Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


4 th International Conference EATSA

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

June 18 - 22 2018, FRANCE

Dijon & Château-Chinon

Painting from Che Jen Su, President of EATSA


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


Challenges of tourism development in Asia & Europe -

Proceedings of the EATSA Conference 2018

Editor: Anne-Marie Lebrun

Copyright @ EATSA 2018

ISBN: 979-10-699-3179-4

All rights reserved. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or

review, no part of this book may be reproduced by any process without written permission

from the publisher.

Any enquiries should be directed to anne-marie.lebrun@u-bourgogne.fr


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe



The different actors of tourism who participate in the phenomenon of exoticism,

the example of Vietnam

Manon Binet ........................................................................................................................ 8

Sustainable Tourism in Developing Countries: Case of Tunisian Hotels

Hager Chaker, Katalin Ásványi, Ákos Varga ...................................................................... 15

Like Being a Stranger in Their Own Country: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Senior

Tourism in Indonesia Online News Articles

Made Diah Lestari, Yanki Hartijasti ................................................................................... 19

Evaluation of Tourism Routes - Case Study: Mainland Portugal

Carlos Vilela da Mota, Fernando F. Gonçalves ................................................................... 26

The potentials and pitfalls of urban-tourist development around of biosphere reserves:

The cases studies of Mata Atlântica (Brazil), Yancheng (China) and Camargue (France).

Francisco Antonio Carneiro Ferreira .................................................................................. 33

The importance of marinas in the economic development of coastal regions in Poland

Ewa Hącia, Roma Strulak-Wójcikiewicz ........................................................................... 43

The challenges of guiding in the 21st century

Anikó Husz ........................................................................................................................ 49

Culinary heritage in Győr and its surroundings

Csaba Kőmíves .................................................................................................................. 56

Problems of disabled tourists in nautical tourism

Aleksandra Łapko .............................................................................................................. 65

Smart management systems in cities and their marketing - A case of the city Waterloo,


Marica Mazurek ................................................................................................................. 72

Cybersecurity framework for independent hotels

Enrico Panai ....................................................................................................................... 83


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Problems of measuring touroperators marketing orientation on the European market

Aleksander Panasiuk .......................................................................................................... 91

Wellness Tourism: Motivation of tourist to visit retreat center of Nepal

Dwarika Upreti, Dikidomo Tamang ................................................................................... 96

The effective of the Mental Support for employees in Organizations. The case of Hotel

Organization in Japan

Shunsaku Hashimoto ........................................................................................................ 102


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Welcome to the 4 th EATSA Conference

On behalf of Euro-Asia Tourism Studies Association (EATSA), I take pleasure in welcoming

each of you attending the 4 th EATSA Conference in Dijon and Château Chinon.

It’s really an exciting time for us as we are celebrating the beginning of the fourth year of EATSA.

We lucky few founded this solid network which connects researchers who are dedicating

themselves to cross-cultural tourism studies. Many of you in this room cofounded EATSA with

us in Taiwan during the summer of 2015. We will continue to meet and bring inspired people

together in forums like this, to ensure our network remains at the cutting edge.

It has been generally agreed that tourism, hospitality, and leisure industries are sectors which are

high in mutual development and call for integration. In this sense, how to build a permanent

network to link researchers from these disciplines so that innovative collaborations will emerge

is a critical and urgent issue for us to address. These opportunities are accompanied by a variety

of challenges such as how to develop commonly acceptable principles that demonstrate the

shared values of cross-cultural or interdisciplinary studies in Asia and Europe. Obviously,

EATSA is planned to serve as a platform which elaborates diverse facets of these regions in terms

of their featured cultures, industries, and tourist destinations.

May I give special thanks to Dr. Anne-Marie Lebrun of University of Burgundy for her excellent

hosting job. I also would like to acknowledge the invaluable support of EATSA’s first president,

Dr. Francisco Dias of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.

I would like to congratulate everyone who has been contributing his or her expertise and energy

to make this conference a great success. No conference could be successful without the diligent

work of the Conference Chairs, the Keynote Speakers, the International Organizing Committee,

the Local Organizing Committee, and the Communication Committee. Their professionalism and

sincerity, among their many other traits made them invaluable members of the 4 th EATSA

Conference leadership team.

Finally, I would like to invite all who are interested in tourism studies in Asia and Europe to join

this grand network. I was convinced that the best part of the world lies in the future, not in the


I hope that you enjoy the conference and your stay in beautiful France.

Dr. Che-Jen Su

President of EATSA

Full Professor of Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Welcome to the 4 th EATSA Conference, 2018 France

It is my greatest pleasure to welcome you to the Annual Conference of EATSA - Euro-Asia Tourism Studies

Association. This is the 4 th Conference held in Dijon and Château-Chinon. I would like to express my

appreciation to everyone who contributed his or her expertise and energy to make this conference a great

success. I would like to express sincere appreciation to each of the Keynote Speakers, the Scholar Participants,

the EATSA Board, the Conference Chairs, the Conference Chairmen and the International and Local

Organizing Committees, which will lead to a successful and rewarding conference.

I also would like to acknowledge the invaluable support of the University of Burgundy, the UBFC, the MSH,

the Sport Science Faculty, our Research Laboratory C3S, our partner CIMEOS & LMFP Chateau Chinon,

our sponsors Nievre department, Musée de France, Dijon, Dijon Metropole, Château-Chinon and our

students in Sport Management.

Tourism is receiving a fair amount of interest in France which is the first word destination. The objectives of

EATSA conference 2018 are:

1. To provide an open forum for research and education in the field of tourism, hospitality and

recreation in Asia and Europe.

2. To promote the dialogue among scholars of all scientific disciplines engaged in the tourism studies,

in order to move from the current multi-disciplinary approach to a more integrated and transdisciplinary


3. To encourage the exchange of research results, practical experience, sharing new ideas and research

projects, and developing research networks among members and their institutions.

4. To promote a more intensive cooperation between European and Asian scholars in the fields of

Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation.

5. To foster more close connections between tourism academia and tourism industry.

6. To explore and discuss new perspectives on tourism and regional development in order to promote

new methodological and empirical approaches.

I am pleased to welcome you in Dijon, the heart of Burgundy, where tourism development is based on culture

because Dijon is a cultural urban destination with its museums, the dukes of Burgundy, the well of Moses,

but also on architecture with the art nouveaux buildings and the famous Burgundian roofs, and of course on

gastronomy, which includes Wine, because of the Gastronomic label of Dijon, the Unesco label of the

University of Burgundy (Chair on culture and tradition of wine which is unique in the world) and the

UNESCO label of “les Climats du vignoble de Bourgogne” which recognized Burgundy for its “terroir”

diversity and patrimonial richness heritage.

Dr Anne-Marie Lebrun

Chairman of the 4 th EATSA Conference

Associate Professor of University of Burgundy, France


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Exotism, actors and process in the context of tourism

Manon Binet

Doctoral student, Sociologie, Ecole doctorale SEPT (Sociétés, Espaces, Pratiques, Temps.) laboratoire C3S (Culture, Sport,

Santé, Société, EA 4660), University of Franche Comté.

Tel :+783982801, E-mail : manon.binet@laposte.net


This essay will try to define exotism. We will analyse the

conditions of the exotic process and the different actors that

promotes it, in a context of tourism. We will ask, here, if this

concept is problematic and if yes which are the reasons and

what are the solutions.


Exotism, alterity, tourism, ethnocentrism


« Fantasy of radical alterity », that’s the title of a program

that the French radio: France Culture [1] uses to define

exotism. Today exotism is seen as a positive concept. It is

part of the touristic vocabulary. You simply have to look at

the commercial ads from touristic agencies to convince

yourself. Talking about exotism makes people dream,

makes people travel. It gives us the opportunity to forget

everyday life for a moment. In fact that is not a bad thing.

Exotism permits us to revitalize ourselves and to feel

satisfaction though the experience of the difference. But

studying exotism it’s also analysing the “aesthetic of

diversity” [2]. When we travel what are we looking for? Are

we really interested in the local culture? The history? The

language? Do we really want to learn about the unknown or

do we want to see the images we saw in documentaries,

magazines, books? For example in Hawaii we want to see

people with a flower necklace, in Peru we want to see

ponchos and flutes. As western people we expect certain

elements, let’s say of folklore, in cultures we are visiting.

This expectations leads sometimes to stage play, a

smokescreen, of the local culture. Ironically, to discover

authentic cultures. A tourist becomes a consumer of images

based on stereotypes. Consummation and exotism belong

together. In 1552, Rabelais in his book: Le Quart livre,

introduces the notion of exotism. In the story Pantagruel and

Panurge find the island of “nowhere” and find some exotic

merchandise”. So at its origin exotism is associated with

goods. In the history of the Occident the contact with the

“others” whether it is through crusades or explorations (for

example Marco Polo, James Cook or Christophe Columbus)

where quite mundane. Indeed apart from the theocentrical

and ethnocentrical (we speak here from the tendency of the

western to be very paternalistic and imposing their

civilisation hidden behind a fake universalism), material

motivations where very present. The taking of lands,

products (spices, textiles…), new markets through

negotiations or by force has marked the relations between the

West and the other countries. Two elements here are

interesting. A ratio of power in favour of the west and the

fact that western people discover foreign cultures through

objects that where brought by western explorer but not

understood by them. For example, the plundering of

Cambodian temples. The sacred objects that where sent to

Europe and just served as decoration). The distant becomes

an object of fantasy. It inspires artistic movements like

“orientalism”. We create an imaginary reality. Said, one of

the thinkers of “orientalism” said: “The Orient was almost a

European invention, and had been since antiquity ‘a place of

romance, exotic beings, haunting memories and landscapes,

remarkable experiences «During this period of time we will

find numerous paintings of naked oriental women in harems.

But as Sonia Dayan Herzbrun noticed, western people where

very rarely accepted in these places [1]. This artistic

movement has filled western imagination with images of the

sensual and erotic other or in contrary with the image of a

barbarian and primitive other. This set the context in which

Europe (The West) justifies the desire of colonisation.

During the colonial period The West is fascinated by the

otherworldliness. People organised colonial exhibitions

where the staging of the other is pushed to the climax. The

voyeur public will access to “African villages”, “Balinese

dances” or “Madagascan theatre”. Of course watching a

theatre stage is in fact not disturbing. But if we observe the

different posters of these events, we notice some bothering

elements: the fact that they mix the human world and the

animal world, the fascination for the odd, the attraction for

the aesthetic and the theatricality representations. In this

essay we will try to understand exotism and more precisely

in a touristic context. It’s important to mention that the writer

of this essay is western, so the perspective use here will be

from a western point of view. The “us” that will be used, will

define the West so more widely Europe and North America.

First we will study the characteristics of exotism. Secondly

we will analyse the organizers of exotism. Thirdly we will

explain the nature of exotism and why it is problematic.

I. The characteristics of exotism

For Jean-François Staszak, a French geographer, there are

many conditions to “make” exotism. First exotism is what is

different from me. However for Staszak it’s necessary to

have a satisfying physical distance [3]. Exotism is a term


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

where the signification is tied with its context of enunciation.

To understand this kind of word it must have a “here” and a

“there”. The “there” must be geographically far so it’s no

longer familiar. We can ask ourselves how long this distance

has to be. Is the region next to mine exotic? Are the other

countries in Europe exotic? Staszak explains that this

geographic distance has also to be identitarian. ”A dominant

group constitute themselves as the “endogroup” and create

a dominated “exogroup” by stigmatizing a difference- real

or imaginary.” We will look at the principle of ranking later.

What we have to remember here is that the distance is cause

by the establishment of an “us” and a “them”.

Moreover Staszak also tells that to create exotism this

elsewhere has not to be too strange. Indeed it must be

materially and symbolically enough distant from our

everyday life, but it has to stay acceptable for our standards.

It can’t be radically different from our habits and our

fundamental values.

Besides this elsewhere should be positively comprehend

[Staszak 2008:14]. For example cannibalism can’t be seen as

exotic. When the tourist travels, he/she/they wants

entertainment. She/he/they wants to consume alterity, not to

make the experience of other reality, but to have an

experience that will please him/her/them.

Lionel Gauthier, also a geographer and professor at the

Geneva University, adds some other criteria’s. For him the

phase of the first discovery has to be overstepped [4]. “The

unknown must be tamed before we can speak about

exotism”( Gauthier 2008:52). The reason is that the human

being is afraid of the unfamiliar. At is I explained here

exotism is tied with pleasure, not to a negative feeling.

Tzvetan Todorov adds to this theory that there must be happy

medium, because too much acquaintance with the abroad

will stop exotism and change it into a routine [5].

So we can add another criterion which is the ephemeral

aspect of exotism. Exotism does not last long. Peter Mason

explains that domesticating exotism deprives it from any

exotic function [6].

Furthermore for Lionel Gauthier there is one more condition

to add to set the frame of exotism. Exotism is a

condescending view of the other [4]. We notice that Staszak

agreed with this idea. Indeed he speaks about a dominant

group that declare themselves “endogroup” and the other

dominated group “exogroup”. For Gauthier the exotic look

is similar to the look that adults have on their children. They

can go to rapture over their talents, their capacity, their

intelligence but they keep in mind that immature being that

they have to watch close. This theory is controversial. If it

is true it validates the fact that exotism is harmful and unsafe.

Previously we explained that exotism is based on the making

of an “us” and a “them”. Until now we could just claim that

there was just an awareness of an alterity. But as Gauthier

explains this “us” seems to be firmly convinced of its

centrality. And therefore convinced by its objectivity and

universality. The other is defined “in comparison with”

thereby it is reduced to a subjective and marginal status.


Organizers of Exoticism

A. Travel agencies

The travel agencies use exoticism as a commercial argument.

One glance on their websites is enough. During this research,

several travel agencies have been selected: « House of

Indochina », « Exoticism, gentleness and holidays chills »

(now only Exoticism) and « Evaneos ». The subject we study

here is highlighted in those brands’ names. The first agency

refers to the fantasy of a colonial past, blazed by dreams of

epic conquests and illusions of patriotic glories. The second

one called itself « exoticism » and added opposite semantic

terms to it such as « gentleness » and « chills ». The brand

tries to attract the tourist with an adventure, which is not

supposed to be a hard to achieve. It must remain a pleasure,

which is why the word « gentleness » is used, in order to

ensure the traveller that he will have fun during his trip. The

third agency uses the word « Escape ». The tourist will be

able to run away from his everyday life, and vanish in a new

air. We can ask ourselves, if the destination really matters in

this case. Indeed, either in Laos or in Guatemala, what people

are looking for is disorientation. Let’s take a deeper look on

those programs content offered by the travel agencies. All of

them offer several countries and destinations. Evaneos offers

destinations throughout the world, House of Indochina

focuses on South East Asia and Exoticism is specialized in

islands tourism. Several types of tours are suggested to

match customer’s interest. Some tours combine several

countries, some other offer a tourist circuit with a

francophone guide and some are custom-made journeys.

Those ones are the most interesting, as they offer a « more

personal vision » in which « we’ll share our discoveries, our

secret spots and original addresses » (House of Indochina).

Evaneos also uses this idea of scarcity as a commercial

argument. They even have a section « off the beaten track ».

According to Lionel Gauthier, this is a way to reinforce the

concept of exoticism « if the travellers can get in this

unknown world, this authentic and secret reality, then the

feeling of exoticism surges » [Gauthier 2008:54]. Indeed,

highlighting the difference between « us » and « them » will

increase astonishment, judgment, and comparison. The tour

descriptions also show this use of the exoticism concept.

Here are some extracts.

Island of wonders, Sri Lanka (Exoticism)

“Gods seem to lean on this pearl of the Indian Ocean

where natural wealth is abundant, paradisiacal


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

beaches, mountains, waterfalls, forests where still

live wild elephants, plants that exist nowhere else,

the rarest orchids, birds, precious stones…”

Authentic meetings, from Northern villages to the Mekong

Delta, Vietnam (Evaneos)

“This destination highlights the great Vietnamese

north and its breathtaking landscapes, taking you to

the heart of an authentic Vietnam and meeting

overwhelming and endearing people. May none of

the great appeals of the country be forgotten: Hanoi,

the wonderful Along bay, the former capital of Hue,

the old city of Hoi An, the Mekong Delta…”

Discover Borneo, Malaysia (House of Indochina)

“A travel through the most marvellous landscapes

of Borneo: Bako’s National Park and its amazing

ecosystem, orang-utans in the nature reserve of

Semenggoh, its rice fields and tumultuous rivers

surrounded by mountain ranges, spectacular caves

in Gunung Mulu’s National Park… Borneo,

stunning island bounded by paradisiacal beaches,

rich in a secretive jungle, unique animals,

wonderful sites and incredible scuba diving spots

offers unforgettable surprises. “

In those three texts we can highlight several ideas. First, all

the semantic field of aesthetic and extraordinary is here: «

wealth », « paradisiacal », « breathtaking », « the most

marvellous », « incredible », « spectacular », wonderful », «

rich ». The semantic field of adventure is also here: « wild

elephant », « tumultuous », « secretive », as well as the

semantic field of rarity: « nowhere else », « rarest », «

precious », « unique », « unforgettable surprises ». Rarity,

aesthetic, adventure, three concepts closely linked to

exoticism. Moreover, by taking a look on those programs, we

can only be astonished by how dense they are. Tourists move

from a town to another, from a country to another, in only

one week or two. How could they digest that amount of

information so quickly? Where is the authenticity they are

looking for so badly, when they spend such few time among

the population, the culture, the landscapes? Is our insatiable

appetite as tourist leading us to indigestion of spectacular? A

spectacular reality which has nothing to do with the rhythm

and everyday life of the country we visit anymore.

B. The local population

Local population participate in the exotic process. We can

distinguish individual initiatives and collective initiative

made by communities. According to Geoffrey Wall of the

University of York, the inhabitants want, broadly speaking,

the development of tourism in their country. For them there

are many positive impacts: employment, more income, the

increasing of tax revenues and better infrastructures (roads,

education, hospitals...). However Wall also notices that since

the seventies the tendency is to think that tourism has more

negative impacts as positives ones [7]. But the inhabitants

are ready to accept the adverse effects so they can benefit of

the positive effects that we enounced. The negative impacts

of tourism are economic, environmental and sociocultural.

Let’s focus on the last aspect. The scientist Dam Duy Long

made an empiric research in the Laguna of Tam Giang - Cầu

Hai in Vietnam ( TG-CH). He studied the communities of

fisherman’s living there and analyse how tourism has an

impact on their life. He noticed that:

“Tourism has important negative side effects on the society

and the culture of the studied area. Tourism provokes

overpopulation of the hosting areas. This overpopulation can

be cause of stress for the tourists and the inhabitants.

Tourism became the first branch of employment. Traditional

activities like agriculture decrease. In extreme cases, the

regions become too dependent of tourism. The inhabitants

may find it hard to coexist with tourists that have different

values. Besides tourists are involved in entertainment

activities while local people are involved in working

activities. Moreover tourism is a seasonal activity the

inhabitants have to change their lifestyle during a period of

the year.”

According to this report of Dam Duy Long, tourism seems

to change the rhythm of life and everyday life of the local

population. Traditional activities change objectives. They

will serve tourism instead to serve the life of the local

community. Actually Dam Duy Long has an example to

illustrate this fact:

“[A picture] shows a surveillance cabin of the Laguna of

TG-CH. The originally function of this cabin was to keep a

watch on the fish cages of the Laguna. At the moment when

tourists came this cabin was coloured. Now it became station

to observe the beauties of the Laguna. But this choice is

today problematic. Indeed the owner of the cabin is not well

paid. Also he is often disturbed by groups of tourist that come


By colouring his surveillance cabin, to please the eyes of the

tourists, and by changing his professional activity, the owner

has entered into the game of exotism. He practiced what

Nathalie Schon call “ auto-exotisation” [8]. She explains:” In

this case local population use the representation of western

people on his/her/they advantage. The purpose is too

compliant with the expectation of the tourist to make money.”

The issue with this practice is that the landscape became a

décor and the population performers. Dam Duy Long


“In the Laguna of TG-CH, the traditional dance called Náp

is one of the main cultural attraction for the tourists. Every

time about 20 children are present to make a demonstration

of this dance. Of course this service is very bad paid, because


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

it involves children. It even seems that if the tourists came

during class time, the children skip the school to participate

in the monetized activity”

The auto-exotisation of the local population to satisfied

tourists has obviously a very negative impact on the

population. The cultural effect is also important. Indeed the

population that are involved in tourist have the tendency to

freeze their culture in time. Is there not a risk that their

culture suffocates? Kwame Anthony Appiah declares: “that

society that doesn’t evolve is not authentic. They are simply

dead.” Exotism drive the world into a form of musealisation 1

(from museum). The purpose here is not to advocate a

modern western model or a development based on an

ethnocentrical point of view of the “emerging” countries.

The idea is more to ask ourselves how the culture of these

populations would have evolved without the false

representation that western people project on them.

C. Local authorities

Local authorities are also part of the exotic process. Who are

they? It can be the government, regional authorities,

departmental authorities, the chiefs of the districts and the

chiefs of villages…

Dam Duy Long in his study of the local community of the

Laguna Tam Giang - Cầu Hai analyzed the organisation of

tourism and especially the role of local authorities. In the

fishermen community the leader is the chief of the village.

Dam Duy describe following facts:

“The institutional actors decide of the town and country

planning, whereas private actors decide of project

propositions. However an actor plays the two roles at the

same time, the chief of village. They are the expression of the

local community and they decide which proposition of

private actors they want. Moreover they choose the supplier

market, the number of people to mobilize, the amount of an

investment to realize the proposition of project of private

actors” Besides the researcher notice:

“It must be known that some figures of the community

actively participate to the tourism: The chiefs of the villages,

the chiefs of associations (women, farmers, fishermen’s…).

Thanks to their close connection with travel agencies for

example, they benefits before everyone else of the

information useful to the tourism in the region. They renovate

their houses, their boats; they invest in services to welcome


“In this village only my house can host tourists. I can also

cook delicious dishes for them. The other in the village

doesn’t know how to manage tourists. They don’t have

enough experience or knowledge for it” Chief of the

village of Phước Tích

The owner of house in the village explains:

“We don’t know when the tourist comes. It’s mister Tế (chief

of the village) that organizes things with mister Tanh (chief

of district). All tourists are always going to mister Tế’s place.

They eat and sleep there”

Local authorities are thus in centre of the touristic process.

They make choices for the whole community. Basically this

creates tensions and potential rivalry between the different

members of the community. Clearly they take a personal

advantage of tourism and are privileged persons. They are

the first interlocutor of travel agencies; consequently they

have a responsibility if these agencies show an exotic

representation of the local population.

Bob McKercher (1993) explains that tourism have impacts

that he called structural realities. For him no matter what will

be set up or which kind of tourism, it will have negative

impacts. One of these impacts is due to the fact that tourism

is the principal private sector. For local authorities it will be

more interesting, on short term, to invest in lucrative

activities (for example the building of an entertainment park)

as in non profitable activities (for example the construction

of a treatment system). It’s bad for the environment and it’s

bad for the population.

Another negative impact of tourism loud McKercher is that

it always be out of control. The reason is that tourism is a

multi-faceted field. It’s impossible to put a frame on it. In

addition tourism imports its customers and not a product, so

people will consume their product in situ. Therefore we can

ask ourselves, if local authorities are outreached by tourism

and its consequences.

Local authorities have a responsibility in exotism; it’s

probable that they can control it, besides they take a financial

benefit of it.

D. Tourists

Lastly it seems to be logic that tourists are themselves part of

the exotic process. The tourists that we are talking of here are

white western people. We all were tourists and will be

tourists. We travel because we want to have incredible

memories, because we want to relax or in contrary to live

intense adventures. To put it in a nutshell we want to escape

our everyday life and taste liberty. Also we want to discover

ourselves through a different cultural referential. Anyhow

travelling vas positive effects on the traveller. The


For more details see the article of Vander Gucht, D., Le

syndrome patrimonial et la société commémorative, Esse


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Transamerican Centre for retirement has published a study 2

that explains on a scientific way that travelling have positive

psychological effects and positive physical effects on

individuals. With the time the face of exotism has change.

We explain its origin. Nowadays of course that tourist no

longer perceives South East Asian countries as colonies. The

time of an aggressive exotism where the settlers have for the

“primitive population” an unhealthy fascination is over. The

professor Franck Lestringant distinguishes two kinds of

exotism related to tourism [9]. On one side a vulgar and

catchy exotism of mass tourism. On the other side a nostalgic

and fine exotism that he called spiritual exotism. For him the

last one is much more acceptable then the first one. Spiritual

exotism is a poetic exotism. It’s an exotism à la Baudelaire.

It accepts its anti-natural aspect, but it’s different of an

“outrageous falsification”. Besides Lestringant quote

Baudelaire: “Anywhere! Anywhere! So long as it’s outside

this world!” This kind of thinking reminds these solitary

backpackers that will be in lyrical roaming, but ephemeral

state of mind. That will oppose themselves to mass tourism.

Is spiritual exotism better then mass tourism? This vision

seems to be extremely classist (class discrimination) 3

However, endotism is also to avoid. While exotism tries to

become different, endotisme tries to be the other (person)

[10]. Lionel Gauthier talks from “contre-exotisme” (contraexotism).

