mission: “Bioplastics may<br />

not be the solution for<br />

replacing all plastics, but<br />

those that biodegrade in<br />

marine environments are<br />

the perfect replacement<br />

for every beach toy on the<br />

planet.” MT<br />

http://www.zoeborganic.com<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 9<br />

Highlights<br />

Fibers & Textiles | 12<br />

Toys | 36<br />

September / October 05 | 2014<br />

... is read in 91 countries<br />

Beach toys by Zoë b<br />

made from PHA, p. 44<br />

Cover-Story<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

05/2014<br />

In 2011, Zoë b Organic launched the world’s first<br />

biodegradable beach toys using Mirel, a polyhydroxyalkanoate<br />

(PHA) bioplastic made from corn sugars which meets<br />

established standards for biodegradation in marine<br />

environments. Manufactured in the USA, the toys were sold<br />

online and also picked up by Pottery Barn Kids, among other<br />

retailers. However, disruptions and unfavorable economics in<br />

the product’s supply caused Zoë b Organic to ultimately stop<br />

selling its beach toys.<br />

In 2017, Alterra Plastics, a compounding company operating<br />

out of Seymour, Indiana (USA), focused on the emerging need<br />

for plant-based and biodegradable materials and re-initiated<br />

the development of PHA-based thermoplastic compounds.<br />

In collaboration with DuPont BioMaterials, a new family of<br />

compounds was developed. TerraBio ® is a PHA-based resin<br />

that incorporates Nuvolve Engineered PolySaccharides to<br />

enhance mechanical properties and the overall aesthetics of<br />

derived injection-molded products. With building blocks that<br />

are all plant-based and inherently biodegradable, these new<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Automotive<br />

ORDER<br />

NOW!<br />

BOOK<br />

STORE<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/books<br />

email: books@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

phone: +49 2161 6884463<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 15

Toys<br />

Baby toys –<br />

safe and<br />

sustainable<br />

Simple, down to earth designs<br />

made from the safest of<br />

biomaterials may be the classic<br />

playthings of tomorrow<br />

The Bioserie brand was created at the end of 2009 as an<br />

initiative of bioplastic enthusiasts eager to use these<br />

exciting new materials to make durable consumer<br />

products. While the first products were phone accessories,<br />

the self-funded Hong-Kong-based venture soon turned to<br />

developing and selling toys. The founders, who are also<br />

parents, wanted to use their know-how to bring to families<br />

useful basics made entirely of biomaterials, that were<br />

smart, fun to play with, and convenient for day-to-day use.<br />

The company decided first to focus on baby toys: logically<br />

speaking, babies are the ones at greater risk when<br />

exposed to traditional plastics. Concern is mounting, both<br />

among medical experts in the pediatrics field and the general<br />

public, about the lack of (sufficient) screening for the<br />

use of harmful chemicals in the toy industry. Since Bioserie<br />

has been committed from the start to using only non-petrochemical<br />

components, they are firmly convinced that they<br />

can answer the needs of the most worried and demanding<br />

clients of the sector: parents of babies and infants.<br />

From idea to product<br />

Building a new product line that works, with only limited<br />

means at their disposal, the brand’s founders have had to<br />

be resourceful.<br />

First, that meant taking into account the limitations of the<br />

material they are working with, which is mostly PLA based.<br />

The costs of the PLA compound are significantly higher<br />

than that of conventional commodity plastics. Injection<br />

moulding cycle times are longer, and it is necessary<br />

to use moulds of very high quality. The material is<br />

fairly rigid and prone to breaking if not managed<br />

properly.<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Toys<br />

Therefore, design ideas had to be screened with all these<br />

factors in mind to determine the shapes that could be used;<br />

and the team had to anticipate potential pain points during<br />

assembly or fitting to minimize later trial and error testing<br />

processes.<br />

Of course, they also had to take into account the price<br />

limit that would be acceptable for consumers. They have<br />

therefore positioned their offering at prices comparable to<br />

toys made from natural materials, such as wood, natural<br />

rubber or eco-fabrics.<br />

They knew from the start that they would not be able to<br />

compete with regular plastics: their objective was to make<br />

no compromises on their value proposition and refuse to<br />

use any petrochemical additives.<br />

Both by necessity, but also because they believe that<br />

quality is better than quantity, Bioserie’s owners decided to<br />

build a line focused on the basic needs of babies, with six<br />

different types of products:<br />

• Stage 1 (babies aged 0-3 months): Two simple toys for<br />

babies to teethe on and to help them grasp (Star Teether<br />

and Interlocking Disks, both available in two colors);<br />

• Stage 2 (babies aged 3-6 months): Two rattles which<br />

encourage observation skills and the discovery of the<br />

cause and effect relationship (one round shaped rattle<br />

and one dumbbell shaped rattle),<br />

• Stage 3 (babies aged 6-12 months): Two types of<br />

stackers which are about matching and learning shapes,<br />

sizes, and improving gross motor skills. Bioserie has<br />

obtained a patent for the design of its Shape Sorting and<br />

Stacking Cube, and their 2-in-1 Stacker has proved to be<br />

one of their most popular items over the past year.<br />

The progressive concept of the product line is<br />

communicated by different colors on the packaging sides<br />

for each developmental stage.<br />

The importance of teamwork<br />

To get to this point, the brand has been fortunate in being<br />

able to gather together a team of motivated and talented<br />

people to support them. The brand owners have worked<br />

with Batug Koprulu, an industrial designer, to formalize<br />

their design ideas and transform sketches into a 3D<br />

reality. They have had the support of Dominic Mak, who is<br />

a renowned biomaterials scientist, as well as endorsement<br />

from leading figures in the toy and nursery industry, such as<br />

Pamela Marcus, who created the now famous Lifefactory<br />

brand, and Jeff Cornelison, who worked for a long time for<br />

Kids II.<br />

Making 100 % biobased toys is no easy game, as<br />

Bioserie discovered, and far more is needed than scientific<br />

knowledge alone. Dedication and enthusiasm is required<br />

from everyone involved in the chain to make it work: the<br />

people with the idea and the people who actually help turn<br />

these ideas into real and effective products.<br />

And the process is one of constant fine-tuning. The first<br />

toy test run was in 2015, a patent process in 2016 was<br />

initiated and since 2017, the company has been creating<br />

its own compound, as a means to increase supply chain<br />

reliability and facilitate scaling up scenarios. Compounding<br />

now takes place at the injection moulding facilities.<br />

By:<br />

Stephanie Triau<br />

Bioserie<br />

The Bioserie team now feels that they have a<br />

CPLA compound that delivers what they wanted: no<br />

petrochemicals, high temperature resistance, a better melt<br />

flow vs. other compounds they have used, consistency of<br />

results across all the different geometries used, good<br />

quality touch and feel results.<br />

That said, they’re always on the lookout for potential new<br />

additives that could enhance the product or make the job<br />

easier or better and are frequently in conversations with<br />

players in the field.<br />

From the product to the consumer<br />

Yes, we’re at a time when the biobased materials trend<br />

is going mainstream. 85% of consumers have stated they<br />

are committed to buying more sustainable products; policy<br />

makers and big brands have also implemented strong<br />

initiatives in this direction.<br />

However, from Bioserie’s perspective, the key selling point<br />

for what they do is chemical safety: over 70% of consumers<br />

actually prioritize health and safety over environmental<br />

concerns.<br />

To communicate their difference vs. other materials<br />

clearly to customers, Bioserie is proud to have received two<br />

exclusive certifications. Their toys are the first and only to be<br />

100 % biobased certified by the USDA (ASTM D6866: no fossil<br />

carbon), and to have obtained MADESAFE’s certification<br />

(MADESAFE is a growing third party certification in the US<br />

which focuses on non-food products and thoroughly screens<br />

each and every chemical used to ensure that they are not<br />

dangerous for human health nor for our environment).<br />

According to Bioserie, biobased products like theirs<br />

should be considered to be “new luxury products”. In<br />

other words, products customers can trade up for in their<br />

particular category, i.e spend more on them and waive the<br />

price concern). Bioserie focusses and delivers on the three<br />

key points that influence the decision process: they have<br />

technical differences (good design), they deliver health and<br />

environmental benefits (a functional performance), and they<br />

allow their buyers them to do their bit for the environment<br />

(we all like to support a good cause, and these toys don’t<br />

use anything that can’t grow again).<br />

www.bioserie.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 17

Toys<br />

By:<br />

Johnny Koch Hansen<br />

Sales Manager<br />

Dantoy<br />

Hobro, Denmark<br />

dantoy (Hobro, Denmark)<br />

has been developing and<br />

manufacturing quality toys in<br />

Denmark for more than 50 years. In<br />

that time, the company has grown into one of the<br />

biggest manufacturers of plastic toys in the Nordic countries.<br />

In February 2018, dantoy launched its new line of BIO<br />

products, which has gained much more attention than<br />

initially anticipated. Today, more than 15% of all dantoy’s<br />

products are made from bio materials, a development<br />

clearly contributing to this toy company’s healthy<br />

sales figures. Located in the middle of Jutland<br />

in Denmark and employing some 50 employees,<br />

most of whom have been with the company<br />

for more than 10 years, dantoy’s production<br />

facilities span an area of 15,000 m 2 . In addition,<br />

dantoy employs a number of affiliated colleagues<br />

who assemble the products at home or at sheltered<br />

workshops. All this says something about dantoy’s<br />

DNA, and the company culture dantoy is known<br />

for.<br />

There is nothing strange about dantoy’s<br />

decision to introduce its new bio line last year.<br />

It is simply a part of the company’s DNA. Ten<br />

years ago, the company’s first products certified<br />

with the Nordic Swan, the official ecolabel of the<br />

Nordic Countries, appeared on the market.<br />

Dantoy’s much-loved scooter, a<br />

product familiar to almost every<br />

child in Denmark, was<br />

the first to bear the<br />

label. Today, more<br />

than 98 % of all<br />

dantoy’s core products<br />

have earned certification and carry<br />

the Nordic Swan Ecolabel and more are on<br />

the way. Dantoy chose to have its products certified<br />

because it was the best way to show the customers that<br />

children can use all these products without any concerns.<br />

Plastic toys licensed for the Nordic Swan Ecolabel must<br />

Danish bio-toys<br />

a success story<br />

Products made from sugarcane are a<br />

natural development for the Danish<br />

toy manufacturer dantoy<br />

comply with the<br />

world’s strictest<br />

requirements for<br />

plastic contents, going far<br />

beyond the Danish law. For instance, products<br />

bearing the Nordic Swan Ecolabel may not contain harmful<br />

substances such as phthalates, perfume, BPA or endocrinedisruptive<br />

substances. All this says much about the high<br />

standard to which dantoy’s products are manufactured. The<br />

world’s first toys to be licensed for the Nordic Swan Ecolabel<br />

were from dantoy. The company received their first licence<br />

for the Nordic Swan Ecolabel as early as in 2010.<br />

The bio product line started with an idea. Like<br />

any other dantoy product, the new line needed<br />

to comply with the company’s strategy and<br />

goals to develop high-quality toys with an<br />

environmental focus. There was<br />

no doubt that dantoy wanted to<br />

create a bio line but achieving the<br />

quality required to meet dantoy’s<br />

high standards proved to be a challenge.<br />

After a few years of struggle and cooperation with<br />

the different raw material suppliers, dantoy found<br />

a raw material good enough for their new bio line:<br />

Braskem’s Green PE, supplied by FKuR. For now, dantoy<br />

is happy to produce its high-quality products in the new bio<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Toys<br />

material, but the company continues to further develop and<br />

improve its bio products on an ongoing basis. At the moment,<br />

dantoy has only one raw material at its disposal to make the<br />

bio products, while it uses more than twenty different raw<br />

materials for its other products. For example, it is currently<br />

not possible to produce the scooter from bio material,<br />

although this remains a long-term goal for the future.<br />

The newest member to join the dantoy family of products<br />

is its Tiny line: bio products especially developed for babies.<br />

Dantoy is the first in the world to make baby products in bio<br />

material, certified with the Nordic Swan. All dantoy products<br />

stand for both high quality and care for the environmental,<br />

so customers can choose between bio or conventional. One<br />

of the company’s goals is to broaden the knowledge of its<br />

products in all its 50 different markets.<br />

In addition to using biobased plastic raw materials for<br />

the bio and Tiny lines, dantoy tries to minimise the impact<br />

of its operations on the environment. The company has<br />

therefore implemented eco-friendly processes to manage<br />

the consumption of energy, water and raw materials and to<br />

prevent the possibility of accidental releases or emissions via<br />

the manufacturing process.<br />

It is important for dantoy to be the best, and to produce<br />

the best toys possible, so that children around the world can<br />

play safely every day, while they develop their motor skills,<br />

learning skills, social skills etc. This is what drives dantoy<br />

forward and also the main reason the company chose to<br />

certify its products with the Nordic Ecolabel 10 years ago.<br />

It’s also why it has now chosen to produce the new Tiny line.<br />

www.dantoy.dk<br />

14 –15 NOVEMBER <strong>2019</strong>, MATERNUSHAUS, COLOGNE, GERMANY<br />

The BIOCOMPOSITES CONFERENCE COLOGNE is the world‘s largest conference<br />

and exhibition on the topic. This conference offers you the unique opportunity to gain a<br />

comprehensive overview of the world of biocomposites in Cologne.<br />

The conference at a glance:<br />

• More than 250 participants and 30 exhibitors expected<br />

• Innovative raw materials for biocomposites – Wood, natural fibres and polymers<br />

• Market opportunities for biocomposites in consumer goods (such as music instruments,<br />

casing and cases, furniture, tables, toys, combs and trays) as well as rigid packaging<br />

• Latest development in technology and strategic market positioning<br />

• Trends in biocomposite granulates for injection moulding, extrusion and 3D printing<br />

• Latest developments in construction and automotive<br />

Conference Manager<br />

Dominik Vogt<br />

Phone: +49(0)2233-48-1449<br />

dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

Organiser:<br />

Sponsor Innovation<br />

Award:<br />

VOTE FOR<br />

the Innovation Award<br />

“Bio-based Material<br />

of the Year <strong>2019</strong>”!<br />

www.nova-institute.eu<br />

www.coperion.com<br />

www.biocompositescc.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 19

Toys<br />

Bioplastic<br />

items for kids…<br />

a real bet<br />

Speaking at the inaugural bio!TOY Conference was a<br />

major event for eKoala, said Beatrice Radaelli, cofounder<br />

of the company. bioplastics MAGAZINE talked<br />

to her about what it took to start a bioplastics toy company.<br />

bM: Why was the bio!TOY such a special event for you?<br />

Beatrice: Speaking at bio!TOY was a great opportunity for<br />

us to think and finally to talk about what we have done and<br />

the results we have achieved so far.<br />

bM: How did it all start?<br />

Beatrice: After we started our<br />

project, and officially founded the<br />

company in 2014, we spent more<br />

than two years doing research<br />

and development work. As a first<br />

result, we could officially launch<br />

the first eKoala line of products<br />

at the end of 2016.<br />

bM: What challenges did you<br />

face and how did you master<br />

them?<br />

Beatrice: One of the most<br />

difficult issues was finding<br />

the right material to obtain<br />

a good and stable product.<br />

We were looking for a material<br />

that was suitable for injection moulding made using<br />

the highest possible percentage of raw materials from<br />

renewable resources. In addition, the material had to be<br />

biodegradable as we felt that to gain the full advantages of<br />

using a bioplastic, this should be both renewably sourced<br />

and biodegradable.<br />

bM: Who were your partners?<br />

Beatrice: After contacting quite a few bioplastic<br />

manufacturers around the world, we finally discovered<br />

Mater-bi. The fact that the material is made by an Italian<br />

company also allowed us to label our products ‘100 % Made<br />

in Italy.’<br />

bM: And then you could “hit the road” and start production?<br />

Beatrice: After finally deciding in favour of MaterBi, it<br />

still took a while to produce our item number 1. It was a<br />

mixture of happiness, pride and relief when we held it in<br />

our hands for the first time. Item number 1 is still on our<br />

desk, reminding us every day of all the hard work we did<br />

to get to it.<br />

eKaboom<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Toys<br />

Beatrice Radaelli and her brother Daniele Radaelli<br />

Interview with Beatrice Radaelli (Interview: Caroli Buitenhuis,<br />

Green Serendipity)<br />

bM: How was the market entry?<br />

Beatrice: The following two years (2017-2018) were<br />

needed to test the products with the customers. It was a<br />

hard start. People are not always aware of what bioplastic<br />

really is and the commonly used term “bioplastic” does<br />

not really help to identify a material that is different from<br />

traditional plastic. That’s one of the reasons why accurate<br />

and clear communication is really important when dealing<br />

with bioplastic products.<br />

bM: How are sales today?<br />

Beatrice: In the years since, we have built up and<br />

strengthened the distribution in Italy. Our products are<br />

available in more than 300 shops all around Italy today. But<br />

we also worked to spread our distribution internationally.<br />

We now have customers in Germany, Scandinavia and<br />

the Baltics, Poland and other Eastern countries. We are<br />

discussing possible collaborations with distributors in the<br />

USA and in China.<br />

bM: Your first line consisted of baby food and teething<br />

products, What came then?<br />

Beatrice: Each year, we invest in the development of<br />

new products to broaden the portfolio. After introducing<br />

our basic line, last year we launched the first eKoala toy.<br />

eKaboom is a multifunctional stacking toy, that can also<br />

serve as a percussion instrument. Currently we are working<br />

on two new toys for <strong>2019</strong>.<br />

bM: Are you satisfied?<br />

Beatrice: The numbers are not very high yet, but we<br />

keep on working to increase our areas of distribution. It’s<br />

really hard work, especially for a tiny company like ours.<br />

Somebody at the bioToy! conference said the bioplastics<br />

have not made him rich…nor us, either.<br />

bM: Some final words?<br />

Beatrice: But we truly believe in what we are doing and<br />

we are still enthusiastic about that. We will keep on working<br />

and studying because we strongly believe it’s high time to<br />

make a change and we know we are on the right path. MT<br />

www.ekoala.eu<br />

We STARCH<br />

your bioplastics.<br />




AGENACOMP resins are suitable for films of less than 15 µm.<br />

Regional & GMO-free – made from our starch.<br />

Sustainable – up to 50 % renewable ressources.<br />

Home-compostable – no microplastic residues.<br />

bioplastics.starch@agrana.com<br />



bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 21

Toys<br />

Consumer<br />

attitudes<br />

and bioplastics for Eco-babies &<br />

Bio-parenting<br />

By:<br />

Clara Blasco, Design & Trend Researcher at Consumer Insights<br />

Ana Ibáñez, Bioplastic Researcher at Innovative Materials & Manufacturing<br />

Paco Varela, European Project Manager at R&D Department<br />

María Costa, R&D Director<br />

AIJU, Technological Institute for children’s products and leisure<br />

Ibi, Spain.<br />

Environmental protection is a challenge that cannot be<br />

faced by political and economic means alone. As society<br />

at large awakens to this task, the children’s products<br />

sector must have the commitment to contribute by incorporating<br />

environmental values in toy production and consumption.<br />

Companies have the responsibility to create innovative strategies<br />

to enhance sustainability. In this respect, the owners of<br />

companies in the children’s products industry are key stakeholders<br />

in implementing and accelerating the biobased economy.<br />

Understanding parents’ requirements and attitudes and<br />

implementing research into biobased plastics are two ways to<br />

face this new reality.<br />

AIJU, the Technological Institute for Children’s Products<br />

and Leisure — a European research institution which aims to<br />

boost research, development and technological innovation in<br />

children’s products — have a long history of work on issues of<br />

sustainability. Among other competences, AIJU has expertise<br />

in studies with children and families as users and consumers<br />

as well as research into new plastic materials to be applied in<br />

the children’s sector.<br />

New parents, new values<br />

The term sustainability means protecting the environment<br />

and its natural resources in order to maintain an ecological<br />

balance. In this respect, society is acquiring greater awareness<br />

of issues related to the environment that are, now more than<br />

ever before, influencing the purchasing decisions of today’s<br />

new parents — the millennials.<br />

Millennials are the generation of people who reached young<br />

adulthood in the early twenty-first century, and as parents they<br />

have new values and preferences. Families are aware of social<br />

challenges: society has undergone the so-called fourth wave of<br />

feminism, parents are demanding effective work-life balance<br />

policies, and they are also promoting equality and denouncing<br />

gender stereotypes. Beyond these issues, society has been<br />

becoming more activist. On the other hand, new parents are<br />

aware of environmental challenges such as climate change<br />

and plastic pollution. There is also an increasing concern<br />

about air pollution. Parents want to keep their children safe<br />

by using products that help create a healthier environment for<br />

their babies. It is also relevant that many new parents want to<br />

protect children from consumerism. They have a new concept<br />

of consumption which is defined by welcoming practices that<br />

reduce consumerism and the rise of use of second-hand<br />

articles and renting activities.<br />

Although each new parenting style understands<br />

sustainability differently, a sensitivity towards this concept<br />

is common to all of them. Whereas some parents only look<br />

for essential products that are respectful to people and the<br />

planet — products they can justify purchasing — other profiles<br />

understand that a product is sustainable when is adaptable for<br />

different ages and the product has a long life. There are other<br />

kinds of parents who seek products with an eco concept that<br />

is linked with quality, exclusivity, and luxury, whereas others<br />

will buy eco products if they offer the healthiest option in the<br />

market.<br />

The understanding of social changes, together with an<br />

awareness of governmental policies and the campaigns being<br />

initiated by large companies across several sectors, highlights<br />

the need for an in-depth reflexion in the children’s sector.<br />

Sustainability approaches for the toy industry<br />

Sustainability can be approached in several ways — not<br />

only by introducing eco-friendly materials, but by employing<br />

manufacturing processes, carrying out campaigns, or<br />

designing play proposals that are in harmony with improving<br />

people’s lives and the health of our planet. The text below<br />

lays out a series of measures and practices that companies<br />

targeting the children’s market can apply to their strategic<br />

definition, product development, and marketing strategies in<br />

order to achieve a meaningful and respectful impact.<br />

New and old materials that make the difference<br />

Toy companies have at their disposal a range of materials<br />

that are environmentally friendly, and are perceived as such<br />

by consumers. If a single material can be named as iconic,<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Toys<br />