He explains that it’s the desire of a cognitive

appropriation, social practices of another culture. People

wants to access to the reality of the local population

[ Gauthier 2008: 53] . This could make sense to avoid the

toxicity of exotism. But incarnating the other, be another

person seems impossible. Indeed as demonstrate Gauthier ,

even if we learn the culture, the language and the local beliefs,

we can erase our cultural conditioning and our memories.

When we grow up in a specific society we integrate values

and norms. They shape our personality and our judgment

[ Gauthier 2008:54].

Richard Rorty inventor of the pragmatic ethnocentrism wrote,

that beliefs suggest by another culture have to be tested and

blended with the beliefs that travellers already have [11].

Testing beliefs seems to be dangerous. How monopolize the

elements of a culture without the absolute of their related

context? For example: the history of people, oppression that

they have suffered from, sacred beliefs around a cultural

element… These excesses have a name: cultural

appropriation. When a dominant culture as the western

culture appropriate for example aesthetic codes of another

culture, it’s an abuse of power. These “tested beliefs” ignore

the original symbolic of their provenance. They can offend

some people of other cultures. We can name an example:

2012 the brand Urban Outfitters were sue by the Native

American tribe Navajo because they have commercialised

panties called “Navajo-hipsters”. The trial lasted five years.

Finally we can say that tourists are organizers of tourists due

to their tendency to influence the life of local people. James

Stemple Duesenberry speaks of “demonstration effect” [12].

Demonstration effects are effects on the behaviour of

individuals caused by observation of the actions of others. A

group of people will imitate the behaviour and the

consumption of a group with higher incomes. This will

increase their social status. Local people and especially

young people will adopt consumer habits that came from the

western countries. For example they will wear jeans. It can

also come to more extreme imitations of behaviour such as

taking drugs are prostitution.


Nature of exotism

A. A feeling.

For Victor Segalen exotism seems to be a feeling. He

describes it as the feeling of the diversity that permits to live

drunk of life. This feeling comes from a contemplative

sensibility. It’s an observation of the reaction of the traveller

on the environment. Before, during the colonial age, it was

the contrary: the observation of the environment on the

traveller. This perspective is less ethnocentrical. For Segalen

it is in the other, the different, that we can feel a pleasing

feeing: “I shape the other, and immediately the spectacle is

tasteful, that’s exotism”[ Segalen 1986:42].

B. A meeting

For Segalen exotism is also a meeting. For him it’s a choc, a

lively reaction of two forces enjoyable thanks to the distance

of each other. Segalen will not try to understand the other.

He knows that’s impossible [Segalen 1986:44]. But he will

focus on distinguishing the differences. Exotism is no longer

an adaptation, a perfect comprehension of someone else. But

it is the total and immediate perception of an eternal

incomprehensibility. We can notice that we find in Segalen’s


Transamerican center for retirement (2013). “Journey to healthy

aging : planning for travel in retirement”,


[ consulted: 09.05.2018 ; 18 :24]


“Class discrimination, also known as classism, is prejudice or

discrimination on the basis of social class. It includes individual

attitudes, behaviors, systems of policies, and practices that are set

up to benefit the upper class at the expense of the lower class or

vice versa” ( Wikipedia, consulted 11.04.2018 at 13:18]


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

thinking the idea of the first discovery, the first choc to define


A. A metaphysical reflexion

For Segalen exotism is also a self questioning. Indeed,

through the cultural referential of an unknown culture we

adopt a different perspective. It helps us to see things

differently. The process of exotism asks about the being.

“The special attitude of the subject for the object has nested

their thoughts, the thinking beings are in front of

themselves”[Segalen 1986:106] . According to Segalen, we

learn to know ourselves by seeing the world through

differences. The issue is to find a balance between unknown

and similarities.

To conclude this interpretation of Segalen vision, we can say

that for him travelling is no more a passive process. In his

perspective, it is an active learning. Of course, his vision is

still focused on pleasure and aesthetic. However, it is more

humble, it has no more the arrogance to be an objective look

that has destructive consequences. Segalen does not handle

the difference to know the other (he knows it is impossible).

He handles the difference to question our relationship with it.

Nevertheless, is he not confusing exotism and alterity? If we

follow his logic, a Laotian could feel exotism for western

people? That leads us to the question: Can the West be exotic?

Maybe if we answer this question we could better define the

nature of exotism.

For Lionel Gauthier exotism is specific to the West. It’ can’t’

be exotic. Staszak agreed with this idea “Western people,

during the exploration period of time and after during

colonisation, defined what is elsewhere and so delimit


However, are foreigners that travel in France with their

observation and their interpretations not in an exotic state of

mind? Gauthier cite Koffi Anyinefa that analyses different

novel of francophone African writers when they describe the

Parisian subway. He noticed that they felt admiration,

stupefaction and fear. Certainly we find the conception of

strangeness, but these feelings do not cope with the

conditions of exotism we saw.

Finally we can ask ourselves, if exotism is a relation of power

founded on a rhetoric. In any relationship there is a relation

of power. Raphael Confiant, a Martiniquan author illustrates

this suggestion: “coconut palm, beaches, white sands are not

exotic in my everyday life. But when I mention them in

French, I am held hostage, terrified on an etymological sense,

of the reifying vision of the occident”. 4

Non-western people do not have an unconsciousness sense

of superiority and the condescending vision that goes with it.

In consequence they see the West as exotic.


Cite by Gauthier (2008)

Let us pick up to the process of exotism. For Peter Mason

exotisation has two phases. First it will be de-contextualize.

That means that an object will be disconnected of its local

context (where as Confiant mentioned it, nothing is strange).

Secondly it will be re-contextualize. That means that the

object will be integrated in a western frame. Basically the

object will be made available for the West. In the absence of

frame, western people will interpret from their perspective

what they see. Thus they create exotism. Again, exotism

appropriate a cultural element of another cultural group. For

that reason it is dominant and oppressive. The opposite case

does not exist. Drinking a Pina Colada with tropical fruits in

France is exotic; drinking Coca Cola in Cambodia is far less


It is true; we can ask ourselves if China or Japan, are not

exceptions. The power balance between them and the West

is unclear. This question deserves a more deep research.


In this essay, we started by making a brief overview of the

history of exoticism, followed by the necessary

preconditions to talk about exoticism, the different

organizers of exoticism and its nature, which shows this

notion as a toxic and exclusively Western process. This

analysis aims to show that exoticism is a passive concept of

cultural oppression. Exoticism goes beyond the individual

takes part in it, for whom the notion of exoticism will be

lived through different experiences, a feeling of enjoyment

or even an ontological reflection on itself. Exoticism is a

discourse charged with representations defined by a balance

of power in favor of the West. It generalizes the foreign

object through a Western perspective. We create by amalgam

an imaginary other. In itself it is not this fact that is

reprehensible. In the end, it is human nature to observe,

analyze and interpret. What is reprehensible is that this

subjective point of view makes law, the West being

referenced by its ethnocentrism, imposes a universalism at

the service of its own particularism. In the collective

understanding, the West is understood to be neutral and that

is the issue. What can be done to prevent exoticism? Should

we be radical and stop touring? It is an option, but we can

also offer others. To change the way we travel, should we not

change ourselves first? Our neoliberal societies condition us

to consume our travels. The “Other” is reduced to the rank

of merchandise, reduced and degraded by the alienating gaze

of the "merchants of dreams" 5 . Just look at the programs that

travel agencies offer. There are many. In 15 days, one can

visit Burma, Thailand and Laos. Cruise, visit pagodas,

discover archaeological sites, explore unusual natural sites,


Claude Levy Strauss (1960), Collège de France


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

tasting local cuisine, meeting with ethnicities ... without any

rest, the visitor absorbs. 24 hours per city, three days per

country. We are not in search of discovery and relaxation

anymore, but in pure consumption. Should we not leave

room for slowness, for boredom, in order to really begin to

perceive the life of a country? Daniel Vander Gucht talks

about the patrimonial syndrome. It would be our tendency to

look for authenticity in the past (our history and our ancestors)

or the distant, rarely in the here and now. Is this not

symptomatic of a serious discomfort in our society? Western

modern society no longer finds authenticity at home. We

become "the tourist of his own culture, the visitor of his own

memory, the spectacle of his own existence. "[13] Max Weber

spoke of the disenchantment of the modern world, which

creates uncertainties of identity, powerlessness in the face of

the world's march, and helplessness in the face of a fate that

seems to elude us. Our intensely mercantile, intensely fast,

intensely framed societies no longer correspond to the

human. They create a homo touristicus essentially

dissatisfied and it is in communities that he finds his holistic

meaning (Eric Weil). Finally the “Other” becomes a

substitute, born from the frustration felt from a serious lack

of meaning in a society of abundance. We console ourselves

by consuming the world and its cultures, enforcing an

aesthetic that is characterized by a fantasy exotic

representation. This toxic circle could be changed into a

virtuous circle. Indeed the trip could teach us to change this

social order. Let's get out of Plato's cave that makes citizen

believe that our way of life and our hierarchy are natural

rather than conventional. Let us be in a cultural relativism

that could abolish the hoax that there are natural societies.

Finally, aren’t they all based on customs, habits and practices?

Exoticism projects, exoticism enforces, exoticism is vertical.

Without forgetting our cultural peculiarity, let's rethink a

horizontal model that would allow us to travel better.


[1] Dayan-Herzbrun, S., Gallien, C., Enard M. (2016). “La

fabrique de l’exotisme 1/0, L’orient fantasme de l’altérité

radicale”, France Culture.

[2] Segalen, V. (1986). “Essai sur l’exotisme, une esthétique

du divers” , Paris : Biblio essais

[3] Staszak, J-F. (2008). “ Qu’est ce que l’exotisme”, Le

Globe, 148,11

[4] Gauthier, L., (2008). L’occident peut il être exotique ? De

la possibilité d’un exotisme inversé, Le Globe, 148, 52

[5] Todorov, T. (1989). Nous et les autres. Paris : Seuil.

[6] Mason, P. (1998) “Infelicities, representations of the exotic”,

Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University press.

[7] Wall, G., Mathieson, A. (2006), Tourism : change,

impacts, and opportunities. Pearson education.

[8] Schon, N. (2003). L’auto-exotisme dans la littérature des

Antilles française. Broché

[9] Lestringant, F. (2008). Faut-il en finir avec l'exotisme ?

Réflexions d'après-coup. Hypothèses, 11,(1), 67-74.


[10] Michel, F. (2001). “Désir d’ailleurs essai

d’anthropologie des voyages”, Annales, 145

[11] Hottois, G., Weyembergh, M. (editor) (1994). “Richard

Rorty, ambiguité et limite du postmodernisme”,librairie

Philosophie J. Vrin, 286

[12] Duesenberry, J.S. (1949).“ Income, Saving and the

Theory of Consumer Behavior”, Harvard University Press,


[13] Vander Gucht, D. “Le syndrome patrimonial et la société

commémorative”, Esse, link : http://esse.ca/fr/syndromepatrimonial-societe-commemorative

[consulted le 09.05.2018 à

18 :00]


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Sustainable Tourism in Developing Countries: Case of Tunisian Hotels

Hager Chaker a , Katalin Ásványi b and Ákos Varga c


PhD student, Corvinus University of Budapest, Department of Marketing-, Media and Designcommunication

Budapest, Fővám tér 8., 1093 – Hungary

Tel: +36 - (1) 482 5000, E-mail: hager.chaker@gmail.com


PhD, Assistant professor, Corvinus University of Budapest, Department of Marketing-, Media and


Budapest, Fővám tér 8., 1093 – Hungary

Tel: +36 - (1) 482 5000, E-mail: katalin.asvanyi@uni-corvinus.hu


PhD, Assistant professor, Corvinus University of Budapest, Department of Marketing-, Media and


Budapest, Fővám tér 8., 1093 – Hungary

Tel: +36 - (1) 482 5000, E-mail: akos.varga@uni-corvinus.hu


The purpose of the article is to analyze sustainable

tourism and its challenges in developing countries with

Tunisia being the case study. The challenges that will be

examined include environmental sustainability relating

to the green environment and Eco-labels. The developing

countries are embracing the alternative tourism that cares

about the cultural and environmental impacts. According

to Tosun (2001), ecotourism requires being embraced as

alternative tourism that maximizes on tourism

capitalization while conserving and maintaining the

environment. The factors that have been established as a

challenge towards tourism in developing countries

include the priorities of the public administration, the

national economy, overcapitalization, and the context of

global tourism system (Cater, 1993). The article

continues to explore the benefits of encouraging green

tourism while maintaining tourism as the main source of

revenues. The qualitative methods applied include

interviewing the hotel managers and analyzing reviews

updated by the guests. The limitation included that

Tunisian hotels and people do not value sustainability as

summarized from the interviews and reviews. The

findings comprehend stating the benefits of ecotourism,

and despite its difficulties in implementation, ecolabeling

and ecotourism are quite beneficial and demands

dedicated political and social decisions (Rivera, 2002).

Additionally, the article highlights that the challenges in

implementation can be reduced by the global tourism

bodies encouraging and collaborating with developing

countries to implement eco-tourism. Finally, it is

essential to research the ways of making Tunisians care

about sustainability despite the lack of academic

literature concerning the topic.


Sustainable tourism, Ecotourism, Eco-labels


Much of the tourism industry is still underdeveloped

and more so the ecotourism and sustainable tourism.

However, it’s not a big problem since the country is

taking a reasonable time to impend itself to the new

changes. This is meant to improve its integrity in

providing quality services to its guests at a cost that is

affordable as well as ensuring that environmental

protection is given a priority. The installation of green

and sustainable hotels are the major factors that must be

looked into when thinking about the future of the natural

heritage. Preserving the natural heritage is an essential

aspect that the tourism business should forge to ensure

that the environment in which it’s operating from is well

maintained which it will help solve some problems that

arise in the market (Macbeth, 2005).

The problems that are likely to associate with poor

environmental treatment include that of global warming

thus considering such facts as this, has a significant

impact on the choices and decisions made by the clients.

The benefit of the labels will help the clients identify the

hotels that have implemented the process (Weaver,

2006). It’s also important to make sure that the

developing countries embrace the technology and

implement ecotourism methods for a sustainable

environment in greening the economy. Tunisia certified

hotels include Hotel Ras El Ain Tozeur, Belvedere Hotel

Tunis, Hotel Les Oliviers Palace Sfax and Radisson Blu


Literature review


Sustainability is widely used term used to explain the

relationship between the environment, economy and the

social aspects. Respecting the nature of the production

and consumption to support the growing population is

essential. Having enough water, materials and other

natural resources needs the respect of the environment to

ensure continuous production must respect the

environment requirements or rather it will lead to its

destruction (Weaver, 2006).

Sustainable tourism plays a key role in the environmental

conservation, and this is by restoration and maintaining


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

of the natural environmental conditions that hosts the

society. It also plays a key role in preserving not only the

human health but also of the animals that live in the

environment. This also keeps the brand of the hotels that

at the end develop a good reputation of the hotels.

Benefits of sustainable tourism

With the widely viewed information on green tourism

is meant to protect and preserve the environment for the

future generations. Tunisia sets the lines to identify the

best methods of protecting the nature for it to be used by

the future generations. The problem lies on the strictness

of the certification bodies in Tunisia which doesn’t make

follow-ups to review the application of the laws. It

ensures that environment is well-protected methods that

may result in resources degradation (Haugland et al,


Importance of eco-labels in hotels

Eco-labels are essential in ensuring that the

environment is well protected. This is not possible by just

reviewing the results from the websites that the hotel is

eco-certified but most important is having visits to the

hotels randomly to confirm whether the regulations are

in practice (Jovicic. D, 2014). The labels can assist the

environmental lovers to choose where to have their fun

at when the need arises. Such hotels that miss the tag on

either in the website or actual service provision process.

Challenges implementing sustainable tourism

The main problems that face the environmental

sustainability include the seriousness of the certifying

bodies on ensuring that the hotel managers implement the

practice and adhere to it. For instance, the Tunisia based

certification is blown to ignorance of the rules that are to

be followed. Thus the country needs to have serious body

to oversee the implementation of the policies to ensure

that the environment is protected. The internationally

certified hotels seem to be aware of the policies follow

them to the latter due to the strict rules that have been set

(Holden, 2009).

Having knowledge of the needs and making the steps of

implementing the policies to be a few is important and it

will help in the sustainability of the tourism mostly in the

developing countries. The challenges that face

ecotourism include that once Tunisia certified to receive

the certificate, they divert interest and start involving

themselves with the norms of running the hotel. This

makes the process ineffective thus affecting the fight to

ensure tourism sustainability.



The research aimed at all the hotels in Tunisia with

the aim of determining the number of hotels that have the

eco-label and the knowledge on sustainable tourism

needs. It was reasonable to include all kinds of hotels

from the certified and the ones that are yet to register or

in progress. This was important because the reputation of

the hotels differ from one factor to another depending on

certain factors like accessibility, affordability, and

comfortability. With this model, the knowledge of what

ecotourism meant and understanding of what it means

with sustainable tourism. Generally, almost all hotels that

were included in the sample set were eco-certified, and

thus the main intention was to check on the knowledge.

Approach and measure

With high expectations of meeting the requirements

of the research, the ranking of the hotels was important

and determination of the certifying body: either national

or international. The main target was on getting

information that is found on the hotel websites on

whether they have eco-label or not. Three main steps

were involved in the process of analyzing data from the

sites of the identified hotels. The first step was to

determine all the hotels that have the eco-labels, second

identify the certifying body, thirdly, review the policies

that have been put in place to ensure sustainable tourism

is attained. The information gathered was then compared

before making actual visits to the hotels to interview the

managers of the hotels.

The managers were requested to give information

concerning their company regarding eco-labels from

their own perspectives. The data was then compared with

what was available on the hotel websites.

The data was then analyzed about the response given by

the managers on the eco-labels and the application

methods that they are using to achieve their goals. The

challenges that they undergo in the process was also

analyzed to identify the possible problems that they have

experienced in the process implementing sustainable

tourism. The benefits that the managers have realized

from the implementation were also identified.


The table below shows the ratings of the hotels by

different guests on different platforms regarding the

services that are provided.

Table: Guests’ Rating of Hotels




Booking TripAd Faceb

Status –

.com visor ook


Guest Guest Guest


Ratings Ratings Ratin


(/10) (/5) gs (/5)




Ras El


Yes 7.9 4.0 4.6



e Hotel Yes 9.0 4.0 4.6






Yes 7.5 4.0







Resort &


Yes 7.4 4.5 4.3


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe



Royal El








Tulip El






zade 6





7.1 3.5 4.2

5.7 3.5




No 7.0 3.5 4.1


Source: Chaker et al, 2018








From a sampling of the hotels, more than 60 % of the

hotels had the sustainable tourism in their websites and

thus the point of making representative samples was far

much easy; the rest of the hotels were in progress to have

the labels. Out of the hotels selected for the research only

the body used in certifying their approaches varied and

when they accessed it. The ability to know what

sustainable tourism is was a bit different and to some

extent answering the questions on how to achieve

sustainable development was wanting.

From the results that were found, some conclusions were

drawn which include managers’ knowledge on ecolabels,

the seriousness in following the rules set and the

reflection of what is on the websites in normal

application. From the results, all the managers that have

the Tunisia eco-labels have no knowledge on the on what

it meant and initially the cant be able to differentiate

between green and sustainability. This clearly defines the

difference between the two certifications. That

international certification argued out that there is no need

for them to have Tunisia based accreditation since the

international certification was far much better than the

local based.

The main problem with the managers that have the

Tunisia certification is that they, unfortunately, proceed

with the certification rules once they get the certification.

The take into consideration a few regulations from the

bundle which they apply partially. For instance, almost

all the Tunisia certified hotels tend to focus mostly on the

food and water waste. With this kind of knowledge

transmission to the employees is limited in Tunisia based

certified hotels.

The difference is evident on the hotels that are

internationally certified for sustainable tourism.

Application of the practices is evident from the manager

side to the employees. Level of understanding of the

clients is high on the services that are provided.

Conclusion and recommendations

From the results, it’s clear that sustainable tourism is

possible if stringent regulations are put in place by the

Tunisia certification body. It’s clear that international

certifying bodies play a key role in the process of

ensuring green hotels are real and virtual. Regardless the

limited checks made on the certified hotels, the managers

of the internationally certified hotels can have interval

training to their employees, and they provide reports

annually to the certifying body.

Sustainable tourism is an important aspect that plays a

key role in protecting the destination society to ensure

that once they leave the place, no or limited negative

impact is felt. Green hotels and sustainable hotels should

use the locally available resources to ensure that it

maintains the community relationships. Water

preservation by creating safe methods of using the water

and water wastes will ensure that the people in the local

areas where the tourists settle have no impact (Haugland

et al, 2011).

The important step that will help solve the problem of not

following the regulations is by encouraging the

international countries and more so the developed

countries to intervene in the process of ensuring

following the regulations. More research needs to be

done in Tunisia and other developing countries to ensure

that the people in such places are informed on what

environmental sustainability is and the eminent

importance. By these, green hotels will highly increase

resulting in the protection of the heritage and culture of

the people of Tunisia.


Cater, E. (1993). Ecotourism in the third world: Problems

for sustainable tourism development. Tourism

Management, 14(2), 85-90.

Chaker, H., Ásványi, K., Varga, Á. (2018).

“Competitiveness of Green Hotels in Tunisia”, I.

International Tourism Marketing Conference, University

of Pécs, Faculty of Economics, Tourism and Marketing

Institute. Website: http://ktk.pte.hu/karunkrol/teletekek

Haugland, S., A., Ness, H., Gronseth, B., O., & Aarstad,

J. (2011). ‘Development of tourism destinations: An

integrated multilevel perspective.’ Annals of Tourism

Research, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 268–290.

Holden, A. (2009), “The Environment-Tourism Nexus:

Influence of Market Ethics,” Annals of Tourism Research,

Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 375-389.

Hopkin, R. (2014). The importance of Green Tourism;

investing in our future: Hotel Executive; Spine Island

Beach Hotel.

Jovicic, D. (2014), “Key issues in the implementation of

sustainable tourism,” Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 17

No. 4, pp. 297-302.Paul, N. (2009). Seven challenges for

sustainability in 2010: Network for Business

Sustainability; sphere solutions

Macbeth, J. (2005), “Towards an ethics platform for

tourism,” Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 32 No 4, pp.



Although the TUI hotel doesn’t have the Tunisian Ecolabel,

it follows its own sustainability charter.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Rivera, J. (2002). Assessing a voluntary environmental

initiative in the developing world: The Costa Rican

Certification for Sustainable Tourism. Policy

Sciences, 35(4), 333-360.

Tosun, C. (2001). Challenges of sustainable tourism

development in the developing world: the case of

Turkey. Tourism Management, 22(3), 289-303.

Weaver, D. (2006), Sustainable Tourism: Theory and

Practice, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

At online sources:

https://www.goldenyasmin.com/fr/ras-el- ain/

(downloaded: 2nd May, 2018)


(downloaded: 2nd May, 2018)


(downloaded: 2nd May, 2018)


(downloaded: 2nd May, 2018)


(downloaded: 2nd May, 2018)


(downloaded: 2nd May, 2018)


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Empowering Senior Citizen in Tourism Business:

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Senior Tourism in Indonesia Online News Articles

Made Diah Lestari a and Yanki Hartijasti b,c

a Department of Psychology, Medical Faculty, Udayana University

Medical Faculty Building, Jalan P.B. Sudirman Denpasar 80232, Bali, Indonesia

E-mail: mdlestari@unud.ac.id

b Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia

c Centre for Ageing Studies, Universitas Indonesia

Campus UI Depok, West Java 16424, Indonesia

E-mail: yanki.hartijasti@ui.ac.id, yankihartijasti@yahoo.com


Active ageing is a frequently discussed topic in the

context of the ageing population. It is believed that

staying active in the old age is found to be one of the

ways that can improve the quality of life of older people.

One indicator of the quality of life is the ability to spend

leisure time. With the help of online media as a

promotional tool, older people has become a significant

market segment in the tourism industry. This research

aims to perform a critical discourse analysis on how

online media in Indonesia views senior tourism using

qualitative research. The results found that online media

articles on senior tourism in Indonesia were able to

recognize the profit opportunities. Unfortunately to

develop and improve tourism activities and services, the

tourism sector in Indonesia not yet supported by adequate

research in this area. Older people in the Indonesian

online media articles on senior tourism mostly referred to

older people in foreign countries who have enough

money to afford the facilities and convenience offered by

tourism operators. Integrating profit-oriented business

with activities that can encourage the empowerment of

Indonesian older people needs to be initiated so that older

people of Indonesia can also become the focus in the

studies related to senior tourism in Indonesia. Only two

of eleven articles have discussed the importance of

empowering Indonesian older people as tourism

providers. Empowering older people could be the model

of the senior tourism industry to enhance successful

ageing, participation, and employment in older people as

well as Indonesia’ revenue growth.


Active Ageing, Critical Discourse Analysis, Indonesian

Senior Tourism


The increasing proportion of older people in almost all

parts of the world affects government policies on older

people empowerment. With the growing percentage, the

policy direction on older people empowerment is no

longer on how to prolong life expectancy, but rather to

assist older people to live an active, productive, and

meaningful life in old age. Looking at the patterns of

consumption, older people will be a significant market

segment in various industries, including the tourism

sector [1,2,3]. Based on the theory of continuity,

activities like traveling and enjoying leisure time could

help older people adapt to the ageing process, improve

their life satisfaction and well-being [4,5]. However,

most of the ageing studies that have been conducted to

date only give focus on the daily use of leisure time.

More innovative and diverse types of traveling activities

are not a typical focus of the published researches or

articles [4].

The unique characteristics of older people affect the

marketing strategies, services, and communication

patterns used by travel agencies [2,6]. Therefore, travel

agencies are required to be creative in developing their

programs that suit the needs of older people, because

travel agencies are a critical aspect of senior tourism [6].

It is proven that the motivation of senior tourists, the

quality of services provided by travel agents, and the

superiority of tour guides will have an impact on the

perception of tourist destinations [7]. Consequently, to

build a positive image of a tourist destination among

senior tourists, internal motivation (the needs of older

people that affect their choice of tourist destinations) and

the quality of services in the destinations, the quality of

travel agents and tour guides, should be seriously taken

into consideration.

Tourism in Indonesia has become the most substantial

revenue over the last three years which affects the gross

domestic product (GDP), foreign exchange, and

employment. With the condition of being the ageing

population since 2010 and aged population in 2035, it is

essential for the Indonesian tourism industry to consider

the senior segment. However, the data regarding the

number of the studies on senior tourism in Indonesia are


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

limited. Other countries, such as China, Germany, Greece,

Southern and Eastern Europe, have conducted studies on

senior tourism which has contributed to a robust

methodology with novelty results [8,9,10,11]. The

finding of those studies has an enormous impact on the

government policies regarding tourism industry in each


Nowadays, the tourism sector in Indonesia is using

online media as a promotional tool. It is proven that by

the development of technology, online media has a

significant impact on tourism promotion and activities

[12,13]. Therefore, the way online media produces and

frames tourism articles will impact consumer decision

making and attitude toward tourists’ travel planning.

However, the limited studies on senior tourism in

Indonesia will influence tourism sector in developing and

improving their services to meet the senior tourists’ needs.

This circumstance has resulted in a lack of foundation in

the creation of tourism activities for the senior people.

For that reason, it is essential to explore the written and

discussion regarding the practices of senior tourism in

Indonesia in the online media. Therefore, this study aims

to perform a critical discourse analysis on how online

media in Indonesia views senior tourism.

Literature Review

Globally speaking, most countries understand that the

increasing proportion of older people in the world will

have an impact on the tourism industry [2]. For older

people, traveling is a form of leisure activity. According

to Alejziak, tourism activities are defined as the

participation of individuals in various kinds of events in

the tourism sector within a specified period [14]. Some

experts propose the definition of old age. Hossain, Bailey,

and Lubulwa use the pensionable age limit, i.e., 55 years

and over to set a standard for the definition [15]. There

are also experts who use age limits based on individual

developmental stages which are over 60 years [16].

World Trade Organization (WTO) states that the tourism

market trend in 2020 will change in some ways. For

example, the increasing number of older people and a

shift from active holiday to experience-based holiday.

Moreover, the existence of complex segmentation of

services to meet tourists’ various demands and to finally

create specific services to meet the tourists’ needs [15,17].

From the first point suggested by WTO, it becomes

increasingly clear that an increase in senior tourists

requires serious attention by tourist destinations. Senior

tourists have some different characteristics compared to

other tourists of different generations. Nikitina and

Vorontsova argue that older people have three significant

areas (health, social and financial spheres) impacting

their needs and consumption patterns [3]. The detail is

shown in table 1. The consumption pattern will then

affect the senior tourism industry.

On the contrary, other studies found that stereotypes

related to older people cannot fully become the basis for

senior tourism development. Patterson and Pegg, among

others, found that older people do not want to be

considered as Goldies and they often choose to

participate in adventurous activities to be considered

young [2] Another study conducted by Koedoe also

found a different result compared to the previous studies

which found that most national park visitors are usually

older people [1]. Koedoe found that most national park

visitors were aged 18 to 29 [18].

Table 1. Model of Consumer Behavior in the Senior

Tourism Segment

Area of


The potential

consequences of

Needs and changes in

consumer behavior






aging and retirement

General deterioration

of health (hearing

loss, vision, sleep


Exacerbation of

chronic diseases, agerelated



Ability loss to selfservice.

Fatigue, a weakening

in physical strength,

decline coordination.

Change of usual

circle of friends (due

to retirement,

bereavement), lack of



Free time in

connection with the


The decrease in


Medicament and






Medical services (home

care, hospitals,

specialized chamber,

malls, homes, boarding

houses, etc.)

Comfort in clothing,

footwear, and

equipment, and so on.

Household services.

Leisure activities,

sports clubs (for

health), cultural events,

education, tourism, and


Hobbies, creativity,

leisure (gardening,

crafts, collecting,


Price sensitivity,

saving, rational buying


Additional sources of

livelihood (contract life

annuities, reverse

mortgages, etc.)

Sources: Nikitina and Vorontsova [3]

Many developed and developing countries have

incorporated senior tourism into their government

policies [8,9,10,11]. Moreover, numerous studies were

conducted to see the distribution of market segments, by

categorizing tourists based on their economic level,

characteristics, generation, and their country of origin


Research Method

Critical discourse analysis approach applying the

techniques of Fairclough [19] is used to answer the

research question on how online media has written and

discussed the practices of senior tourism in Indonesia.

The analysis was conducted in the textual, production,

consumption, and socio-cultural level of senior tourism


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

as presented in the online articles in Indonesian media.

Data and Samples

This research data was collected from eleven online

articles published in Indonesia on the period of 2014 to

2017. During the data collection in November 2017,

online articles before 2014 and after 2017 were not

available online. The eleven articles used as the research

samples were downloaded in September 2017. The

articles can be accessed on the Google search engine link

www.google.com using keywords, such as senior

tourism, senior tourists, and senior tourism in Indonesia.

From the 15 articles downloaded, 11 articles were

considered to have fulfilled the criteria of the study for

data analysis because they had trusted and reliable

references, time of publication, and have no similarity

with other articles of similar topics. The selected articles

were published on Indonesia Trip News, Seputar

Bandung Raya, Metro Bali, Antara News, Jawa Pos

Online, Kompas Online, Okezone, Republika Online,

Bisnis Online, Berita Satu, Solo Pos.

Data Analysis

All articles that fulfilled the criteria were then analyzed

using the technique of Fairclough (1995) in critical

discourse analysis. There are three aspects in analyzing

the data. Firstly, the linguistic aspect was analyzed to

identify the language, words or vocabulary that often

appeared and used in the text or each of the eleven

articles studied in this research. This aspect of the

analysis is also called the production aspect.

Secondly, the discursive aspect was analyzed to examine

the data from discursive practice and interpretation. At

this level, the authors looked at the references or sources

used in each article in developing its content and

arguments related to senior tourism in Indonesia. This is

called the consumption aspect. The last aspect is the

social aspect. It was analyzed to see the social practices

or social actions related to senior tourism in Indonesia. It

is also called the reproduction or socio-cultural aspect in

the implementation of senior tourism in Indonesia.

During the process of analyzing the data, researchers

placed the three aspects of the articles in the form of a

table to obtain common patterns. In this paper, only

summary of the findings was shown. The critical review

was related to Indonesian conditions.


The results of this study are presented in sequence

starting from the analysis on the linguistic aspect,

followed by the discursive and social aspects.

Linguistic Aspect

In the discussion relating to senior tourism, there are a

few words that appear consistently in ten of the eleven

articles used as the references in this study. These

words emerge in the context of senior tourism as an

industry, senior segmentation, and the reasons for

segmenting the senior market.

It was also found that all articles agree that senior tourism

is an essential program for older people that does not

merely bring profit for the tourist destinations concerned.

The words and vocabulary used are, among others,

‘concerns’ and ‘humanizing older people.’

It is undeniable that all the articles present stereotyped

judgments against older people as a basis for developing

tourism programs for older people. The words and

vocabulary used in the discussion on senior tourism are,

among others, special facilities, comfort, safety,

disability, medical records, gardening, education and

culture, socialization, art-related activities chosen by

older people. Specific details are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. The Analysis on the Linguistic Aspect based on

the Word or Vocabulary that Appears in a Context


Words used

Senior tourism

as an industry

Business, job creation, profit, market, and

promotion, homestays, extended period.



Senior tourism is for both foreign and

domestic senior citizens.

(Indonesian older people or senior citizens

are only discussed in one article focusing

on older people empowerment).

Indonesian older people are involved to

provide supporting facilities such as

The reason for


Discursive Aspect

homestays in the tourist attractions.

Foreign older people have more money,

purchasing power, and an adequate

pension plan.

The references used in the articles in the discussion on

senior tourism depended heavily on the context. When

the context relates to industry or business, the article

referred to the statements issued by travel agencies,

stakeholders such as ministers and regional governors of

the related tourism destinations, World Trade

Organization (WTO) documents as well as policies

issued by Asian Tourism Forum (ATF). Different

references were used when talking about senior tourism

as a program for empowering older people.

Senior tourism as an empowerment program for older

people was found in two articles that both discuss the

older people in Indonesia as the subject in the articles.

These two articles were different from the other nine

articles in which they mentioned older people in

Indonesia in the discussion on senior tourism in


There was only one article that implicitly illustrated the

implementation of the use of free time for older people in

Bandung using local government funding. The

references used in the articles on empowering older

people were the statements of community leaders and

PKK (Family Empowerment and Welfare) cadres.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Another article gave a proposal on how older people in

Indonesia could be involved as a provider in the senior

tourism industry in Indonesia, especially in Yogyakarta

and Solo. It is a very excellent opportunity to develop

tourism village management in Indonesia.

Older people as a source of reference had appeared in

some articles. However, there were only three of the

eleven articles that mentioned older people as a reference.

One article discussed the prospect of Yogyakarta and

Bandung as senior tourism areas, while two articles

described the promotion of senior tourism in a village in

West Java and Canada separately.

Similarly, the use of research results as a source of

reference was still very minimal in the articles. There was

one article that mentioned research in Bangkok as a

source of reference in developing its content and

arguments, but the quoted results were still insufficient,

and there was lack of exploration of previous studies

conducted in Indonesia.

Social Aspect

In the analysis of the social aspect, the senior tourist

attractions in Indonesia with the various benefits offered

were still profit-oriented, because Indonesian tour

operators were targeting more towards senior foreign

tourists. The tourism destinations and programs were

designed to meet senior tourists’ needs ranging from

travel destinations, activities of interest, length of stay, to

standard accommodation prices in tourist destinations.

Only one article discussed senior tourism by reviewing

the benefits for older people in Indonesia. The article also

discussed the range of activities for older people and the

senior tourism industry that was incorporated into the

older people empowerment program in the villages. An

article about a tourist village in West Java emphasized

the importance of engaging older people in Indonesia in

tourist villages and put more emphasis on older people in

Indonesia as homestay providers in tourist villages. From

most of the articles used as references, the targeted

consumers of senior tourism in Indonesia were foreign

older people. Indonesian older people were not the

targeted consumers of senior tourism, but providers in

tourist villages.


Studies related to senior tourism have taken a significant

role worldwide, and there is no exception in Indonesia.

The country’s highest income contributor for three

consecutive years has been the tourism sector. With the

increasing proportion of older people in Indonesia, more

attention to the development of senior tourism in

Indonesia should be encouraged. With various

definitions of older people, senior tourism refers to

tourist activities designed specifically for older people.

This paper defines older people as people of retirement

age, which starts from 55 years up, and people who,

based on the development stage, are 60 years and above.

Growing interest towards senior tourism in Indonesia has

caused this topic to be discussed in various media outlets

using multiple reference sources, as well as in the articles

published by some online media in Indonesia. A critical

analysis of the online media has resulted in several

significant findings that can be used as the basis and

reference for the development of senior tourism in


As an industry, senior tourism has become a promising

type of tourism industry in Indonesia. This condition

could be seen from the way the articles described senior

tourism as a potential and has good prospects for the

tourism industry in Indonesia.

In the textual aspect, the notions of business, profits,

market, and promotional strategies often appeared in the

texts. In the context of the senior tourism industry, senior

tourists need products and services which suit their needs

because as customers they have distinctive

characteristics. Additionally, the quality of services

provided by travel agents were the determining factors

older tourists’ decision-making on choosing travel

destination [7].

Regarding products and services, several characteristics

of older people should be taken into consideration as the

basis for the tourism industry to develop products and

services. There are several characteristics of senior

tourists that differed from younger tourists and would

affect their motivation to travel. Some of the

characteristics are the health conditions of the older

people, their spouse, and other family members [3,5], as

well as the distance and duration of the travel [5]. Two

studies disclosed that the decline in health conditions was

a characteristic that must be considered when analyzing

older people’s consumption behavior associated with the

tourism industry [3,5]. Hence, some tourist operators

requested older tourists to bring their medical records as

a reference in providing them with extra services.

Additionally, health and wellness tourism were offered

(such as spas and mountain trek), because they were

identical to relaxation, rest, and health improvement [20].

However, the stereotypes of the older people are not

always the proper basis for developing senior tourism.

Some older people do not want to be categorized as the

Goldies generation because they want to be considered

as a group of people who stay young in spirit, so they

choose activities that can twist the general public’s

opinion of older people. For example, several senior

tourists like activities that get their adrenaline pumping

and explore a new tourist destination [2]. This

circumstance illustrates that the subjective age (a concept

of age as experienced by an individual) should be

considered in determining the types of senior tourists [9].

The reason is that older customers can be divided into

four categories, namely (1) relaxed intellectuals, (2)

knowledge hunters, (3) hesitating-nonintellectual-nonsportive,

and (4) active, open-minded [9].

Based on the findings that the characteristics of senior

tourists would affect their motivation to travel and the


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

stereotypes of the older people should not be used as a

basis for designing tour programs or activities, it can be

concluded that the needs of senior tourists are not always

the same. In the articles, there are several alternative

activities or programs for senior tourists range from

gardening, educational and cultural programs,

socializing with local people, and art programs. Some

programs were suitable for older people belonging in the

category of relaxed intellectuals or knowledge hunters

but may not be appropriate for other types of senior


Concerning quality services, comfort and safety were

two words that frequently appeared in the articles when

discussing the services that were needed by senior

tourists. Senior tourists needed comfort and safety during

their travel [1,10,17]. Hence, previous studies stated that

there was a need for the local government and the tour

operators to rearrange their tourism facilities and provide

infrastructure and facilities that are older-people-friendly

to make older people feel comfortable and safe when

engaging in tour activities [1,6].

Furthermore, several studies also revealed that the

quality of the human resources in the tourist destination

is part of providing quality services to older tourists. For

example, in giving up-to-date and qualified information,

senior tourists were very responsive to metaphorical

messages and friendly service, and like the way

information is presented through storytelling or using

narrative techniques [2,6,17]. Even when the

advancement of information technology today enables

senior tourists to access information online, they still

need to have direct interactions and a warm closeness

with the travel agents arranging their trips to build

customer loyalty [6].

Therefore, the service providers in the tourism industry

for older people need to explore and conduct in-depth

market research to answer those needs, aside from doing

vigorous promotions to attract the interest of senior

tourists in choosing the products and services. The

previous study claimed that to raise older people’s

attention to visit a tourist destination, marketing

strategies directed at older people should consider the

aspects of empathy, openness, and honesty in providing

information [2]. Additionally, the tourists’ country of

origin and socio-economic conditions should be

considered [10,11].

The marketing strategies for senior tourism in the articles

stated the notion of providing services for senior foreign

tourists as the target market. Those tourists were

perceived to be customers who have sufficient money,

adequate funds, purchasing power, and retirement

packages to pay accommodation and programs offered

by travel agencies. These factors affect older people’s

consumption patterns and the decision to choose tour

activities based on their economic level [11]. Therefore,

older people who come from countries with a high

income will have a higher chance of traveling in the

context of senior tourism.

In the case of Indonesia which belongs to the category of

developing countries, it does not mean that the senior

tourism in the country does not accommodate the needs

of Indonesian older people for traveling and leisure

activities. The concept of senior tourism should promote

the idea of older people empowerment, meaning that

senior tourism is not only seen from the business and

profit viewpoints, but also as the service providers.

Encouraging Indonesian older people as the center in

senior tourism was well illustrated in the two articles.

One article talked about organizing older people tourist

activities by providing a silaturahmi (visiting friends,

family members, and relatives) package for the older

people in an administrative village in West Java. These

activities were designed with the expectation of having a

positive impact on their health and psychological

conditions because it was revealed that engaging in

tourist activities plays a significant role in successful

aging regarding increasing life satisfaction and wellbeing

[5]. Another article talked about empowering older

people as the provider of homestay services in tourist

villages for senior foreign tourists who traveled to

Indonesia. In this context, Indonesian older people exist

not as the consumer of tourist services but as the service


An earlier study claimed that heritage tourism with the

concept of tourist village had a significant impact

regarding increasing income of a region and employment

[21]. However, the adverse effect of intergenerational

disparities arose because older people in the area were

excluded from the service delivery process. Therefore,

the strategy of involving older people in tourist villages

becomes crucial for older people empowerment and

intergenerational attachment. Unfortunately, many

articles did not sufficiently explore the involvement of

Indonesian older people in the tourism industry, either as

consumers or providers.

For three years in a row, the tourism industry has been

the most significant foreign exchange contributor to the

Indonesian economy. However, the senior tourism

industry is only referred to senior foreign tourists. It is

then rational to conclude that the policymakers and travel

agencies are focusing on improving services and

facilities for older people from foreign countries, but not

older people in Indonesia. This condition relates to the

socioeconomic, historical, and cultural factors in

Indonesia which show that leisure is considered an

expensive and luxurious activity for most Indonesian

citizens, especially for the senior citizens. As a nation

which was once colonized for centuries, many

Indonesian people have been accustomed to serving

instead of being served.

In the discursive aspect, the references used in the

development of senior tourism mostly were travel

agencies. The articles were intensely able to recognize

the opportunities available in senior tourism through

WTO and AFT documents, but only to that extent.

Studies conducted by travel agencies, policymakers, and

academics in the field of senior tourism in Indonesia have


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

not been much used as references in the articles. These

gaps should be supported by adequate studies, such as the

mixed-method research to get effective and efficient

results on older people [14]. For example, first, the

standardization of the scales relating to consumer

satisfaction should be made and adjusted to the

development characteristics of older people. Second,

focused group discussions can serve as an in-depth datacollecting

tool because of older people like the narrative

and storytelling approach.

Empirical study results become very crucial as senior

tourism is a very particular industry. Based on empirical

research, tourism providers are better able to answer the

needs of older people and at the same time offer several

alternative programs and services that are tailor-made

based on the generation, demographic, socioeconomic

level, country of origin, and other qualities.

In the social aspect, the articles explained that the senior

tourism in Indonesia offered various benefits which

targeting senior foreign tourists to achieve profit.

Therefore, tourist destinations and programs were

designed to meet the needs of senior foreign tourists,

starting from travel purposes, activities of interest,

duration of travel, to the standard accommodation price

in tourist destinations. Focus on Indonesian older people

were highlighted when the primary goal is older people

empowerment. No article has discussed promoting

empowerment of older people in the business of tourism

industry, such as the program offered by tourist villages

involving older people as homestay service providers.

Empirical research has shown that the involvement of

older people in the tourism business could address

intergenerational disparities [21]. Therefore, profit is not

only the primary focus in the senior tourism industry, but

older people in Indonesia can become the host in their

own country.


From this critical discourse analysis, it can be concluded

that online articles on senior tourism in Indonesia

recognize the profit opportunities in the development of

this business. This condition should be responded with

the establishment of infrastructures, aside from products

and services. Unfortunately, the development of senior

tourism industry has not yet supported by adequate

studies, and therefore the services provided tend to be

stereotypical without considering the possible diversity

in the types of older people.

The target customers were also limited to foreign older

tourists. By referring to the economic growth in

Indonesia in which the tourism sector is the highest

foreign exchange contributor for three consecutive years,

profit-oriented business should be integrated with

activities that can encourage the empowerment of

Indonesian older people. By initiating the integration of

profit-oriented business and empowerment program,

older people in Indonesia can be the focus in the studies

related to senior tourism in Indonesia.

The sociocultural factor seems to provide limited space

for leisure activities for older people of Indonesia, and

this condition is further affected by the historical aspect,

whereas a formerly colonized nation the people of this

country seem to be quite satisfied with just being service

providers in the tourism industry. On the other hand, the

involvement of older people as service providers may

support the realization of successful aging and an olderpeople-friendly

environment regarding participation and

employment. It is time for older people in Indonesia to

be the focus of the studies on senior tourism.

Suggestions for Further Studies

Although this study provides new insights, there are

some limitations. The data regarding the proportion of

senior traveler in Indonesia during 2014 until 2017 were

not included in this study. This supporting data is very

fundamental to make triangulation analysis between

what has happened and how online media has interpreted

the situation. Therefore, for further study, providing

national data on senior travelers’ trend and forecast in

Indonesia is a significant process that should be taken

into consideration.


This research was conducted without any support or

grant, and without involvement in the interests of any

party. This research was conducted purely for the

development of science.


[1] Vojvodic, K. (2015). Understanding the senior

travel market: A review. Tourism in Soutthern and

Eastern Europe, 3, 479-488.

[2] Patterson, I., & Pegg, S. (2009). Marketing the

leisure experience to baby boomers and older

tourists. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure

Marketing, 18(2-3), 254–272. DOI:


[3] Nikitina, O., & Vorontsova, G. (2015). Aging

population and tourism: Socially determined model

of consumer behavior in the “Senior Tourism”

segment. Procedia - Social and Behavioral

Sciences, 214, 845–851. DOI:


[4] Nimrod, G., & Rotem, A. (2012). An exploration

of the innovation theory of successful ageing

among older tourists. Ageing and Society, 32, 379-

404. DOI: 10.1017/S0144686X1100033X

[5] Huber, D. (2015). The impact of life events on the

tourism behavior of senior citizens in Freising,

Germany. European Journal of Tourism Research,

11, 194-198.

[6] Sawinska A. (2017). Innovations of travel agencies

in tourism services for seniors. Tourism in Southern

and Eastern Europe, 4, 511-523. DOI:


[7] Utama, I. G. B. R., & Komalawati (2015). Travel

motivation and destination image of Bali Indonesia

in perspective of senior foreign tourist.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

International Journal of Scientific and Engineering

Research, 6(7), 1-7.

[8] Lehto, X. Y, Jang, S. C., Achana, F. T, & O’leary,

J. T. (2008). Exploring tourism experience sought:

A cohort comparison of baby boomers and the

silent generation. Journal of Vacation Marketing,

14(3), 237-252.

[9] Le Serre, D., & Chevalier, C. (2012). Marketing

travel services to senior consumers. Journal of

Consumer Marketing, 29(4), 261-270. DOI:


[10] Balderas-Cejudo, A., Rivera-Hernaez, O., &

Patterson, I. (2016). The strategic impact of country

of origin on senior tourism demand: The need to

balance global and local strategies. Journal of

Population Ageing, 9(4), 345-373. DOI:


[11] Kyriakou, D., & Belias, D. (2017). Is silver

economy a new way of tourism potential for Greece.

Tourism, Culture, and Heritage in a Smart

Economy: Proceedings in Business and Economics,

pp. 425-435. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47732-9_28

[12] Zelenka, J. (2009). Information and

communication technologies in tourism-influence,

dynamics, trends. Informacni Management, 1, 123-


[13] Bethapudi, A. (2013). The role of ICT in tourism

industry. Journal of Applied Economics and

Business, 1(4), 67-79.

[14] Głąbiński, Z. (2015). The application of social

survey methods in analysing the tourist activity of

seniors. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-Economic

Series, 2(7), 51–65. DOI:


[15] Alén, E., Domínguez, T., & Losada, N. (2012).

New opportunities for the tourism market: Senior

tourism and accessible tourism. Visions for Global

Tourism Industry-Creating and Sustaining

Competitive Strategies, 140–166. DOI:


[16] Papalia, D. E., Sterns, H. L., Feldman, R. D., &

Camp, C. J. (2007). Adult development and aging

(3 rd ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill


[17] Abooali, G., Omar, S. I., & Mohamed, B. (2015).

The importance and performance of a destination:

Attributes on senior tourists satisfaction.

International Journal of Asian Social Science, 5(6),

355–368. DOI:



[18] Koedoe (2014). Which age group spends the most

in a national park? African Protected Area

Conservation and Science, 56(2). DOI:


[19] Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis.

Boston: Addison Wesley.

[20] Spasojević, B., & Božić, S. (2016). Senior tourists’

preferences in the developing countries –

measuring perceptions of Serbian potential senior

market. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality

and Recreation, 7(2), 74–83. DOI:


[21] Kalavar, J. M., Buzinde, C. N., Melubo, K., &

Simon, J. (2014). Intergenerational differences in

perceptions of heritage tourism among the Maasai

of Tanzania. Journal Cross Cultural Gerontology,

29, 53-67. DOI: 10.1007/510823-013-9221-6


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Evaluation of Tourism Routes - Case Study: Mainland Portugal

Carlos Vilela da Mota a and Fernando F. Gonçalves b

a Universidade Europeia

Estrada da Correia 53, 1500-210 Lisboa, Portugal

ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

Av. das Forças Armadas, 1649-026 Lisboa, Portugal

Email: carlos.vilela.mota@netc.pt

b Universidade Europeia

Estrada da Correia 53, 1500-210 Lisboa,Portugal

ISEG, Universidade de Lisboa

Rua do Quelhas 6, 1200-781 Lisboa, Portugal

Email: fernando.goncalves@universidadeeuropeia.pt


This work is related to a PhD research project in Tourism

Management for evaluating the tourism routes in

mainland Portugal.