Figure 1. From left to right: BIOROT, FLEXIROT, ROTELEC and<br />

NATURBIOFITOPLAG demonstrators of the mentioned biobased projects.<br />

it is most certainly that of wood. Nevertheless, not just any<br />

wood will be accepted. Nowadays, society is highly informed,<br />

so parents will look for toys made with wood from forests<br />

with an FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) certification — the<br />

well-known seal that guarantees the correct management<br />

of forest resources. There are other interesting options, such<br />

as cardboard. Toys made of recycled cardboard are readily<br />

perceived as being eco, as society is generally aware of this<br />

material and understands how it can be given a second use.<br />

Regarding cork, the use of this material is seen in several<br />

toy categories — not just in building blocks to stack, but in<br />

more technically complex proposals, such as building bricks,<br />

construction games, board games, vehicles, ride-ons and<br />

sensory toys for toddlers. For years now, bamboo has been<br />

used to manufacture sustainable toys. Companies such as<br />

Hape or Janod introduced it to offer a distinctive solution for<br />

new products.<br />

Organic fabric, especially organic cotton, is the most widely<br />

known eco-friendly fabric. At present, its use has extended<br />

beyond children’s clothes and textiles and it is now used in<br />

childcare products — one example is the Kikadu play gym.<br />

It is even possible to find it in products that are not in actual<br />

contact with children, such as children’s mobiles. This shows<br />

that organic fabrics are not only valued for being good for<br />

humans, but for being good for the planet too. Furthermore,<br />

toys made from natural rubber have been well received by<br />

parents — those with children aged up to 3 years have the<br />

greatest number of products available, a wide range of articles<br />

— including bath toys, rattles, teethers, and sensory toys —<br />

have been designed for this target. The reason behind it being<br />

well received by parents is partly motivated by the unified<br />

communication strategy (conducted by the companies that<br />

use it) of its origin and its environmental benefits.<br />

Among all these possibilities, there are also interesting<br />

opportunities for the plastic toy industry. Nowadays, the<br />

bioplastics industry is becoming more present in the children’s<br />

sector, from toys to childcare products. Making products with<br />

recycled plastic is one of the options which prove the potential<br />

of a new era of plastics. One example is the Ocean Bound<br />

Plastic Tide Pool Set by Green toys, which is made with recycled<br />

plastic that has been collected from global communities that<br />

lack waste-collection infrastructure. Another is the Bugaboo<br />

stroller brand, which uses recycled PET plastic to manufacture<br />

the fabrics of the Bugaboo Fox.<br />

Another alternative is biocomposite plastics, and it is<br />

possible to find toys made from a combination of natural fibres,<br />

or wood flour mixed with recycled, biodegradable, or biobased<br />

plastics, such as the Dump truck by Luke’s toy factory, which<br />

is made from recycled organic fibres (sawdust from furniture<br />

factories) and recycled plastic.<br />

Among these alternatives, the toy industry is beginning to<br />

opt for biobased plastics — plastics made from plant-based<br />

materials — which may be non-biodegradable, biodegradable,<br />

or compostable. Both well-established and new companies<br />

are introducing toys with these materials in their product<br />

portfolio — such as Dantoy, who have launched a brand-new<br />

“I’m green” line of bioplastic products made from at least<br />

90% sugarcane. We also encounter brands such as eKoala or<br />

BiOBUDDi, who are building their entire brands — and their<br />

value proposition — on sustainable values.<br />

Research projects about bioplastics in the toy<br />

industry<br />

In this context, the Technological Institute for Children’s<br />

Products and Leisure (AIJU) in Spain has, over the past<br />

ten years, been studying the possibility of incorporating<br />

biodegradable materials in the manufacture of toys and other<br />

consumer products by means of injection (BIOTOYS Project,<br />

2008), rotational moulding (BIOROT project, 2011, ROTELEC<br />

2013 or FLEXIROT, 2018) or blowing (NATURBIOFITOPLAG)<br />

(Figure 1). In these projects, the traditional material is replaced<br />

by biobased material.<br />

Another noteworthy example was the LIFE MASTALMOND<br />

project (2011–2014) (Figure 2), in which the objective was the<br />

development of new masterbatches, or colour concentrates,<br />

based on biodegradable thermoplastics (PLA, PHB, starchbased<br />

polymer), containing a natural waste product — almond<br />

shells. This filler provides lightness while maintaining adequate<br />

hardness and rigidity levels according to industrial standards<br />

and is easily processed, which makes it especially interesting<br />

in the field of non-structural compound materials from an<br />

economic point of view, in addition to its low environmental<br />

impact.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 23

Toys<br />

According to the latest market data compiled by European<br />

Bioplastics in cooperation with the research consultancy nova-<br />

Institute, global bioplastics production capacity is set to increase<br />

from around 2.11 million tonnes in 2018 to approximately 2.62<br />

million tonnes in 2023. Furthermore, it is a fact that bioplastics<br />

are being used in an increasing number of markets, from<br />

packaging, catering products, consumer electronics, toys, the<br />

automotive industry, agriculture/horticulture, to textiles and a<br />

number of other industries. Despite these positive prospects,<br />

the high cost and difficulty of achieving certain mechanical or<br />

thermal properties with currently existing biobased materials<br />

are some drawbacks that have arisen.<br />

Currently, AIJU is working on two projects related to<br />

biodegradable materials. The first, the B-PLAS project, whose<br />

objective is to achieve an automated treatment plant that<br />

enables food waste, WWT (Waste Water Treatment) sludge,<br />

and other organic waste to be cheaply and efficiently converted<br />

into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), a biodegradable plastic of<br />

biological origin, useful for packaging, one-use articles, toys,<br />

among other uses. The second, Becoming Green, aims to<br />

develop and improve some properties (thermal or mechanical)<br />

of biobased plastics to adapt them to the quality and safety<br />

requirements of consumer products, toys, and the household<br />

sector.<br />

The power of the play proposal: sustainable topics<br />

The TrendGallery at the Spielwarenmesse Toy Fair is a<br />

platform which presents the latest toy trends with new toys<br />

and know-how for the industry. In 2018, it announced the new<br />

trend Explore Nature, which continues to be important. This<br />

trend is about encouraging children to discover nature and its<br />

inhabitants for themselves and experience and investigate the<br />

world with all their senses.<br />

Children learn about the adult world through play. Themes<br />

such as fruits, vegetables, gardening, and the observation<br />

and exploration of the environment are great for this. Parents<br />

really perceive them as perfect ways to instil good values<br />

related to sustainability. It is also possible to raise awareness<br />

by introducing topics related to recycling. Toy recycling trucks<br />

have been seen before, but now the theme is being used in<br />

board games, dolls, ride-ons and other toy categories as well.<br />

Gentle manufacturing processes: do it and<br />

communicate it<br />

Beyond positively valuing sustainable products, new parents<br />

seek companies which are consistent in all their actions — not<br />

only by introducing eco-friendly materials and themes, but<br />

also the manufacturing process involved, which is obviously<br />

a relevant aspect when analysing whether a toy company is<br />

offering sustainable alternatives for the children’s sector.<br />

One possibility is to employ eco-friendly processes. This<br />

means using manufacturing processes that are sustainable<br />

or respectful to the environment, renewable energy sources,<br />

meeting safety standards, having environmental certifications,<br />

or creating healthy work environments.<br />

Moreover, it is possible to reinforce the concept of<br />

sustainability by communicating the social value which the toy<br />

brings to the market. This means taking into consideration not<br />

only the “made in”, but also the “made by”, which is crucial.<br />

Some companies are deciding to manufacture in countries<br />

and areas where they can actually have a positive impact on<br />

the community, helping specific people in need. These actions<br />

are also perceived as sustainable.<br />

Children’s companies should communicate these good<br />

practices to the final consumer. Those which are most<br />

conscious of this aspect are involved in designing specific<br />

self-explanatory icons and graphics to be included in their<br />

packaging, introducing sustainable values in their claims, and<br />

creating sustainable manifestos or environmental campaigns<br />

supporting reforestation or endangered species by donations<br />

to NGOs and non-profit organisations.<br />

Conclusion<br />

There are several ways to implement changes and strategies<br />

into children’s products and marketing campaigns in order<br />

to be able to achieve improvements in the sustainability of<br />

businesses in the children’s sector. In this sense, toys are a<br />

powerful tool to educate the society of the future by opting for<br />

materials and processes that are more respectful of people<br />

and the environment, and, moreover, by generating play<br />

proposals related to helping children acquire an ecological<br />

vision of the world.<br />

Today’s new parents — millennials that are becoming<br />

mums and dads — are more aware of their contradictions as<br />

consumers and feel the need to act. They seek to bring up their<br />

children with sustainable products in multiple areas — such<br />

as fashion, food, and toys — more so now than ever before. The<br />

eco concept in toys will grow in importance for many years!<br />

www.aiju.info<br />

Figure 2. Ride-on toy<br />

(top) and furniture<br />

(bottom) performed with<br />

MASTALMOND biobased<br />

masterbatches.<br />

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Toys<br />

Toymakers find many paths to<br />

sustainability<br />

Toys are one of the most<br />

competitive consumer<br />

markets. Parents have a<br />

myriad of choices from hundreds<br />

of manufacturers. In the past decade<br />

several toy companies have distinguished themselves in<br />

a crowded marketplace by offering toys made with materials<br />

created to lighten their environmental impact.<br />

Successful companies convey specific value propositions<br />

for their products that allow consumers to understand<br />

how these products can help contribute to a more<br />

sustainable world.<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics (Emporia, Kansas, USA) is proud to<br />

have worked with award winning toymakers, creating 100%<br />

plant-based biocomposites for plastic toys. And, they have<br />

helped to make toys designed to biodegrade when their<br />

useful life has ended. “We’re also excited to be working with<br />

companies seeking to make toys that consumers already<br />

know and love more sustainable by reducing non-renewable<br />

resources used in its production,” says Kevin Ireland,<br />

Communications Manager at Green Dot Bioplastics. “We<br />

think that all of these strategies are beneficial, and believe<br />

that consumers will respond positively when presented with<br />

a clear and accurate value proposition. It’s not enough to<br />

simply say a product is ‘greener,’ brand owners must tell<br />

consumers how toys are more sustainable and why this<br />

matters.”<br />

Understanding material properties and the environmental<br />

advantages of bioplastic materials is a crucial first step<br />

for both product development and marketing.<br />

Bioplastics made from plant-based materials<br />

decrease dependence on fossil resources, and<br />

can lower GHG emissions. Biodegradable<br />

bioplastics can serve as an integral role in<br />

a closed loop system, where<br />

feedstocks are returned<br />

to nature after their<br />

useful life has ended. In<br />

addition, bioplastics are free<br />

from toxic plasticizers<br />

that parents seek to<br />

avoid, like petroleumbased<br />

phthalates and<br />

bisphenol A.<br />

Not all of these features may be beneficial<br />

to all consumers. For instance, a biodegradable toy<br />

may not be compelling if industrial composting is not<br />

available or if the composting facilities are not willing to<br />

take biodegradable plastics. Environmental claims do not<br />

equate to environmental benefits if consumers are not able<br />

parts.<br />

to take advantage of them.<br />

While some companies have focused on<br />

creating toys that are made completely<br />

from renewable plant-based materials,<br />

or are completely biodegradable, others<br />

focus on making their products more<br />

sustainable incrementally – adding<br />

renewable materials like plant-based<br />

fibers and starches to petroleum-based<br />

plastics. These fillers and fibers can<br />

decrease non-renewable petroleumbased<br />

feedstocks by more than half, and<br />

can imbue a more natural aesthetic to plastic<br />

This incremental approach can also make a compelling<br />

value proposition for consumers. Substituting fibers,<br />

starches, or plant-based polymers for fossil-based<br />

feedstocks can have significant environmental advantages.<br />

For instance, according to the United States Environmental<br />

Protection Agency, reducing petroleum-based feedstocks<br />

by just 10 % can save 280 million barrels of oil a year,<br />

reducing CO 2<br />

emissions equivalent to the sequestration of<br />

100 hectares (250 acres) of forest.<br />

Toymakers continue to be on the vanguard of creating safer,<br />

more sustainable plastics. “At Green Dot we are committed<br />

to serving their needs with plastics that are designed to<br />

decrease the use of petroleum-based feedstocks, increase<br />

the use of plant-based feedstocks, encourage the use<br />

of reclaimed and recycled feedstocks, and enhance the<br />

performance of biodegradable feedstocks,” Kevin adds.MT<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 25

Toys<br />

Cooler than wood.<br />

Better than plastic.<br />

How an inconspicuous building brick from<br />

Austria has set out to conquer the world.<br />

The story of Bioblo started in summer 2014 when plastics<br />

expert Hannes Frech had a random encounter with<br />

marketing man Stefan Friedrich in the small town of Tulln,<br />

Lower Austria. Stefan, who was really looking for a suitable<br />

material to bring his idea of a brick-based furniture system<br />

to life, was immediately fascinated by the 12 by 2.4 by 0.8 cm<br />

building brick that Hannes pulled from a drawer during their<br />

very first meeting.<br />

Hannes Frech, who was – and still is to this day – heading<br />

the technical laboratory of the Institute of Natural Materials<br />

Technology within the Department of Agrobiotechnology at IFA<br />

Tulln, had constructed the then-unnamed brick for his daughter<br />

a couple of years prior to the encounter. Little did he know that<br />

the very same brick would embark on such a successful and<br />

far-reaching journey.<br />

In September 2014, Bioblo was born – not yet as a company,<br />

but as a brand. The two men added a third one to the core team:<br />

Dietmar Kreil, who Stefan Friedrich had come to know as one of<br />

Austria’s finest art directors during their common employment<br />

at Viennese advertising agencies DDB Tribal and Jung von Matt.<br />

Stefan came up with the Bioblo name, Dietmar designed the<br />

logo, and the very first boxes were sold for Christmas via the<br />

company’s webshop.<br />

Broadening the horizon<br />

The early customers’ feedback being<br />

overwhelmingly positive, Bioblo soon extended<br />

their reach into kindergartens and schools,<br />

a channel that is not only interesting in itself<br />

but also as a multiplier for B2C sales. The<br />

rationale behind this is that kids<br />

tend to recommend the toys<br />

they like in kindergarten to<br />

their parents at home. Early<br />

distribution partners in this<br />

field included the Austrian<br />

companies Schmiderer &<br />

Schendl, Höller Spiel and<br />

Lipura. Shortly after the<br />

official foundation of the company<br />

“Bioblo Spielwaren GmbH” in May 2015<br />

another important partnership was formed<br />

when European distribution rights were<br />

signed over to “Wiener<br />

Spielkartenfabrik<br />

Ferdinand Piatnik &<br />

Söhne”, a traditional Viennese<br />

manufacturer of playing cards, board games and puzzles, and a<br />

long-standing player in the toy market. Together, an expansion<br />

plan was developed that consequently brought Bioblo to France,<br />

Germany, Canada, the UK, Poland, Hungary and many other<br />

markets.<br />

Form follows function. Material follows Form.<br />

So what is special about Bioblo? The company’s unofficial<br />

slogan “Cooler than wood. Better than plastic.” actually<br />

describes it quite well: The unique honeycomb structure that<br />

seems to appeal to children more than the usual wooden blocks<br />

can only be accomplished by means of injection moulding,<br />

which in turn requires a mouldable material. This is where Bio-<br />

Fasal, the highly sophisticated wood and plastics composite<br />

behind Bioblo, enters the stage. The composite, which has<br />

been developed by the above-named institution over a period<br />

of almost 20 years, combines the best characteristics of “both<br />

worlds”: On the one hand, the sustainability, look and feel of<br />

wood; on the other hand, the durability and processability of<br />

plastics. Add to that the ecological benefits of bioplastics over<br />

fossil-based plastics, and you have already gathered more<br />

than enough selling points in a world that is increasingly<br />

environment-minded.<br />

Success comes with awards – and<br />

vice versa<br />

Bioblo soon discovered the relevance<br />

of certificates and awards to the<br />

quality-minded parents. This is why<br />

the bricks were tested extensively<br />

to document the absolute absence<br />

of heavy metals, bisphenol A, BPA,<br />

plasticisers and other potentially harmful<br />

substances. As a result of these efforts,<br />

Bioblo was the very first toy brand to be<br />

awarded the Austrian “Umweltzeichen” as well as<br />

the German “Blauer Engel” certificate, which last<br />

year celebrated its 40 th anniversary making it THE<br />

oldest and one of the World’s most trusted ecolabels.<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Toys<br />

Toys<br />

Process PLA<br />

with Improved<br />

Molecular Weight<br />

Retention<br />





Pinch, zoom, swipe – or build?<br />

In case you ever asked yourself how we can prevent our<br />

children from spending their entire days pinching, zooming<br />

and swiping on their smartphones, Bioblos might be just the<br />

answer. Building with their own two hands not only drives<br />

away our kids’ boredom but actively promotes their handeye<br />

and hand-hand coordination. It enhances their physical<br />

and mechanical understanding, trains their concentration<br />

and improves their patience, stamina and ability to deal with<br />

frustration (for example when the cat knocks everything over).<br />

Not surprisingly, building with friends, classmates, parents<br />

or siblings is even more fun – and it promotes team spirit<br />

and communication skills beyond the scope of WhatsApp and<br />

Facebook. MT<br />

FREE<br />

white paper on<br />

the advantages<br />

of processing PLA<br />

using Continuous<br />

Mixing technology.<br />

Request your<br />

copy today.<br />


LEVELS<br />

www.bioblo.com<br />

The FARREL POMINI Continuous Mixing<br />

technology is proven to process PLA at<br />

lower melt temperatures than twin screw<br />

extruders. These lower melt temperatures<br />

translate into improved molecular weight<br />

retention, reduced energy consumption and<br />

higher throughput rates when compared to<br />

other PLA processing techniques.<br />

If you are interested in improving your PLA processing,<br />

contact a FARREL POMINI representative today or visit<br />

farrel-pomini.com/contact to request a copy of our free<br />

white paper on PLA production and the advantages of<br />

Continuous Mixing technology.<br />

farrel-pomini.com | +1 2<strong>03</strong> 736.5500 | <br />

Visit us in Hall 9 Stand A24<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 27