The specific objectives are: (i) To list all the existing

tourism routes, to know what the management entities

are, and if they evaluate, or not, the performance of the

route, by what method and with what regularity; (ii) To

explain, statistically, the route output by a set of available

regressors. In this paper we present our first findings.

We obtained information by searching on the internet the

tourism routes in mainland Portugal and by contacting by

email the "Regiões de Turismo", the "Turismo de

Portugal", and, most importantly, all existing

municipalities and inquiring for possible tourism routes

in their territory and what are the responsible entities -

202 answers were obtained out of a universe of 278


Based on the gathered information, we constructed a

questionnaire and ran a pilot test. A corrected version of

the document was then sent to the entities responsible for

the routes' management.

We now present the survey results and their preliminary

statistical analysis.

Keywords: Tourism routes, route management,

statistical analysis.


Tourism is an industry of great importance at both the

international and national levels.

In Portugal, in 2016, the number of guests totalled 21.3

million, representing 59.4 million of overnight stays. The

total income from tourism was €31 million, representing

the housing accommodation sector €2.3 million. [See 1]

It is this context that tourism routes and their evaluation

is a fundamental role in tourism development in Portugal,

particularly in the interior territories allowing the

reduction of seasonality.

Its evaluation will be made through a qualitative analysis

due to the results obtained in questionnaires sent to the

managing entities of each route, regarding the method of

the management/governance of them.

We also questioned these entities if they made

evaluations of the how many tourists annually visit that

route, and, in affirmative case, what was the frequency of

the evaluation and which method was used.

This paper is organised as follows. After sating briefly

our objectives, we review summarily the available

literature of tourism route concepts. Then, we describe

the research methodology, and, finally, present the survey

results and their preliminary statistical analysis.

Outline of Objectives

The specific objectives are:


To list all the existing tourism routes, to

know what the management entities are,

and if they evaluate, or not, the

performance of the route, by what method

and with what regularity;


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


State of Art

Tourism routes

To explain, statistically, the route output by

a set of available regressors. In this paper

we present our first findings.

The socio-economic growth of certain areas makes it

possible to create new activities in particular in tourism.

Heritage, cultural, gastronomic and historic elements can

be used to create tourism routes that, by developing

tourism, generate jobs and consequently wealth in their

geographical areas [See 2].

Tourism can develop rural areas through tourism routes,

through the elaboration of itineraries and guides that

allow tourists to enjoy a certain territory, contemplating

their heritage and making income through the

consumption of local products, thus allowing the creation

of business and consequent employment to meet this

demand [See 2].

The tourism routes must have one or more of the


to attract tourists to the region and diversity their income;

use less well-known attractions or features wherever

possible; increase attractions for destination; increase the

length of stay and spending in the region; encourage

repeat visits to the region and increase the sustainability

of the tourism product [See 3].

The definition of tourist routes has evolved since in 1991

[See 4] p. 201, defined as:

“Toda ruta que transcurre por un espacio geográfico

determinado, donde se describe y especifica los

lugares de paso, estableciendo unas etapas y teniendo

en cuenta las características turísticas propias –

naturales, humanas, histórico-monumentales –

relacionadas con la zona geográfica que se recorre a

nivel local, comarcal, regional, nacional e

internacional; la duración; los servicios turísticos –

alojamientos, medio de transporte, etc. – y las

actividades a desarrollar”.

The other definition is [See 5] p.6:

“Une route touristique se définit comme un trajet à

suivre le long d’un chemin pittoresque, axé sur une

thématique distinctive et qui relie un certain nombre

de sites touristiques évocateurs et ouverts aux

visiteurs. On y trouve également une variété de

services complémentaires, tels l’hébergement, la

restauration, des postes d’essence ainsi que des

services d’accueil et d’information touristiques”.

International organizations such as the World Tourism

Organization and UNESCO have been interested in the

tourist routes and the First UNWTO/UNESCO World

Conference on Tourism and Culture, held from 4 to 6

February 2015 in Siem Reap, Cambodia, some of his

conclusions were that:

The development of tourism routes has gained particular

relevance in recent years as it responds to the challenge of

overcoming seasonality by demand all year round and

throughout the territory while addressing the new market

trends emerging from travelers seeking enriching

experiences. They entail more flexibility, discovery,

learning and contact with local people and their

traditions”. “Other relevant issues in the development of

the routes are the integration of marketing and promotion

and the development of a common and truly “shared”

brand; as well as the engagement of local communities in

the design, operation and interpretation of routes as well

as the fair and equal distribution of tourism benefits at the

local level”. [See 6] p. 19-20.

More recently the UNWTO [See 7] p. 28, defines the

concept of route as:

“Many themed experiences are labelled as routes (or

sometimes ways or trails) a term that can be


The original purpose of a tourism route was to link

the different expressions of a theme together by

creating an itinerary from one to another; for example,

in case of a wine route, to link one vineyards to the

next. Routes might be linear, or else presented as a

circuit where the traveller returns to the point of

departure. The purpose is to guide the traveller

through a journey of discovery, based on a common

theme, thereby giving it great visibility.

The original purpose has been enlarged, and many

routes are now created with no fixed or recommended

itinerary. The essential purpose remains to group

tourism assets by theme, over an extensive

geographical area”.

In the definitions above, we find that, despite the

difference in the dates in which they were produced, they

do not refer to the existence of a type of governance, or

at least, the existence of a management entity which can

follow the evolution of the tourism route. They do not

mention the current importance of the use of information

and communications technologies (ICTs) to promote


To create a tourist route, it is important that a market

study be done previously to identify the target markets

and their characteristics. After the route is implemented,

said study should be carried out regularly. Next, a survey

of tourism products in the region, particularly natural

resources, handicrafts and human resources, should be

made. The existence of these resources, after the route

implemented, should be updated regularly. After this

identification is necessary the creation of a macro plan

for implementation of the route. All of the above

activities must be carried out by an entity that is set up to

manage the route and achieve the strategic objectives and

is responsible for marketing and evaluating the results of

the route. It must have guaranteed financial availability

to be able to develop its activity [See 8].

When designing the itinerary of the route, it is important

to include the visible aspects of the localities included in

it, taking into account the conditions of accessibility of

the tourists to the different resources, the hours of

operation and what the pricing policy. [See 2].

Success and image of a tourist destination

The tourist routes have to contribute to the success and

image of the tourist destinations, as well as to benefit

from these same factors of competitiveness.

The key element of tourism activity in a successful tourist

destination is the ability to recognize and adapt to key

factors, as well as the way they interact with each other.

The main drivers of global change in the external

environment can be classified by economic, political,


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

environmental, technological, demographic and social.

[See 10]

According to Butler [See 9] the life cycle of a tourism

product / destination is characterized by the fact that, at

the beginning, sales are advancing slowly, following a

rapid rate of growth, and then its decline. Visitors arrive

in an area initially in small groups due to lack of access

facilities and local knowledge.

With the increase of the local facilities, also increases the

number of visitors, followed by marketing and the

dissemination of information, rapidly increasing the

popularity of the destination.

In the next phase the increase of tourists (no longer

visitors), causes that the capacity of load is reached.

Problems with the environment, scarcity of space, water

and air quality, transportation, housing, as well as social

factors related to autochthonous dissatisfaction begin to


Faced with the problems perceived by the tourists, the

demand diminishes due to the excess of these and there

is dissatisfaction of the population.

A problem arises here, or fate rejuvenates, or declines.

is therefore important that the governance and / or

management of tourism destinations / products,

particularly tourist routes, which are the focus of this

work, periodically assess their demand, so that they can

measures and actions necessary so that they do not reach

the decline or, ultimately, can anticipate their


Strategically the marketing management of a destination

/ tourism product, requires a careful analysis of the brand

image that is transmitted to the market, because that is

the one that determines the choice or not of the consumer.

The result of the process of perception and cognitive, the

image of destiny, is formed from various sources

(reference groups, averages, etc.). Therefore, anyone can

build an image of a destination without it has moved.

[See 11].

The image of a tourist destination represents the tourist's

tendency to choose, or reject, this destination. Therefore,

the image influences the attitude of the tourists in

choosing, or not, that destination, thus influencing their

purchase process. Therefore, those responsible for

tourism management should be aware that all elements

must improve their products. Consequently, Brand Image

has become one of the most important elements of the

tourist destination and its positioning should be regularly

analyzed, thus increasing the likelihood of a successful

commercialization, or else the destination has failed.

[See 11]

In the image of a tourist destination, variables such as age,

race, whether or not it is the first time it visits the

destination, educational level, motivation and

importance of cultural values strongly influence that

which fate creates. It is therefore important to work all

these variables as an opportunity to strengthen the

positivism of the same, boosting its demand by the

tourists. [See 11]

In short, the image of a destination is an important critical

factor for the success, or failure, of tourism management.

Therefore, the image of a target must be analyzed by

research, development and strategic innovation, using

multivariate methodologies to find the main

characteristics and subsequent positioning. [See 11]

The image of a country is also an important factor in the

image of a tourist destination.

he ideal strategy for the development of a tourist

destination, identifies and analyzes two characteristics:

1) The long-term choice of investment in the

improvement of natural and / or cultural resources, at the

destination, to increase the satisfaction of the tourist

product, including accommodation and complementary

services, making them available to tourists.

2) The short-term choice of whether or not to implement

a concertation of prices between local companies, a

problem arising from the anti-community nature of the

tourism product. [See 12]

For the development of an economic model for a tourist

destination, two specific aspects must be considered:

1) The tourist product can be as a composite package of

several elementary items of goods and services

(accommodation, transportation, shopping, attractions,

events, etc.) that are required by tourists during their


2) The territory (resources and organizational structures)

is the argument for valorisation of the product, both for

production and for its use.

It also includes an economic agent who makes important

decisions on the supply side at a micro level (companies

and tourists), and macro (the entire economy of the

country). We must take into account two key issues: the

choice between investing in the variety of tourism

product (its sophistication), or local resource

improvements; the coordination between local

companies resulting from ownership of the local product.

[See 12]

Research Methodology

The present study had as initial methodology the review

of the consulted literature in order to determine the

research gap.

Considering that the objective of this study is to evaluate

the touristic routes existing in mainland Portugal, this

research was initiated through a desk research to

determine which routes exist and which their managing


Initially we made an Internet query to identify the various


Subsequently we sent emails to all the municipal

chambers of Continental Portugal (according to the list

on the website of the National Association of Portuguese

Municipalities), tourism regions and Turismo de Portugal,

in order to gather more elements needed for this study.

We made several insistences to obtain answers and, in the

end, we obtained 202 answers (72.66%) of the 278

municipal chambers contacted. Of the 5 tourism regions

contacted, 4 responded and we also obtained a response

from Turismo de Portugal.

Finally, we did a treatment of the obtained answers, being

opened files for each one of the municipal chambers,

regions of tourism and Tourism of Portugal, registering

the correspondence exchanged and the obtained answers.

Files were also opened for each of the routes where the

information collected was recorded.

With these elements, a new search was made through the


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Internet sites of all the municipal chambers, in order to

verify if there was any change between the elements

collected and the routes that were advertised on the


The objective of this new research was to verify if, from

the municipal chambers that did not respond, they were

included in their sites routes that could be considered in

the study so that it covered the maximum possible data.

From the analysis of the collected elements, we

encountered a difficulty, was that in the answers obtained,

they were mentioned as tourist routes, local routes, trails,

tourist operators' programs called routes, etc.

In view of this situation, we had to define clearly which

criteria the routes should answer in order to be included

in this study.

The criteria chosen were:

C1) - The route has a theme;

C2) - Have a management entity (exclusion factor);

C3) - Located in multi-locations;

C4) - Have a website (own or shared);

C5) - Have existed for more than 3 years (Since 1 January


C6) - Have signs.

The reasons for choosing each criterion were:

C1 - It is understood that in order to be considered a

tourist route, it must have as its umbrella a theme of its


C2 - Considering that this study intends to evaluate the

route, it is fundamental that there be a management entity

that, if analysed.

C3 - Due to the great proliferation of local itineraries

where there may be no management of their own,

consideration of these itineraries in the study would lead

to a great deal of analysis that could distort the final

results, given the discrepancy between local visits,

pedestrian routes and route fruition tourist attractions.

Therefore, only those that cover multi-locations will be


C4 - We considered important for the dissemination of

the routes the existence of electronic information, so that

the existence of them can be known by tourists. If this

function does not exist, the result of the route can be

distorted due to lack of information in equality for those

who benefit from this condition.

C5 - When evaluating the management of the tourist

routes, we understand that for this evaluation to be

credible, we must consider routes with sometime of

existence. We opted for the three years (existed before

January 1, 2013) that we considered a minimum period

for an evaluation, avoiding distorting the results if we

consider deadlines lower than this.

C6 - Own signalling is important for us to consider the

route in the study, because otherwise the fruition of the

route by the tourists, can be a conditioning.

In the first phase of analysis of the routes to be included

in the study, we considered only the C1, C2 and C3

criteria as mandatory, and the remaining ones weighted

according to the survey responses we prepared.

As a result of this analysis, we identified 184 potential

routes to be considered in the study.

This work was extended from February 2014 to April


Subsequently, a ran a pilot test was drawn up and sent to

18 personalities, and 11 responses were obtained.

In view of the responses received, the final questionnaire

was created, which was sent by email to the entities

identified as managers, together with a letter of comfort,

in order to reinforce the situation that the items collected

would be used exclusively for academic purposes.

82 entities were contacted, of which 38 were City


There was a need to send several messages to the

contacted entities requesting a response to the

questionnaire, since, as expected, they did not respond to

the first attempt.

In response to the replies received, 100 routes were

allegedly excluded "because they did not go off the

paper", were "only suggestions for visits", "are very old

and there are neither managing entities nor elements",

and also because the entities contacted have "declined

invitation" or have not responded.

The consultation was carried out between mid-May and

September 2017.

Main difficulties

The tourist routes are distributed throughout the territory

under analysis - mainland Portugal.

However, the term routes are often used indiscriminately

and sometimes only for marketing purposes, as we found

throughout the collection that we did, many itineraries

that are mere suggestions without any organizational

character, as indeed the results of the questionnaire have


Another difficulty was that the vast majority of routes

have purely administrative management and are not

regularly assessed, with the risk that, sooner or later, they

may be deactivated or in need of refurbishment.

The main difficulties were first of all to obtain reliable

data on the existing routes, and then on their managing


Subsequently, the difficulties were focused on obtaining

the answers, both in the return of the completed

questionnaires by the contacted entities, and in the

information about the existence or not of the preidentified

route. For some entities it was necessary to

send up to 4 emails and in the end only with phone calls

if they got some answers.

Survey Results

In Table 1, we present the quantitative results of the


The presented values refer to the total number of routes

questioned (N = 184) and not to respondent entities since

there are several of them that generate two or more routes.

The percentages presented refer to all responses received

(N 1 = 170) and to all questionnaires received (N 2 = 104)

even though these were not through the questionnaire,

but in response to the email sent.

There are several questionnaires that have not been

answered in their entirety, which affects the total results

in each item.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Table 1 – Results of the questionnaire



Count % - N1 % - N2

Route Identification

Cultural route 46 27.06 44.23

Religious route 11 6.47 10.58

Gastronomic route 18 10.59 17.31

Heritage route 53 31.18 50.96

Wine route 18 10.59 17.31

Route of free fruition 37 21.76 35.58

Route with


26 15.29 25.00

organized groups

Others 14 8.24 13.46

Type of management entity

They have 82 48.24 78.85

Official entity 54 31.76 51.92

Private entity 28 16.74 26.92

Other 2 1.18 1.92

Implementation date 76 44.71 73.08

What governance structure is implemented?

Direction 30 17.65 28.85

Administrative staff 10 5.88 9.62

Other 11 6.47 10.58

Is the governance structure dedicated or shared?

Dedicated 27 15.88 25.96

Shared 50 29.41 48.08

Did you have a European Commission support?

Yes 38 22.35 36.54

No 38 22.35 36.54


Own website 49 28.82 47.12

Shared website 42 24.71 40.38

Facebook 35 20.59 33.65

Other social


16 9.41 15.38

Brochures 67 39.41 64.42

Other 21 12.35 20.19

Is the route signalized?

Yes 44 25.88 42.31

No 32 18.82 30.77

Number of visitors per route (answers obtained)

In 2014 29 17.06 27.88

In 2015 34 20.00 32.64

In 2016 36 21.18 34.62

Do you do periodic evaluations of the number of

visitors to the route?

Yes 31 18.24 29.81

No 39 22.94 37.50

If you make periodic evaluations, you do them with

what periodicity?

Annual 16 9.41 15.38

Biannual 4 2.35 3.85

Triannual 3 1.76 2.88

Other 8 4.71 7.69

Evaluation method used?

Direct control 22 12.94 21.15

Surveys 6 3.53 5.77

Other 8 4.71 7.69

Answers obtained without sending a questionnaire

(by email).

Not considered route

by the contacted

entity; route

deactivated; in phase 34 20.00

of remodulation or




These are

suggestions of

itineraries, tourist 44 25.88

programs or

pedestrian routes.

They have no

elements related to 5 2.94

the route.

Aggregate results on

a single route.

4 2.35

Declined the

invitation to respond 17 10.00

or did not respond

Source: Prepared by the authors

Analysis and preliminary conclusions of the results


As a first conclusion we can refer to the number of

responses in the total of 170 (92.39%), with 104

questionnaires (61.18%), of a universe of 184 routes. We

obtained, therefore, a sample of great relative size,

although not random and, therefore, in a statistical

perspective, not representative of the global universe of

the tourist routes.

In order to better understand the percentages of answers

obtained, we will analyse their results by two criteria:

1) Considering the total result of the answers with or

without questionnaire (170);

(2) Considering only the replies to the questionnaires


The biggest difficulty we had was to define which routes

should be included in the sample given the existence of

the name "route" in various types of tourism products

such as: tourist routes, visits to localities even if

associated with a certain theme, pedestrian rails, etc.

We have therefore had to define criteria for the sample in

such a way that the results obtained are consistent.

The criteria chosen were: C1) - The route has a theme;

C2) - Have a management entity (exclusion factor); C3)

- Located in multi-locations; C4) - Have a website (own

or shared); C5) - Have existed for more than 3 years

(Since 1 January 2013), C6) - Have signs.

For constitution of the sample, the criteria C1), C2) and

C3) were mandatory and the remaining optional ones.

The reasons for their choice are explained in Research

Methodology section.

Regarding the type of route, has been found that the

greatest number of responses focused on heritage, 53 (1

= 31.18% or 2 = 50.96%), followed by cultural, 46 (27.06%

/ 44.23%) of the wine and both the culinary, 18 (10.59%

/ 17.31%), the others with 14 (8.24% / 13.46%), and

finally with 11 religious (6.47% / 10.58%).

As for the form of enjoyment of the routes most are free

fruition 37 (21.76% / 35.58%) with start / organized

groups, responses were obtained 26 (15.29% / 25.00%).


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

It appears therefore that the routes relating to heritage

have great relevance not only by the number of routes

identified in this general area, and after the number of

routes specified in different types of assets.

However, according to the respondents, several routes

are composite because they associate several types in the

same route.

This conclusion is important because it can enhance

tourists' enjoyment of the routes, for example, in the

different types of routes, including gastronomy, heritage

(material and intangible), and others, which are relevant

factors for the regional development, making it possible

to create jobs.

Of the responses obtained, it is verified that the routes

have a management entity 82 (48.24% / 78.75%), of

which 54 (31.76% / 51.92%) are public, 28 (16.47% % /

26.92%) and other forms are 2 (1.18% / 1.92%).

We also asked for the date of implementation of the route,

where we obtained 76 responses (44.71% / 73.08%). In

relation to the antiquity of the routes and their results are

very varied and the relation between antiquity and results

obtained (when mentioned in the answers), will be

analysed in the final study of the thesis.

Regarding the governance structure, for 30 (17.65% /

28.85%) it is the direction, for 10 (5.88% / 9.62%) the

administrative staff, and also 11 (6.47% / 10.58%)

answered that they have some other type of structure

Given the content of the answers we are left with some

doubts as to whether there is an effective governance or

just a simple management of the route, because only one

respondent mentions city council and stakeholders as

governance structure. In future work this issue may be

further explored.

These doubts are reinforced by the result of the answer to

the following question - the governance structure is

dedicated or shared, given that they answered that it is

dedicated 27 (15.88% / 25.96%) and shared 50 (29.41%


From the questionnaires received, only a small number

replied that 38 (22.35% / 36.54%) of the European

Commission participated, and 38 (22.35% / 36.54%) did

not participate.

As regards the percentage of the reimbursement, the

answers varied between 60 and 85%.

Asked about the costs of designing and implementing the

route, the respondents indicated very different numbers

from € 1,000 to € 15 million.

Regarding the question about the annual cost of

maintaining the route, the answers range from € 200 to €


As can be seen from the numbers and percentages

verified, it is not possible in this analysis to define a

standard of implementation and maintenance costs for

tourist routes.

As for the means of promoting the route, they answered

that they used leaflets 67 (39.41% / 64.42%), followed

by their own website 49 (28.82% / 47.12%), the site

shared on the Internet 42 (24.71% / 40.38%), Facebook

35 (20.59% / 33.65%), 21 (12.35% / 20.19%), and other

social networks 16 (9.41% / 15.38%).

Therefore, we can expect a great use of information and

communication technologies.

Regarding the question about route signaling here we

obtained a low number of positive responses 44 (25.88%

/ 42.31%) and negative responses 32 (18.82% / 30.77%).

Perhaps these results explain the low-cost value both in

the design and implementation of the routes and in their


We were interested in knowing the number of visitors in

the last three years on the routes, as well as, if there were

evaluations of the results, how often and the method used.

These answers to us were very important, since the gap

that we obtained in the investigation that we did in the

state of the art, indicated that no scientific article was

found that studied the evaluation of results tourist routes,

reason for which we set out to elaborate this work.

The results obtained were as follows:

a) Number of visitors on the route in 2014, 2015 and


Let's analyze the answers regarding the evaluations made

each year, in 2014 were 29 (17.06% / 27.88%); in 2015

there were 34 (20.00% / 32.69%); and in 2016 there were

36 (21.18% / 34.62%).

b) Make periodic evaluations of the number of visitors to

the route. The answers were - yes 31 (18.24% / 29.81%)

no 39 (22.94% / 37.50%).

It should be noted that the divergence between the

number of observations presented in (a) and those

mentioned in this paragraph is due to the fact that there

are those who fail to do and who begin to do the

assessments in different years, since not all three years.

b) If it makes periodic evaluations, it does them with

what periodicity. Annual 16 (9.41% / 15.38%); biannual

4 (2.35% / 3.85%); triannual 3 (1.76% / 2.88%); another

8 (4.71% / 7.69%).

c) What method of evaluation is used. Direct control 22

(12.94% / 21.15%); survey 6 (3.53% / 5.77%); another 8

(4.71% / 7.69%).

With these results we verified that the evaluation of the

number of visitors in each route is not done in most cases,

which leads to the non-recognition of the importance of

the route to local tourism, as well as its attractiveness and

timeliness. We recognize, however, the difficulty of

evaluating the visits since there are routes of free fruition

where it is not easy to obtain credible values, we believe,

however, that this evaluation of results is important for

the monitoring of its evolution and eventual restructuring.

Regardless of the analysis of the questionnaires received,

it is important to analyze the responses that were received,

justifying not sending the questionnaire.

Thus, we have 34 answers (20.00%) that was not

considered as a route by the contacted entity; route

deactivated, in the process of reformulation, or not

implemented; 44 (25.88%) are suggestions for itineraries,

tourist programs or pedestrian routes; 5 (2.94%) do not

have elements related to the route; 4 routes (2.35%)

values were aggregated in a single response.

Finally, we did not get a response, or declined the request

for collaboration (which we regretted) of entities

regarding 17 routes (10.00%).

Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the routes

considered, this study needs to be further developed in

order to build a type of tourist route, as well as its

management and evaluation of results.

This evaluation will be carried out in future work.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


The tourist routes are an important tourist product, used

for the dissemination of patrimonial resources, cultural,

gastronomic, historical, etc., in the several regions where

they are implanted.

This product is particularly important for the

development of rural and inland areas, valuing their

tangible and intangible heritage in these regions, as they

can contribute to job creation and the establishment of

populations, particularly young people.

However, it is important that the distribution of wealth

generated by them be equitably distributed among the

local actors involved.

In turn, it is important that tourists consume local goods,

so that the economy strengthens in the sites visited.

For the tourist routes were found several definitions,

however, in a general way, they agree that, they must

have a central theme, a defined territory, and an itinerary

explaining what the tourist can enjoy along a certain


The term route is sometimes also used for other types of

approaches such as local itineraries, tourist circuits, etc.

The routes should aim to attract tourists to the region,

increasing in them the length of stay and consumption.

Routes should desirably have a type of governance that

includes local stakeholders, or at least one managing

entity that leads the project, its implementation and


The tourist routes can be divided in several types

according to the theme that served to its creation.

During the review of the literature, several types of routes

were analyzed, as well as their characterization forms and

the resources used in them.

For each one of them there are specific characteristics,

according to previous development, according to the

collected literature.

Several international bodies have focused on the theme

of tourist routes, namely UNWTO, UNESCO, ICOMOS,

European Commission, etc.

There are several route associations according to your

base theme.

Originality and value of the study

The originality of this study lies in the fact that, in the

analysis and literature, no study was found that could

have been used to evaluate the results of the routes. Its

importance is grounded in the Butler [9] cycle of

evaluation theory of touristic destinations / products: it is

crucial to regularly monitor the results so that, when

stagnation is achieved, decline is avoided, and

rejuvenation initated. This concept, although referring to

the tourist destination, must for the most part be applied

to the case of routes.


[1] INE 2017 – Estatísticas de Turismo 2016. Instituto

Nacional de Estatística. Lisboa.

[2] López-Guzmán, T., Lara de Vicente, F. & Marinero,

R. (2006). Las rutas turísticas como motor de desarrollo

económico local. La ruta del “Tempranillo”. Estudios

Turísticos (167), 131-145.

[3] Meyer, D. (2004). Tourism routes and gateways: key

issues for development of tourism routes and gateways

and their potential for pro-poor tourism. Overseas

Development Institute, 1-31.

[4] Montejano, J. (1991). Estructura del Mercado

Turístico. Madrid: Editorial Síntesis.

[5] Québec (2006). Politique de signalisation touristique

– Routes et circuits touristiques. Direction des

communications, Ministère du Tourisme et Ministère des

transports du Québec.

[6] World Tourism Organization (2015). Affiliate

Member Global Reports, Volume Twelve.

[7] World Tourism Organization and European Travel

Commission (2017), Handbook on Marketing

Transnational Tourism Themes and Routes, UNWTO,


[8] Lourens, M. (2007). Route tourism: a roadmap for

successful destinations and local economic development.

Development South Africa, 24(3), 475-490. Doi:


[9] Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourism area

cycle of evaluation: implication for management of

resources. Canadian Geographer, XXIV (1), 5-12.

[10] Dwyer, L., Edwards, D., Mistilis, N., Roman, C.,

Scitt, N. (2009). Destination and enterprise management

for tourism future. Tourism Management, 30, 63-74. Doi :


[11] Lopes, S. (2011). Destination image: Origins,

Development and Implications. Pasos, Revista Turismo y

Patrimonio Cultural, 9(2), 305-315.

[12] Andergassen, R., Candela, G. & Figini, p. (2013).

An economic model for tourism destinations: product

sophistication and price coordination. Tourism

Management 37, 86-98.

Doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.013


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

The potential and pitfalls of urban-tourist development around biosphere reserves:

The cases studies of Mata Atlântica (Brazil), Yancheng (China) and Camargue


Francisco Antonio Carneiro Ferreira a


PhD student at the University of Paris 3 - Sorbonne Nouvelle - Iheal-Creda

Address: 28 rue Saint-Guillaume 75007 Paris, France - tel : +33 144398660

E-mail: francisco.carneiro-ferreira@etud.sorbonne-nouvelle.fr

Lecturer at the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning -

Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil - tel : +55 4837219550

E-mail: francisco.acf@ufsc.br www.gipedu.ufsc.br


Using the perspective of social-environmental evaluation

studies, this work focuses on the issue of the relations

between society and the environment in the processes of

urban-tourist development around biosphere reserves.

In this sense, it identifies various points of intersection

between the theme of tourist activity and the notion of

sustainable development. In the comparative analysis of

three cases of biosphere reserves - Mata Atlântica

(Brazil), Yancheng (China) and Camargue (France) - we

examine the occupation experience of the transition

zones situated on the coast areas of these biosphere

reserves. For that purpose, fieldwork was carried out

between 2015 and 2016, and it led us to conduct

interviews at different administration levels. The

intention was to use the observation method and the

questionnaire, applied to the different actors and experts

of the cases studied, in order to obtain the necessary

information. The case studies offer additional

information for the reinforcement of the hypothesis that

the development process of tourism in coastal areas has

involved the strengthening of social and ecological

predatory strategies of urban and peri-urban occupation.

The socioeconomic and socio-cultural fragmentation of

nature and local communities has added to the

intensification of environmental pollution indices and to

the decrease of biological productivity in bays, estuaries,

mangroves and coastal lakes. Finally, the work

recognised the importance of the reinforcement of an

integrated and participatory planning system capable of

correctively and preventively counterposing the

aggravation of actual foci of deterioration of the natural

and constructed environment induced by urban and periurban

tourist activity.


Biosphere reserves, urban-tourist development, periurban

occupation, sustainable alternative.


Tourism accounts for roughly 8 percent of global

greenhouse gas emissions, four times higher than previous

estimates [13]


Global perception problem

Global-scale urbanisation is the main driver of

widespread pressures on ecosystems, due to rapidly

changing population densities and displacements, in

particular migration from rural to urban areas [1, 2, 3].

The planet's coastal zones are subject to significant

changes caused by the growing influence of the dominant

urban development model which subjects the planet to its

influence, control and priorities. Tourism 7 , port and

industrial activities intensify the occupation of the

coastal strip around natural ecosystems, affecting

biodiversity and the permanent or temporary habitats of

human populations and numerous species of fauna and

flora [4,5]. In this respect, Chinese and Brazilian cities

have experienced a real estate and tourism boom, with a

series of problems such as uncontrolled urban sprawl, the

deterioration of the ecological environment and the

homogeneity of the urban fabric. The biophysical and

socio-economic characteristics of nature reserves and

surrounding areas - transition zones - are deteriorating,

affecting the region's biodiversity [6, 7, 8]. In France,

wetlands outside protected areas are essential elements

for biodiversity conservation and its multiple uses.

Strategic and functional interactions between the various

actors in the territory are most often perceived as

constraints. In order to gain management autonomy, the

actors construct dikes and install pumps, thereby

specialising use and space. The result is a transformation

of aquatic ecosystems, a fragmentation of ecological

units [9, 10].

Harmonisation, according to Godard [11], between

development and environmental protection objectives

would in principle be possible, but would require the

creation of new development models, which would imply

significant changes in lifestyles and production

techniques as well as social organisation and

international relations, a concept that operates with the

idea of sustainable development 8 [12].


Sustainable development, as disseminated by the World

Commission on Environment and Development through the

Brundtland Report - Our Common Future (1987) - has created


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Vieira [14] suggests that the mediatisation of the notion

of "sustainable development", the weight of conceptual

controversies, and the polysemy surrounding the use of

this category (in the scientific and political fields),

demands a more rigorous examination. The literature of

recent decades has shown the importance of

organisational processes and social changes which have

almost irreversible environmental and social impacts, but

has also recorded the transformative action of dynamic

social groups, sensitive to a creative search for

participatory solutions (groups and projects have more or

less important potential for innovation, but projects do

not have a homogeneous interpretation of the concept).

The insufficcient theoretical treatment of sustainable

development, the ambiguities and contradictions of its

implementation in a regional context and economiccultural

globalisation, must be understood as a nondeterministic

vision of the dynamics of socioenvironmental

systems, given the uncertainties

surrounding the very legitimacy of the principle of

sustainability within contemporary societies, which are

subject to the constraints of community behaviour and

lifestyles [15, 16].

With a view to analysing the three study situations, one

of the criteria adopted is the urban dimension relating to

the downstream urbanisation process associated with the

transition zone of the Biosphere Reserve (RB) 9 .

Established in 1974 as part of Unesco's Man and the

Biosphere programme, biosphere reserves are a category

of protected areas. As of August 2007, there were 669

sites in 120 countries with a wide biogeographic and

bioclimatic diversity, a wide range of economic,

demographic, social and cultural situations. These

reserves attempt to reconcile the conservation and

protection of biodiversity with the rational use of natural

resources. The biosphere concept has expanded from the

Seville Strategy (approved by the General Conference of

Unesco in 1995) to promote the conservation with

sustainable use and benefit-sharing of natural resources.

In 2008 the Madrid Action Plan (MAP) , which adopted

the Seville Strategy, aimed to make biosphere reserves

the main areas of international importance dedicated to

sustainable development. The 4th World Congress of

Biosphere Reserves (2016) addressed issues related to

the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the 2030

Agenda for Sustainable Development [17].

Regional Perception problem

The Chinese study area is the protected territory of the

Yancheng Biosphere Reserve - YBR ( 盐 城 湿 地 ) located

north of Shanghai, around the city of Yancheng ( 盐 城 ),

a polarised area for mega-city Shanghai. The Yancheng

National Nature Reserve, which is home to many rare

bird species, has an area of 453,000 hectares. It is located

a complex challenge for its systemic application: To ensure the

promotion of an economically, socially and environmentally

viable future for our planet and for present and future


9 The biosphere reserves have three interdependent zones to

fulfil three interrelated functions, that are complementary and

reinforce one another. The core area(s) includes a strictly

in the coastal region of Sheyang, Dafeng, Binhai,

Xiangshui and Dongtai departments, which are part of

Jiangsu province ( 江 苏 ) (figure 1). Created as a

provincial reserve in 1984, it was classified as a national

nature reserve in 1992, and was included in Unesco's

international Man and the Biosphere network the same

year. The reserve joined the North Asian Crane Reserve

Network in 1996. The protection of wetland ecosystems

and rare birds such as the red-crowned crane are the

reserve's protection objectives [19].

Figure 1: Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, the part located in the

Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Source: FAC Ferreira (2016).

The severity of environmental problems related to

different aspects of China's development, particularly in

Jiangsu province, is causing effects for the reduction of

biodiversity around the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve

[20]. Analysis of the urban characteristics of Yancheng

municipality shows that the city has rich environmental

resources. However, due to deficient ecological elements

altering large areas of the ecological corridor,

biodiversity cannot prosper. In the city and the

countryside, the open space is very fragmented and the

support of the green space fails to establish a zoological

connection between the planning area and the

administrative region of the city [21].

The Brazilian study area is the protected territory of the

Mata Atlântica Biosphere Reserve - MABR, the part

located in the south of Brazil and around the city of

Florianópolis - capital of the State of Santa Catarina -

with specific interest in the conservation unit Parque

Estadual do Rio Vermelho (Regional Park of the Red

River) (figure 2). This region is polarized for This

region is within the city of Florianópolis and influenced

by the city of Curitiba, known worldwide for its urban

planning, innovations in ecology, mobility (public

transport) and waste treatment (selective collection).

protected ecosystem that contributes to biodiversity


The buffer zone surrounds or adjoins the core areas used for

activities compatible with ecologically sustainable practices,

The transition zone is the reserve part where more activities

which enable sustainable economic and human development

are authorised [18].


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Mata Atlântica is associated with coastal ecosystems:

mangroves, lagoons, beaches, dunes.

Figure 2: Mata Atlântica Biosphere Reserve, the part located in

Santa Catarina, the south of Brazil. Source: FAC Ferreira


In 1988 it was included in Unesco's international network

Man and the Biosphere. The biome extends over the

Brazilian Atlantic coast from the coastal states of Ceará

to Rio Grande do Sul, over a distance of 3,000 km. The

forest originally occupied 1,315,460 km2 spread over 17

states, which corresponded to about 15% of the surface

area of Brazil. Its exploration began with the arrival of

the Portuguese colonisers and the process of

deforestation continued during the various economic

cycles that accompanied sugar cane cultivation, gold

mining, logging, coffee cultivation, pasture expansion

and urbanisation development [22].

The intensification of conflicts resulting from

urbanisation and the struggle for access to the resources

of the Brazilian coastline, tourism being one of them is at

the origin of serious socio-environmental problems

among which, the most important is: the development of

inequalities and a process of urban marginalisation that

has caused severe changes in the environment, especially

from deforestation, erosion, contamination of water and

atmospheric resources [23].

The significant natural potential of the Santa Catarina

coast has served as a lever for the growth of coastal cities.

In the area surrounding the Parque Estadual do Rio

Vermelho (Regional Park of the Red River), there is a

tendency towards unplanned urbanization at the expense

of the protected areas of the districts of Barra da Lagoa,

Costa da Lagoa, São João do Rio Vermelho and Ingleses

(Santinho). The lack of governmental and social control

over environmental protection is the main challenge to

the sustainability of the region. The absence of a planning

strategy that addresses the overall urban development of

the region has contributed to urban sprawl that favours

aggressive interference with the most unique features of

the region's historical and natural landscape, especially

biodiversity [24, 25].

The French study region is the protected territory of the

Camargue Biosphere Reserve - CBR, located in the south

of France (figure 3). This protected region is influenced

for the city of Montpelier and the city of Marseille.

Between the Rhône River and the Mediterranean Sea, the

Camargue Biosphere Reserve covers the entire

biogeographical delta of the Rhône, since its revision in

2005. A natural area of 32.000 hectares, it is located

between two densely populated regions at the

intersection of the agglomerations of Montpellier,

Nîmes, Arles and Marseille and the industrial site of Fossur-Mer.

The Camargue Regional Nature Park and the

Petit Camargue Gardoise have been recognised as

wetlands of international importance by the Ramsar

Convention since 1986 and 1996 respectively. The

Rhône delta is one of the largest wetlands in Europe [26,


In the Camargue, threatened bird species are present at

local, national and international levels. Among them the

pink flamingo, 8 species of herons, 6 of seagulls and as

many small nesting waders. More than 100.00 ducks

overwinter there [28]. The Camargue is an area at risk

due to sea level rise and climate change. Thus,


Figure 3: Camargue Biosphere Reserve, the part located in

Santa Catarina, the south of France. Source: FAC Ferreira


biodiversity is no longer under threat only from local

uses, but also depends on Rhône-Alpins uses. And in the

wetlands of the planet, as well as in the Camargue, we

continue to specialise space in order to limit natural

variations and increase the production of goods and

services [29, 30]. The management of the French

biosphere reserve is based on two management and

coordination structures, a management committee often

supplemented by thematic commissions and a scientific

council [17].


In order to contribute to the understanding of this

phenomenon, our intention is to deepen comparative

studies of urbanisation processes in coastal regions. The

objective of the analysis is to assess, within a "regional

municipality" framework, the effectiveness of

sustainable urban development policies. The aim is also

to explain the forces that cause the phenomenon of

urbanisation degradation around the RBs, based on a

comparative study of three relatively homogeneous

situations of urban and peri-urban development

activities, thus allowing a better focus and comparison.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

The case study provides evidence to reinforce the

hypothesis that the development process in coastal areas

with urban, industrial and tourist foci has led to the

strengthening of social strategies and ecologically

predatory urban occupation, even around biosphere

reserves. In addition to the socio-economic destructuring

of traditional communities, environmental pollution

indices have intensified and biological productivity in

bays, estuaries, mangroves and coastal lagoons has


The study recognises the lack of an integrated and

participatory planning system for sustainable

development, capable of coping with the degradation of

the biophysical and built environment resulting from the

dominant urban model.

The study specifically assess the urbanisation

phenomenon around the Yancheng (China), Camargue

(France) and Mata Atlântica (Brazil) biosphere reserves.

To this end, fieldwork was developed between 2015 and

2016, and led us to conduct interviews at different

context. For each of them, we observed the various actors

playing a role in the territories and whose interests are in

conflict, with regard to access to space and socioenvironmental

resources, which depend on global,

regional and local political decisions [31, 32, 33, 34]. Our

sample includes territorial actors representative of the

study situation: government actors, members of schools,

associations, companies (professionals), and individuals

(farmers, inhabitants, and other users of the territory).

Figure 4: Growth in tourist arrivals by region Source: Statista


Ecotourism as a sustainable alternative for local periurban-tourist


10 China continues to dominate the global overseas travel

market, after a decade of double-digit spending growth and a

high ranking in 2012. Chinese travellers' spending increased by

12% in 2016 to reach 261 billion US dollars. The number of

outgoing passengers increased by 6% to 135 million in 2016.

U.S. tourism spending, the world's second largest source

market, increased 8% in 2016 to $124 billion. Germany (a 3%

increase in spending over last year to US$80 billion), the UK

and France (reported a 3% increase in tourism spending in 2016

to US$40 billion) are Europe's main source markets and rank

third, fourth and fifth respectively worldwidel [44].

In recent decades, tourism has been one of the strongest

economic activities in the world in terms of growth. This

statistic (figure 4) shows the growth in the number of

tourists, by region, in the world from 2008 to 2018. In

2014, the number of visitors arriving in the Americas

increased by 8.3% over the previous year. In the Asia-

Pacific region, in 2016, it increased by 8.8 per cent over

the previous year [35] 10 . The impacts of tourism in

Brazil, France and China are also intense on the coastal

strip, an area where this activity has taken on greater

economic importance. This has happened according to a

trend towards urbanisation of coastal cities due to their

importance as scenic spaces ensured by the quality of the

landscapes, especially in peri-urban areas 11 . In China,

local community residents can be critical for the

sustainable tourism development of rural landscape

heritage. According Zhanga et al. [36] landscapes would

lose their authenticity and integrity without participation

of community residents.

At the same time tourism is promoting the economic

development of communities, it will affect their natural

environment and social culture to varying extents. With

such impacts, rural landscapes are subject to the risk of

becoming overly commercialised.

The experience of international ecotourism, over the last

twenty years, has shown some remarkable characteristics

that help us to develop an insight into

global phenomenon. The effects of this activity vary in

intensity and repercussion, depending on the

development of the social and environmental relations of

the host country society. In order to characterise the

evolution of this phenomenon in our study region, we

will make reference to Kervan & Velut [37], Ferreira

[38], Eagles et al. [39], Boo [40], Krippendorf [41],

Bauza [42], and Sejenovich [43], by provisionally

identifying the following aspects : (1) A pattern of

foreign demand determined by the level of income from

developed countries and whose movement is in the form

of trips in search of a "natural" or "exotic" destination

resulting, often, in dependency relationships, (2) A

tendency to create systems that are replicas of those

found in the country from which the company comes

(this is the case of resorts, which offer accommodation in

huts in the forest or with views over the forest, in general,

the technologies employed to aim to interact with the

natural environment, but do not adapt to local social

conditions in developing countries); (3) In some of the

emerging economies in East Asia and Latin America,

notably China and Brazil, a significant number of tourists

are likely to be attracted to protected areas, (4) The

increasingly decisive importance of park use throughout

the world, with conservationists and park administrators

11 The term peri-urbanization refers to a process, often a highly

dynamic one, in which rural areas located on the outskirts of

established cities become more urban in character. This

transformation occurs in physical, economic, and social terms,

and often in piecemeal fashion. Peri-urban development usually

involves rapid environmental deterioration and social change,

as small agricultural communities are forced to adjust to an

urban or industrial way of life in a very short time. High levels

of in-migration are an important driver of social change. [45].


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

beginning to recognize new parameters in natural

resource management. The European countries are

important generators of visits to parks, throughout the

world, especially in France, (5) Awareness among

receiving communities and responsible tourists of the

need for low-impact tourism that does not harm the

environment is growing. They tend to want to support in

a participatory manner local conservation or community

development initiatives. They themselves move from

consumer activities to less consumer activities, often

adopting "green consumer" lifestyles. The growing

interest in sustainable tourism and ecotourism addresses

these concerns.

Figure 5: The waste of the community of Xianggang, near the

central area of the YBR (écosystème strictement protégé).

Source: FAC Ferreira (2016).

Protected areas are better placed to take advantage of this

trend as they embody the values that these travellers hold.

In the coastal region of Sheyang department (Province

de Jiangsu, China), Hangshagang (3500 inhabitants in

2016) and Xianggang (500 inhabitants) are the closest

communities to the central zone of the YBR. These

communities have lived with the ecotourism attraction of

YBR, without taking advantage of their geographic

localisation. They are fishing communities in which

there an enormous ecotourism potential, however

neglected by the lack of local sustainable development

policy (mainly lack of access to information and financial


The Sheyang County has Environmental Protection and

Ecological Planning, which provides in Chapter III "to

improve the quality of the environment as the goal",

"with implementation of waste recycling and control of

solid waste pollution" (item 7.4, page 54). The plan

indicates that industrial decentralization is the cause of

the great difficulty of waste management as there are

many small industries to monitor (page 20) [46]. Added

to these difficulties are the chinese impacts of growth at

all costs: pollution of air, water and soil, with the

consequent loss of biodiversity [47, 48, 49].

Figure 6: The YBR visitation center project concentrates very

interesting information about the regional biodiversity. It could

be an instrument for greater integration and motivation for the

sustainable development of surrounding communities. The

building itself, with its expressive artistic form, could be also a

clearer example of environnemental education constuction,

showing the use of renewable resources. Source: FAC Ferreira


It is easy to verify the absence of a process at the origin

of the planning of cities close to the reserve,

particularly around a better use of human and

environmental resources of the region, and especially

waste. The cultural and natural areas near the main

visiting site of the reserve (figure 6), are remarkable

elements of both small towns to fish, nevertheless the

presence of waste causes negative effects (figure 5).

With regard to ecotourism, appropriate waste

management would protect natural areas of high

environmental value, mainly in Huangshagan and

Xianggang. These small towns are located on flat land

with a beautiful view over a river cut by many canals.

Fishing is the main economic activity of the cities, whose

territory today represents the perfect illustration of the

effects of the unprecedented industrial decentralisation

policy on Chinese urbanisation. Professional,

commercial and residential activities are mixed in the

areas closest to the port. A community initiative that

attracts attention for its creativity is the small

gastronomic village near to the visit center of YBR

(figure 7).

Figure 7: The local surrounding communities try to

participate in the ecotourism movement generated by YBR.

Source: FAC Ferreira (2016).


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Today the commune of Saintes Maries is threatened by

the sea on a front of 40 km, and is influenced by the


Figure 10: A private property was intended for ecotourism

Figure 8: The women work repairing nets in Huangshagan.

Source: FAC Ferreira (2016).

In this urban environment, it is possible to feel the

dynamic climate of a fishing community (figure 8). The

challenge seems to be to find a balance between rural

areas, characterised by agricultural activity and urban

areas. The harbour can be transformed into remarkable

elements of the city, as far as tourism is concerned, by

their presence in the different zones of the port which

offer numerous activities and are very active cultural

places (figure 9). Interviewees revealed, however,

concerns about the need for a solution to air and water


Figure 9: The Haiwang Temple that attracts many faithful and

constitutes an important tourist pole for the city of

Huanshagan . Source: FAC Ferreira (2016).

For many auteurs is crucial to know how to motivate

community residents’ sense of recognition and honour of

the heritage value. And how to create the manner and

approach for the community residents to participate in

rural sustainable tourism in Chine. Another key

problem is how to improve the social residents’ interests

in the course of developing rural heritage tourism [50]

and ecotourism [51].

Les Saintes Maries de la Mer (2750 inhabitants in 2016),

40 km from Arles (Région Paca, France), in the heart

of the Camargue Biosphere Reserve, is composed of

large remarkable natural areas that shape the landscape

and are at the origin of exceptional biodiversity, a

territory two thirds of which is submerged, with

urbanisation very restricted by water and diffuse, a factor

of proneness to flooding, and a commune integrated into

the Camargue Regional Natural Park and partly

classified as a Camargue national reserve.

and the preservation of biodiversity in Saintes Maries de la

Mer. Source: FAC Ferreira (2016).

of the pond of Vaccarès and the other peripheral ponds

which mark its landscapes. It is also influenced by the

presence of salt in the soil, as well as by summer drought

and flooding. This climatic influence endangers its

economic activities (agriculture and tourism) [52].

The municipality of Saintes Maries de la Mer, has

revealed a strong presence of tourist activity

(predominance of second homes) bordering the

Mediterranean Sea and in the heart the Camargue

National Nature Reserve (central area of the Biosphere

Reserve) making it a privileged but also fragile

environment. There is no local government ecotourism

policy. Some non-governmental initiatives such as the

Camargue Ornithological Centre offer an excellent

example as an alternative to dominant seasonal tourism

(figures 10 and 11). This experience can be transformed

into a living laboratory, i.e. a laboratory that is also

dedicated to the development of sustainable ideas in the

countryside (rurality and urbanity in dialogue), tested and

analysed by users, producers and the population.

Figure 11: Ornithological Centre of the Camargue, one of the

few and interesting resources dedicated to ecotourism and

biodiversity conservation in Saintes Maries de la Mer, France.

Source: FAC Ferreira, 2015.

The campaign can become the main driver for the

provision of ecosystem services and sustainable

development in biosphere reserve transition zones, such

as: managing green and built spaces based on the

principles of circular economy, managing biomass

production, managing ecotourism from facilities that


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

stimulate environmental education to adoption of sele

ctive waste management, involving the urban and rural

community, based on the 3Rs principle: Reduce, Reuse

and Recycle.

Figure 12: The difficulty concerning waste management is

particularly pronounced, especially during the summer period.

Source: FAC Ferreira, 2016.

The response of the population is limited in terms of

participation, especially around the instruments of sociopolitical

articulation of the planning, such as the Local

Urban Plan (PLU) and the Planning Project and

Sustainable Development (PAAD), envisages public

debates and a social consultation [53]. Conflict

resolution involving potential tourism resources (natural

and cultural) in Saintes Maries affects different interest

groups, which necessitates building consensus to

approach controversial issues and reach an agreement


development of the region contributes so that urban

expansion promotes aggressive interference on the rarest

resources of the historical and natural landscape of the

territory. Around the park, especially in Barra da Lagoa,

we can identify the main characteristics of this process.

In the context of civil society, it can be noted from

interviews that the action of non-governmental

organisations in the locality demonstrates a capacity for

assimilation of the risks involved in the process of urbantourist

expansion of the district, which is still in its

infancy. Interviewees revealed, however, concerns about

the need to revise urban intensification projections for the

area and also expressed concern about problems

affecting the park, such as insecurity, lack of sanitation,

and difficulties in community use of the area.