Cover Story<br />

You never<br />

forget your<br />

first car<br />

Especially not your first<br />

eco-friendly car!<br />

By:<br />

Erik Petraschek<br />

Owner<br />

Ferbedo Kinderfahrzeuge<br />

Fürth, Germany<br />

The bioplastic ride-on truck made by Fürth, Germanybased<br />

FERBEDO was one of the product innovations<br />

introduced at the Spielwarenmesse <strong>2019</strong>, the<br />

International Toy Fair in Nuremberg, Germany. In this<br />

article bioplastics MAGAZINE presents the company behind<br />

this product and the challenges of using bioplastics to<br />

produce it.<br />

Ferbedo Kinderfahrzeuge was founded in 1898 and is one<br />

of many German medium-sized champions who, having<br />

carved out a niche for themselves, have been able to hold<br />

their own against the big players in the market through<br />

innovative thinking and hard work. For many years now, the<br />

company has produced ride-on toys for toddlers aged 12<br />

months and older, and go-karts. The realistic design and<br />

high-quality workmanship of the company’s range of blow<br />

moulded ride-on vehicles have made these particularly<br />

popular choices for children. The ride-ons, featuring such<br />

details as LED lighting, whisper tires with individual wheel<br />

rims and textile or leather seating, are manufactured<br />

in particular for automobile OEMs (such as Audi, MAN,<br />

Jaguar, Volvo) and sold via their dealer networks. Ferbedo<br />

has also been producing beautifully made pedal go-karts<br />

for many years. These - and Ferbedo’s own ride-on toys -<br />

are available directly from the manufacturer.<br />

The company is keenly aware of its responsibility for<br />

the environment and listens to what its customers say. A<br />

few years ago, Ferbedo started exploring how it could best<br />

continue making its much loved, highly popular plastic toy<br />

products while at the same time reducing their impact on<br />

the environment to an ecologically compatible level.<br />

The first step is to manufacture products that are as<br />

appealing as possible. Ferbedo succeeds in this almost too<br />

well, as very often, customers pass the ride-on which they<br />

purchased for one child down to others in the family. It’s one<br />

of the best approaches to sustainability: crafting products<br />

with lasting quality and appeal. Nevertheless, Alexander<br />

Bacsics, Managing Director of Ferbedo, was eager to think<br />

about an alternative to the plastic materials currently used.<br />

Bacsics: “Demand from the market was still low two years<br />

ago, when the topic first came up for us, but we noticed that<br />

the connection between plastics and the environment was<br />

increasingly being addressed in the media. We also wanted<br />

to distinguish ourselves clearly from the flood of cheap<br />

products from China and offer retailers and consumers an<br />

additional selling point.”<br />

After researching the topic, Ferbedo discovered the<br />

existence of Green PE, which is derived from sugar<br />

cane. Use of this material not only cut back on the<br />

consumption of petroleum-based plastic; one tonne<br />

of the biobased plastic could store up to 3 tonnes of<br />

CO 2<br />

. It was also important that the new material,<br />

like the one already in use, met all the existing<br />

standards. Bacsics: “Our products are used by<br />

children from about one year of age onward.<br />

Inevitably, there will be mouth contact - a<br />

toddler may lick on the ride-on, for example -<br />

or some other unusual kind of close contact<br />

will occur. We can reassure the parents: The<br />

new biomaterial fulfils all relevant standards<br />

and is therefore safe for our youngest<br />

customers”.<br />

In FKuR (Willich, Germany), a producer<br />

and distributor of biobased materials,<br />

Ferbedo has found a partner able to<br />

provide outstanding support, especially<br />

in the initial phase, with the expertise<br />

to offer the right answers to questions.<br />

Ferbedo found it extremely easy to use the<br />

material. No special preparation and, above all,<br />

no modifications to the existing machines were<br />

necessary. It was decided to start with the<br />

Ferbedo ride-on truck - the only children’s<br />

ride-on truck worldwide. Children are<br />

thrilled and fall in love with it immediately<br />

because of its size and design. The truck is also<br />

available as a fire engine, complete with a functioning siren<br />

and flashing blue light.<br />

Ferbedo started producing with the environmentally<br />

friendly material right away. After heating up the machine<br />

and running a few cycles, the production operators had<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Cover Story<br />

found the perfect setting for the machine. The parameters<br />

had to be adjusted only slightly after which the new<br />

material could be used without any problem. Bacsics: “We<br />

were happily surprised by the result. The surface of the<br />

articles with bioplastic corresponds to that of petroleumbased<br />

products. Sometimes we could even observe a slight<br />

improvement in the surface structure!”<br />

Even though Ferbedo’s ride-on toys regularly get passed<br />

down in families, their robustness notwithstanding, there<br />

comes a time when even these toys reach the end-of-life.<br />

The bio ride-on truck can then be recycled together with<br />

conventional PE. If the car ends up in a waste-to-energy<br />

incineration plant, the bio-PE becomes a renewable energy<br />

source. The solar energy stored in the biobased plastic can<br />

then be exploited without releasing additional CO 2<br />

into the<br />

atmosphere.<br />

The interest shown by customers at the International Toy<br />

Fair in Nuremberg earlier this year was enormous. Ferbedo<br />

has definitely tapped into the mood of the times! The higher<br />

price of the material compared to conventional PE remains<br />

something of an obstacle, as this has not yet been fully<br />

accepted by customers. However, Ferbedo assumes that,<br />

as their use becomes increasingly widespread, the cost of<br />

bioplastics will eventually fall to a level comparable with oilbased<br />

plastics.<br />

Then, at last, there will be nothing<br />

to hinder the breakthrough of this<br />

material. Today’s youngsters<br />

will be able to remember their<br />

first sustainable car for the rest<br />

of their lives!<br />

6 th PLA World Congress<br />

19-20 MAY 2020 MUNICH › GERMANY<br />

organized by<br />

www.pla-world-congress.com<br />

www.ferbedo.de<br />

organized by<br />

Co-organized by Jan Ravenstijn<br />

Save the Date<br />

02-<strong>03</strong> Sep 2020<br />

Cologne, Germany<br />

www.pha-world-congress.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 29

Injection Moulding<br />

Optimizing PLA for<br />

injection moulding<br />

Founded in 2014, Arctic Biomaterials Oy (ABM) from<br />

Tampere, Finland is now divided into two segments:<br />

Medical materials and Technical materials.<br />

On the medical side of the business, ABM offers innovative<br />

raw materials for bioresorbable implant applications such as<br />

anchors, pins and screws. This market has never before seen<br />

materials with loadbearing properties as high as those in these<br />

new materials developed by ABM. This is due to the resorbable<br />

glass fiber that ABM has developed.<br />

This article, however, will introduce three of the company’s<br />

new Technical materials. The background and motivation for<br />

these innovations is the willingness to contribute to efforts to<br />

decrease global warming and to enable the use of sustainable<br />

solutions in an increasing number of applications. These<br />

materials allow brand owners to design products with a lower<br />

carbon footprint, and hence to contribute to the sustainable<br />

targets that countries have globally committed to. ABM<br />

previously introduced a degradable glass fiber for use<br />

as reinforcement for biopolymers, for which the<br />

company received the 2018 “Bioplastic material<br />

of the year” award (from nova Institute). In this<br />

article, the focus will be on new materials without the<br />

degradable glass reinforcement. ABM has adopted a<br />

global approach to the market.<br />

The three different materials that are introduced here are<br />

all PLA-based materials. The end-of-life options for these<br />

materials are basically the same as for fossil-based plastics,<br />

i.e., incineration or recycling, albeit with the addition of industrial<br />

composting, depending on the applications. Through industrial<br />

composting, the materials will be transformed into biomass<br />

and CO 2<br />

. This CO 2<br />

will eventually be absorbed back by the plants<br />

via photosynthesis, thus closing the carbon cycle.<br />

ABM also works with other biomaterials such as PBS,<br />

PHB, starch and more, always depending on the customer’s<br />

requirements regarding mechanical properties and endof-life<br />

solutions. However, ABM is not a polymer producer.<br />

As a specialty compounder, their strategy is to enhance the<br />

properties and reinforce the current bioplastics that are<br />

available in the market.<br />

ArcBiox MFA30-B2000, improved temperature<br />

resistance with fast cycle and cold mould<br />

This novel PLA-based mineral filled material has been<br />

developed with a view to improving processability. Temperature<br />

resistance has always been one of the challenges for PLAbased<br />

materials, as high mould temperatures (110 °C) are<br />

required and long cycle times (60 s) needed in order for the<br />

material to withstand temperatures above 50-60 °C (HDT B).<br />

ArcBiox MFA30-B2000 offers a HDTB of 96 °C and faster cycle<br />

times, while the mould temperature can be as low as 30-50 °C.<br />

Potential applications for ArcBiox MFA30-B200 range from<br />

houseware products to cosmetics; the material truly opens a<br />

new window for applications where processing has been the<br />

barrier.<br />

ArcBiox B1005, improved impact properties<br />

ArcBiox B1005 was developed as an alternative to fossilbased<br />

plastics similar to ABS. The focus has been on improving<br />

the impact properties of PLA-based materials. The applications<br />

mainly comprise different kinds of housings and covers. The<br />

material can be processed in a hot or cold mould. The hot<br />

mould will result in extra temperature resistance due to the<br />

crystallization of the PLA. In a hot mould, impact properties of 40<br />

kJ/m² (IZOD notched) and NB (no breakage - IZOD unnotched)<br />

can be achieved. In a cold mould, these values are 20 kJ/m²<br />

(IZOD notched) and 140 kJ/m² (IZOD unnotched). The general<br />

impact values for ABS would be 20 kJ/m² (IZOD notched) and<br />

NB (no breakage - IZOD unnotched)<br />

ArcBiox B2004, excellent hinge properties<br />

ABM’s new ArcBiox B2004 has been specifically designed to<br />

offer excellent hinge properties. This grade provides a viable<br />

solution for e.g. caps and closure applications. While some<br />

development is still ongoing as regards elongation at break,<br />

hinge properties of this quality have not been achieved before in<br />

a PLA-based material.<br />

The experts at ABM aim to fully satisfy the needs of their<br />

market. To that end, they always listen to their customers’<br />

requirements in terms of mechanical properties and assess<br />

the end-of-life solution offering the best value proposition. The<br />

polymer matrix and compound or reinforcement can then be<br />

chosen which best meets these requirements.<br />

The product photos are generic pictures to show possible<br />

applications. These are not commercial products. MT<br />

www.abmcomposite.com<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Automotive<br />

The World’s No. 1 Trade Fair<br />

for Plastics and Rubber<br />

Home of<br />

Innovation. K <strong>2019</strong><br />

No matter what your focus is – circular<br />

economy, digitalisation, Industry 4.0, lightweight<br />

construction, additive manufacturing, advanced<br />

materials or other forward-looking topics in the<br />

global plastics and rubber industry – K <strong>2019</strong> is<br />

the place to be to scout for new solutions. The<br />

fascinating forum for innovation and investment.<br />

The industry’s most important business platform.<br />

Around 3,200 international exhibitors offer you<br />

the latest in research and development. Welcome<br />

to the show!<br />

www.k-online.com/ticketing<br />

Messe Düsseldorf GmbH<br />

P.O. Box 10 10 06 _ 40001 Düsseldorf _ Germany<br />

Tel. +49 211 4560 01 _ Fax +49 211 4560 668<br />

www.messe-duesseldorf.de<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 31

Injection Moulding<br />

Single-use<br />

cutlery & food<br />

containers<br />

Compostable, high-heat stable,<br />

food-contact safe, easy to process<br />

nature2need, located in Heidelberg, Germany with its<br />

manufacturing units in Zhejiang, PR China, is a global<br />

supplier of biopolymers and natural fiber reinforced<br />

compounds and sheets; preferred natural fiber<br />

reinforcements are mechanically extracted bamboo fibers.<br />

Different grades are available for applications in various<br />

industries, like automotive, personal care, houseware,<br />

kitchenware, toys, outdoor, agriculture and gardening<br />

industry.<br />

During April <strong>2019</strong>, nature2need launched its new biocompound<br />

Bioblend LT25B, a biopolymer that is compostable<br />

in industrial compost conditions according to EN 14995<br />

(for Europe) and ASTM D 6400 (for North-America). The<br />

Bioblend grade is a blend of different biopolymers, modified<br />

with mineral fillers. Main base polymer of the compound is<br />

PLA. The compound is very easy to process with industryrelevant<br />

cycle times on standard equipment and injection<br />

moulds. A quick, in-line annealing process, right after<br />

demoulding, is suitable to get all parts heat-stable up to<br />

110 °C (HDT-B). nature2need´s right choice of different<br />

biopolymers, natural additives that work as nucleating<br />

agents and natural, highly-effective compatibilizers<br />

guarantuee a quick and efficient material crystallization to<br />

meet high-heat requirements. The material is food-contact<br />

safe.<br />

Bioblend LT25B targets to replace traditional, fossilbased<br />

plastics that are used in single-use items, like<br />

cutlery, food-containers, drinking cups, etc. Single-use<br />

applications made with non biodegradable materials are<br />

already or will be banned in a lot of countries very soon.<br />

There are a few alternatives to traditional, single-use<br />

plastics parts on the market, most of them are either very<br />

expensive or are not performing well. Especially thermal<br />

stability at temperatures around 70 – 100 °C is a problem<br />

with most of the eco-friendly alternatives. Products made<br />

with Bioblend LT25B compounds can even be re-used a<br />

couple of times, a camping holiday or a few dish-washer<br />

cycles are no problem, even for thin-walled parts.<br />

“The spoons, knives and forks we molded with our<br />

material are sturdy, high-temperature resistant, they come<br />

with a surprisingly high perceived quality; bright-white with<br />

a very glossy surface. A much better product than the ones<br />

we all know made with traditional, oil-based plastics like<br />

PS. The material is completely compostable and - on top of<br />

this - offers significant reduction in carbon footprint.” says<br />

Dr. Karsten Brast, CEO of the nature2need Group. “Low<br />

cost and high-quality levels will make it easier to convince<br />

everybody out there to finally change to sustainable<br />

products!”<br />

A biodegradable/compostable solution is good, but not<br />

perfect. nature2need is currently developing a new material,<br />

biodegradable in soil, with very similar properties that will<br />

be commercially available soon. MT<br />

http://nature2need.com<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Automotive<br />


The Bioplastics Award will be presented<br />

during the 14 th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

December <strong>03</strong>-04, <strong>2019</strong>, Berlin, Germany<br />

<strong>2019</strong><br />




Call for proposals<br />

Enter your own product, service or development,<br />

or nominate your favourite example from<br />

another organisation<br />

Please let us know until August 31 st<br />

1. What the product, service or<br />

development is and does<br />

2. Why you think this product,<br />

service or development should win an award<br />

3. What your (or the proposed) company<br />

or organisation does<br />

Your entry should not exceed 500 words (approx. 1 page) and<br />

may also be supported with photographs, samples, marketing<br />

brochures and/or technical documentation (cannot be sent<br />

back). The 5 nominees must be prepared to provide a 30 second<br />

videoclip and come to Berlin on December 3 rd , <strong>2019</strong>.<br />

An entry form can be found at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/events/award/bio-award19.pdf<br />

supported by<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 33

Injection Moulding<br />

The bioplastics handbook<br />

for injection molders<br />

T<br />

his article is an excerpt of “The bioplastics handbook<br />

for injection molders”, created and published<br />

by Green Dot Bioplastics (Emporia, Kansas, USA),<br />

edited by Michael Thielen. Download the full handbook via<br />

the link given at the end [1].<br />

Processing bioplastics<br />

Bioplastics can be processed with the same equipment<br />

and, in many cases, similar cycle times as traditional<br />

plastics. As with switching from one traditional plastic<br />

to another traditional plastic (e.g., polyethylene to a<br />

polystyrene), though, it’s important to understand the<br />

processing parameters of the new material. And if you plan<br />

to use the same mold, it’s important to choose a bioplastic<br />

with similar processing characteristics to the material<br />

you’re currently using.<br />

Because of the custom nature of many materials, materialspecific<br />

processing considerations vary formulation by<br />

formulation. Still, there are category-specific processing<br />

considerations injection molders would find helpful to know<br />

before using a bioplastic.<br />

In this guide, Green Dot Bioplastics offers general<br />

considerations for these two overarching bioplastic<br />

categories: Biocomposites (plastics made with a matrix<br />

resin — either petroleum-based or renewable and a<br />

reinforcement of natural fibers or fillers) and biodegradables<br />

(plastics which are metabolized into organic bio-mass after<br />

use). See info-box for details about Green Dot Bioplastics’<br />

materials.<br />

Injection molding with biocomposites<br />

Biocomposites can replace as much as 65 % (in cases<br />

even up to 70 %) of petroleum-based content with renewable<br />

materials such as wood-, flax-, hemp-, bamboo- etc. fibers<br />

or starch — a compelling bio story in a time when plastics<br />

bans and restrictions are heightening.<br />

Most biocomposites do not deviate significantly from<br />

traditional plastics and can be processed on the same<br />

equipment without major modifications to the injection<br />

molding process. As long as injection molders are aware of<br />

the small ways in which biocomposites differ from traditional<br />

plastics —and the small ways that difference affects the<br />

injection molding process— processing problems are easy<br />

to avoid. And as with any material change, it’s paramount<br />

to follow the processing characteristics laid out by the<br />

material manufacturer.<br />

Lower temperatures, slower injection speeds<br />

Biocomposites are filled with organic fillers and fibers,<br />

which are especially sensitive to high temperatures and<br />

shear buildup. If the material gets above about 205°C<br />

(400°F), there’s potential for degradation of the cellulose<br />

and burn streaks in the finished part. Changes in the<br />

process (e.g., lower temperatures, slower injection speeds)<br />

and tooling (e.g., opening a cooling line, enlarging gates)<br />

may be needed to alleviate shear stress and prevent the<br />

material from overheating.<br />

Although injection speeds might need to be lower for<br />

biocomposites, cycle times should remain within an<br />

acceptable range because they are being processed at<br />

lower temperatures meaning less cooling time is required.<br />

And the organic filler adds a degree of dimensional stability<br />

to the material, allowing it to be removed from the mold at<br />

higher temperatures than conventional plastics and further<br />

reducing cycle times.<br />

Follow drying recommendations<br />

The organic fillers (e.g., natural fibers, wood, starch,<br />

etc.) in a biocomposite readily absorb moisture from the<br />

environment and must be dried in a desiccant dryer prior<br />

to processing. Processing biocomposites at moisture<br />

levels above about 0.5% can result in a host of processing<br />

problems such as drooling from the nozzle or runner and<br />

the formation of voids within the part.<br />

Account for differing shrinkage characteristics<br />

The higher the ratio of organic fiber and fillers in a<br />

biocomposite, the lower the shrink rate. Injection molders<br />

who currently make a part out of a traditional plastic (e.g.,<br />

polyethylene) and want to switch to a biocomposite (e.g., a<br />

wood fiber polyethylene composite) need to be conscious<br />

of the differing shrinkage characteristics between the two<br />

materials. A higher shrink rate isn’t necessarily good, and<br />

a lower shrink rate isn’t necessarily bad. But molds are<br />

designed with draft angles to accommodate the shrinkage<br />

of one plastic material — and if the same mold shall be<br />

used for the new material, a material with a similar shrink<br />

rate needs to be chosen.<br />

Injection molding with biodegradables<br />

Experience shows that the vast majority of processing<br />

problems with biodegradable plastics stem back to<br />

moisture and temperature. Processing biodegradable<br />

plastics at above the recommended temperature will cause<br />

the material to degrade. And if excess moisture is present,<br />

the resulting parts will be brittle, weak and have a reduced<br />

shelf life.<br />

If all processing recommendations of the raw material<br />

suppliers (e.g. Green Dot Bioplastics) are followed, though,<br />

the biodegradable plastic will remain strong and functional<br />

until subjected to the specific conditions in which it is<br />

designed to biodegrade. Most often, this is in industrial<br />

composting facilities or, in special cases, backyard<br />

composting settings — not while a product is on a store<br />

shelf or in use.<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Injection Moulding<br />

Drying time and moisture levels<br />

It’s essential to follow the drying instructions<br />

specified by the material manufacturer to ensure the<br />

material is at or below the recommended moisture<br />

level prior to processing. Moisture levels above 0.1%<br />

will not only cause problems during the injection<br />

molding process (e.g., foaming, drooling, voids) but<br />

also product performance problems. The presence<br />

of excess moisture can cause the plastic to<br />

hydrolyze during the product lifecycle, resulting<br />

in a loss of molecular weight and mechanical<br />

performance. This can cause parts to be brittle<br />

and weak and, ultimately, fail.<br />

Lower processing temperatures<br />

Many biodegradable plastics tend to be more<br />

shear-sensitive and have lower melting points than<br />

most biocomposites and traditional plastics. Because of<br />

this, most biodegradable materials have to be dried and<br />

processed at much lower temperatures, often well below<br />

175°C (350°F). Processing biodegradable plastics above<br />

the manufacturer recommended temperature can result<br />

in material degradation. Slower injection speeds and<br />

larger gates / runners may be required to further reduce<br />

the temperature and shear stress depending on the mold<br />

and material you are using.<br />

Meet injection molders who have made<br />

bioplastics work<br />

In a separate publication by Green Dot Bioplastics, four<br />

injection molders provide valuable and promising insights<br />

on working with bioplastics. Although each had technical<br />

issues at the initial stages, they were eventually able to run<br />

the materials successfully in their respective facilities [2].<br />

A research-driven guidebook to processing<br />

bioplastics<br />

A special guide published by IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites (Hanover University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts) and supported by FNR (specialist agency<br />

renewable resources) to the processing of bioplastics gives<br />

a straightforward explanation of processing considerations<br />

for a variety of materials and processing procedures based<br />

on years of research [3]. The texts were contributed by IAP<br />

– Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research, IfBB,<br />

SKZ, SLK, Chair of Lightweight Structures and Polymer<br />

Technology, Technical University Chemnitz.<br />

[1] The bioplastics handbook for injection molders (complete pdf) The<br />

Bioplastics handbook for injection molders<br />

tinyurl.com/bioplastics-handbook<br />

[2] N.N.: Injection molders who have made bioplastics work;<br />

tinyurl.com/injection-moulders<br />

[3] Offers, J.; Lack, N. (Edts): Processing of Bioplastics – a guideline –<br />

tinyurl.com/bioplasticsprocessingguideline<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics materials at a glance<br />