They also stressed the need to orient tourist activity

towards the sustainable exploitation of the natural

potential of the conservation unit through the structuring

of ecotourism and the organisation of activities linked to

culture, leisure and sport

The discussion should be focused on how to achieve

balance among the various forces stemming from

protection of the environment, the outstanding

universal value of rural heritage, economic development

and sustainable community-based tourism [56, 57]. In

a broader sense, in order to guarantee a better quality of

the environment, urban-tourist development policies

should be adopted that begin to assume the challenges of

democratic control of the expansion of economic growth,

especially around biosphere reserves, in order to relieve

the destructive pressures exerted on the basis of

sustaining natural ecosystems and on the quality of life

of the majority of the populations concerned.

Figure 13: Privatization of the banks of the watercourse

affecting the MA biophere reserve. Source: FAC Ferreira,


In the Barra da Lagoa (3000 inhabitants in 2016)

Brazilian fishing community, in the surrounding area of

the Mata Atlantic Biosphere Reserve (Parque

Estadual do Rio Vermelho), the process of disorganized

urbanization is observed with an expansion trend in

protected areas in the Barra da Lagoa community [55].

The lack of information on how to establish and reconcile

social and governmental controls for the protection of

environmental resources is the main challenge to

sustainable development in the region. The absence of a

development strategy that deals globally with the urban

Figure 15: Alternative vision of the public use of the banks for

ecotourism. Source: Source: FAC Ferreira, 2017.

We also recognize the need to broaden the technical

knowledge base on the structure and dynamics of the

relationship between human development and the

protection of the region's ecosystems. In all regions

studied, we lack a more complete inventory of successful

experiences that can serve as an example for the

experimentation of economic models and technologies

that conserve the natural resources that exist, in order to

guarantee greater efficiency in the process of rational

management of these areas with great tourist potential

and in the development of environmental education [58].


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


Understanding the complexity of the interdependent

factors that play an important role in this process is a

precondition for assessing the effects of the urban and

peri-urban tourism development model on the natural

and social characteristics of the region. The study

showed limitations of the actors to implement changes in

their activities and to adopt new strategies to adapt to the

conditions of environmental protection and sustainable

occupation of the territory. The analysis also highlights

the role of institutionalised actions by States and societies

in developing a reflection on socio-environmental

conservation actions and programmes. In the Brazilian

case, the study showed that uncontrolled urbanization

causes irregular use and occupation of legally protected

natural areas around the Mata Atlântica Biosphere

Reserve. There is an effective decrease in public actions

in the sense of attracting more means of sustainability for

the amplification of projects of a circular economy, as is

the case of organic production, that could constitute an

action to strengthen the fight in favour of biodiversity

conservation. This seems to be a reality that is common

to all three situations under study, especially in the

transition (peri-urban) areas of the BRs. The analysis

have revealed that the reserves are considered more an

honorary label than an adaptive and innovative

management tool [59]. We can verify to what extent,

there is a capacity to incorporate sustainable

management dynamics at the regional and local

development level. The greatest challenge seems to lie

within the possibility of combining the institutional

changes stemming from creation and expansion of

democratic urban policies with the growing

legitimisation of the concept of durable development.


This article is part of my PhD work, for this reason I

would like to thank my adviser, Prof. Dr. Sébastien

Velut, for many useful suggestions and remarks.

Thank you also to Prof. Dr. João de Deus for his advice.

I am much indebted to Prof. Dr. Francisco Henrique de

Oliveira and Geographers Guilherme Regis and Micael

Barbosa (Geolab-Udesc) for their help and support

for preparation of maps.


[1]Unesco (2008). Madrid Action Plan 2008-2013.





[2] Ipcc (2014). Changements climatiques. Atténuation

du Changement Climatique: Contribution du Groupe de

travail III au cinquième Rapport d'évaluation du GIEC.

Available in: Available in:



[3] Iom - International Organization for Migration

(2015). «Urbanization, Rural–urban Migration and

Urban Poverty»,World Migration Report. Human

Setlements Group, International Institute for

Environment and Development London. Available in:




[4] Moran, E.F (1979). Human adaptability: An

introduction to ecological anthropology. California.

Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc.

[5] Cnrs (2010). Biodiversités. Nouveaux regards sur le

vivant. Paris: Cnrs.

[6] Ferreira, Francisco.A.C (1992). « Turismo e

Desenvolvimento Urbano. Estudo de Avaliação do

Impacto Sócio-Ambiental da Atividade Turística na Ilha

de Santa Catarina. Estudo de caso do Projeto Jurerê

Internacional ». Master's thesis, Dept. of Political

Sociology, Santa Catarina Federal University, Brazil.

[7] Su,Tongxiang; Wang, Hao ; Gu, Kang ; Fei, Wenjun

; Shen, Shiguang (2013).Greenway Theory and

Integrated Planning of Urban Green Space System. A

Case Study of Yancheng City in Jiangsu Province.

Modern Landscape Architecture, Proceedings of the 6th

WSEAS International Conference on Landscape

Architecture (LA '13),. Available



[8] Quenan, Carlos; Velut, Sébastien et Jourcin, Eric

(cord.) (2014). Les enjeux du développement en

Amérique latine. Dynamiques socioéconomiques et

politiques publiques. Paris:Institut des Amériques.






[9] Picon, Bernard (2008). L’Espace et le temps en

Camargue. Arles:ActesSud.

[10] Mathevet, Raphael (2012). Camargue incertaine.

Sciences, usages et natures. Paris: Buchet Chatel


[11] Godard, O (2003). Desenvolvimento Local, in

Conservação da Diversidade Biológica e Cultural em

Zonas Costeiras. Enfoques e experiências na América

Latina e no Caribe. Org. Paulo Henrique Freire Vieira.

Florianopolis: Ed. Aped.

[12] Godard, O (2015). Environnement et

développement durable. Une approche métaéconomique.

Paris: De Boeck Supérieur

[13] Lenzen, Manfred; Sun, Ya-Yen; Faturay, Futu;

,Ting, Yuan-Peng; Geschke, Arne Geschke & Malik,

Arunima (2018). The carbon footprint of global tourism.

Nature Climate Change Journal, published on Mondqy 7

May. Available in :


[14] Vieira, P.H.F.(2003). Conservação da Diversidade

Biológica e Cultural em Zonas Costeiras. Enfoques e

experiências na América Latina e no Caribe. Org. Paulo

Freire Vieira. Florianópolis:Ed. Aped.

[15] Vieira, P.H.F.(2003). Conservação da Diversidade

Biológica e Cultural em Zonas Costeiras. Enfoques e

experiências na América Latina e no Caribe. Org. Paulo

Freire Vieira. Florianópolis:Ed. Aped.

[16]Renard, Vincent (2010). Enjeux, ambiguïtés et

contradictions entre les politiques d’urbanisme et le «

développement urbain durable ». Paris: IDDRI- Sciences


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Po, juillet. Available in: http://www.developpementdurable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/04-_Renard.pdf

[17] Unesco (2011). Pour la vie, pour l’avenir. Réserve

de Biosphère et changement climatique . Une collection

de bonnes pratiques. Paris: Édité pour la Commission

Alema - Unesco.

[18] Unesco (2016).Les réserves de biosphère. Sites

d'apprentissage pour un développement durable.

Available in:http://www.unesco.org/new/fr/naturalsciences/environment/ecologicalsciences/biospherereserves/

[19] Adb - Asian Development Bank (2010). Jiangsu

Yancheng Wetlands System Protection under the China

Biodiversity Partnership and Framework for Action

Project. Shanghai: Adb.

[20] Ma, Zhijun; Li, Bo; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Nianyong;

Watkinson, Andrew R (2009). Conflicts between

biodiversity conservation and development in a

biosphere reserve. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 527–


[21] Wang, Hui and Xu,Yinlong (2013). A Study on the

GIS Based Wetland Landscape Planning. A Case Study

Conducted in the Yancheng Wetland Nature Reserve for

Rare Birds, Modern Landscape Architecture.

Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference

on Landscape Architecture (LA ’13). Available in:



[22] Dessay, Nadine (2006). «Dynamique de la

végétation et du climat: étude par télédétection de cinq

biomes brésiliens, forêt ombrophile dense et ouverte,

cerrados, caatinga et campanha gaúcha « . Ph.D.

dissertation, Dept. of Géographie, Université Paris X.

[23] Santos, Milton (1993). A urbanização brasileira. São

Paulo:Ed. Hucitec,

[24] Ferreira, Francisco.A . C. (2003). Nature, Built

Environment, and the Processes of Tourist Development:

The Case Study of Santa Catarina Coast Area. The 20th

Conference on Passive and Low Architecture, Santiago,


[25] Ferreira, Francisco.A.C (org.) (2010). Projeto

Parque Estadual do Rio Vermelho. Florianopolis:MMA.




[26]Unesco (2005). Formulaire de révision de la Réserve

de Biosphère de Camargue. Parc Naturel Régionale de

Camargue. Paris: Unesco. Available in:




[27] Picon, Bernard (2008). L’Espace et le temps en

Camargue. Arles:ActesSud.

[28] Unesco (2005). Formulaire de révision de la Réserve

de Biosphère de Camargue. Parc Naturel Régionale de

Camargue. Paris: Unesco. Available in:




[29] Picon, Bernard (2008). L’Espace et le temps en

Camargue. Arles:ActesSud.

[30] Mathevet, Raphael (2012). Camargue incertaine.

Sciences, usages et natures. Paris: Buchet Chatel


[31] Delmas-Marty, Mireille et WILL, Pierre-Étienne

(éd.) (2007). La Chine et la démocratie. Paris: Fayard.

[32] Smith, Nick R. (2015). Negotiating the power to

Plan: Spatial planning and property rights in Peri-urban

China. Departament of Urban Planning and Design,

Harvard University.

[33] Ferreira, Francisco.A.C (org.) (2010). Projeto

Parque Estadual do Rio Vermelho. Florianopolis:MMA.




[34] Mathevet, Raphael (2012). Camargue incertaine.

Sciences, usages et natures. Paris: Buchet Chatel


[35] Statista (2017). Inbound tourism visitor growth

worldwide from 2008 to 2018, by region. Available in:



[36] Zhanga, Lin and Stewartb, William (2017).

Sustainable Tourism Development of Landscape

Heritage in a Rural Community: A Case Study of Azheke

Village at China Hani Rice Terraces. Built Heritage,

No.2 Volume 1, Published by Tongji University Press,

Shanghai. Available in: https://www.builtheritage.net/yong-shao

[37] Kervan, David D. and VELUT, Sebastien (2010). Le

tourisme responsable en Amérique Latine. Ǵeraldine

Froger. Tourisme durable dans les Suds, Peter Lang,

pp.223-238, EcoPolis. Available in: https://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/halshs-00556517/document

[38] Ferreira, Francisco.A . C. (2003). Nature, Built

Environment, and the Processes of Tourist Development:

The Case Study of Santa Catarina Coast Area. The 20th

Conference on Passive and Low Architecture, Santiago,


[39] Eagles, Paul F.J. ; McCool, Stephen F. and Haynes,

Christopher D.A (2002).. Sustainable Tourism in

Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and

Management. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge,

UK. 2002, 183pp.

[40] Boo, Elizabeth. (1990). Ecotourism: The potentials

and Pitfalls. EUA: WWF.

[41] Krippendorf, Jost (1989). Sociologia do Turismo.

Para uma nova compreensão do lazer e das viagens. Rio

de Janeiro. Ed.Civilização Brasileira.

[42] Bauza, C. Picorne11 (I98ó). Turismo y paisaje en

las Islas Baleares (España). In: International

Geografhical Union - UNESCO. Palma de Mallorca,

Contemporany ecological - Geographical problems of

the mediterranean.

[43] Sejenovich, Héctor (1984). Turismo y ordenamiento

ambiental. In.: Meio Ambiente y Turismo, n.6, Buenos


[44] World Tourism Organization and Global Tourism

Economy Research Centre (2017). Unwto/Gterc Annual

Report on Tourism Trends – 2017. Madrid: Edition,

Unwto, Available in:



[45] Webster, Douglas and Muller, Larissa (2009). Peri-

Urbanization: Zones of Rural-Urban Transition, In

Human settlement development – Vol. I. Available in:


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe



[46] Sheyang County Environmental Protection Bureau

(2015). Sheyang County “13th Five-Year Plan”

Environmental Protection and Ecological Construction

Planning. ( 射 阳 县 环 境 保 护 局 二 〇 一 五 年 十 二 月 . 射 阳 县

“ 十 三 五 ” 环 境 保 护 和 生 态 建 设 规 划 )

[47]Huchet, Jean François (2016). La crise

environnementale en Chine. Évolutions et limites des

politiques publiques. Paris: Les Presses SciencesPo,

[48] Ma, Zhijun; Li, Bo; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Nianyong;

Watkinson, Andrew R (2009). Conflicts between

biodiversity conservation and development in a

biosphere reserve. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 527–


[49] Hua-chun, He and ZHOU, Ru-jia (2016). Spacialtemporal

variation of land use based on landscape

patterns in the coastal zone of Yancheng, Jiangsu. China

Academic Journal Eletronic Publishing House. Vol. 25

No. 8

[50] Zhanga, Lin and Stewartb, William (2017).

Sustainable Tourism Development of Landscape

Heritage in a Rural Community: A Case Study of Azheke

Village at China Hani Rice Terraces. Built Heritage,

No.2 Volume 1, Published by Tongji University Press,

Shanghai. Available in: https://www.builtheritage.net/yong-shao

[51] Giroir, Guillaume (2012). Les parcs nationaux en

Chine une approche géohistorique Revue d'études

comparatives Est-Ouest 2012/1 (No 43), p. 253-285 DOI

10.4074 / S0338059912001106

[52] Smm - Saintes Maries de la Mer (2016). Plane Local

d’Urbanisme. Available in :


[53] Smm - Saintes Maries de la Mer (2016). Plane Local

d’Urbanisme. Available in :


[54] Yigitcanlar, T and Teriman, S (2015). Rethink

sustainable urban development : towards and integrated

planning and development process. Int. J. Environ.

Sci.Technol.12 :341-352

[55] Ferreira, Francisco.A.C (org.) (2010). Projeto

Parque Estadual do Rio Vermelho. MMA, 2010.




[56] Zhanga, Lin and Stewartb, William (2017).

Sustainable Tourism Development of Landscape

Heritage in a Rural Community: A Case Study of Azheke

Village at China Hani Rice Terraces. Built Heritage,

No.2 Volume 1, Published by Tongji University Press,

Shanghai. Available in: https://www.builtheritage.net/yong-shao

[57] Ferreira, Francisco.A . C. (2003). Nature, Built

Environment, and the Processes of Tourist Development:

The Case Study of Santa Catarina Coast Area. The 20th

Conference on Passive and Low Architecture, Santiago,


[58] Ferreira, Francisco.A . C. (2003). Nature, Built

Environment, and the Processes of Tourist Development:

The Case Study of Santa Catarina Coast Area. The 20th

Conference on Passive and Low Architecture, Santiago,


[59] Cibien, Catherine (2006). Les réserves de biosphère :

des lieux de collaboration entre chercheurs et

gestionnaires en faveur de la biodiversité, Natures

Sciences Sociétés 2006/1 (Vol. 14), p. 84-90.Availble in:




Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

The importance of marinas in the economic development of coastal regions in Poland

Ewa Hącia a and Roma Strulak-Wójcikiewicz b

a Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Economics and Transport Engineering,

ul. H. Pobożnego 11, 70-507 Szczecin, Poland

Tel.: +48-91-48-09-672, E-mail address: e.hacia@am.szczecin.pl

a Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Economics and Transport Engineering,

ul. H. Pobożnego 11, 70-507 Szczecin, Poland

Tel.: +48-91-48-09-673, E-mail address: r.strulak-wojcikiewicz@am.szczecin.pl


The purpose of the article is to present the role of marinas

in the economic development of Polish coastal regions.

Many marinas are located in close proximity to cities or

smaller towns, considered to be attractive to tourists.

These are areas characterized by above-average tourist

traffic. For the purpose of the research, a hypothesis was

proposed which indicates the existence of a relationship

between the functioning of marinas in a given area and

its economic development. The research procedure and

the structure of the article presenting the results obtained

were subordinated to the implementation of the objective.

As part of the analysis, statistical data were used, the

main source of which is the Central Statistical Office in

Warsaw. In addition, literature studies and online sources

were conducted. In order to present the results obtained,

a descriptive, tabular and graphic method was used.


Development, tourist traffic, marinas, coastal region


Many Polish marinas are located in close and further

vicinity of cities or smaller towns, considered to be

attractive to tourists. These are areas characterized by

above-average tourist traffic, the intensity and density of

which is subject to various changes, including strong


For the purpose of the research, a hypothesis was

proposed which indicates the existence of a relationship

between the functioning of marinas in a given area and

its economic development. Particular attention was paid

to marinas located in two coastal regions in Poland.

Therefore, the purpose of the article is to present the role

of marinas in the economic development of these areas.

The focus was on the location of these marinas in areas

with high tourist traffic, not necessarily resulting from

nautical tourism. Therefore, it is possible to show a wider

range of tourism relations with the development of a

given region.


The research procedure and the structure of the article

presenting the results obtained were subordinated to the

implementation of the objective. As part of the analysis,

elements of econometric modeling were applied. On the

basis of the time series (1995–2016), trends (linear and

parabolic) were estimated, and forecasts of tourist traffic

in both coastal regions up to 2021 were made as a result

of their extrapolation. Statistical data from the Central

Statistical Office in Warsaw were used. In addition,

literature studies and online sources were conducted. In

order to present the results obtained, a descriptive,

tabular and graphic method was used.

Impact of tourism on regional development

The essence of regional development

Regional development concerns the region. It is a

concept often appearing in everyday life as well as in

scientific research. This term occurs in many scientific

disciplines in economics, management, geography,

ecology, as well as in political science and law. Such a

wide range of applications can be the result and at the

same time the reason for the lack of one precise definition.

Many authors present their concepts of the region ([1],

[2], [3], [4], [5]), stressing the spatial, organizational and

administrative, political, economic, social, cultural and

historical aspects. Regardless of the differences in

definitions, the region is a fragment of space separated

for a certain purpose and according to specific criteria.

A comparative analysis of the definitions of the authors

cited allows to propose the following definition of the

region for the purposes of this article: "The region is an

economic system separated from the environment based

on a set of dominant features, functional and culturalhistorical

dependencies, being part of the country as an

administrative unit." The division according to the

administrative criterion is important due to the

implementation of regional policy and the collection and

processing of data concerning the territory, as well as for

research purposes.

The concepts of growth and development in relation to


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

the region's economy are treated as related but not

identical economic categories. Economic growth is

associated with an increase in product per capita, while

economic development is a broader concept and means

an increase in various aspects of the level of human life,

some of which are non-measurable (qualitative) [6].

Growth is only a quantitative change, while development

is also qualitative. There are interrelations between

growth and development. Growth is an important

condition for the occurrence of economic development

[6]. The processes of economic development always

occur in a strictly defined fragment of space, which is

called the economic space. Its diverse character is also

individualized by the processes of economic

development taking place in time [5]. Thus, the growth

at the national level consists of the rapid growth of some

regions and the slower (or stagnation) of others.

Regional development is to a large extent an economic

process, involving the transformation of regional

(internal and external) factors into goods and services, as

well as a change in the economic structure. Its essential

element is usually the economic growth of the region, i.e.

the increase in the production of goods and services as a

result of a quantitative increase in the production factors

(material and personal) and improvement of their

effectiveness [7].

The concept of regional development is a comprehensive,

coherent way of explaining the mechanism of regional

development, which can be defined as a way of

influencing development factors on changes in the area

of development fields and creating observable social,

economic, ecological and spatial effects in the region [8].

Tourism in regional development

The impact of tourism on the economic development of

regions is multifaceted. There are many changes taking

place in the tourist reception areas, which are stimulated

by the development of the tourist function of the region.

Knowledge about sources and the ability to predict the

consequences of this impact may be crucial in the

development of a region that is attractive for tourists.

However, appropriate tourism development, taking into

account this knowledge and skills, allows minimizing the

negative and maximizing the positive effects of its

impact on the regional development. It is also important

to determine the significance and development potential

of tourism in order to avoid overestimation or

underestimation of its role in the region.

The concepts of regional development also apply to the

tourism development. Selected ones are presented in

Table 1. It presents only a few of them that have been

applied in the assessment of tourism development in the

region. Understanding their mechanisms may be crucial

in stimulating this phenomenon in order to develop the

region in general. These theories participate in various

ways in explaining the processes taking place in tourism.

In some cases, they have become the basis for the

formulation of new concepts closely related to tourism.

Table 1 - Tourism in selected concepts of regional

development [9] [10] [11] [12]

Name of the

Concepts of



Brief characteristics




Theories of


Centre –



The growth

poles theory

by F. Perroux

Theories of



base theory




Stages of





theory of

tourism and

leisure location

The direction of tourist

trips are tourist attractive

areas, usually located

outside urban centers (nonurbanized

peripheries with

natural assets).

In the subsequent phases,

it concerns searching for

new peripheries.

- Tourism can be treated

as a factor stimulating the

development process and

reducing disparities

between centers and


- Tourism could be a sector

of the economy that is the

driving force of


R. W. Butler’s

Tourist area

cycle of

evolution theory

This model was based on

the diffusion of innovation

with the assumption that

the appearance of a tourism

function in a given area is

treated as an innovation.

- Tourism can be the

economic base of the


and the primary goal of its

development is to

maximize tourist expenses,

which may have a

multiplier effect.

- Tourism potential can be

a stimulator of the

development of a given

region (especially

attractive for tourists).

The theory of



Theory is also based on the

assumption consistent with

the concept of dependent

development. For this

purpose developed

countries make developing

countries dependent using

tourism, which leads to the

deepening of interregional

differences in the level of


In others, tourism was treated as one of the development

paths of the region.

Irrespective of the theory according to which tourism

development takes place, one can point to the positive


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

and negative aspects of its impact on the economy of the

region (Table 2).

Table 2 - Impact of tourism on the region's economy [13]

Tourism development

Positive impact

Negative impact

- cash inflow

- increase in prices

- employment growth - inhibiting the

and the development of development of other


types of economic

- investment stimulation activity

and inflow of capital - the cost of development

- development of technical, alternatives

communication and - overinvestment,


infrastructure overload,



- attractive image of the - the risk of dependent



In line with what has been indicated in Table 2, tourist

traffic affects the regional economy through the inflow of

capital, the development of enterprises (mainly small and

medium), the creation of new jobs, increase in income of

residents and budget revenues [14].

The specificity of nautical tourism

Nautical tourism is one of the types of active tourism

based on undertaking specific forms of recreational and

hobby activity. The purpose of this form of tourism is a

skillful rest, recreation, improvement of fitness,

efficiency and health and comprehensive knowledge of

the country [15].

Nautical tourism is most often associated with frequent

sailing between marinas. This is related to the need to

provide adequate services available in these marinas.

With the development of nautical tourism in the region,

there is an increased demand for services directly related

to sailing (including charter, boatbuilding) and auxiliary

services (hotel, catering and other) [16]. This form of

tourism also generates a demand for services typical for

every tourist who temporarily stays outside the place of

residence. In addition, a tourist spending holidays in

given region also outside accommodation

establishment (in the case of nautical tourism - outside

the yacht and marina). Therefore, the location of marinas

in the (closer or further) vicinity of tourist attractions or

tourist attractive areas has its additional advantages.

The role of tourism in coastal regions

in Poland

Tourist traffic in coastal regions in Poland

Pomeranian and West Pomeranian provinces are two

Polish coastal regions considered to be attractive to

tourists. As administrative units, these areas are regions

located in the northern part of Poland, on the Baltic Sea.

They are characterized by a large accommodation base,

as well as high intensity and density of tourist traffic.

These are the areas most frequently visited by domestic

and foreign tourists, especially for longer stays. The

utilization rate of the accommodation base is high. The

service of tourist traffic, the purpose of which is to meet

the needs of tourists, generates the demand for activities

of an economic nature.

Figure 1 shows the number of tourists staying at

accommodation establishments located in West

Pomeranian province in 1995–2016, which increased by

approximately 109% in this period. In addition, trends in

the linear and parabolic form were estimated. Based on

their extrapolation, forecasts were made until 2021.

According to statistical conditions, the parabolic trend is

more reliable (it has a higher level of adjustment to real

values), assuming that in 2021 there will be an increase

of around 24% compared to 2016. However, this variant

may seem overly optimistic, due to the limited space

available at the moment, which is too heavily burdened

with tourist traffic. On the other hand, it may be a

determinant to develop tourism in less visited areas.

Number of tourists

3 250 000

3 000 000

2 750 000

2 500 000

2 250 000

2 000 000

1 750 000

1 500 000

1 250 000

1 000 000

750 000

500 000

250 000



empirical values

linear trend

parabolic trend






Figure 1 - Tourists staying at tourist accommodation

establishments in West Pomeranian region in the years

1995–2016 and forecast to 2021 [17]










In contrast, Figure 2 shows the number of tourists staying

at tourist accommodation establishments located in

Pomeranian province in 1995-2016, which increased by

about 150% in this period. This is a higher increase than

in the first of the coastal regions. Based on the

extrapolation of the estimated trends, forecasts were

made until 2021. According to statistical conditions, also

for Pomeranian province the parabolic trend is more


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

reliable, assuming that in 2021 there will be a similar

increase, i.e. by about 25% compared to 2016.