Each of Green Dot’s Terratek® material lines don’t describe a<br />

discrete material, but rather a class of materials.<br />

• Terratek BD, is a class of materials that are both bio-based<br />

and biodegradable. Within the Terratek BD category, there are<br />

near-infinite possibilities to customize a formulation by alloying<br />

different polymers and additives to meet customer-specific<br />

performance requirements. These grades are more rigid and<br />

similar to traditional polyolefin resins.<br />

• Terratek Flex is a class of biodegradable elastomers that is<br />

rubber-like and soft to the touch,<br />

Terratek BD and Terratek Flex, are certified compostable according<br />

to ASTM D6400 and EN 13432, meaning they will disintegrate<br />

within 12 weeks and biodegrade within 180 days in an industrial<br />

composting facility.<br />

• Terratek WC is a class of wood-plastic composites. WC contains<br />

up to 60% wood particles<br />

• Terratek SC is a class of starchplastic composites with starch-toplastic<br />

ratios ranging from 30 to 65%.<br />

Terratek WC and SC replace a significant portion of traditional<br />

plastic with renewable, reclaimed organic fillers. The organic<br />

material adds dimensional stability, stiffness and a natural<br />

appearance to plastic products without sacrificing performance or<br />

processability.<br />

The value of Green Dot Bioplastics lies in the material science<br />

expertise which gives the supplier the flexibility to customize their<br />

material lines to match the unique requirements of each client.<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics offers custom formulations for each category,<br />

alloying different polymers, additives and fillers to achieve a broad<br />

range of performance and processing parameters.<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 35

Injection Moulding<br />

By:<br />

Daniel Ganz,<br />

Global Product Manager Bioplastics<br />

Sukano<br />

Schindeleggi, Switzerland<br />

Injection Molding PLA<br />

Make the switch today<br />

S<br />

ukano, a global Masterbatch specialist for polyester<br />

and specialty resins, has leveraged its expertise<br />

to enable a broader design variety to be injection<br />

molded with PLA without major financial investments.<br />

One of the key bioplastics, PLA, is currently the second<br />

highest consumed bioplastic worldwide by volume, and<br />

it offers a broad range of functionalities optimized for<br />

each type of application. It can be processed into a vast<br />

array of products using conventional plastics processing<br />

technologies – in most cases, the process parameters of<br />

the processing equipment simply needs to be adjusted to<br />

the individual specification of each polymer.<br />

Overcoming the barriers in injection molding<br />

Currently, polyolefins and polystyrenes resin are the most<br />

commonly used materials for injection molding. However,<br />

a bigger shift toward PLA in injection molding has been<br />

slowed by serious issues. There are several challenges that<br />

convertors have faced when processing injection molded<br />

PLA parts, especially when using existing equipment and<br />

tools, including:<br />

• Difficulties to fill cavities due to higher melt viscosity of<br />

the carrier, especially for thin wall applications<br />

• Additional force required to fill the form, which may lead<br />

to shorter lifespan of the tool<br />

• Material sticking to the mold surface, making demolding<br />

more difficult and increasing the risk of surface defects<br />

in the end application<br />

Due to these issues, processing PLA was not even<br />

possible in many cases – until now.<br />

Enabling a broader design variety<br />

Formulated to enable a broader design variety to be<br />

injection molded with PLA Sukano has developed a mold<br />

release additive masterbatch that enables convertors<br />

to injection mold PLA – even for thin wall applications –<br />

without needing to change the machine or the equipment.<br />

Customer cases have demonstrated that the switch from<br />

fossil-based plastics to PLA for injection molding is very<br />

much possible, all without major financial investments.<br />

SUKANO ® Mold Release Masterbatch achieves this by<br />

providing the critical barrier between a molding surface<br />

and the substrate, facilitating the separation of the cured<br />

part from the mold. It acts by migrating to the surface of<br />

the final product, which helps to demold the injection<br />

molded part from the metal surface of the cavity, therefore<br />

reducing the demolding force required. This unique feature<br />

can help ensure reduced cycle times, continuous running<br />

of production lines, fewer rejects and waste, as well as<br />

reduced machine wear out and cleaning.<br />

Melt flow increase as an additional effect<br />

Sukano Mold Release Masterbatch also has an<br />

interesting and very beneficial side effect, as demonstrated<br />

in sophisticated spiral flow length trials conducted in an<br />

external lab. By reducing the friction between the polymer<br />

chains, it creates a lower melt viscosity – and therefore<br />

a higher melt flow – without increasing the temperature.<br />

This helps to fill the cavities, which can be especially<br />

challenging in thin wall applications, and enables a broader<br />

design variety to be injection molded with PLA. It essentially<br />

eliminates the critical issue of decreased melt flow, often<br />

a major barrier to the switch from conventional plastics to<br />

bio-based materials in this type of process.<br />

Sukano Mold Release Masterbatch helps producers<br />

make the switch to PLA while still achieve a consistent<br />

high-quality standard of their PLA-based end products,<br />

with high clarity, scratch and scuff resistance, improved<br />

surface finish, improved material homogenization, and it is<br />

food compliant.<br />

1600 —<br />

1500 —<br />

1422<br />

1400 —<br />

PLA: Peak demolding force / N<br />

Hold pressure: 400 bar,<br />

melt temperature: 200°C,<br />

mold temperature: 25°C<br />

1300 —<br />

1200 —<br />

1100 —<br />

1000 —<br />

900 —<br />

1213<br />

1075<br />

800 —<br />

PLA reference PLA + 1% PLA mr S533 PLA + 3% PLA mr S533<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Injection Moulding<br />


NOW & SAVE<br />

€300<br />

Sukano – your guide in the move to bioplastics<br />

In our highly interconnected world, the general public<br />

has become more and more concerned – and engaged –<br />

about the planet’s future in the face of increasingly serious<br />

environmental challenges. The debate has reached its<br />

tipping point, with the European Commission itself stating<br />

that “European consumers are more and more prepared to<br />

buy goods and services which have a reduced environmental<br />

impact.” People are now prepared to participate via their<br />

purchase habits and preferences to ensure their impact on<br />

the environment are minimized or at least well reduced.<br />

To support its customers in making the switch to<br />

bioplastics, Sukano has invested in a powerful R&D<br />

analytical laboratory and pilot plant. This allows the<br />

company to provide industry-leading capabilities to quickly<br />

respond to customer’s most urgent demands and flexibility<br />

requirements. Together with over 30 years of experience in<br />

the field, Sukano is ready and, willing and able to support<br />

you to make the switch today.<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

Specific injection pressure in bar<br />

1100%<br />

1050%<br />

1000%<br />

950%<br />

900%<br />

850%<br />

Performance of Injection Pressure<br />

(MB + Ingeo-PLA 3251D)<br />

800%<br />

0% 1%<br />

3% 5%<br />

Dosage of mold release SUKANO mr S533<br />

27/28 June <strong>2019</strong>, FrankFurt Messe<br />



applications in Packaging, automotive, textiles & transportation<br />

PLUS: Increasing use of recycled Materials & end-of-Life solutions<br />

sponsors<br />

www.plasticfree-world.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 37

Chinaplas-Review<br />

Chinaplas <strong>2019</strong> Review<br />

By:<br />

John Leung<br />

Biosolutions<br />

Hong Kong<br />

A<br />

companying the growth of China’s plastics and<br />

rubber industries for over 30 years, CHINAPLAS<br />

has become a distinguished meeting and business<br />

platform for these industries and has also largely contributed<br />

to their prosperous development. At present, CHINA-<br />

PLAS is the world’s leading plastics and rubber trade fair,<br />

and also widely recognized by the industry as one of the<br />

most influential exhibitions in the world. Its significance is<br />

surpassed only by K Fair in Germany, the world’s premier<br />

plastics and rubber trade fair.<br />

Chinaplas <strong>2019</strong> (21-24 May), the 33rd International<br />

Exhibition on Plastics and Rubber Industries, attracted over<br />

180,000 professional visitors from 150 countries and regions<br />

to the China Import and Export Fair Complex, Pazhou,<br />

Guangzhou. The exhibition space compriswd more than<br />

250,000 square-meters. The show gathered together more<br />

than 3,600 leading exhibitors from all over the world, in<br />

which more than 1,800 of them are related to the packaging<br />

industry.<br />

Among the 20 Theme Zones, including for the first time<br />

a Recycled Plastics Zone, Chinaplas <strong>2019</strong> again featured a<br />

Bioplastics Zone to address the industry’s need for green<br />

and circular solutions.<br />

The biobased plastics and bio-composites shown in the<br />

Bioplastics Zone not only can be used in a wide range of<br />

applications such as packaging, electronic appliances,<br />

toys, children products, automobiles, and 3D printing but<br />

also are degradable, compostable, environmentally friendly,<br />

non-toxic and as affordable as petroleum-based plastics.<br />

Some examples are:<br />

NatureWorks LLC’s Ingeo ® biobased plastics come from<br />

100% renewable plant resources. According to ISO 14040<br />

and 14044 standards, Ingeo® reduces greenhouse gas<br />

emissions and consumes less non-renewable energy than<br />

conventional plastic PS/PET/ABS.<br />

Today, Ingeo is favored for its unique features! It has been<br />

used in products such as food utensils, coffee capsules,<br />

nonwovens and home appliances. As part of its commitment<br />

to the recycling bioeconomy and away from petrochemical<br />

feedstocks, NatureWorks announced that 100% of all<br />

agricultural raw materials used in Ingeo biopolymers will<br />

be certified by the International Sustainable Development<br />

and Carbon Certification System in 2020, in line with ISCC<br />

PLUS agricultural production. Best practice standards.<br />

According to Johannes Becker, BASF’s Global Biopolymer<br />

Marketing Director, “Rapid industrialization, economic growth<br />

and environmental awareness have driven the development<br />

of sustainable living in China. BASF is committed to helping<br />

China meet these challenges through innovative, sustainable<br />

plastic solutions. ”<br />

The biobased and compostable material of Suzhou Hanfeng<br />

New Material Co., Ltd. has changed the situation of traditional<br />

plastics being difficult to degrade and combustion producing<br />

harmful gases. With the technology for blending PLA and PBAT,<br />

customers’ various requirements for the physical properties<br />

of products and cost control can be satisfied, and the softness<br />

and environmental friendliness of products will be enhanced.<br />

Users can opt for such degradable and non-toxic packaging<br />

with higher quality when purchasing products in the future.<br />

The material can be used to manufacture green courier bags,<br />

disposable lunch boxes, bowls, cups, supermarket shopping<br />

bags, bags on a roll, flat-top bags and so on.<br />

Biocosafe ® developed by Xinfu Technology uses binary acid<br />

and binary alcohol as raw materials, and uses high-efficiency<br />

non-toxic catalyst to directly synthesize according to the onestep<br />

polycondensation method. Under the ISO14855 detection<br />

method, the relative biodegradation rate of the material<br />

exceeds 90%. The glass transition temperature of the resin is<br />

-35 ° C. It can meet the requirements of cold, hot drinks and<br />

lunch boxes, and is a biodegradable material with excellent<br />

temperature resistance. It could be applied to stationery, toys,<br />

entertainment products, etc.<br />

Ecoworld ® developed by Jinhui Zhaolong can be decomposed<br />

into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms within<br />

180 days under composting conditions. Under composting<br />

conditions, organic fertilizer can be produced, and the<br />

degradation process does not produce toxic gases. The main<br />

raw material of plastic film is biodegradable and compostable,<br />

which can effectively deal with white pollution.<br />

www.chinaplasonline.com<br />

BASF showcased the new biodegradable polymer ecovio ®<br />

courier bags, indicating that BASF is helping to cope with the<br />

white pollution challenge caused by the surge in domestic<br />

courier bags. This ecovio degradable courier bag delivers<br />

outstanding performance and not only meets customer<br />

needs, but also provides an environmentally friendly<br />

solution. BASF is working with key downstream partners to<br />

explore cutting-edge technologies for biodegradable bags.<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Natural Rubber © -Institut.eu | 2018<br />

Starch-based Polymers<br />

Lignin-based Polymers<br />

Cellulose-based Polymers<br />

©<br />

PBAT<br />

PET-like<br />

PU<br />

APC<br />

PTT<br />

PLA<br />

PU<br />

PA<br />

PTF<br />

PHA<br />

-Institut.eu | 2017<br />

PMMA<br />

HDMA<br />

DN5<br />

PVC<br />

Isosorbide<br />

1,3 Propanediol<br />

Caprolactam<br />

UPR<br />

PP<br />

Propylene<br />

Vinyl Chloride<br />

Ethylene<br />

Sorbitol<br />

Lysine<br />

MPG<br />

Epoxy resins<br />

Epichlorohydrin<br />

EPDM<br />

Ethanol<br />

Glucose<br />

PE<br />

MEG<br />

Terephthalic<br />

acid<br />

Isobutanol<br />

PET<br />

p-Xylene<br />

Starch Saccharose<br />

Fructose<br />

Lignocellulose<br />

Natural Rubber<br />

Plant oils<br />

Hemicellulose<br />

Glycerol<br />

PU<br />

Fatty acids<br />

NOPs<br />

Polyols<br />

PU<br />

PU<br />

LCDA<br />

THF<br />

PBT<br />

1,4-Butanediol<br />

Succinic acid<br />

3-HP<br />

5-HMF/<br />

5-CMF<br />

Aniline<br />

Furfural<br />

PA<br />

SBR<br />

Acrylic acid<br />

2,5-FDCA/<br />

FDME<br />

PU<br />

PFA<br />

PU<br />

PTF<br />

ABS<br />

PHA<br />

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

PEF<br />

PBS(X)<br />

©<br />

-Institut.eu | 2017<br />

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

7 th<br />

Bio-based Polymers & Building Blocks<br />

The best market reports available<br />

Automotive<br />

Commercialisation updates on<br />

bio-based building blocks<br />

7 th 1<br />

Data Data for for<br />

2018 2018<br />

UPDATE<br />

<strong>2019</strong><br />

UPDATE<br />

<strong>2019</strong><br />

Bio-based Building Blocks<br />

Bio-based Building Blocks<br />

and Polymers – Global Capacities<br />

and Polymers – Global Capacities<br />

and Trends 2018-2023<br />

and Trends 2017-2022<br />

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as chemical<br />

feedstock for polymers – technologies,<br />

polymers, developers and producers<br />

Succinic acid: New bio-based<br />

building block with a huge market<br />

and environmental potential?<br />

Million Tonnes<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

2011<br />

Bio-based polymers:<br />

Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2022<br />

Lactic<br />

acid<br />

Adipic<br />

acid<br />

Methyl<br />

Metacrylate<br />

Itaconic<br />

acid<br />

Furfuryl<br />

alcohol<br />

Levulinic<br />

acid<br />

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 <strong>2019</strong> 2020 2021 2022<br />

Dedicated<br />

Drop-in<br />

Smart Drop-in<br />

Superabsorbent<br />

Polymers<br />

Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic<br />

Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste<br />

Antidote<br />

Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic<br />

Efferescent tablets<br />

Intermediate for perfumes<br />

Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives,<br />

antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant)<br />

Preservative for toiletries<br />

Removes fish odour<br />

Used in the preparation of vitamin A<br />

Food<br />

Bread-softening agent<br />

Flavour-enhancer<br />

Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning<br />

in beverages/food<br />

Microencapsulation of flavouring oils<br />

Preservative (chicken, dog food)<br />

Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine<br />

desserts/cake flavourings<br />

Used in synthesis of modified starch<br />

Succinic<br />

Acid<br />

Industrial<br />

De-icer<br />

Engineering plastics and epoxy curing<br />

agents/hardeners<br />

Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth<br />

Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals<br />

Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid)<br />

Polymers<br />

Solvents, lubricants<br />

Surface cleaning agent<br />

(metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry)<br />

Other<br />

Anodizing Aluminium<br />

Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths<br />

Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable<br />

coating, resins for water-based paint,<br />

dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners)<br />

Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres<br />

Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds<br />

Preservative for cut flowers<br />

Soil-chelating agent<br />

Authors:<br />

Raj Authors: Chinthapalli, Raj Chinthapalli, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Michael Wolfgang Carus, Wolfgang Baltus, Baltus,<br />

Doris Doris de de Guzman, Harald Harald Käb, Käb, Achim Achim Raschka, Jan Jan Ravenstijn,<br />

April 2018<br />

<strong>2019</strong><br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

This www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

and other on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Achim Raschka, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and<br />

Michael Carus<br />

nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

February <strong>2019</strong><br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka,<br />

Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

Update March <strong>2019</strong><br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available<br />

at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Standards and labels for<br />

bio-based products<br />

Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change<br />

Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA<br />

and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments,<br />

producers, drivers and lessons learnt<br />

million t/a<br />

Selected bio-based building blocks: Evolution of worldwide<br />

production capacities from 2011 to 2021<br />

3,5<br />

actual data<br />

forecast<br />

3<br />

2,5<br />

Bio-based polymers, a<br />

revolutionary change<br />

2<br />

1,5<br />

Jan Ravenstijn 2017<br />

1<br />

0,5<br />

Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk<br />

2011<br />

2012<br />

2013<br />

2014<br />

2015 2016 2017 2018 <strong>2019</strong> 2020<br />

2021<br />

L-LA<br />

Epichlorohydrin<br />

MEG<br />

Ethylene<br />

Sebacic<br />

acid<br />

1,3-PDO<br />

MPG<br />

Lactide<br />

E-mail:<br />

j.ravenstijn@kpnmail.nl<br />

Succinic<br />

acid<br />

1,4-BDO<br />

2,5-FDCA<br />

D-LA<br />

11-Aminoundecanoic acid<br />

DDDA<br />

Adipic<br />

acid<br />

Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593<br />

Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom<br />

July 2017<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen<br />

nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

May 2017<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands<br />

April 2017<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Policies impacting bio-based<br />

plastics market development<br />

and plastic bags legislation in Europe<br />

Asian markets for bio-based chemical<br />

building blocks and polymers<br />

Market study on the consumption<br />

of biodegradable and compostable<br />

plastic products in Europe<br />

2015 and 2020<br />

Share of Asian production capacity on global production by polymer in 2016<br />

100%<br />

A comprehensive market research report including<br />

consumption figures by polymer and application types<br />

as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players,<br />

relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on<br />

biodegradation and composting standards and labels<br />

80%<br />

60%<br />

Bestsellers<br />

40%<br />

20%<br />

0%<br />

PBS(X)<br />

APC –<br />

cyclic<br />

PA<br />

PET<br />

PTT<br />

PBAT<br />

Starch<br />

PHA<br />

PLA<br />

PE<br />

Blends<br />

Disposable<br />

tableware<br />

Biowaste<br />

bags<br />

Carrier<br />

bags<br />

Rigid<br />

packaging<br />

Flexible<br />

packaging<br />

Authors: Dirk Carrez, Clever Consult, Belgium<br />

Jim Philp, OECD, France<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany<br />

Lara Dammer & Michael Carus, nova-Institute, Germany<br />

March 2017<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Author: Wolfgang Baltus, Wobalt Expedition Consultancy, Thailand<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann,<br />

Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute)<br />

April 2016<br />

The full market study (more than 300 slides, 3,500€) is available at<br />

bio-based.eu/top-downloads.<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

1<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 39

Applications<br />

Cosmetic<br />

tubes from<br />

bio-PE<br />

Saving resources,<br />

recyclable and<br />

promoting sales<br />

With Braskem’s<br />

Green PE, FKuR has<br />

a family of biobased<br />

plastics in its<br />

portfolio, which has<br />

proved to be a great<br />

success with tube<br />

producers.<br />

It is a sustainable,<br />

environmentally<br />

compatible and<br />

easily printable<br />

alternative to fossil<br />

based counterparts.<br />

(Picture: FKuR)<br />

Cosmetic tubes made from Braskem‘s biobased Green<br />

PE combine sustainability and recyclability along<br />

with attractiveness at the point of sale so meeting<br />

the demands of brand owners and end consumers. FKuR<br />

(Willich, Germany), presents successful applications at<br />

CosmeticBusiness <strong>2019</strong> in Munich on 5th and 6th June, in<br />

hall 3 booth E02.<br />

Application specific biopolymers<br />

FKuR’s portfolio covers a wide range of biobased plastics<br />

for the production of cosmetic packaging. Having good<br />

barrier properties and durability, all grades provide the<br />

required resistance to the ingredients. This is combined<br />

with excellent printability giving an attractive product<br />

without having to use secondary packaging. The biobased<br />

polyethylene Green PE produced by Braskem from renewably<br />

sourced sugar cane, is ideally suited for the extrusion blow<br />

molding of tubes. Depending on the application, HDPE<br />

grades with more than 90 % of biobased content, or LDPE<br />

grades with more than 95 % of biobased content, as well<br />

as LLDPE grades with more than 80 % of biobased content<br />

(according to ASTM D 6866) are available. Furthermore,<br />

with its Terralene LL 1712 FKuR offers a ready-to-use<br />

compound for tube production based on Green PE.<br />

The mechanical characteristics and the recyclability<br />

of these materials are the same as those of conventional<br />

fossil based PE. Hence, they can be used for identical<br />

applications and are also 100 % recyclable in the same PE<br />

waste stream. As a sales support measure, brand owners<br />

can use Braskem’s license-free I’m green logo on the tubes.<br />

The use of this logo requires the communication of the<br />

renewable portion of the product, which should be verified<br />

by C14 analysis according to ASTM D6866. Also certificates<br />

from independent certification bodies can be used, such as<br />

the OK Biobased from TÜV Austria or DIN tested by DIN<br />

Certco with its corresponding points rating system.<br />

First applications – attractive and successful<br />

As a result of customers desires and the end users’<br />

trend of increasingly considering sustainability and<br />

environmental compatibility when making purchasing<br />

decisions, Emballator Tectubes, a Swedish producer of<br />

injection molded and extruded plastics and aluminum<br />

tubes, made the transition to biobased Green PE several<br />

years ago. Supported by Polymerfront, the Swedish<br />

distributor for FKuR, the company had previously conducted<br />

intensive tests with Green PE and with the alternative PLA.<br />

The biobased PE was chosen as a result of its better water<br />

barrier and ease of processing.<br />

Jan-Erik Svensson, Strategic Purchasing, at Emballator<br />

Tectubes comments: “As the first producer who used Green<br />

PE for our tubes, we faced a considerable challenge. Special<br />

compounds were developed, all processing parameters and<br />

the molds were optimized, and after several production<br />

trials and result analysis the optimum solution was reached.<br />

Again, the help of Polymerfront was extremely valuable.”<br />

Today, the company uses Green PE for tubes in a variety<br />

of sizes from 5 to 275 ml, and also uses this bioplastic to<br />

make caps.<br />

Another pioneer in the use of biobased polyethylene<br />

is LageenTubes, a leading manufacturer of tubes for the<br />

cosmetics, body, hair and oral care, pharmaceutical &<br />

food industries, headquartered in Kibbutz Yagur, Israel.<br />

They have been active worldwide and for more than 50<br />

years. The company uses Green PE for its sugarcane<br />

tubes, citing unrestricted recyclability as an important<br />

argument for Green PE. Timor Benari-Shuster, Marketing<br />

Communications Manager, says: “At the beginning, more<br />

than six years ago until recently, we had to do a lot of<br />

convincing work and had to demonstrate the suitability of<br />

biobased plastic with supporting facts about the durability<br />

and quality. Today, the industry has recognized that<br />

tubes made from Green PE have the same performance<br />

characteristics as conventional PE and are therefore<br />

suitable for cosmetic primary packaging. Lageentubes<br />

offers the sugarcane tube in both formats mono layer and<br />

co-ex 5 layers. A good argument was also that the change<br />

to Green PE does not require any changes in the production<br />

or investment in tooling.”<br />

At LageenTubes the opportunity to directly digitally print<br />

cosmetic tubes made from Green PE is also new. Benari-<br />

Shuster continues: “With this possibility, we now offer<br />

a revolutionary direct digital printing that allows design<br />

freedom such as end-to-end-printing including the cap,<br />

360° decoration without a gap or overlaps with realistic<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Applications<br />

images, shades, gradients, and halftones, customized and<br />

also personalized on-demand.” LageenTubes will present<br />

their sugarcane tube at CosmeticBusiness Hall 2 Stand<br />

B19.<br />

At its Wasungen (Germany) site, packaging specialist<br />

Tubex produces tubes made by co-extruding Green PE<br />

with a barrier plastic. Among other things, the company<br />

supplies Swox, a Munich-based manufacturer of special<br />

sun protection products for outdoor athletes.<br />

Katharina Kestler, Public Relations, at Swox affirms:<br />

“Our customers have a natural interest in protecting the<br />

environment and are fully aware of their responsibilities.<br />

That is why Swox also took a closer look at packaging and<br />

finally chose Green PE in close cooperation with Tubex.”<br />

Sandra Storandt, Account Manager Plastic Tubes at Tubex<br />

adds: “We see a steadily increasing customer<br />

demand for sustainable packaging solutions,<br />

which we can usually fulfill thanks to our<br />

close cooperation with the bioplastics expert<br />

FKuR, because Green PE is environmentally<br />

friendly, compatible with the product and easy<br />

to recycle.”<br />

A future-oriented user of such tubes is also the<br />

Austrian bio-cosmetic label Hands on Veggies.<br />

Its biocosmetic products, marketed under the<br />

same name, contain valuable ingredients from<br />

garden vegetables such as pumpkins, carrots,<br />

kale & co. Multitubes, a Dutch expert in the field<br />

of plastic tubes for cosmetic, food, pharmaceutical<br />

and industrial applications manufactures the tubes<br />

from Green PE and prints them with bright fresh<br />

colors. The use of biobased plastic also creates<br />

a real added value, as the company is showing the<br />

consumer that it is taking its environmental thinking<br />

to the very end and is adopting a logical conclusion.<br />

The beginning of a promising development<br />

Patrick Zimmermann, Director Sales & Marketing at<br />

FKuR summarizes: “Green PE offers ideal properties for<br />

this purpose. That’s why our cooperation with cosmetic<br />

tube manufacturers is already very successful. But in fact,<br />

we see the examples given here only as the beginning of a<br />

promising development. They show how biobased plastics<br />

can be used to particular advantage in this area of<br />

application, because they also clearly point out the<br />

environmental awareness of brand owners on the<br />

point of sales.<br />

Based on this, we are involved in the development<br />

of further tube applications in the cosmetics and<br />

healthcare sectors, where we advise on application<br />

technology and if necessary also develop customerspecific<br />

modifications of our bioplastics. A good example<br />

of this is our Terralene PP as a partially biobased<br />

plastic with the properties of polypropylene, used for the<br />

production of e. g. the caps with and without film hinges.”<br />

www.fkur.com |<br />

www.fkur-polymers.com |<br />

http://plasticoverde.braskem.com.br/site.aspx/plastic-green |<br />

http://tectubes.com/en/green-pe-tubes/ |<br />

www.lageentubes.com/2016/10/02/1111/ |<br />

www.tubex.de/kunststofftuben.html |<br />

www.swox.com/de/produkte/ |<br />

www.handsonveggies.de/ |<br />

https://multitubes.nl/bio-based/|<br />

By:<br />

Patrick Zimmermann<br />

Director Marketing & Sales<br />

FKuR Kunststoff<br />

Willich, Germany<br />

Multitubes<br />

Lageen<br />

Tubes<br />

Tubex / Swox<br />

Emballator<br />

Tectubes<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 41

Application News<br />

Automotive<br />

Plant-based performance shoes<br />

Leading global barefoot shoe company Vivobarefoot<br />

(London, UK) recently announced the launch of Primus<br />

Lite II Bio, the company’s most innovative sustainable<br />

shoe to-date and one of the world’s first plant-based<br />

performance shoes. The mission-driven brand unveiled<br />

the highly anticipated unisex shoe on the heels of<br />

independent sustainability research, which highlighted<br />

eco materials as a key<br />

factor in consumer<br />

purchasing decisions.<br />

The Primus Lite II Bio<br />

has been available in a<br />

limited run online since<br />

May 20 th , <strong>2019</strong>.<br />

The new vegan shoe is<br />

designed with over 30 %<br />

renewable plant-based<br />

materials, including Bio<br />

TPU made from yellow<br />

dent field corn, natural<br />

rubber and harvested algae called Bloom, instead of<br />

single-use petroleum materials. The design is the<br />

company’s lightest and most efficient performance shoe<br />

yet and weighs on average an estimated 10 % less than<br />

today’s standard performance shoes.<br />

The new generation of Vivobarefoot’s legacy Primus<br />

Lite style is a game-changer for the footwear industry<br />

and represents a major stride for the company towards<br />

its goal of using 100 % biobased materials in a future<br />

iteration of this product.<br />

Vivobarefoot’s sustainability ethos is uniquely different from<br />

other footwear brands in the industry, as it is rooted in design,<br />

wellness and social impact, along with utilizing eco-friendly<br />

materials. The company believes product design encompasses<br />

doing more with less and creating durable products. Its focus<br />

on wellness enables people to move in a natural, healthy,<br />

connected way, while maintaining performance and durability.<br />

“The launch of the<br />

Primus Lite Bio represents<br />

an exciting step away from<br />

the industry’s reliance<br />

on single use petroleumbased<br />

materials and<br />

towards a promising<br />

future of plant-based<br />

alternatives,” said Asher<br />

Clark, Design Director at<br />

Vivobarefoot. “We want<br />

to challenge the world’s<br />

relationship with shoes, the<br />

materials they are made from and the impact they are having<br />

on us and our environment. Our ultimate goal is complete<br />

circularity.”<br />

More than 20 billion pairs of shoes are made annually, most<br />

from petrochemicals, which have a harmful impact on the<br />

environment, contributing to the already serious effects of<br />

climate change. The plant-based materials in the Primus Lite<br />

II Bio shoe are sourced and managed responsibly, reducing<br />

water, energy and CO 2<br />

emissions, improving waste water and<br />

ultimately reducing their ecological footprint. MT<br />

www.vivobarefoot.com<br />

Swedish outdoor brand switches to bioplastic<br />

As of this year Swedish Light my Fire (Malmö) transitioned<br />

its entire product line to biobased plastics, featuring a new<br />

palette of warm and soft colors inspired by nature. “We’re<br />

always looking to use the most sustainable raw materials,”<br />

says CEO Calill Odqvist Jagusch. “By experimenting with<br />

various biobased plastics, we’ve found a solution that meets<br />

our sustainability objectives while not compromising on our<br />

product’s functionality and durability.”<br />

Biobased plastics are still in their infancy, and as they<br />

continue to blaze trail LMF wants to share its knowledge<br />

and be as transparent as possible. To this end, LMF has<br />

prepared a “Little School of Plastic” mini-tutorial and a<br />

fully transparent overview of all their product materials<br />

and suppliers in “Let’s Talk Materials,” both found on their<br />

website.<br />

Plastic pollution in nature is a tragedy – and with proper<br />

recycling and behavioral changes, it’s completely avoidable.<br />

Much of plastic pollution currently consists of single-use<br />

items like plastic straws, forks and packaging, and until<br />

recycling becomes widespread single-use items really have<br />

no place in a sustainable world.<br />

“Products like our ReStraw, Pack-up-Cup and Spork are in<br />

fact durable, reusable replacements of many of these singleuse<br />

items,” explains Calill Odqvist Jagusch. “However, like<br />

most other brands, we’ve used single-use plastics in our<br />

packaging. Moving forward, this year we plan to remove singleuse<br />

plastics in all our packaging using RE-PET storage bags as<br />

well as recycled and<br />

recyclable cardboard<br />

where needed.”<br />

Light My Fire has<br />

cooperated with SK<br />

Chemicals, of South<br />

Korea, Hexpol and<br />

FKuR to arrive at the<br />

selection of bioplastic<br />

materials appropriate<br />

for their products,<br />

taking issues such as<br />

durability and foodcontact<br />

approvals into<br />

account. MT<br />

www.lightmyfire.com<br />

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Application News<br />

Spectacles from coffee and flax<br />

www.ochis.coffee<br />

The first Kickstarter campaign with a collection of sunglasses, made from organic coffee residues and flax resulting in durable<br />

eyewear that smells of coffee, was a full success in 2018. Now Ochis Coffee (Washington DC, USA) launched a new collection<br />

of Ochis Coffee eyewear. Founder Max Gavrilenko wanted to avoid the use of petroleum based plastic: “We use recyclables for<br />

the glasses production: coffee grounds and flax. They’re glued together by a biopolymer based on vegetable oil,” Max said. the<br />

frame smells slightly of freshly roasted coffee and has a matte<br />

texture that is pleasant to the touch. The polarized lenses with<br />

UV-filter are made of cellulose triacetate and feature an antiscratch<br />

coating.<br />

According to Ochis, the frames decompose 100 times faster<br />

than ordinary plastic glasses. In fact, the frame completely<br />

degrades after 10 years in soil or water, and turns into a<br />

natural fertilizer should the wearer lose it. There are four<br />

colours of Carl Zeiss lenses available and the frames are Rxable.<br />

The new spring <strong>2019</strong> collection was again introduced in<br />

a new Kickstarter campaign. MT<br />

First modular storage system<br />

from Bio-on’s bioplastic<br />

Only a few short months following the announcement of<br />

the alliance between Kartell (Noviglio, Italy), a leading design<br />

company, and biotechnology company Bio-on (Bologna, Italy),<br />

the first fruits of the partnership are being exhibited at the<br />

Salone del Mobile, Milan (Italy).<br />

Kartell has chosen to produce a new eco-friendly and<br />

sustainable edition of one of its best sellers - a modular<br />

storage unit designed in 1967 by Anna Castelli Ferrieri - in<br />

Bio-on’s 100% natural bioplastic material. The 50-year old<br />

design is available in four colours: green, pink, cream and<br />

yellow in the three-module version.<br />

For Kartell, research is a mission, said company president<br />

Claudio Luti. “We will continue to experiment to combine<br />

innovation and design.”<br />

Kartell celebrates its 70 th anniversary this year, thus ‘we are<br />

happy to be able to reach another milestone’, he added.<br />

“We have worked with Bio-on to be able to offer our public a<br />

very high-quality bioplastic product and we have chosen to do<br />

it on one of our historic products, one of the most recognized<br />

in the world. Research on bioplastics fits with our quest for<br />

innovation and is part of the “Kartell loves the planet” project<br />

aimed at enhancing good sustainability practices.”<br />

For Bio-on, it is ‘an honour’, said founder and CEO Marco<br />

Astorri. The company is proud to see its bioplastic showcased<br />

with one of the most famous Italian design brands in the<br />

world. To reciprocate and in gratitude for the trust placed in<br />

the material, Bio-on has given the biopolymer used for this<br />

specific application the name CL, the initials of Claudio Luti.<br />

In just a few days, Bio-on first saw the launch of the first<br />

line of solar cosmetics based on its technology, and now<br />

the first piece of furniture. “It is a clear confirmation of the<br />

extreme versatility that our biopolymer can offer, bringing its<br />

extraordinary advantages to all sectors,” Astorri concluded... MT<br />

www.bio-on.it<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 43

Applications<br />

This spoon does the rest!<br />

Whether yoghurt cups or jam jars, peanut butter,<br />

chocolate cream, bottled baby food or other packaged<br />

pasty food: significant residual quantities<br />

remain in all the containers of these products even after<br />

they have been emptied. In some cases, we lose up to 10%<br />

of the contents of food packaging, because their special<br />

shapes make it impossible to remove the products completely.<br />

When having almost completely emptied a jar, some<br />

of us will ambitiously try to take out even this last remnant.<br />

A normal tablespoon or teaspoon is not an ideal means<br />

for emptying a recipient completely, to avoid cleaning before<br />

waste disposal. The water which is consumed for this<br />

purpose needs to be cleaned at high costs, too. Additional<br />

resource consumption is the consequence.<br />

Thomas Griebl, a designer from Oberschneiding,<br />

Germany, who has been working for many years as movie<br />

and stage designer now developed the Balaenos ® - spoon.<br />

The whale<br />

For Thomas<br />

b i o n i c s<br />

should be<br />

an important<br />

aspect of design.<br />

This is very well<br />

illustrated by whales, whose bodies<br />

are excellently shaped for their<br />

natural habitat. For long periods they<br />

have been able to adapt themselves<br />

to their environment. With the aim of<br />

optimizing, evolution has thereby formed back a l l<br />

features which are not required any longer. The eponym<br />

of the Balaenos- spoon, the bowhead whale (Balaena<br />

mysticetus), even gets along without a dorsal fin. It is the<br />

only whale species who doesn’t have one.<br />

The idea for designing the Balaenos- spoon came up<br />

when “plunging” into the yoghurt jar or when “fishing”<br />

for remnants of its contents. Both the spoon’s design and<br />

function were inspired by this animal.<br />

The spoon<br />

Balaenos - spoons are made in one work-step from<br />

thermoplastic resin in an injection moulding process. Its<br />

special shape distinguishes this spoon from conventional<br />

spoons and it simplifies the uncomfortable gathering or<br />

scraping of remaining residual quantities. The spoondesign<br />

is copyrighted at the German Patent Office and<br />

internationally protected by WIPO.<br />

Inspired by an international major debate on how to avoid<br />

plastic waste and in view of the long-term environmental<br />

pollution by conventional plastics, Thomas and his team<br />

decided to manufacture the spoon from a biobased and<br />

biodegradable PLA compound. “By using biopolymers, both,<br />

we and the users, try to achieve the aim of a sustainable and<br />

ecologically safe use of plastic materials in the household<br />

and to reduce environmental pollution,” Thomas says.<br />

The PLA material used for Balaenos consists to approx.<br />

70% of renewable raw materials and works therefore as a<br />

carbon-dioxide buffer storage. It can be completely recycled,<br />

used for energy production, or led back into the ecological<br />

cycle, after use. Of course, the material is FDA compliant and<br />

approved for use with food.<br />

The special compound makes the spoon resistant<br />

to temperatures of approx. 75°C. It is therefore not<br />

recommended to clean the spoon in the dishwasher, but<br />

better wash it by hand like other natural materials (such as<br />

wooden knife handles and kitchen utensils).<br />

The spoon is home compostable, if such a possibility exists.<br />

Mechanical comminution like grinding or rasping accelerates<br />

this biological degradation.<br />

The Balaenos - spoon is available in two different sizes. The<br />

two versions of the spoon are based on the usual dimensions<br />

for cutlery.<br />

The idea behind<br />

Balaenos is to design<br />

a complete range<br />

of everyday utensils<br />

which are produced as sustainably as<br />

possible. Their materials are derived from nature in a<br />

resource-saving way, in order to return them to their natural<br />

cycle at the end of their lifetime.<br />

The uniform design language<br />

evokes their<br />

models from<br />

nature and<br />

our contact<br />

with nature<br />

as an integral<br />

part of it.<br />

“Simple and widely used products, at best produced<br />

locally at low cost, sold via different distribution channels,<br />

will enrich our everyday life with new, renewable materials,<br />

and can substantially influence our attitude and our general<br />

behaviour towards existing resources,“ Thomas Griebl<br />

says.“ Much could be achieved when the special spoon on<br />

the breakfast table, the hygiene product in the bathroom or<br />

small office accessories create awareness that we are not<br />

consumers, but users, who think in terms of closed circuits!”<br />

Balaenos will be manufactured completely in southern<br />

Germany and customized and despatched in-line with<br />

customers’ requirements. Sustainability is also kept in mind<br />

for packaging materials, by using cardboard from grass<br />

paper and films from biodegradable PLA.<br />

Domestic production for the German and the adjacent<br />

European markets avoids long transport routes from overseas<br />

and multiple transport itineraries to the end users. MT<br />

www.balaenos.de<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Automotive<br />


download free of charge*<br />

APP-Anzeige<br />

Via the new App you read<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE sooner<br />

on your mobile device<br />

Not only on a tablet, but also on<br />

your smartphone you can easily<br />

read bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Be informed quicker:<br />

read bioplastics MAGAZINE a week<br />

before the print edition is mailed<br />

More features:<br />

find links to additional material<br />

like PDFs, videoclips, photos etc.<br />

Easy navigation:<br />

digital version, optimized for<br />

tablets and smartphones<br />

Includes a Twitter Feed about<br />

our daily online news<br />

* Contents may become restricted to subscribers or subject to additonal fees at a later stage.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 45