Number of tourists

3 500 000

3 250 000

3 000 000

2 750 000

2 500 000

2 250 000

2 000 000

1 750 000

1 500 000

1 250 000

1 000 000

750 000

500 000

250 000



empirical values

linear trend

parabolic trend





Figure 2 - Tourists staying at tourist accommodation

establishments in Pomeranian region in the years 1995–

2016 and forecast to 2021 [17]

The importance of marinas


Tourism in Polish coastal regions develops, among others,

due to spatial conditions. These include mainly the

coastal location, tourist values (natural and

anthropological assets), tourism development and

transport accessibility. It is in areas with particular

tourism assets that tourist supply is located, which is rigid

in spatial layout. According to the Christaller's theory of

tourism and leisure location (Table 1), attractive tourist

areas are the holiday direction. However, due to the

progressing urbanization processes in places where

tourism is concentrated, new areas are also sought for in

which tourism may develop.

In accordance with European trends, interest in nautical

tourism also grows in Poland. As part of these trends,

marinas are built and expanded and are adapted to the

needs of selected groups of tourists (the elderly, the

disabled). These are also unused fishing, military and

commercial ports and certifies ports transformed into

marinas[16]. These activities are favored by the existing

spatial conditions. As part of these activities, two

investment projects in coastal regions have been

implemented in Poland in recent years. The first of them

is "West Pomeranian Sailing Route - a network of tourist

ports of West Pomeranian province", under which a

network of new and modernized ports and marinas in the

West Pomeranian province (on the Odra River, Lake

Dąbie, surrounded by the Szczecin Lagoon and on the

Baltic Sea coast) is built. There are 40 establishments in

the network the distances between of which do not

exceed 20-30 nautical miles [18]. The subsidy from the

Operational Program Innovative Economy 2007–2013,

measure 6.4 was the source of co-financing for the

project. "Investments in tourist products of supraregional

importance". The project's budget is PLN

98 209 419, including PLN 35 280 000 subsidy. The










project was implemented in 2009–2015. The main goals

of the project were: development of a competitive

product of water tourism in Poland, development of the

tourist economy of West Pomeranian and economic

activation of individual towns along the West

Pomeranian Sailing Route and extension of the tourist

season in West Pomeranian province [19]. The largest

establishment in terms of the number of parking spaces

is the Northern Basin Marina in Świnoujście – 300 guest

and 50 resident places. At the same time, it is one of the

largest marinas on the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea and

the only sea and inland port in Poland [20]. Świnoujście

is a city frequently visited by tourists for recreational and

spa purposes, and the marina gives the possibility of an

alternative tourism – also active, i.e. nautical tourism.

The second project implemented in recent years in the

field of marinas is the "Żuławy Loop". It is a supraregional

project that assumes a comprehensive

development of water tourism in the area of the Vistula

Delta and the Vistula Lagoon. The investments included

ports and marinas, mooring piers and bridges from two

provinces: Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian.

The construction and renovation of the ports located here

was also implemented with the use of EU funds. They

came from the same program and measure. The project's

budget is PLN 84 843 985, including subsidy of PLN

41 679 844. The project was carried out in 2010–2014.

The main objectives of the project were: strengthening

the economic development of regions, construction and

development of an integrated tourism product, extending

the tourist season and changing the way of thinking about

this area [21].

In addition, it is worth paying attention to projects

implemented as part of international cooperation in the

cross-border, transnational and interregional dimension

in the area of marinas. An example is the South Coast

Baltic project (Establishing durable cross-border

destination management on the basis of the MARRIAGE

cooperation network), which began in 2016 and is to be

completed in 2019. Its main objective is to increase the

number of sailors by 20% until 2019. The idea of the

project is to stabilize the number of sailors at a high level.

The objective is to create the South Coast Baltic brand as

an attractive, sustainable and widely accessible area

through educational activities and planned investments in

infrastructure [22]. Both the "West Pomeranian Sailing

Route" and the "Żuławy Loop" are entities participating

in the South Coast Baltic project. It consists of 14

partners from four countries (Germany, Poland, Denmark

and Lithuania).

About 180 marinas and yacht ports operate under the

South Coast Baltic brand [23]. This initiative is a

continuation of the MARRIAGE project (Better marina

management, harbor network consolidation and water

tourism marketing in the southern Baltic rim) project

implemented in 2011–2015. He focused mainly on

improving the management of yacht ports and joint

promotion of the area [24]. Its effects include: long-term

cooperation agreement signed with projects partners,

associated organizations and third parties; 57 500 EUR


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

of private investments; 34% increase of foreign guests

from Germany, Poland, Russia and Latvia; 435 760

potential customers reached via the fair visits; 20 marinas

with improved management and operation schemes; 67

trained staff members of marinas in the southern Baltic

rim; 10 new PPPs agreed between infrastructure owners

and operator/developer [25].


The importance of marinas in the economic development

of coastal regions in Poland is constantly changing. In

line with European trends, interest in nautical tourism is

growing - also on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

Due to long-term (historical) negligence in this area on

the Polish coast, there are still deficiencies in terms of

infrastructure. However, it is the area that is the most

favorable for the development of tourism due to its

spatial conditions.

Such initiatives as international projects: South Coast

Baltic, MARRIAGE, or national projects: "West

Pomeranian Sailing Route", "Żuławy Loop", strengthens

the image of the area as region attractive for sailors, as

well as tourists cultivating other forms of tourism in this

area. An increasing number of tourists in marinas and

their surroundings affect the local and regional economy.

Economic activities undertaken to serve these tourists

may become a driving force for development in line with

the concept of growth poles and a factor reducing

disparities according to the Centre – Periphery. Model, as

well as the Economic base theory (Table 1). However,

this tourist potential can become a stimulator of the

development of the entire tourist-attractive region. And

in the case of smaller towns with a port or marina, one

can talk about the diffusion of innovations in the

emerging tourism function (in line with the R. W.

Butler’s Tourist area cycle of evolution theory as part of

the polarization theory – Table 1). For this purpose it is

necessary to make infrastructure investments, but also

undertake marketing activities that allow to attract


Research on the recognition of ports and marinas of the

southern Baltic coast, including in Poland, and the entire

area as an attractive tourist destination, carried out as part

of the South Coast Baltic project, have positive effects

[26]. Therefore, the active promotion of this area, which

has already begun as part of the MARRIAGE project,

brings the expected results. It is a slow process; however,

it allows to possibly estimate the direct impact of marinas

on the local and regional economy in a quantitative way

in the near future. This shall determine the level of both

growth and economic development of coastal regions. In

addition, it is also worth developing tourism, including

nautical tourism, to simultaneously minimize the

negative and maximize the positive effects of its impact

on regional development.


The results of the research were created within the

framework of the research work entitled Badanie

wybranych aspektów logistycznych turystyki żeglarskiej

No. 9/S/IZT /2017 financed by subsidies from the

Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the

financing of statutory activities.


[1] Chojnicki, Z. (1996). Region w ujęciu geograficznosystemowym,

[in:] Podstawy regionalizacji

geograficznej, T. Czyż (ed.), Bogucki Wydawnictwo

Naukowe, Poznań.

[2] Pietrzyk, I. (2000). Polityka regionalna Unii

Europejskiej i regiony w państwach członkowskich,

PWN, Warszawa.

[3] Domański, R. (2002). Gospodarka przestrzenna,

PWN, Warszawa.

[4] Regiony (2005). Z. Brodecki (ed.), LexisNexis,


[5] Chądzyński, J., Nowakowska A., Przygodzki, Z.

(2007). Region i jego rozwój w warunkach

globalizacji, CeDeWu, Warszawa.

[6] Churski, P. (2005). Czynniki rozwoju regionalnego

w świetle koncepcji teoretycznych, Zeszyty

Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Humanistyczno-

Ekonomicznej we Włocławku, Nauki ekonomiczne,

T. XIX. Z. 3, Gospodarka regionu na jednolitym

rynku europejskim. Wybrane zagadnienia,


[7] Kosiedowski, W. (2001). Teoretyczne problemy

rozwoju regionalnego, [in:] Zarządzanie rozwojem

regionalnym i lokalnym. Problemy teorii i praktyki,

W. Kosiedowski (ed.), Towarzystwo Naukowe


i Kierownictwa, Toruń.

[8] Brol, R. (2006). Teoretyczne koncepcje rozwoju

regionalnego, [in:] Metody oceny rozwoju

regionalnego, D. Strahl (ed.), Akademia

Ekonomiczna, Wrocław.

[9] Butowski, L. (2009). Turystyka w polityce spójności

gospodarczej i społecznej Unii Europejskiej w

latach 1994 – 1999 i 2000 – 2006. Uwarunkowania

teoretyczne, zakres rzeczowy, finansowy i

przestrzenny, Difin, Warszawa.

[10] Dziedzic, E. (1998). Obszar recepcji turystycznej

jako przedmiot zarządzania strategicznego, Szkoła

Główna Handlowa, Warszawa.

[11] Kurek W., Mika, M. (2008). Turystyka jako

przedmiot badań naukowych, [in:] Turystyka,

W. Kurek (ed.), PWN, Warszawa.

[12] Szromek, A. R., (2012). Wskaźniki funkcji

turystycznej. Koncepcja wskaźnika funkcji


i uzdrowiskowej, Wydawnictwo Politechniki

Śląskiej, Gliwice.

[13] Kruczek, Z., Zmyślony, P. (2010). Regiony

turystyczne. Wydawnictwo PROKSENIA, Kraków.

[14] Niezgoda, A. (2012). Uwarunkowania

konkurencyjności w regionach turystycznych, [in:]

Konkurencyjność regionalna. Koncepcje – strategie


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

– przykłady, E. Łaźniewska, M. Gorynia (eds.),

PWN, Warszawa.

[15] Merski, J., Warecka, J. (2009). Turystyka

kwalifikowana, turystyka aktywna, AlmaMer

Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomiczna, Warszawa.

[16] Łapko, A. (2015). Turystyka żeglarska, BEL Studio

Sp. z o.o, Warszawa.

[17] Local Data Bank, Central Statistical Office,

Poland, bdl.stat.gov.pl/BDL – 13.04.2018.

[18] Locja Zachodniopomorskiego Szlaku Żeglarskiego

(2015), Centrum Rozwoju Społeczno-

Gospodarczego Przedsiębiorstwo Społeczne Sp. z

o.o., Szczecin.

[19] www.zrot.pl – 4.05.2018.

[20] www.osir.swinoujscie.pl – 4.05.2018.

[21] petla-zulawska.pl – 4.05.2018.

[22] southbaltic.eu – 4.05 2018.

[23] Przewodnik po portach i przystaniach

południowego wybrzeża Bałtyku (2018). Związek

Miast i Gmin Morskich, Gdańsk.

[24] Forkiewicz, M. (2015). Marka South Coast Baltic

jako inicjatywa promocji morskich portów

jachtowych południowego wybrzeża Bałtyku,

Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego,

Problemy Zarządzania, Finansów i Marketingu, nr

42, t.1, Szczecin.

[25] Papers of the SCB project partners (2017).

[26] Forkiewicz, M. (2017). Presentation of the results

of a survey carried out in July 2017., Meeting of

SCB project partners, Bornholm, 19-21.09.2017.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

The challenges of guiding in the 21st century

Mrs. Anikó HUSZ

senior university lecturer

Széchenyi István University, Kautz Gyula Economics Faculty, Győr, Hungary

Tel.: +36 30 526 2970, E-mail: husz.aniko@sze.hu


The strongest motivator for city holiday makers is expected

to experience urban flair. Immediately afterwards fun and

pleasure are followed and the desire simply to enjoy

themselves. The curiosity about new, powerful and

extraordinary things to see and experience is the character

traits of most town visitors. The strongest lure, hardly

surprisingly, is the offers of art and culture and the places of

interest in a town.

But the atmosphere and the image of the destination as well

as the alternative forms of the town investigation play a

strong role with a choice of the holiday destination. City

tourists show their pleasure and cultural interest in activities.

A culture-oriented stay with holiday motivation is the typical

segment of the present tourism.

According to international tourism statistics, sightseeing

among travel motivations represent a significant portion.

Today it is not enough to demonstrate the cultural values in

the classic manner, but the tourists want to experience

something new alternative. The European cities strive for

innovative ideas so that they can arouse the interest of most

vacationers. The keyword for this: UNIQUE EVENT

Not only the tourists understand the new ideas, but the guides

enjoy their work as a result. You can assemble multiple,

different guides to introduce the places in a particular way.

My goal is to set, what alternative forms of guided tours exist

in attention nowadays. These alternatives show the hidden

or other faces of a city, anyhow more interesting... During

the tour you can explore the world of the everyday life of a

city, and such details of a location are not presented on a

"classic tour".

Keywords: city holiday, experience oriented, guided tour,

tourist guide, thematic tours


The supply of free-time products or the tourist products

supply is fed from the same opportunities, they are based on

the use of natural and cultural resources and this provides

experiences to both the locals and the tourists.

It’s absolutely important that the locals feel that these

attractions are theirs, they use the opportunities found in

them, enjoy them because the positive radiation generated by

them has a good effect on the guests arriving in the given


In my study, I try to cast light upon the idea that with the

tourist use of local resources the same experiences can be

created for both the local residents and the arriving guests. I

would like to emphasise that it is the experience-oriented

way of thinking that connects service-providers and they

have to work towards achieving that goal. For the tourist

service-providers the most important thing is the satisfied

guest, and there is no inscription on the side of the guests

where they arrive from.

According to international tourism statistics about

sightseeing and journey motivations represent an important

interest. Today it is not enough to demonstrate the cultural

values in the classic way, but the tourists want to experience

something new alternative. The European cities strive for

innovative ideas with which they can arouse the interest of

most holiday-makers. The keyword for it: UNIQUE

(Husz 2011)

Figure 1 - The fame of Hungarian inventions (unique)

among foreigners (N=122) and Hungarians (N=236)

Source: Own editing based on survey 2018.

Not only the tourists understand the new ideas, but the

guests’ guides also enjoy their work. They can put together

various, different tours to introduce the places in a special


My goal is to focus the attention on which alternative

forms of city tours exist today. These alternatives show the

hidden or other faces of a city, somehow more in a more

interesting way...

During the tours you can get to know the everyday life of

a city, and such details of a place that are not presented during

a "classic tour".


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


In line with the topic and in order to reach relevant and

comprehensive results I have used quantitative and

qualitative methods in my research.

The technical-literature summary was based on

secondary sources which is a theoretical foundation, a focus

on the researched area and its systematisation. In the primary

sources of the research an empirical research was conducted

involving questions addressed to the guests arriving in the

region and the local population. The guest survey was also

attended by my students. 12

1. The history and sources of the guided tours

The enterprises, the travel agencies are put into enormous

challenges in the current time. Moreover there is a need for

a much faster change which is driven by the globalization,

new technologies, more demanding customers and leads to a

knowledge and time contest.

Before I write about today's sources of guides, I would

like to give a brief review of the history of the guides.

The first scientific travellers appeared in Egypt when

they visited the pyramids at Saqqara and Giza in the 15th

century. B.C., visited to admire the hieroglyphs. They were

the first tourists who could only visit these buildings with the


In antique Greece we can discover the first traces of the

guests’ guides.

The people who came to Delphi's for answers and advice

brought gifts as a sign of gratitude. After some time, so many

gifts were piled up that they should have been placed in the

so-called "treasure houses". "Specialized" commentators

(guides) introduced these treasures to the people. While the

arrivals waited in long queues, the "tour guides" told them

stories, histories about the gifts and their owners. (Kubesch


It is also important to mention that the legendary

inscription "Know Yourself", which can be read at the

entrance of Delphi, has become one of the most important

messages of the tour guide industry. The more conscious the

guests' guide is with the behaviour of the human nature and

the soul, the more familiar is with his own habits and needs,

the better he can identify the needs of tourists, and by this

ability he is much more efficient in problem solution.

In the Middle Ages, after the spread of Christianity, the

cities became the destinations of pilgrimages. Travel guides

were mostly men from the clergy, travel guide books were

written in their sense. (Schmeer-Sturm 2012)

Since the 17th century the young aristocrats mainly went

to the university towns - Grand Tour - to study or just enjoy

the cultural atmosphere of the city.

Cities were also considered as showcases of trade

agreements, congresses or political events, e.g. Council of

Trent, Hansa Cities such as Hamburg, Lübeck, Traide Fair of

Leipzig, Congress of Vienna.

The travellers were divided into two groups, namely "da

Milordo" - the rather purposeless travel of cavaliers with a

lot of money - and "alla mercantile" - the business travellers

who were considered to be thrifty.

A new epoch brought the industrialization and with the

invention of the steam engine new means of transport -

railway and steamboat. The travel was popularized, it lost its

exclusivity and the package tour appeared. The first

commercial tour operator in the world was Thomas Cook

(1808-1892). His travel agent offered special rail and

business travel to Europe, around the Mediterranean and in

the Middle East, and he was the tour guide himself.

(Schmeer-Sturm 2012)

In my opinion, Thomas Cook was not only the founder

of modern tour guide and mass tourism, but he can be

regarded as the embodiment of a new generation of tour

guides in modern times.

In the 20th century spread the mass tourism. But it was

not a city tourism, but rather an escape from the city - to the

seacoast or in the mountains. The city tour was taken for

granted, there were no researches in this subject. The experts

began to deal with this phenomenon only in the 80s.

According to the Hungarian scientific literature, the

definition of city sightseeing is: It is a demonstration of the

tourist values of a city or a place, it is the explanation of the

past and present in the form of a bus tour or city walk, with

the guidance of a qualified guide during a particular period

of time.(Gál 1998)

The topics that can be dealt with during a trip or walk are

quite different and come from different sources.

Cultural resources show a great variety and they have a

common feature: they come into existence by human activity.

They can provide intellectual experience to tourists.

We can group cultural resources in different ways, one of

these is to divide them into 3 groups (Csapó & Matesz, 2007):

● Cultural inheritance, built and material values –

here we list the values (buildings, objects created by

different kinds of art) that are results of some earlier, past

human activity. The word heritage in itself means

continuity between past, present and future, but also the

link between them.

● Live culture – the lifestyle of peoples of our times.,

their habits, activities and traditions followed by them.

● Programmes, festivals, carnivals – reckoning

entertaining activities or the ones with the thought of

following traditions.

Specialist literature also expresses (words) that cultural

resources can be grouped according to how they advance

from “dead” to “living” values. “Dead” or “live” components

of certain cultural values cannot be considered stable, fixed

– this greatly depends on the ways of representation and


Kitti Weller, Cecília Bolla - Tourism and Hospitality Students,

Széchenyi István University, Kautz Gyula Economics Faculty, Győr,



Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

operation/handling of the given values, or rather on the

interpretation techniques connected to them. Computer

software of the digital world also make it possible to show

past values with means of the generations of today.(Rátz


We run into applications developed for smart phones in

all sectors of tourism. These applications aim the tourist with

functions developed for them and with uploaded files. Some

tourist undertaking try to carry out interactive

communication with their clients with their own applications

(Happ 2013).

Considering cultural resources, I find important to define

cultural tourism having different conceptions in literature.

Cultural tourism is the sector of tourism where cultural

motivation is the main incentive for the tourists. Cultural

tourism is determined by WTO-ETC as follows:

visiting cultural places of interest outside the neighbourhood,

the incentive of which visit is to gain new information and

experience to satisfy cultural need/demand.

guide, a museum guide, a church leader - just to pick out a

few things. The differentiation widens almost daily with the

growing segmentation of the market. The job title, which

includes all these terms, is in Germany the guests’ guide

(Gästeführer), in Hungary tourist guide. With him are

qualified trained and independently active tour guides in the

tourism-related incoming market meant. In my work, I will

consistently use tourist guides, because I think it is the most


To separate the activity clearly as a tourist service, the

Committee for European Standardization (CEN) of the EU

has executed a terminology explanation which is now for all

member countries obligingly. This provision, which became

effective in 2003, emphasizes the region-specific expertise

as a key competence of the tourist guide. (Mühlbauer 2004)

What is a Tourist Guide? 13 A person who guides

visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the

cultural and natural heritage of an area which person

normally possesses an area-specific qualification usually

issued and/or recognised by the appropriate authority.

Figure 2 - Forms of appearance of cultural tourism

Source: Own editing based on WTO with supplement


Looking at the figure above we can state that in the heart

of this “cultural circle” we find arts and monuments – that is

the past. The outer arch means the present, everyday life, that

always includes the values of the past as well. Widening the

figure with the word experience we can say that both

motivation circles seek experience, long for it.

I have supplemented this image (illustration) and thought.

In my opinion, the inside circle is the cultural experience,

and the exterior circle is the life experience.

The traditional areas of a city tour - cultural experience -

can offer a tour guide anyway qualified, but the other areas -

life experience - he opens up specifically by developing an

offer that arouses new demand. The alternative city tours

emphasize the uniqueness of the place, the atmosphere of the


2. Tourist Guide

This person can exercise his activity under a lot of

designations: there is a city guide, a tourist guide, a landscape

Figure 3 - Types of tours and events for the use of the

tour guide according to their frequency

Source: Ratgeber Gästeführer, Nürnberg 2009.

The division is schematic, in practice there are usually

intersections, which offer the tour guide individual design

options for his leadership offer.

● Walks + round trips (city / country) as a standard

/ overview

This is the form of tourist service that the guide offers in

all locations and regions - as an overview of the sights of the

city or natural monuments in the rural area. It is the most

frequent form of order.

● Thematic and specialist tours

This is also a very common type of guidance type. The

range is enormous, it passes from the general subject

("Historic City", "Church Tour", "Sports City") to more

specific - often developed by the tour guide itself -

perspectives ("Women's Life", "Jewish Traces", "Baroque

Architecture ") to specialist topics.

The tour guide can also market this offer very well even

in the region, because an important addressee of this in-depth



EN 13809 2003/ ENISO 18513 2003

Adopted by World Federation of Tourist Guide Associations: 10th

International Convention: Dunblane, United Kingdom 2003


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

city and landscape exploration are the locals.

● Adventure/Experience tours

These are currently a rapidly growing field of application

of the tourist guide. In the foreground here is not the sole

information on the subject matter, but it involves the

experience of the guest to give him an impression of a

historical time, previous ways of life or personalities of the

region. The methodological core element of these tours is

the entertaining presentation of the guidance based on

appropriate information.

Another form of adventure tours is the interactive tour,

which combine sensuous forms of mediation with

knowledge and personal experience. These include city

rallies with different topics, criminal search games, role

playing games.

● Congress and conference programs

This is an increasing number of tours that take place as

an accompanying program to congresses. The range includes

standard guided tours of the main attractions, cultural and

museum tours, as well as more specialized guided tours

related to the theme of the congress.

● Incentives

These are special programs that are organized by

companies to motivate their employees, customers or

prospects. The range of events ranges from the bonus tour

for particularly successful employees to the accompanying

experience design for the introduction of new products. The

goal here is - as in the case of adventure tours - the

embedding of the information transfer in a particularly

interactive, entertaining form of the guiding.

● VIPs or target groups

This includes the small, regionally dependent area of

programs for "special" persons and groups. This concerns,

on the one hand, decision maker from politics and business

as for example guided tours within the framework of the

political protocol, invited personalities, but for other also

groups that require special attention and competence, such as

persons with disabilities or sensory impairments.

Generally for all tours considered:

The more diverse the guiding appeals to different senses

and works interactively, the more scope there is for the

creativity of the tourist guide - but at the same time he is

challenged in very different abilities.

The more competence a tourist guide has acquired, the

more fields of application are open to him. (Kieseritzky 2009)

Figure 4 - The most important features

of the tourist guide

Source: Based on my own research N=230 ,2017.

3. New trends of guided tours

Especially for the guide the observation of the new trends

is of great importance, because he can adjust his offer - easier

and faster than others in tourism - to it. The greater the

flexibility, the greater the chances of success in the market.

During the thematic tours, the topics that arouse the

interest of the guest are important. But when we talk about

trends, it is interactive, eventful and staged in multimedia


Unusual places and times can awaken the curiosity of the

guest (horror tour at midnight), as well as “journeys through

time" (video bus tour or picture tour in history), unusual

themes or topics with gag effect, e.g. the narrowest houses,

the darkest courtyards, the city from above - there are no

limits to the ideas and possibilities, the creative design.

● Segway, sight jogging or sight running, nordic


Find information and routes away from the busy traffic

and offer the guest an unusual discovery tour.

● Multimedia

Audio guides can be regarded not only as opponents, but

as allies - they can provide original sound for music tours or

contemporary historical tours.

● Events of the past and technology of today

Using modern technology, images can be incorporated

into the guiding.

● Taking up topics such as sustainability, nature

park tours, "green" tours (on the ecology of a region)

What these different trends - and sometimes jokes - have

in common is that they offer the guest a change of

perspective and also provide new experiences.

The guests would like to experience the city and the

region in a new way. Also the change of the presentation

form can open up new target groups (e.g. bike tours; busship-walk


At the presentation of an object (church, town hall, etc.),

the indirect methods also play an important role. The tourist

guide takes a back seat and motivates the participants with

clever questions and impulses to take an active part in the

tour. The aim is here not the excellent presentation, but the

conversation in front of the guide objects. It takes a lot of

skill and experience in the conversation to the participants,

without realizing it and feel perhaps academically queried to

enable to participate and join the conversation.