Materials<br />

Pack it in feathers<br />

pluumo – The world’s first feather-based,<br />

sustainable packaging material<br />

Thousands of tonnes of waste feathers are generated<br />

every day by the global poultry industry. The average<br />

amount of meat consumed per person globally has<br />

more than doubled in the past 50 years, e.g. from 23 kg<br />

in the 1960s to 69 kg in 2016 in the European Union [1].<br />

This has a massive impact not only on anthropogenic GHG<br />

emissions, but also continues to create a huge amount of<br />

waste. In the EU alone, over 20 million tonnes of animal-byproducts<br />

(ABP) are produced annually and over 3.1 million<br />

tonnes of this material are feathers from poultry production.<br />

Feathers protect birds from adverse weather conditions<br />

and are inherently biodegradable in their nature. Honing<br />

in on these two properties; the team of AEROPOWDER<br />

(London, UK) has conducted comprehensive manufacturing<br />

testing in order to harness the beneficial assets of feathers<br />

and create a high-performance feather-based material.<br />

Other early-stage product ideas included water-proof<br />

coatings and composite materials. After several years of<br />

development, the team just launched a sustainable textile<br />

named pluumo, designed to be a highly effective insulation<br />

material. The material comes in the form of sheets and<br />

batts and is applicable in a variety of sectors, such as<br />

building, automotive and furniture. However, the initial<br />

focus is on packaging, using the novel textile as a featherbased<br />

thermal insulator for chilled shipments. pluumo is<br />

composed of feathers making it lightweight. Additionally, its<br />

packaging film is fully compostable, and it also adheres to<br />

strict environmental standards. The film is supplied by biofilm<br />

expert Nuova Erreplast in Italy, which conventionally<br />

produce flexible packaging. A pivotal role in the company<br />

policy is played by the search for new technologies and<br />

sustainable packaging solutions, aiming at having a low<br />

impact on the environment: one of the reasons why Nuova<br />

Erreplast embraced the pluumo project.<br />

Elena Dieckmann (CTO, Aeropowder) states: “The current<br />

discourse about the environmental impact of packaging is<br />

huge, and rightly so. We thought we could create a circular<br />

packaging product that is eco-friendly, waste-derived<br />

and high performance. Feathers can replace synthetic<br />

insulators, such as polyethylene foams or polystyrene (EPS)<br />

without loss of performance. In the booming industry that<br />

is online food delivery, this means that for every standard<br />

sized packaged being sent to a customer, around 400g of<br />

EPS packaging are avoided.”<br />

In order to create a fully compostable product, Aeropowder<br />

connected with Trevira (Bobingen, Germany), an innovative<br />

European manufacturer of high-value branded fibres<br />

and filament yarns. Trevira provided a solution in form of<br />

innovative, fully biodegradable binding fibres used to fuse<br />

the feather fibres together. These recyclable binding fibres<br />

are bicomponent fibres consisting of the biopolymers<br />

polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS).<br />

“Fibres made from biopolymers are a sustainable alternative<br />

to petroleum-based fibres and provide a basis for intelligent<br />

materials with added functions, for new applications and for<br />

niche products,” says Joerg Dahringer of Trevira. “They are<br />

as economical as they are efficient.” And Elena Dieckmann<br />

adds: “ For us, Trevira was the ideal partner – they are real<br />

pioneers of sustainability and have the technical expertise to<br />

create customized products.”<br />

Compostability test for the whole pluumo product are<br />

currently performed with accredited laboratories in Europe.<br />

In addition to biodegradability, pluumo must observe certain<br />

cold chain delivery requirements with regards to its insulative<br />

performance. Therefore, pluumo was tested extensively<br />

in collaboration with several research facilities in the UK.<br />

The product has been designed to outperform conventional<br />

EPS packaging (30 mm) by several hours. The secret to this<br />

impressive performance is down to the structure of feathers<br />

themselves.<br />

Feathers are made of keratin, an integral building block in<br />

nature. A unique feature of feather composition is their hollow<br />

microstructure traps air. Preventing movement of air is critical<br />

to preventing conductive heat transfer and thus tied directly to<br />

insulative performance. The team at Aeropowder have found<br />

a way to optimise the arrangement of feather fibres within<br />

the structure of pluumo, resulting in the material having a<br />

thermal conductivity 0.<strong>03</strong>2 W/mk. Additionally, the strength<br />

of keratin means that pluumo retains its structural integrity<br />

after impact, providing additional cushioning protection for<br />

fragile items. pluumo’s specifications are also customisable<br />

in terms of height and density to meet a variety of demanding<br />

applications.<br />

Currently, Aeropowder is supplying pluumo Europe-wide,<br />

but its potential is wide-reaching. Wherever poultry found,<br />

pluumo and other innovative sustainable materials can be can<br />

be manufactured. MT<br />

[1]: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026;<br />

http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7465e.pdf<br />

www.pluumo.com<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Materials<br />

Novel biobased barrier films<br />

According to recent forecasts by European Bioplastics<br />

and nova Institute, global production of biopolymers<br />

will increase from about 2.05 million tonnes in 2017<br />

to 2.44 million tonnes in 2022. The trend towards biobased<br />

and biodegradable plastics was induced mainly by the global<br />

waste problem and increasing environmental regulations<br />

for the industry. Consumers’ growing environmental awareness<br />

also has a beneficial effect for the bioplastics sector.<br />

Furthermore, certain bioplastics offer technical advantages.<br />

Due to its unique barrier properties towards oxygen,<br />

nitrogen and carbon dioxide, polylactide (PLA), for example,<br />

is already being successfully applied in the packaging industry<br />

- the largest field of application for biopolymers.<br />

This is where the Bio-Barrier Films (BioBaFol) project ties<br />

in, which was launched as part of the support programme<br />

for Renewable Resources by the German Federal Ministry<br />

of Food and Agriculture (BMEL). The project partners,<br />

SKZ, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Tecnaro,<br />

JenCAPS Technology and Südpack Packaging (all from<br />

Germany) are jointly developing PLA-based films with<br />

special barrier properties for the food, pharmaceutical<br />

and cosmetics industries. An inorganic-organic functional<br />

layer integrated in these films is intended to improve<br />

the films’ barrier effect in comparison to conventional<br />

multilayer films. Such hybrid polymers are already being<br />

used in numerous fields of application, such as photoand<br />

electrochromic, scratch- and abrasion-resistant or<br />

antistatic coatings. These excellent barrier properties are<br />

now being evaluated for use in food packaging and flexible<br />

encapsulation of optoelectronic applications.<br />

Conventional barrier films are mainly covered by<br />

laminated composites. These usually consist of duplex<br />

sheets wherein two different films are bonded together<br />

by coextrusion. Application-specific polyolefins are added<br />

In the framework of the Bio-Barrier Films (BioBaFol) project, the<br />

SKZ and several project partners are jointly developing PLA-based<br />

films with special barrier properties for food, pharmaceutical and<br />

cosmetics industries.<br />

as sealing media. These laminated composites currently<br />

cannot be broken down into their individual components,<br />

and thus cannot be recycled. “The use of a hybrid polymer<br />

layer on a PLA carrier material is now intended to facilitate<br />

the recycling process,” explained SKZ scientist Alexander<br />

Rusam. “During renewed film extrusion, this layer can be<br />

incorporated in the polymer matrix and can thus serve both<br />

as a nucleating agent for crystallization and as an additional<br />

barrier filler material. It is therefore not necessary to<br />

separate the barrier layer from the PLA carrier material,<br />

and recycling will thus be possible in the future. “<br />

Besides feasibility, by the end of the project period, in mid<br />

2021, a scale-up at pilot-scale is also aimed at. MT<br />

www.skz.de<br />

Magnetic<br />

for Plastics<br />

www.plasticker.com<br />

• International Trade<br />

in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge.<br />

• Daily News<br />

from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets.<br />

• Current Market Prices<br />

for Plastics.<br />

• Buyer’s Guide<br />

for Plastics & Additives, Machinery & Equipment, Subcontractors<br />

and Services.<br />

• Job Market<br />

for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry.<br />

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 47

Basics<br />

Captured carbon vs. biobased<br />

Can products made from captured/recycled CO 2<br />

be called biobased?<br />

B<br />

iobased carbon content and captured or recycled<br />

carbon content are two separate metrics, though not<br />

always exclusive of each other. Biobased content is<br />

based upon the source of the raw material and is thus a ‘beginning<br />

of life’ concept. On the other hand, recycled or captured<br />

carbon content is based upon an ‘end of life’ action of<br />

e.g. incineration. As such, it is important to understand the<br />

differences between the two carbon content types and why<br />

each needs to be treated differently when developing standards<br />

for measurement or determination.<br />

Defining biobased<br />

The term biobased is used to describe materials (products<br />

and/or chemicals) derived in whole or in part from biomass<br />

resources; organic materials available on a continuous basis<br />

(i.e. renewable) from terrestrial and marine agricultural, plant,<br />

animal, and fungal sources living in a natural environment in<br />

equilibrium with the atmosphere (ref D6866, USDA, Farm Bill,<br />

EU). The phrase “living in a natural environment in equilibrium<br />

with the atmosphere” in the definition is critical because it<br />

provides for the absolute measurement of the biobased<br />

carbon content of a product using radiocarbon (carbon-14)<br />

analysis, and validates the amount of carbons originating<br />

from plant-biomass resources.<br />

There are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon: 12 C,<br />

13<br />

C, 14 C and all are present in living organisms. Carbon-14<br />

( 14 C), however, is radioactive. The living systems maintain their<br />

C-14 content in equilibrium with atmospheric C-14. In other<br />

words, all plant-biomass feedstocks will contain the same<br />

level of C-14 as the atmosphere does. When a living plant or<br />

animal dies, it ceases to take up C-14, and thus no longer<br />

maintains an equilibrium level of C-14 with atmospheric C-14.<br />

The amount of C-14 in the carbon from this material will then<br />

decay exponentially from the equilibrium level with a half-life<br />

of 5730 years. Products made from biomass feedstocks like<br />

agricultural, plant, animal, marine, and forestry materials will<br />

still retain 100% of C-14 radioactivity for a long period of time<br />

(only 1% of radioactivity is lost after 100 years). Fossil carbons<br />

in products will have zero radioactivity as they are formed<br />

over millions of years. The ASTM & ISO test methods use the<br />

above radiocarbon concept to quantify the biobased carbons<br />

originating from the biomass feedstocks. The amount of<br />

biobased carbon in a given sample can be determined using<br />

radiocarbon dating, which measures the amount of carbon-14<br />

present.<br />

Because carbon present in biobased materials is recently<br />

captured from the atmosphere, the combustion and release<br />

of carbon dioxide (CO 2<br />

) from biobased material results in a<br />

net zero carbon footprint: if this carbon dioxide is captured<br />

or recycled, then this is also biobased captured or recycled<br />

carbon dioxide. In contrast, fossil fuel-derived material is<br />

formed over millions of years (devoid of carbon-14) and thus<br />

combustion of fossil fuels adds to the atmospheric levels<br />

of carbon dioxide. But, as will be discussed later, the use of<br />

captured or recycled CO 2<br />

partially mitigates this addition of<br />

greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.<br />

Test standards for biobased testing<br />

Carbon-14 testing is performed according to widely<br />

accepted test standards such as ASTM D6866 and ISO<br />

16620-2. ASTM D6866 is a standard test method used<br />

for determining the biobased content of solid, liquid and<br />

gaseous samples using radiocarbon dating [3]. Likewise,<br />

ISO 16620-2 is an international standard test method<br />

for determining the biobased content of solid, liquid and<br />

gaseous samples using carbon-14 analysis [4].<br />

After analyzing a sample, the result is cited as percent<br />

modern carbon (pMC) and reported as percent biobased<br />

carbon content (or simply percent biobased content). A<br />

result of zero pMC indicates a sample is wholly derived<br />

from fossil carbon and does not contain any measurable<br />

carbon-14. In contrast, one hundred pMC represents a<br />

sample comprised entirely of biobased carbons from plantbiomass<br />

resources. If the pMC value is between 0 and<br />

100, the content is a mixture of fossil carbon and biobased<br />

carbon. Under ASTM D6866, this percentage is a measure<br />

of the amount of biomass-derived carbon in a product<br />

compared to its total organic carbon (TOC) content. ISO<br />

16620-2 uses this terminology as well [3, 4].<br />

Certifying biobased products<br />

Carbon-14 testing has been used for over a decade<br />

to validate biobased claims and often to receive product<br />

eligibility for third-party certifications and eco-labels. ISO-<br />

17025 accredited laboratory Beta Analytic has tested the<br />

percent biobased content of over a thousand samples within<br />

a wide range of product types. The biobased approach has<br />

qualified over 2,500 biobased products in the marketplace<br />

today [5].<br />

Globally, there are several biobased certification<br />

programs. The United States Department of Agriculture<br />

(USDA) BioPreferred ® Program requires the measurement<br />

of the biobased content of products according to the<br />

ASTM D6866 standard. This program includes two parts: a<br />

mandatory federal purchasing requirement and a voluntary<br />

labeling program for biobased products. The USDA has<br />

identified over 100 product categories with a minimum<br />

biobased content established per category for which federal<br />

agencies have purchasing requirements. Furthermore, the<br />

voluntary labeling initiative allows companies to receive<br />

the USDA Certified Biobased Product certification label on<br />

products that exceed the minimum threshold of biobased<br />

content required for the specific product category. This has<br />

certified over 2,500 products [6]. Several of these products<br />

may also be certified by other programs such as TÜV<br />

AUSTRIA’s OK biobased (using a a star system: one-star<br />

is for products with biobased content between 20% and<br />

40% while a four-star certified product contains over 80%<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

Basics<br />

By:<br />

Kelvin Okamoto, Green Bottom Line, Chair of ASTM D20.96<br />

Ramani Narayan, Michigan State University, Former Chair of ASTM D20.96<br />

Stephany Mason, Beta Analytic<br />

Haley Gershon, Beta Analytic<br />

biobased content [7] and DIN CERTCO’s DIN-Geprüft (with<br />

three quality divisions: Biobased 20-50%, Biobased 50-85%,<br />

and Biobased >85%) [8] in Europe.<br />

Beyond those mentioned above, biobased testing has been<br />

incorporated into many other eco-labeling programs and<br />

biobased product initiatives. These include but are not limited<br />

to Japan BioPlastics Association’s BiomassPla certification,<br />

Canada’s EcoLogo Program, French Decree 2016-379 on<br />

Single-Use Plastic Bags, and Italy’s EU Directive 2015/720 on<br />

Biobased Plastic Bags.<br />

Products manufactured from captured/recycled CO 2<br />

To reiterate, in order to be called ‘biobased’ a product or<br />

chemical needs to be manufactured from renewable, plantbiomass<br />

living systems that exist in a natural environment in<br />

equilibrium with atmospheric CO 2<br />

. Products obtained from<br />

converting smokestack CO 2<br />

from coal, natural gas or other<br />

fossil fuel burning systems do not fall under the ‘biobased’<br />

definition and do not lend themselves to quantitative analysis<br />

by radiocarbon measurement (ASTM D6866) since these<br />

products do not contain any carbon-14 content.<br />

Therefore, PHAs and algae-based products, polymers, or<br />

chemicals produced from only petroleum-based smokestack<br />

CO 2<br />

are not “biobased.”<br />

However, these products are beneficial to<br />

the environment by removing CO 2<br />

during<br />

production that would otherwise be emitted<br />

back into the atmosphere.<br />

By using recycled CO 2<br />

the product manufacturing process<br />

also does not require the burning of additional fossil fuels.<br />

Again, this reduces the emissions of carbon dioxide into the<br />

atmosphere.<br />

There are, however, fuel combustion sources that burn<br />

municipal solid waste (MSW) or mixed fuels (biomass-derived<br />

and fossil fuel). Any captured or recycled CO 2<br />

from these sources<br />

will have a radiocarbon signal. The US EPA Greenhouse Gas<br />

(GHG) reporting rule requires the determination of the biogenic<br />

(biomass-derived) CO 2<br />

contribution from these sources using<br />

the ASTM D6866 standard. Thus, products made from these<br />

sources of captured CO 2<br />

may have biobased content.<br />

Conclusion<br />

While products derived from recycled CO 2<br />

may provide<br />

environmental benefits, they do not always meet the<br />

requirements to be considered as biobased products. There<br />

are over 2,500 products certified under the USDA BioPreferred<br />

Program based on testing per ASTM D6866 and countless<br />

products in Europe and Asia that qualify as biobased and<br />

whose biobased carbon content can be accurately validated.<br />

Modifying the existing D6866 (and ISO) standards to<br />

accommodate products made with recycled carbon dioxide<br />

devoid of carbon-14 content could negatively impact the<br />

credibility and market acceptance of biobased products and<br />

open the door to non-verifiable products. Separate verifiable<br />

standards and validation criteria for environmental benefit<br />

should be developed for these products. Approaches using<br />

carbon tagging or an audit approach would be useful to<br />

develop. Future standards for products captured from<br />

recycled CO 2<br />

containing only petroleum-based carbon are<br />

critical in order to develop this new class of chemicals and<br />

polymers.<br />

References<br />

1. Narayan, Ramani, The Promise of Bioplastics - Bio-Based and<br />

Biodegradable-Compostable Plastics, Editor: Kabasci, Stephan Bio-<br />

Based Plastics, Chapter 14, 347-357, 2014, DOI:10.1002/9781118676646<br />

2. Ramani Narayan, Biobased & Biodegradable Polymer Materials:<br />

Rationale, Drivers, and Technology Exemplars; ACS (an American<br />

Chemical Society publication) Symposium Ser. 1114, Chapter 2, pg 13-31,<br />

2012<br />

3. ASTM International. ASTM D6866 - 18, Standard Test Methods for<br />

Determining the Biobased Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples<br />

Using Radiocarbon Analysis. 2018.<br />

4. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 16620-2:2015,<br />

Plastics -- Biobased content -- Part 2: Determination of biobased carbon<br />

content. 2015.<br />

5. United States Department of Agriculture. Fact Sheet: Overview of<br />

USDA’s BioPreferred Program. (https://www.usda.gov/media/pressreleases/2016/02/18/fact-sheet-overview-usdas-biopreferred-program).<br />

6. United States Department of Agriculture. What is BioPreferred? (https://<br />

www.biopreferred.gov/BioPreferred/faces/pages/AboutBioPreferred.<br />

xhtml).<br />

7. TUV Austria. OK biobased. Belgium. (http://www.tuv-at.be/certifications/<br />

ok-biobased/).<br />

8. TUV Rheinland Din CERTCO. Certification Scheme Biobased Products in<br />

accordance with ASTM D 6866 and/or ISO 16620, Parts 1-3 and/ or DIN<br />

SPEC 91236 (DIN CEN/TS 16137). Berlin, Germany, 2015. (https://www.<br />

dincertco.de/media/dincertco/dokumente_1/certification_schemes/<br />

Biobasierte_Produkte_biobased_products_certification_scheme.pdf).<br />

Want to help ASTM D20.96 ?<br />

ASTM D20.96 Environmentally Degradable Plastics and<br />

Biobased Products subcommittee is moving forward with<br />

developing a recycled/capture carbon content standard and is<br />

actively seeking individuals interested in helping. If you have<br />

interest in this, please email Kelvin Okamoto<br />

(kelvin@greenbottomline.com).<br />

Biobased vs. recycled CO 2<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 49

new<br />

series<br />

Bioplastic Patents<br />

By:<br />

Barry Dean,<br />

Naperville, Illinois, USA<br />

U.S. Patent 10,087,305 (October 2, 2018): “Nucleated<br />

Crystallization of Poly(Trimethylene-2,5-Furandicarboxylate)<br />

(PTF) and Articles Made Therefrom”, Gordon Mark Cohen,<br />

Frederik Nederberg, Bhuma Rajagopalan, (E. I. DuPont De<br />

Nemours and Company. (Wilmington, DE USA)<br />

Ref: PCT WO2015/095466 EP<br />

The composition taught is a block copolymer consisting of<br />

a hard segment, poly(trimethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate)<br />

and a soft segment, 2,5-furan dicarboxylate based<br />

poly(alkylene ether glycol). A critical teaching is the use<br />

of a nucleating agent, a neutralized carboxylic acid salt or<br />

trisodium phosphate, for promoting crystallization of the<br />

hard segment from the melt which is key for the injection<br />

molding process cycle time. The level of nucleating agent is<br />

1 – 2.5 weight %<br />

The ratio of hard segment to soft segment will influence<br />

bulk mechanical properties such as modulus, impact<br />

strength and compressive strength.<br />

This section highlights recently granted patents<br />

that are relevant to the specific theme/focus of<br />

the Bioplastics Magazine issue. The information<br />

offered is intended to acquaint the reader with<br />

a sampling of know-how being developed to<br />

enable growth of the bioplastics markets.<br />

The five patents cited demonstrate<br />

compositions and process for renewable/<br />

biodegradable injection moldable compositions.<br />

Key for injection molding are compositions that<br />

deliver bulk properties in the final article but also<br />

must offer fast cycle times for the production of<br />

the molded article.<br />

U.S. Patent 9,914,831 (March 13, 2018): ”Injection Molded<br />

Article”, Maximillian Lehenmeier, Gabriel Skupin, Martin<br />

Bussmann , (BASF SE, Ludwigshafen DE)<br />

Ref: PCT WO2015/169660<br />

This patent teaches an injection molding composition<br />

exhibiting an HDT of 80 – 105 C with balance of Charpy impact<br />

strength and modulus to allow for thin wall structures. The<br />

multi-component composition consists of 47 – 59 weight<br />

% of polyester derived from succinic acid and a C6 – C20<br />

aliphatic acid with 1,3-propanediol and 1,4-butanediol; 3-<br />

14 weight % of polyester derived from C6 – C20 aliphatic<br />

acid and terephthalic acid with 1,3-propanediol and<br />

1,4-butanediol; 15 – 24 weight % of polylactic acid and 10<br />

– 35 % mineral filler(eg talc). Chain extender is used in the<br />

polyesters to control molecular weight.<br />

The compositions illustrated are tailored to control<br />

HDT, modulus and impact based on application as well<br />

as injection molding cycle time and structure dimensional<br />

stability. Preferred applications are coffee capsules, coffee<br />

cup lids and tableware.<br />

The biodegradability/compostability of the injection<br />

molded article is determined by the polymer matrices<br />

selection.<br />

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

U.S. Patent 10,189,989 (January 29, <strong>2019</strong>): “Polyester<br />

Mixture Including Polyethylene-2,5-Furandicarboxylate”,<br />

Anne K. Moeller, Klan Molawi, Motomori Yamamato, (BASF<br />

SE)<br />

Ref: PCT WO2015/150141<br />

This patent teaches poly(cyclohexylenedimethylene-<br />

2,5-furandicarboxylate)(PCF) can be nucleated with<br />

poly(ethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate). PCF is a semicrystalline<br />

polyester with a Tg of 86 – 87 C, Tm of 267 C and<br />

onset of recrystallization at 217 – 223 C. For the injection<br />

molding process a higher onset of recrystallization is<br />

important for both cycle time and dimensional stability.<br />

Other nucleating agents are shown to increase the onset of<br />

crystallization of PCF by 10 – 12 C while 1 weight % PEF is<br />

shown to increase the onset of nucleation of PCF to 243 C,<br />

an increase of 25 C relative to non-nucleated PCF.<br />

The patent also teaches that PEF can have nucleation<br />

benefits in other renewable polymers such as PBS and<br />

PBAT<br />

U. S. Patent 10,160,857 (December 25, 2018):<br />

“Thermoplastic Resin Composition and Molded Article<br />

Made Therefrom”, Chansu Kim, Kyunghae Lee, Jun Chwae,<br />

Mooho Lee, Kwangmyung Cho, (Samsung Electronics Ltd<br />

Korea)<br />

A thermoplastic composition based on a polylactic<br />

acid and a inorganic-organic particle tailored to improve<br />

impact strength and heat resistance is taught. The particle<br />

consists of an inorganic core and an organic coating layer<br />

on the core. Significant improvement in impact strength and<br />

heat resistance are illustrated when the inorganic-organic<br />

particle is based on organic coating layer that is a block<br />

copolymer for polycaprolactone and PLA. Lower impact<br />

strength and heat resistance are shown when the organic<br />

coating layer is either polycaprolactone or PLA or when the<br />

polycaprolactone/PLA layer is a copolymer and not a block<br />

copolymer. The inorganic particle diameter is less than 100<br />

nm. The thermoplastic composition illustrated is 74 % by<br />

weight PLA, 20 % by weight inorganic-organic particle and<br />

the remainder is a plasticizer and nucleating agent. The<br />

inorganic-organic particle can be ranged from 5 – 40 weight<br />

% to tailor properties.<br />

The organic layer that is taught as a block copolymer<br />

of polycaprolactone and PLA is key to enabling the bulk<br />

composition to offer improved impact strength and heat<br />

resistance compared with the polylactic acid matrix.<br />

U.S. Patent 10,240,007 (March 29, <strong>2019</strong>): “Shaped<br />

Polylactide Article and Method of Preparation”, Siebe<br />

Cornelis De Vos, Robert Edgar Haan, Geraldus Gerardus<br />

Johannes Schennink, (Purac Biochem BV Netherlands)<br />

Ref: PCT WO2016/102163<br />

This patent teaches a method to maximize the formation<br />

of the stereocomplex(sc) crystallinity from mixtures of two<br />

enantiomers PLLA and PDLA. The method consists of<br />

mixing a first homopolylactide with an excess of a second<br />

homopolylactide where the first and second homopolylactide<br />

are poly-L-lactide(PLLA) or poly-D-lactide(PDLA). This<br />

mixing is done in the molten state and the pellets allowed<br />

to cool and crystallize as a blend of the sc-PLA. The pellet<br />

sc-PLA is blended with pellets of the first homolactide and<br />

melt processed into an article where the melt processing<br />

temperatures are above the melting points of the PLLA<br />

and PDLA(Tm= 175 C) but below that of the sc-PLA(Tm =<br />

230 - 240 C). This method maintains the modulus, impact<br />

and elongation while providing an increase in bulk thermal<br />

performance via maximizing the sc-PLA.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 51

Brand Owner<br />

Brand-Owner’s perspective<br />

on bioplastics and how to<br />

unleash its full potential<br />

With bioplastics we see an opportunity to increase the renewable content<br />

in our cars, but there are still some concerns regarding availability and<br />

recyclability in some cases. At this stage, we see the use of renewable fibres<br />

for reinforced plastics as the first option to increase bio-content. The addition<br />

of a portion of renewable raw material in normal plastics production, and<br />

calculate the biomass balance, would also be an option for us.<br />

www.volvocars.com<br />

Christina Zander, spokeswoman for Volvo<br />

‘Basics‘ book on bioplastics<br />

This book, created and published by Polymedia Publisher, maker of<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is available in English and German language<br />

(German now in the second, revised edition).<br />

The book is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction<br />

into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all interested readers, in<br />

particular those who have not yet had the opportunity to dig deeply into<br />

the subject, such as students or those just joining this industry, and lay<br />

readers. It gives an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains which<br />

renewable resources can be used to produce bioplastics, what types<br />

of bioplastic exist, and which ones are already on the market. Further<br />

aspects, such as market development, the agricultural land required, and<br />

waste disposal, are also examined.<br />

An extensive index allows the reader to find specific aspects quickly,<br />

and is complemented by a comprehensive literature list and a guide to<br />

sources of additional information on the Internet.<br />

The author Michael Thielen is editor and publisher bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE. He is a qualified machinery design engineer with a degree<br />

in plastics technology from the RWTH University in Aachen. He has<br />

written several books on the subject of blow-moulding technology and<br />

disseminated his knowledge of plastics in numerous presentations,<br />

seminars, guest lectures and teaching assignments.<br />

110 pages full color, paperback<br />

ISBN 978-3-9814981-1-0: Bioplastics<br />

ISBN 978-3-9814981-2-7: Biokunststoffe<br />

2. überarbeitete Auflage<br />

Order now for € 18.65 or US-$ 25.00 (+ VAT where applicable, plus shipping and handling, ask for details)<br />

order at www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/books, by phone +49 2161 6884463 or by e-mail books@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Or subscribe and get it as a free gift (see page 61 for details, outside German y only)<br />

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

10 Automotive Years ago<br />

10<br />

Years ago<br />

Published in<br />

bioplastics<br />


In May <strong>2019</strong>,<br />

Tim Colonnese,<br />

CEO, KTM,<br />

said:<br />

Rigid Packaging<br />

Thermal<br />

Cooler Box<br />

S<br />

andoz, Inc. (Princeton, New Jersey, USA) and KTM<br />

Industries, Inc. (Lansing, Michigan, USA) recently<br />

announced the launch of the Green Cell Cooler<br />

Box - the first 100% biobased and completely compostable/recyclable<br />

thermal cooler to protect pharmaceutical<br />

products during shipment. The Green Cell Cooler Box is<br />

a standard corrugate box outer lined with panels of cornstarch-based<br />

Green Cell Foam, manufactured by KTM.<br />

Green Cell Foam meets ASTM D400 and ISO 108 specifications<br />

for biodegradability under composting conditions.<br />

Led by Mark Kuhl, Packaging Development Manager<br />

for Sandoz, the project was in response to a new way of<br />

thinking at Sandoz where sustainability has become a<br />

top priority. This was a perfect opportunity to shift the<br />

paradigm and find a packaging solution that utilizes<br />

bio-renewable resources and offers an environmentally<br />

responsible end-of-life option.<br />

The typical pharmaceutical insulated shipper is<br />

constructed with polystyrene and is used for 24-2 hours<br />

before it is discarded. Non-renewable polystyrene is<br />

recyclable but the facilities to enable this are limited and<br />

cost prohibitive, thus relegating it to landfills. Sandoz’<br />

mission was to find an effective sustainable alternative<br />

to polystyrene based on biofeedstocks that would<br />

assimilate back into nature after its use. The mission was<br />

accomplished with Green Cell Foam which is compostable<br />

and can be recycled in the paper recycling stream along<br />

www.greencellfoam.com<br />

with the outer box, thereby affording the end user with<br />

flexibility in the end-of-life disposal process.<br />

Mr. Kuhl set out to design, test and validate a cost effective<br />

‘green’ cooler that met the rigorous cold-chain shipping<br />

requirements for protecting sensitive pharmaceutical<br />

products. During his tests he discovered Green Cell Foam not<br />

only insulates as well as polystyrene but it also absorbs excess<br />

condensation that would potentially damage the contents of<br />

the package. Green Cell’s ability to wick out ambient moisture<br />

presents a cleaner package for the customer by eliminating<br />

any pooling of water due to condensation.<br />

Green Cell Foam also provides significantly improved<br />

protection against shock and vibration damage when<br />

compared to traditional shipping coolers. Polystyrene coolers<br />

are somewhat brittle and have the propensity to crack under<br />

stress – even from a single impact. A break in the foam can<br />

compromise the integrity of the cooler by providing a channel<br />

for outside air to flow inside. Green Cell Foam can absorb<br />

multiple hits without cracking or breaking, providing a more<br />

stable thermal barrier while also providing improved impact<br />

protection to the contents. This adds value to the overall<br />

package while reducing damage claims.<br />

Sustainability was a key driver to this project. Sandoz<br />

wanted to see the environmental effects of switching from<br />

polystyrene to Green Cell Foam. KTM turned to Dr. Ramani<br />

Narayan of Michigan State University for the answer.<br />

Dr. Narayan provided life cycle assessment data which<br />

demonstrated a significant improvement in all but one of<br />

the LCA indices (eutrophication is slightly higher with Green<br />

Cell). The key metrics from the LCA comparison are an 80%<br />

reduction in greenhouse gases and a 0% decrease in energy<br />

requirements.<br />

In June 2009, refreshed graphics will grace the outside of<br />

the coolers which will help educate customers recognize and<br />

understand the benefits of the Green Cell Cooler. Mr. Kuhl is<br />

now designing additional sizes of Green Cell Coolers for use<br />

within Sandoz’ North American operations.<br />

It’s a real win-win situation for Sandoz and their customers:<br />

improved performance, improved convenience and a big<br />

improvement for the environment.<br />

A lot can change in 10<br />

years. For KTM, everything<br />

has changed in 10 years. In<br />

2009, bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

published this article about<br />

the launch of KTM’s Green Cell Cooler Box, a<br />

biobased, compostable alternative to polystyrene<br />

coolers made from KTM”s cornstarchbased<br />

Green Cell Foam. Sandoz, a subsidiary<br />

of Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), was the<br />

first adopter, using the Green Cell Cooler<br />

Box as an effective way to ship pharmaceuticals<br />

while demonstrating environmental<br />

sustainability. Today, Sandoz and Novartis<br />

are using Green Cell Coolers to protect lifesaving<br />

products in transit. And they’re not<br />

alone: over 36 other pharma-based companies<br />

have integrated Green Cell Coolers into<br />

their operations. And over 200 other companies<br />

in the food, nutritional supplement,<br />

and life sciences industries have jumped on<br />

board, helping Green Cell Coolers develop<br />

and maintain a reputation for consistent,<br />

high-level performance. And the changes<br />

don’t stop there. KTM now offers its customers<br />

access to a team of packaging<br />

engineers equipped with design software,<br />

testing equipment and an ISTA-certified<br />

lab to help design, test and certify custom<br />

packaging using Green Cell Foam.<br />

From a 1,600m² (18,000 sqft) facility in<br />

2009, KTM has recently moved into a<br />

7,900 m² (85,000 sqft) facility in Michigan<br />

and has committed to a 5-200 m²<br />

(56,000 sqft) manufacturing facility in<br />

Nevada to better serve western US<br />

customers, expected to open in August<br />

<strong>2019</strong>. Plans are in process to expand<br />

outside of the US in 2020. Yes, a lot has<br />

changed in 10 years. And we expect<br />

that the changes over the next ten<br />

years will be even greater.<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/09] Vol. 4<br />

tinyurl.com/2009foam<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 53

Basics<br />

Mind the right terms<br />

Biodegradable vs. compostable vs. oxo-degradable plastics:<br />

A straightforward explanation<br />

As consumer demand for sustainable products grows,<br />

bioplastics —which can reduce our reliance on fossil<br />

fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions— will<br />

become more prevalent. Production of bioplastics is expected<br />

to grow by as much as 20% by 2022 [1], and as it<br />

does, consumer understanding of bioplastics will need to<br />

grow with it.<br />

A major source of confusion is the difference between<br />

three terms: Biodegradability, compostability and oxodegradability.<br />

Although these terms are often used<br />

interchangeably, they are not synonymous. Confusion<br />

regarding common bioplastics terminology such as these,<br />

especially where it concerns the disposal of bioplastic<br />

products, can have dire consequences. Companies need<br />

to understand the distinctions between each category in<br />

order to accurately and honestly market their products.<br />

And consumers need to understand these terms in order to<br />

make educated purchasing decisions and properly dispose<br />

of bioplastic products at the end of use.<br />

Understanding bioplastics: Biobased vs.<br />

biodegradable<br />

To understand these three terms (i.e., biodegradability,<br />

compostability and oxo-degradability), it is important<br />

first to clearly understand the definition of bioplastics<br />

[2]. Bioplastics refer to a large family of plastics which<br />

are sourced from biomass at the beginning of their life<br />

(biobased), metabolized into organic biomass at the end of<br />

their life (biodegradable), or both.<br />

Based on this, bioplastics can be broken down into three<br />

distinct classifications [3]:<br />

• Fully or partially biobased but NOT biodegradable. (e.g.,<br />

biobased PET, biobased PE, Terratek® SC or Terratek®<br />

WC)<br />

• Fully or partially biobased AND biodegradable (e.g., PLA<br />

or starch blends such as Terratek® BD).<br />

• Biodegradable and petroleum-based (e.g., PCL).<br />

Biodegradable plastics are a relatively small subset<br />

of bioplastics which can be converted into water, carbon<br />

dioxide (CO2) and bio-mass over time with the help of<br />

micro-organisms — this process is called biodegradation.<br />

And because the biodegradability of a plastic lies within the<br />

chemical structure of the polymer —and not the source of<br />

the feedstock— biodegradable plastics can be either bio- or<br />

petroleum-based.<br />

Biodegradable vs. compostable vs. oxodegradable<br />

plastics<br />

Nearly every material will biodegrade, given enough<br />

time. But the length of the biodegradation process is highly<br />

dependent on environmental parameters such as humidity<br />

and temperature, which is why claiming that a plastic is<br />

“biodegradable” without any further context (i.e., in what<br />

timeframe and under what environmental conditions) is<br />

misleading to consumers.<br />

Reputable companies will often make more specific<br />

claims, primarily certifying that their bioplastics are<br />

compostable. Compostable plastics are a subset of<br />

biodegradable plastics, defined by the standard conditions<br />

and timeframe under which they will biodegrade. All<br />

compostable plastics are biodegradable, but not all<br />

biodegradable plastics would be considered compostable.<br />

Certified compostable: A more specific claim of<br />

biodegradability<br />

Compostable plastics are those plastics which have been<br />

tested and certified by a third party (e.g. BPI [4], DIN Certco,<br />

TÜV Austria etc.) to adhere to international standards<br />

such as ASTM D6400 (in the U.S.) or EN 13432 (in Europe)<br />

for biodegradation in an industrial composting facility<br />

environment.<br />

Materials certified according to ASTM D6400 or EN 13432<br />

will disintegrate within 12 weeks and biodegrade at least<br />

90% within 180 days in a municipal or industrial composting<br />

facility. Approximately 10% of solid material will be left<br />

at the end of the six-month-long process in the form of<br />

valuable compost, or biomass and water. These standards<br />

also ensure that the leftover compost will be free of toxins,<br />

so the compost will not cause harm when the facility sells it<br />

for gardening or agricultural applications.<br />

Unless otherwise denoted, certified compostable products<br />

must be disposed of in a designated municipal composting<br />

facility, not at home. Many certified compostable materials<br />

require the higher temperatures of industrial settings to<br />

biodegrade quickly enough, or in some cases at all.<br />

Other than in many countries (in Europe e.g. Germany,<br />

Italy, France, Sweden, The Netherlands etc.) few areas in<br />

the USA have curbside collection for industrial composting,<br />

which is why certified compostable products are best utilized<br />

in closed systems such as amusement parks, stadiums and<br />

schools, where compostable and organic waste is carefully<br />

monitored and controlled to ensure proper disposal in an<br />

industrial composting facility. San Francisco International<br />

Airport [5] and Safeco Field in Seattle [6] are two good<br />

examples of organizations using composting as a means of<br />

reducing their carbon footprint and diverting organic waste<br />

from landfills. Find more info on the differences in different<br />

countries in bM 05/2018.<br />

A quick note on oxo-degradable plastics<br />

While often confused with biodegradable plastics,<br />

oxo-degradables are a category unto themselves. They<br />

are neither a bioplastic nor a biodegradable plastic, but<br />

rather a conventional plastic mixed with an additive in<br />

order to imitate biodegradation. Oxo-degradable plastics<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

By:<br />

Kevin Ireland<br />

Communications Manager<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics<br />

Emporia, Kansas, USA<br />

COMPEO<br />

quickly fragment into smaller and smaller pieces, called<br />

microplastics, but don’t break down at the molecular or<br />

polymer level like biodegradable and compostable plastics.<br />

The resulting microplastics are left in the environment<br />

indefinitely until they maybe eventually fully break down. A<br />

scientifically backed evidence for “bio”degradation was not<br />

presented until today.<br />

The importance of clearly and accurately<br />

labeling plastic products<br />

As bioplastics continue to gain market share in the<br />

coming years, being clear about the environmental benefits<br />

in product and material marketing is imperative. Looking to<br />

the U.S. Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) Green Guides<br />

[7] is a good place to start. The Green Guides outline best<br />

practices for clearly labeling and marketing green products<br />

to ensure the expectations of the consumer align.<br />

Not only will transparency allow consumers to make<br />

smarter purchasing decisions, but it will ensure bioplastics<br />

are disposed of through the proper channels. Ultimately,<br />

better end-of-life disposal of bioplastics strengthens their<br />

environmental value proposition of diverting organic waste<br />

from landfills, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and<br />

ensuring the sustainable consumption of resources.<br />

For further reading we also suggest previous articles<br />

published in bioplastics MAGAZINE [8, 9, and 10]. They are<br />

available for download at www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/<br />

en/miscellaneous/downloads.php<br />

Leading compounding technology<br />

for heat- and shear-sensitive plastics<br />

References<br />

[1] www.european-bioplastics.org/market/<br />

[2] www.greendotbioplastics.com/bioplastics-101-introduction-key-termssustainable-plastics/<br />

[3] www.european-bioplastics.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2.1_<br />

Material-Koordinatensystem_eng_2015_150109-1.jpg<br />

[4] https://bpiworld.org/CertifiedCompostable<br />

[5] www.sfexaminer.com/news/at-sfo-zero-waste-means-zero-confusion/<br />

[6] www.mlb.com/mariners/ballpark/information/sustainability<br />

[7] www.ftc.gov/news-events/media-resources/truth-advertising/greenguides<br />

[8] Narayan, R.: Biodegradability - Sorting through Facts and Claims;<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE 01/2009<br />

[9] Narayan, R.: Misleading Claims and Misuse of Standards Continues to<br />

Proliferate in the Bioplastics Industry; bioplastics MAGAZINE 01/2010<br />

[10] Ißbrücker, C.: Can Additives make conventional plastics biodegradable?<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE 01/2017<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

Uniquely efficient. Incredibly versatile. Amazingly flexible.<br />

With its new COMPEO Kneader series, BUSS continues<br />

to offer continuous compounding solutions that set the<br />

standard for heat- and shear-sensitive applications, in all<br />

industries, including for biopolymers.<br />

• Moderate, uniform shear rates<br />

• Extremely low temperature profile<br />

• Efficient injection of liquid components<br />

• Precise temperature control<br />

• High filler loadings<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 55

Basics<br />

Plastic microparticles<br />

Small particles of plastic were first reported in marine<br />

environments in the early 1970s. However, it wasn’t<br />

until the term ‘microplastics’ was coined in 2004 that<br />

the issue started to generate significant attention.<br />

What are microplastics?<br />

Plastic particles smaller than 5 millimetres are generally<br />

considered to be microplastic. ‘Primary’ microplastics are<br />

purposely made this size. However, most are ‘secondary’<br />

microplastics derived from the degradation and<br />

fragmentation of larger plastic items.<br />

Microbeads used in personal care products, such as<br />

facial cleansers are a well-known example of primary<br />

microplastics. Secondary microplastics are often fibres<br />

originating from the wear and laundering of clothing.<br />

Another major source of secondary microplastics is<br />

vehicles on the road, where normal wear and tear of tyres<br />

and plastic components of the vehicles contribute as well<br />

as wear of paints from road markings. Uncontrolled plastic<br />

waste and litter also break down into microplastics over<br />

time through weathering.<br />

Microplastics frequently end up in the ocean. Secondary<br />

microplastics are often swept there directly during rainfall,<br />

or, like primary microplastics, which are designed to<br />

be washed into sewers, eventually make it their way via<br />

wastewater treatment systems where they are not captured<br />

due to their small size.<br />

Microplastics downunder<br />

Scientists at Scion (Rotorua, New Zealand) and the<br />

University of Canterbury (Christchurch, New Zealand) have<br />

been identifying, quantifying and characterising plastic<br />

microparticles in Auckland waterways. Auckland is New<br />

Zealand’s largest city with zones of high industry, varying<br />

land use, estuaries, two harbours and western and eastern<br />

coastlines.<br />

Over 170 sediment samples were collected and analysed.<br />

In line with international trends, the majority of the<br />

microparticles recovered were fibres, likely derived from<br />

textiles. Higher counts were observed in samples collected<br />

near the discharge of wastewater treatment plants. Infrared<br />

spectroscopy of the microparticle polymer type showed the<br />

majority of the plastic microparticles to be polyethylene,<br />

polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene. Around 40%<br />

were found to be cellulose and regenerated cellulose [1].<br />

Effects of microplastics<br />

In the ocean, microplastics can be ingested all along<br />

the food chain up to shellfish and fish. This can cause<br />

physical damage such as obstructions or<br />

abrasions and potentially transfer plastic<br />

additives such as phthalates.<br />

The long-term effects of microplastics<br />

on humans is still unknown. However, it is<br />

believed that ingested microplastics larger<br />

than 150 microns (the size of fine sand<br />

grains) will pass through the body without any<br />

issues. Particles smaller than this can pass<br />

through the gut wall and travel to different parts of<br />

the body. The main ways microplastics are consumed<br />

by humans are through seafood, including salt, or drinking<br />

water and breathing in of household air (or dust).<br />

Expectations of public, industry and government<br />

Many countries have implemented policies to ban plastic<br />

microbeads and reduce single use plastics such as plastic<br />

bags. However, as only a portion of microplastics originate<br />

Plastic and<br />

microplastics on a<br />

Caribbean beach<br />

from these items (the major sources being synthetic<br />

textiles, tyres, city dust, paint…), expectations of a quick fix<br />

are misguided.<br />

Bioplastics as a solution?<br />

Substituting with marine biodegradable polymers<br />

is touted as one potential solution to the microplastic<br />

problem. Unfortunately, the situation in not that simple.<br />

Some polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been shown to<br />

be marine biodegradable, however the estimated lifetime<br />

of objects made from PHA in a marine environment still<br />

range from 1 to 5 years. Further, the impact of the PHA<br />

microparticles on marine organisms within this period is<br />

56 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14

By:<br />

Jamie Bridson and Kate Parker<br />

Biopolymers and Chemical Technologies<br />

Scion<br />

Rotorua, New Zealand<br />

still unknown. As reported by Francesco<br />

Degli Innocenti in Bioplastic Magazine<br />

Vol.14/1, biodegradability reduces the<br />

risk, but ultimately mitigation using<br />

bioplastics should be based on sound<br />

impact and risk assessment methodology.<br />

Oxo-degradable plastics are sometimes<br />

suggested as another possible solution.<br />

However, oxo-degradable plastics are designed<br />

to fragment into microplastics meaning they<br />

actually contribute to the problem.<br />

Turning the tide<br />

A wide range of clean-up strategies have been proposed<br />

by various groups from community litter collections to vast<br />

ocean clean ups. However, preventing microplastics being<br />

generated or reaching the environment in the first place<br />

are better solutions. Improved waste management, circular<br />

Join us at the<br />

14th European Bioplastics<br />

Conference<br />

The leading business forum for the<br />

bioplastics industry<br />

economy principles and new materials will all form part of<br />

the solution to this challenging but extremely important<br />

issue.<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

This work was funded by the New Zealand Ministry for<br />

the Environment through the Waste Minimisation Fund and<br />

Packaging Council of New Zealand (PAC.NZ). Work was<br />

supported by collaborators at Auckland Council, Watercare<br />

and the University of Auckland.<br />

[1] https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_<br />

id=1&objectid=12164041<br />

www.scionresearch.com<br />

3/4 December <strong>2019</strong><br />

Titanic Chaussee Hotel<br />

Berlin, Germany<br />

@EUBioplastics #eubpconf<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org/events<br />


NOW!<br />

For more information email:<br />

conference@european-bioplastics.org<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14 57

Suppliers Guide<br />

1. Raw Materials<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Conrathstraße 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

bioplastics.starch@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe<br />

Polyester Co., Ltd.<br />

No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji,<br />

Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China<br />

Tel.: +86 994 2716865<br />

Mob: +86 18699400676<br />

maxirong@lanshantunhe.com<br />

http://www.lanshantunhe.com<br />

PBAT & PBS resin supplier<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.kingfa.com<br />

39 mm<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be present among top suppliers in<br />

the field of bioplastics.<br />

For Example:<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and<br />

extends automatically if it’s not canceled<br />

three month before expiry.<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

BASF SE<br />

Ludwigshafen, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 621 60-9995<br />

martin.bussmann@basf.com<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

Gianeco S.r.l.<br />

Via Magenta 57 10128 Torino - Italy<br />

Tel.+390119370420<br />

info@gianeco.com<br />

www.gianeco.com<br />

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.<br />

info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com<br />

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563<br />

MCPP Germany GmbH<br />

+49 (0) 152-018 920 51<br />

frank.steinbrecher@mcpp-europe.com<br />

MCPP France SAS<br />

+33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32<br />

fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com<br />

Microtec Srl<br />

Via Po’, 53/55<br />

30<strong>03</strong>0, Mellaredo di Pianiga (VE),<br />

Italy<br />

Tel.: +39 041 5190621<br />

Fax.: +39 041 5194765<br />

info@microtecsrl.com<br />

www.biocomp.it<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.jinhuizhaolong.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou,<br />

Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China<br />

China contact: Grace Jin<br />

mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843<br />

Grace@xinfupharm.comEurope<br />

contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang<br />

mobile: 0<strong>03</strong>2 478 991619<br />

zxh0612@hotmail.com<br />

www.xinfupharm.com<br />

1.1 bio based monomers<br />

1.2 compounds<br />

Cardia Bioplastics<br />

Suite 6, 205-211 Forster Rd<br />

Mt. Waverley, VIC, 3149 Australia<br />

Tel. +61 3 85666800<br />

info@cardiabioplastics.com<br />

www.cardiabioplastics.com<br />

API S.p.A.<br />

Via Dante Alighieri, 27<br />

36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy<br />

Telephone +39 0424 579711<br />

www.apiplastic.com<br />

www.apinatbio.com<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH<br />

BioCampus Cologne<br />

Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

Global Biopolymers Co.,Ltd.<br />

Bioplastics compounds<br />

(PLA+starch;PLA+rubber)<br />

194 Lardproa80 yak 14<br />

Wangthonglang, Bangkok<br />

Thailand 1<strong>03</strong>10<br />

info@globalbiopolymers.com<br />

www.globalbiopolymers.com<br />

Tel +66 81 9150446<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics<br />

226 Broadway | PO Box #142<br />

Cottonwood Falls, KS 66845, USA<br />

Tel.: +1 620-273-8919<br />

info@greendotholdings.com<br />

www.greendotpure.com<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers<br />

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329<br />

50016 Zaragoza, Spain<br />

Tel: +34 976 465 579<br />

inzea@samca.com<br />

www.inzea-biopolymers.com<br />

Sukano AG<br />

Chaltenbodenstraße 23<br />

CH-8834 Schindellegi<br />

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77<br />

Fax +41 44 787 57 78<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

58 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14

Suppliers Guide<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

3. Semi finished products<br />

3.1 films<br />

Natureplast – Biopolynov<br />

11 rue François Arago<br />

14123 IFS<br />

Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87<br />

www.natureplast.eu<br />

TECNARO GmbH<br />

Bustadt 40<br />

D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)7062/97687-0<br />

www.tecnaro.de<br />

1.3 PLA<br />

Total Corbion PLA bv<br />

Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21<br />

4200 AA Gorinchem<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 183 695 695<br />

Fax.: +31 183 695 604<br />

www.total-corbion.com<br />

pla@total-corbion.com<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District,<br />

Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China<br />

Tel: +86-576-88827723<br />

pla@hisunpharm.com<br />

www.hisunplas.com<br />

1.4 starch-based bioplastics<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Grabio Greentech Corporation<br />

Tel: +886-3-598-6496<br />

No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu<br />

Industrial Park,Hukou Township,<br />

Hsinchu County 3<strong>03</strong>51, Taiwan<br />

sales@grabio.com.tw<br />

www.grabio.com.tw<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

Bio-on S.p.A.<br />

Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3<br />

40136 Bologna - ITALY<br />

Tel.: +39 051 392336<br />

info@bio-on.it<br />

www.bio-on.it<br />

Kaneka Belgium N.V.<br />

Nijverheidsstraat 16<br />

2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium<br />

Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36<br />

Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81<br />

info.biopolymer@kaneka.be<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

1.6 masterbatches<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Albrecht Dinkelaker<br />

Polymer and Product Development<br />

Blumenweg 2<br />

79669 Zell im Wiesental, Germany<br />

Tel.:+49 (0) 7625 91 84 58<br />

info@polyfea2.de<br />

www.caprowax-p.eu<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

TIPA-Corp. Ltd<br />

Hanagar 3 Hod<br />

Hasharon 4501306, ISRAEL<br />

P.O BOX 7132<br />

Tel: +972-9-779-6000<br />

Fax: +972 -9-7715828<br />

www.tipa-corp.com<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

Bio-on S.p.A.<br />

Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3<br />

40136 Bologna - ITALY<br />

Tel.: +39 051 392336<br />

info@bio-on.it<br />

www.bio-on.it<br />

Bio4Pack GmbH<br />

D-48419 Rheine, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 5975 955 94 57<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

BeoPlast Besgen GmbH<br />

Bioplastics injection moulding<br />

Industriestraße 64<br />

D-40764 Langenfeld, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2173 84840-0<br />

info@beoplast.de<br />

www.beoplast.de<br />


45, 0,90, 0<br />

10, 0, 80,0<br />

(ICBP) C, M, Y, KSDN BHD<br />

C, M, Y, K<br />

50, 0 ,0, 0<br />

0, 0, 0, 0<br />

12, Jalan i-Park SAC 3<br />

Senai Airport City<br />

81400 Senai, Johor, Malaysia<br />

Tel. +60 7 5959 159<br />

marketing@icbp.com.my<br />

www.icbp.com.my<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, COO<br />

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,<br />

Taichung County<br />

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)<br />

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888<br />

Fax +883(4)2277 6989<br />

Mobil +886(0)982-829988<br />

esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Skype esmy325<br />

www.minima.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.404.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@natur-tec.com<br />

www.natur-tec.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.<strong>03</strong>21.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.<strong>03</strong>21.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

6. Equipment<br />

6.1 Machinery & Molds<br />

Buss AG<br />

Hohenrainstrasse 10<br />

4133 Pratteln / Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00<br />

Fax: +41 61 825 68 58<br />

info@busscorp.com<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

6.2 Degradability Analyzer<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka,Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6155<br />

Fax: +81-54-623-8623<br />

info_fds@saidagroup.jp<br />

www.saidagroup.jp/fds_en/<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling<br />

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14 59

Suppliers Guide<br />

9. Services (continued)<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH<br />

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159<br />

D-13509 Berlin<br />

Tel. +49 30 43 567 5<br />

Fax +49 30 43 567 699<br />

sales.de@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG<br />

Via Innovativa 31, CH-7013 Domat/Ems<br />

Tel. +41 81 632 63 11<br />

Fax +41 81 632 74 <strong>03</strong><br />

sales.ch@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

9. Services<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46047 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Chemiepark Knapsack<br />

Industriestrasse 300<br />

5<strong>03</strong>54 Huerth, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

E-Mail: contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

70199 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62831<br />

silvia.kliem@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc.<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@hs-hannover.de<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

10.3 Other Institutions<br />

Green Serendipity<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

www.greenseredipity.nl<br />

Stay in the loop!<br />

Subscribe<br />

for free!<br />

@<br />

ogy.de/rubber-newsletter<br />

Subscribe<br />

for free!<br />

@<br />

ogy.de/pu-newsletter<br />

Subscribe<br />

for free!<br />

@<br />

ogy.de/tpe-newsletter<br />

60 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14

05/05/17 11:39<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Events<br />

Subscribe<br />

now at<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

the next six issues for €169.– 1)<br />

Event<br />

Calendar<br />


Special offer<br />

for students and<br />

young professionals<br />

1,2) € 99.-<br />

2) aged 35 and below.<br />

end a scan of your<br />

student card, your ID<br />

or similar proof ...<br />

26 th Anniversary meeting of the Bio-Environmental<br />

Polymer Society (BEPS)<br />

05.06.<strong>2019</strong> - 07.06.<strong>2019</strong> - Greenville, SC, USA<br />

http://www.beps.org/meetings/<br />

Biobased Coatings Europe <strong>2019</strong><br />

19.06.<strong>2019</strong> - 20.06.<strong>2019</strong> - Duesseldorf, Germany<br />

https://www.wplgroup.com/aci/crce2_agenda_mkg/<br />

Plastics beyond Petroleum - BioMass & Recycling<br />

25.06.<strong>2019</strong> - 27.06.<strong>2019</strong> - New York City Area, USA<br />

http://innoplastsolutions.com/conference.html<br />

Plastic Free World<br />

27.06.<strong>2019</strong> - 28.06.<strong>2019</strong> - Frankfurt, Germany<br />

https://plasticfree-world.com/<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Highlights<br />

Rigid packaging / Theromforming | 12<br />

Building & Construction | 23<br />

Basics<br />

Biobased Packaging | 46<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 14<br />

Mar / Apr<br />

r1_05.2017<br />

02 | <strong>2019</strong><br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

Green Serendipity<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 14 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Basics<br />

Microplastics | 56<br />

Mind the right terms | 54<br />

Captured CO 2 vs. biobased | 48<br />

Highlights<br />

Toys | 10<br />

Injection Moulding | 30<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 12<br />

May / June<br />

Cover Story<br />

bio-PE truck ride-on<br />

<strong>03</strong> | <strong>2019</strong><br />

4th International Conference on Bio-polymers &<br />

Polymer Chemistry<br />

11.07.<strong>2019</strong> - 12.07.<strong>2019</strong> - Las Vegas, NV, USA<br />

https://scientificfederation.com/icbpc-<strong>2019</strong>/index.php#sessions<br />

9th World Congress on Biopolymers & Bioplastics<br />

26.08.<strong>2019</strong> - 27.08.<strong>2019</strong> - London, Great Britain<br />

https://biopolymers.insightconferences.com/<br />

SPC Engage:London<br />

23.10.<strong>2019</strong> - 24.10.<strong>2019</strong> - London, Great Britain<br />

https://sustainablepackaging.org/events/spc-engage-london/<br />

+<br />

or<br />

Mention the promotion code ‘watch‘ or ‘book‘<br />

and you will get our watch or the book 3)<br />

Bioplastics Basics. Applications. Markets. for free<br />

(new subscribers only)<br />

1) Offer valid until 31 July <strong>2019</strong><br />

3) Gratis-Buch in Deutschland nicht möglich, no free book in Germany<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14 61

Companies in this issue<br />

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert<br />

5 Gyres 14<br />

Global Biopolymers 8 58 nova-Institute 8, 23 19, 39, 60<br />

Aakar Innovations 8<br />

Aeropowder 46<br />

Agrana Starch Bioplastics 21, 58<br />

AIJU 22<br />

Alterra Plastics 14<br />

API 58<br />

arbo Plastic 6<br />

Arctic Biomaterials 30<br />

Arkema 6<br />

Audi 28<br />

Balaenos 44<br />

BASF 7 58<br />

BeoPlast Besgen 59<br />

Beta Analytic 48<br />

Bio4Pack 59<br />

Bioblo 12, 26<br />

Biobuddi 23<br />

Bio-Fed Branch of Akro-Plastic 58<br />

Bio-on 43 59<br />

Bioserie 12, 16<br />

Biotec 59<br />

BPI 60<br />

Braskem 12, 18, 40<br />

Buss 55, 59<br />

Caprowachs, Albrecht Dinkelaker 59<br />

Cardia Bioplastics 58<br />

Cove 5<br />

dantoy 18, 23<br />

DIN Certco 5, 40<br />

DowDuPont 7<br />

Dr. Heinz Gupta Verlag 60<br />

DuPont 12, 14<br />

eKoala 12, 20, 23<br />

Emballator Tectubes 40<br />

Erema 59<br />

European Bioplastics 24, 47 57, 60<br />

Farrel Pomini 2 27<br />

Ferbedo 1, 4,28<br />

FKuR 12,18,28,40,40 2, 58<br />

Fraunhofer IAP 25<br />

Fraunhofer Silicat Research 46<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 32 60<br />

Gianeco 58<br />

Golden Compound 8<br />

GRABIO Greentech Corporation 59<br />

Grafe 58, 59<br />

Green Bottomline 48<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics 12, 25, 34, 54 58<br />

Green Serendipity 60<br />

Habermaaß 12<br />

Hands on Veggies 41<br />

Hape 23<br />

Hexpol TPE 12, 42<br />

Hötter Spiel 26<br />

Indochine Bio Plastiques 59<br />

Infraserv Knapsak 8<br />

Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomposites 35 60<br />

Institut f. Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart 60<br />

Jaguar 28<br />

Janod 23<br />

JenCaps 46<br />

JinHui Zhaolong 58<br />

Kaneka 5 59<br />

Kartell 43<br />

Kikadu 23<br />

Kingfa 58<br />

Kompuestos 6 59<br />

KTM 53<br />

Lactips, 7<br />

Lageen Tubes 40<br />

Lego 11<br />

Light my Fire 42<br />

Lipura 26<br />

Luke's Toy Factory 23<br />

MAN 28<br />

Mattel 12<br />

Messe Düsseldorf (K'<strong>2019</strong>) 31<br />

Michigan State University 48 60<br />

Microtec 58<br />

Minima Technology 59<br />

Multitubes 41<br />

narocon InnovationConsulting 10 60<br />

nature2need 32<br />

Natureplast-Biopolynov 59<br />

Natur-Tec 59<br />

Neste 12<br />

Novamont 20 59, 64<br />

Novartis 53<br />

Nuova Erreplast 46<br />

Nurel 58<br />

Ochis Coffee 43<br />

plastickjer 46<br />

Playmobil 12<br />

polymediaconsult 60<br />

Polymerfornt 40<br />

Pottery Barn Kids 14<br />

PTT MCC Biochem 58<br />

Ravensburger 12<br />

Saida 59<br />

Sandoz 53<br />

Schmiderer & Schendl 26<br />

Scion 5, 56<br />

SK Chemicals 42<br />

SKZ 35, 47<br />

SLK 35<br />

Spinnova 8<br />

Südpack Packaging 46<br />

Sukano 36 58<br />

Swox 41<br />

Tecnaro 12, 13, 47 59<br />

Teijin 7<br />

TianAn Biopolymer 59<br />

TicToys 12, 13<br />

TIPA 59<br />

Total-Corbion 12 59<br />

Trevira 46<br />

Tubex 41<br />

TÜV Austria 40<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer 60<br />

Univ Chemnitz 35<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 60<br />

Volvo Cars 28, 52<br />

Wiener Spielkarten 26<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 58<br />

Zapf Creatiuon 12<br />

Zeijiang Hisun Biomaterials 59<br />

Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharm. 58<br />

Zoë B Organic 12, 14<br />

<strong>Issue</strong><br />

Editorial Planner<br />

Month<br />

Publ.<br />

Date<br />

edit/ad/<br />

Deadline<br />

<strong>2019</strong><br />

02/<strong>2019</strong> Mar/Apr 08 Apr 19 08 Mrz 19 Thermoforming /<br />

Rigid Packaging<br />

Edit. Focus 1 Edit. Focus 2 Basics<br />

Building &<br />

construction<br />

Bioplastics in packaging<br />

(update)<br />

Trade-Fair<br />

Specials<br />

Subject to changes<br />

Chinaplas Preview<br />

<strong>03</strong>/<strong>2019</strong> May/Jun <strong>03</strong> Jun 19 <strong>03</strong> May 19 Injection moulding Toys Microplastics Chinaplas Review<br />

04/<strong>2019</strong> Jul/Aug 05 Aug 19 05 Jul 19 Blow Moulding Biocomposites incl.<br />

thermoset<br />

Home composting<br />

05/<strong>2019</strong> Sep/Oct 07.10.19 06.09.19 Fiber / Textile /<br />

Nonwoven<br />

Barrier materials<br />

Land use for bioplastics<br />

(update)<br />

K'<strong>2019</strong> Preview<br />

06/<strong>2019</strong> Nov/Dec 02.12.19 01.11.19 Films/Flexibles/<br />

Bags<br />

Consumer & office<br />

electronics<br />

Multilayer films<br />

K'<strong>2019</strong> Review<br />

62 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/19] Vol. 14





Made from potato starch, BIOPLAST® resins are designed to work on<br />

existing standard equipment for blown film, flat film, cast film, injection<br />

molded and thermoformed components.<br />

100 % biodegradable, BIOPLAST® is particularly suitable for ultra-light<br />

films with a thickness of approx. 10-15 μm.<br />

S002<br />


FREE<br />

S002<br />


HOME<br />


GRADE<br />

GMO FREE<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

member of the SPHERE<br />

group of companies<br />

LJ Corporate – © JB Mariou – BIOTEC HRA 1183


EcoComunicazione.it<br />


Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!