The spontaneous activity of the listener plays a key role that

should hardly be underestimated. Long-term research has

shown that we remember only 20% of what we hear, 30% of

what we see, but 90% of what we ourselves have done, even

in our memory. (Schmeer-Sturm 2012)

One rule applies to trends and fashion: they are subject to

constant change. This requires a comprehensive education

that enables them to be qualified in different fields of



Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

4. The results of primer research - Theme tours

In the city of Győr, the company "GyereGyőrbe" 14 is

responsible for the thematic and experience tours. 4 local

guides founded it in 2013 with the aim of presenting the city

"somehow in a different way". At that time similar tours were

already running in Budapest, and they recognized this gap in

the market in Győr They wanted to offer special guided tours

with targeted advertising. The fact that Győr is the third

richest city in Hungary is also to be exploited. The other

reason was that there was less and less need for classical

guided tours. It was a big challenge to bring something new

to the market.

To date around 70 special tours have been put together

because there have been and are so many ideas and themes.

The company attracts not only tourists but also locals who

want to experience their region, city in many various ways.

This study is based on homepage analysis and on

individual interview with the leader of “GyereGyőrbe” 15 . I

have examined the guided tours offered by the provider and

classified them according to the different types. The tables

show how big the selection is and how different the

individual organization possibilities are for topics.

Table 1 - Theme Tours at „GyereGyőrbe”







The Houses are


Guided tour in

Zichy Palace

Church Tour


with the priests

Experience the

General topic In the traces of

Procession of

the Saint László

Saint László




Old main street,



Search the

woman in Győr

City of Angels

7 Wonders from



Ascent to the

tower of the

town hall

Coffee with



women of Győr



Search for

Angels at

Christmas time,

mulled wine

Lookout tower

of bishop's

castle, soft drink

Visiting the city

library, book


Table 2 - Experience tours at "GyereGyőrbe"








„Come to Győr”






guided tour

New presentation


Events of the

past and

technology of


Evening walk

and boat trip in

the city of the


World of the



Magic of the


7 Wonders from


by night

More than a


Győr with

children's eyes

Fairy-tale walk

for young and


7 wonders from

Győr in the





with music

Bike-Tour in


Traces of the

Middle Ages;

tour around the


Boat trip with

music and


on the Győrer


Rehearsal of the

Győr Ballets

Guided costume


Evening walk

by the lights of

Győr; soft


Wine tasting



City exploration


Quiz, ice cream,



Night Customs,


Fire Jumping

Guided tour

with (life)musik

Győr-Bike for

rent, soft drink

Old pictures

pointing on


Source: Own representation based on homepage

www.gyeregyorbe.hu 2018.

The inspiration for the new ideas comes from the

anniversaries, from the news in the city, from the annual

changes, from the exhibition themes, etc. Constant research,

brainstorming with colleagues and the team spirit drive the

development of the company.

In my opinion, the success of Gyere Győrbe is that it has

an imaginative, original and unusual (out-of-the ordinary)

offer that can attract certain groups of visitors. The

employees are highly motivated and always capable of

renewal. This allows the team to distinguish themselves in

the local tourism competition and, of course, to profit as well.

The next study is based on questionnaires given to the

guests arriving at the region and on the answers of local

residents. We have 230 questionnaires filled in, 40 % from

tourists, 60 % from locals. The female-male rate is rather

balanced: 54% vs. 46%.

With regard to the age of the interviewees almost every

generation represents itself. (Alfa, Z, Y, X és Baby boomer).


Ms. Csobay Pintér Éva


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

What types of guiding do you know? Several answers

could be assigned to this question.

The theme tours received the second best rating. This is

a very good positive prognosis that it is worthwhile to carry

out this activity more and more intensively in order to win

new customers. Pedicap, Segway and Riverride tours were

rated significantly worse than the other forms, probably

people don't know these forms well enough or have no

motivation to explore a city in this way.

Figure 5 - What types of guiding do you know?

Source: Based on my own research N=230 ,2017.

Based on 230 responses, the three best-known types of

guided tours are: the classic city tours and the classic bus

tours as well as the small sightseeing train.

Surprisingly, only 41.7% of those surveyed choose hopon

hop-off sightseeing buses, although these sightseeing

tours are very popular in almost all major cities. The

sightseeing boat tours, which are also very well represented

in Győr in summer, received a very good rating.

In the analysis of the individual thematic tours in Győr

you can see a development. The walks are very popular, and

as the figure shows, more than half knows these


It is also surprising that only 24.3% of the respondents

know the mostly free smartphone applications.

I inquired which guiding method is believed to be most

useful. To this question I have given(indicated) two types of

the options: on the one hand with co-operation of the tourist

guides, on the other hand without help - individual discovery

of a destination.

Figure 6 - Which guiding method do you hold(regard)

for most useful?

Source: Based on my own research N=230 ,2017.

In the ranking, the classic city tour is in first place with a

value of 5. It shows that the guests still focus on the classic

tours when they travel to a foreign destination to get to know

the top sights.

Figure 7 - Which sightseeing tour would you like to

participate in?

Source: Based on my own research N=230 ,2017.

To the question - Which sightseeing tour would you like

to participate in? I have received convincing answers. The

alternative forms - theme tours - brought the top positions

together with the classic city tours. It is also remarkable in

today's digital world that the proportion of people interested

in audio guide and smartphone applications is less than 20%.

Final summary

The decisive factor is to stand out with a special offer -

especially in a densely populated market with great

competition. At the same time the tourist guide benefits from

a continuing trend in the tourism industry: the increasing

individualization of interests and guests. Motivation and

needs differentiate and change, giving the tourist guide the

opportunity to react to changing wishes at short notice or to

guide them locally. A special offer arouses and stimulates


It is a decisive advantage of the tourist guide that he has

direct contact with the guest and can thus obtain a real picture

of the wishes and needs of the traveller.

The touristic market of the region is inviting also for local

residents. Locals consider these as free-time activities but

according to their needs and financial background they also

take advantage of them.

Due to the regional/local specialities an interesting offer

can be arranged, which can also be attractive for residents in

the region. The locals also want to/can discover the city and

the countryside and experience them in many different ways.

In conclusion, it can be said that the most popular tours

are those that not only arouse the guests’ interest, but also

convey the information in an interactive and eventful way.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


Csapó,J., Matesz,K. (2007). A kulturális turizmus

jelentősége és szerepe napjaink idegenforgalmában,

Földrajzi Értesítő 2007. LVI.évf. 3-4.füzet, pp. 291-301.

Gál, Gy. (1998). Idegenvezetés felsőfokon. Budapest,

KVIF, p. 101.

Happ, É. (2013). Innovatív marketingkommunikációs

megoldások a turizmusban – okostelefonos alkalmazások

lehetőségei In: Darabos F., Ivancsóné Horváth Zs. (szerk.):

Turizmus ízei: V. Nemzetközi Turizmus Konferencia 2013:

Tanulmányok. 115 p. Győr, Nyugat-magyarországi Egyetem

Apáczai Csere János Kar, pp. 91-98.

Husz, A. (2011). A városnézések formái napjainkban –

Budapest és Bécs kínálatának viszonylatában In: Albert Tóth

A., Darabos F. (szerk.) Nemzetközi turisztikai elemzések

osztrák-magyar viszonylatban: Internationale

Tourismusanalyse am Beispiel Österreich und Ungarn. 104

p. Győr: Nyugat-magyarországi Egyetem. pp. 35-46.

Kieseritzky von Wolther (2009). Ratgeber für

Gästeführer – Qualifizierung nach europäischen Standard

DIN EN 15565, Bundesverband der Gästeführer in

Deutschland e.V., Nürnberg

Kubesch, M. (2006). Az idegenvezetés gyakorlata.

Budapest, KIT: Heller Farkas Gazdasági és Turisztikai

Szolgáltatások Főiskola

Mühlbauer, H. (2004). Standardisiertes Wörterbuch

Tourismus (Tourismus-Dienstleistungen — Reisebüros und

Reiseveranstalter — Terminologie EN 13809-2003), Hg.

DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin Beuth

Verlag p.112.

Rátz, T. (2007). A kulturális értékek és erőforrások

turisztikai hasznosítása In: Dávid, L. (szerk.) Turisztikai

erőforrások, Gyöngyös, pp. 192-194.

Schmeer-Sturm, Marie-Louise (2012). Reiseleitung und

Gästeführung, Professionelle Organisation und Führung;

Oldenbourg Verlag München, p.242.

„Jelen publikáció megjelenését a „Nemzetköziesítés,

oktatói, kutatói és hallgatói utánpótlás megteremtése, a tudás

és technológiai transzfer fejlesztése, mint az intelligens

szakosodás eszközei a Széchenyi István Egyetemen az

EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00017” projekt támogatta.”

"The publication of this study was supported by the"

Internationalization, Teacher, Researcher and Student

Provisioning, Knowledge and Technology Transfer

Improvement as Tools of Intelligent Specialization at the

Széchenyi István University, EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00017 ".


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Culinary heritage in Győr and its surrounding area

Csaba Kőmíves

Széchenyi Isvtán University Kautz Gyula Faculty of Economics – Department of Tourism

Egyetem tér 1., 9026 Győr - Hungary

Tel: +36- 96 503 400, Fax: +36- 96 329 263, E-mail: komives.csaba@sze.hu


The study examines the landscape of one of the largest

regions in Western – Hungary (called Kisalföld), which

has a rich gastronomic history. Based on traditional

flavours, using the creativity of the new trends and

following healthy diets, it is experiencing and developing

a new traditional Hungarian cuisine.

This empirical research looks at two aspects. One of them

is asking tourists from the agglomeration of Győr and

Mosonmagyaróvár, which are the most popular

Hungarian dishes and drinks, and whether they wish to

try traditional Hungarian dishes, or dishes prepared using

new techniques such as sous-vide, slow baking or

smoked. The second aspect is an investigation of which

food restaurants offer menus with dishes that have been

prepared with these new techniques.

The results of the research help to highlight: the quality

of special catering places and whether they use premium

and quality products, such as organic food, and fresh

products and whether these places respond to guests

needs and cater for new culinary experiences.

The data are being processed by using SPSS 23 statistical

software packages. The sample is not representative, the

sampling frame was made by using a snowball method in

addition to the descriptive statistical data (modus, median,

standard deviation). This publication contains

quantitative sorting and crosstabulation analyses.


cuisine, gastronomy, Hungarian,


Tourism is one of the most dynamically developing

sectors, one of Hungary’s major industries, closely

linked to the hotel and hospitality industries. In our

country in 2017, 8% of the GDP was generated by

tourism, so it can rightly be called one of the key sectors

of the Hungarian economy. Tourism is as old as mankind,

the traditions of relatives visiting each other can be

dated back to prehistoric times and in ancient times

friends, relatives and acquaintances accompanied the

contestants to the Olympic Games. In the Middle Ages,

guild apprentices (those who aspired to learn the

profession from foreign master craftsmen), students and

officials would leave their homes and undertake financial

sacrifice. Sacred sites such as Rome, Jerusalem, Lurds,

Angkor, Mecca, were visited for religious reasons and

also because of their natural and built heritage. The

railway was revolutionary and enabled people to travel

faster. J. Watson invented the steam engine, R. Fulton the

steamship and M. Adam built roads. From the 1820s

onwards, steamships enabled tourists to travel on lakes

and rivers. After the railway, civil aviation was the

biggest explosion in the movement of people, aviation

opened new possibilities for mankind, the world’s

farthest point is available from our home in almost 1 day.

According to UNWTO (World Tourism Organization),

the number of travelers in the world, those who spent at

least one night abroad, exceeded 1.3 billion over the past

year. The most attractive destination for Europeans is

France, the 2nd most attractive place is Spain (despite the

Catalan crisis) and the US lies in the 3rd place. In the

Central and Eastern European region, both Hungary and

the Ukraine show a 7% increase based on the entry data,

Georgia (+19%), Slovakia (+17%), Bulgaria (+16%),

Romania and Lithuania (both +11%). Poland and the

Czech Republic both reported an increase of 4%. By

contrast, the decline in arrivals to the Russian Federation

(-9%), the subregion’s top destination, weighed down the

subregional average. 16

Tourism in Hungary today employs 350,000 people and

this figure will continue to grow in the future, as tourism

is prioritized by the EU as a development area, and the

national tourism agencies are incorporating this policy

into their own strategies for tourism development.

Thanks to its geographic location, Győr has a ’clasp’

function between East and Central Europe and Western

Europe. In ancient times Arrabona which was Győr’s

Roman name, was a main transit route and it has

remained so ever since. Figure 1 below illustrates the

location of Győr.


aviable: https://www.e--

unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284419029. (2018. 04.20 12


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Figure 1 - Location of Győr

Győr is halfway between Budapest and Vienna, 80 kms

from Bratislava. The city’s infrastructure is constantly

evolving. In Gönyű, located on the banks of the Danube

(the distance from Győr is 17 km) there is a marina, and

in Pér (16 kms from Győr) there is an airport. In the last

decades of the last century, Győr was an industrial town,

Rába Hungarian Railway Carriage and Machine Works

Plc. operated until the regime change (1989). A number

of light industry and food companies were present in the

city. The move of Audi’s assembly plant to Győr (1993)

gave the city a tremendous economic boost. Győr is

home to several festivals such as: the Four Seasons, the

Five Churches, Baroque Wedding, the Wine Festival, the

Pálinka and Beer Days, Győrkőc. Győr’s lively sport’s

life is a great attraction for tourists. For example, EYOF

(European Youth Festival) was held in Győr in 2017, our

women’s handball team has twice won the Champions

League, our futsal players, kayakers and canoers and

swimmers all bring a lot of joy and pride to the city’s

residents. The Győr Ballet and the Győr Philharmonic

Orchestra spread the city’s good reputation worldwide.

Arguably, the slogan of Győr ’One city, a thousand

experiences’ is appropriate and well-deserved.

Győr called the town of four rivers (Dunube, Rába,

Rábca and Marcal is flown here) it could be given a

significant advantage főr Győr because nowadays the

primary purpose of angling is not fish catching but

recreation (Ivancsóné-Ercsey 2014).

Literature review

The literature provides a number of definitions for

tourism, with the exception of vocational tourism; it is

defined as leisure activities away from the place of

residence, motivated by the need for diversity.

Glücksmann (1929) defined tourism as people travelling

to a place where they do not have a permanent home

(Lengyel, 1992). Schwink (1929-1930) supplemented

the definition with the motivation for movement, and

later on (Norwal, 1936) with the non-lucrative nature of

travelling, the time spent outside the place of residence,

the distance travelled, and the material side of the

phenomenon, namely the tourist services (Lengyel 1992,

Tasnádi 2002). The Concise Dictionary of the Hungarian

Language gives the following definition for tourism,

’noun press 1. Tourism of touristic nature. 2. rare

Tourism, hiking’ (Juhász et al. 2006:1414). From the

above definitions, I suggest the following definition for

tourism: Tourism is a voluntary, massive, periodic,

non-war activity that involves participants temporarily

leaving their place of residence for other destinations,

where they pursue non-occupational activities, they

spend their discretionary earnings on their individual

purposes, using the offerings of the touristic market.

The 1963 Rome Conference of the UN gave the

following definition for the tourist:’’tourist’ is a periodic

visitor, who spends at least 24 hours in the country visited

and the purpose of the travel is to spend leisure time, or

business, family, mission, meeting (Caspar-Fekete,


For Happ, the ’conscious tourist’ as the primary user of

tourism services, is aware of their fundamental rights and

obligations, which contributes to raising the level of

quality. This approach is in line with the expectations set

out in the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism by the

World Tourism Organization (Happ, 2014).

The word ‘gastronomy’ origins from the Greek ‘gaster’

meaning stomach, and ‘gnomos’ meaning low, the

combination of these is gastronomy. The Concise

Dictionary of the Hungarian Language formulates it like

this: ‘Expert knowledge of Food and Beverages, just as

liberal ability of their enjoyment; art of tasting;

gastronomy …. II. The culinary art, cookery’ (Juhász et

al, 2006:435). In a more narrow meaning it means

culinary art and gastronomy. In the extended meaning we

understand setting the table, serving, culture of meal, so

everything, which is related to meals (Borda et al,

1993).The first book about gastronomy was written by

Brillat-Bavarin (1755-1826), who in the book entitled

‘Taste of Life’, examined the relationship between

tasting and meals and this is why it is different from

traditional cookery books.

According to the Central Statistical Office’s data, the

number of tourists visiting Győr was 111102 in 2017.

Based on the available data, until 31 January 2018, a total

of 6259 foreign tourists stayed in our city. With respect

to the average length of stay, in 2017 Swiss guests spent

the most time in Győr (33.4 days). Table 1 shows the

rising trend. Compared to the 2016 figure, there was a

14.4% increase in the number of tourists visiting Győr in

2017. Concerning the Danes, there is a slight decrease of


Table 1 – Guest turnover of foreign tourists in

Győr until 31 January 2018

2016 2017 2018.

Austria 7123 8433 534

Average length

21.3 21.0 2.0

of stay

France 2187 2136 75

Average length

19.5 23.0 2.0

of stay

Germany 30078 33023 2291

Average length

24.2 23.4 2.0

of stay

2016 2017 2018

Netherlands 1699 2047 48

Average length

of stay

20.1 22.6 1.6


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Italy 2487 3173 197

Average length

of stay

25.0 27.1 1.7

Romania 6106 8129 674

Average length

of stay

18.8 17.3 1.3

Slovakia 2684 3783 270

Average length

of stay

22.2 27.2 2.1

Denmark 722 543 17

Average length

of stay

20.8 27.8 1.6

Swiss 1983 2175 77

Average length

of stay

33.7 33.4 2.7

Total 97067 111102 6259

Happ and Albert-Tóth (2017) examine what the city can

offer to tourists in the aspect of accommodations.

They state that MICE tourism currently dominates in

Győr, and that cultural and health tourism gives great

opportunities for the town’s development.

Research methodology

Following the secondary research, I applied primary

research methods in order to collect the missing pieces of

information and data. My primary research consisted of

two parts. One involved quantitative methods, that of

questionnaires when I asked foreign tourists about their

eating habits in Hungary, what they think about the

Hungarian cuisine. The most important questions were

whether local meals, and meals prepared using new

techniques could be found on restaurants’ menus, and if

the host restaurants offer organic meals to their guests. I

selected 50 restaurants from a 30 km radius around Győr,

and I checked their menus.

I try to support or reject my hypotheses with these

questionnaire results. The data was collected between 1

April 2017 and 30 September 2017. The sample is not

representative; the respondents were selected through

snowball sampling from the agglomeration of Győr.

Before composing the questionnaire, I posed the

following questions:

· are tourists opening to eating local food in

addition to traditional Hungarian cuisine?

· are there regional dishes in the restaurants they


· apart from their national dishes, what other

foods do tourists consume in their home


which is the Hungarian dish best known to


· do they use the catering services of restaurants

outside their accommodation?

Phrasing the hypotheses

H1: Tourists visiting Hungary are not

gastronomads. 17

H2.1: The preference of respondents (Hungarian

dishes are delicious) is not affected by the

respondents’ gender.

H2.2. There is no significant difference between the

respondents’ nationality and their opinion on

the spiciness of the dishes.

H3: From our Hungarian dishes, beefsteak

Budapest style is not known better among

tourists than chicken paprikash.

The aim of my research is to identify those opportunities

in our city today that still have the potential of getting

even more tourists to visit Győr.

Conceivably three factors determine the attitudes of

tourists, firstly, the purpose of their trip, secondly, the

length of their stay and thirdly their willingness to spend


Quantitative research methodology

The data was processed using a SPSS 23 statistical

software package. Apart from descriptive statistical data

(average, standard deviation, mean value), one- and twovariable

analyses are included. The responses were

evaluated on a 5-grade Likert scale, 1 was the least

agreement and 5 was full agreement. The questionnaire,

in addition to the demographic data which here includes

gender, nationality and age, contained two open

questions and a ranking task.

The open questions were: do they have any food allergies;

what Hungarian food comes to their mind first. As for the

ranking task, participants had to rank these factors in

order of importance for ther trip: recreation, natural and

built attractions, entertainment.

The questionnaire also includes 2 scales and 14 nominal


Table 1- Demographic information

Variables Frequency Percentage


Female 120 53.3

Male 105 46.7


German 47 20.9

Austrian 28 12.4

Slovakian 11 4.9

Dutch 16 7.1

British 8 3.6

Russian 12 5.3

Serbian 2 0.9

Czech 19 8.4

Italian 16 7.1

Swiss 19 8.4

Danish 14 6.2


Maurice Edmond Sailland’s phrasing: gastronomads are

those tourists who like to taste regional cuisine.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Norwegian 2 0.9

Croatian 1 0.4

Spanish 3 1.3

French 2 0.9

Ukrainian 2 0.9

Swedish 12 5.3

Romanian 8 3.6

Brazilian 2 0.9


Baby-boom 26 11.6

X 49 21.9

Y 99 44,2

Z 50 22,3

From the respondents, 12.4% (28 people) visited

Hungary for the first time, 38.2% (86 people) for the

second time and nearly half of the respondents 49.3%

(111 people) have visited the country more than two

times . It is important to point this out as those who have

been to Hungary multiple times, was able to get to taste

wider range of food and drinks, thus the result of my

research is more sophisticated.

During the analysis of my respondents’ eating habits at

home, I established the following: 34.7% (78 people)

prefer their own national food at home, 21.8% (49 people)

considers it healthy, 18.2% (41 people) eat reform food

and 5.8% (13 people) eat vegetarian dishes. 9.3% (21

people) of the respondents have food intolerance, 38.1%

(8 people) are sensitive to lactose, 14.3% (3 people) to

gluten and 19% (4 people) to protein. Regarding the

sample’s specific willingness to spend money, for 63.1%

(142 people) price does not matter, 25.3% (57 people)

would spend occasionally more than 5000 HUF for a

three course meal, while 11.6% (26 people) would spend

less than that√. In addition to their national cuisine,

tourists in their home country like Chinese food the most

15.5% (35 people); Turkish dishes 14.2% (32 people),

Italian 13.3% (30 people) and 3.5% (8 people) like

French cuisine, which is illustrated in Figure 3 below.

The French-Italian cuisine is the favorite for 43 people,

while Mexican and Indian cuisine for 10 people.

Regarding the three cuisines, Indian, Italian and French

are the most popular (10 people), and Indian, Turkish and

French are the second most popular (7 people) among the

tourists visiting our country. 102 people eat in the hotel’s

restaurant, 100 in other restaurants, 88 people on the

streets, 87 in fast food restaurants, 59 in self-service

restaurants, 73 in pubs and 21 at local markets.

The main motivation for tourists’ travel (ranked first) is

shown in Figure 2 below. The most important factor in

this respect for tourists visiting Hungary is getting to

know the Hungarian culture (56 people). The knowledge

of foreign culture is not the only part of leisure tourism,

but natural beauty and built heritage is included as well.

The reason why I chose to separate them is that in this

way I can get to know tourists’ opinion more deeply.

Relaxation, full recreation is ranked second among the

respondents (53 people). Sport is ranked third place (45

people), cultural visit fourth (36 people). Entertainment

is fifth place (20 people), attending events is sixth place

(19 people).

Figure 2 – Analysis of the motivation of travel

in the first place

Table 2 below illustrates well the tourists’ preferences for

the purpose of their visit. In the second place, most

tourists 31.5% (71 people) would like to explore the

beauty of the landscape, 30.2% (68 people) would like to

get to know Hungarian culture, for 15.1% (34 people)

entertainment and visiting events held in the city are

important. Only 8% (18 people) choose to do nothing and

0.8% sports. According to the third most important

motivation for travel, 32.4% (73 people) visit Győr for

the events, 24.8% (56 people) for the Hungarian culture,

19.5% (44 people) to explore the beauty of the landscape.

17.7% (40 people) choose entertainment and only 3.5%

(8 people) visit our city for sports, 3.1% (7 people) for

recreation. In the fourth place, 35.5% (80 people) of the

respondents ranked participating in events first, 18.2%

(41 people) entertainment, 16.4% (37 people) would like

to get acquainted with Hungarians and their culture. 12.4%

(28 people) of the respondents come to Hungary for

cultural purposes, 8.0% (18 people) for sports and 6.6%

(15 people) for recreation. In the 5 th place of the priority

list, 36.4% (82 people) ranked entertainment first, 30.2%

(68 people) recreation and 16.4% (37 people) visiting

museums and castles. Concerning the last 3 places, 7.5%

(17 people) ranked participating in events in the 4 th

place, 4.4% (10 people) sports and 2.6% (6 people)

getting to know the different culture of the Hungarian

people. 62.6% (141 people) of the respondents put sports

in the least important 6th place, 28.0% (63 people)

recreation and 3.5% (8 people) discovering the beauty

of the landscape. In the 4 th place, 3.1% (7 people)

indicated entertainment, the number of people who visit

our country because of events or culture is insignificant.

Table 3 – The preferences of tourists according to

their travel motivations






















1 53 36 56 20 19 45

2 18 71 68 34 33 2

3 7 44 56 40 73 8


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

4 15 28 37 41 80 18

5 68 37 6 82 17 10

6 63 8 1 7 2 141












Figure 3 – Tourists’favorite cuisines at home

The above Figure 3 pie chart shows the distribution of

the tourists’ preferred cuisine outside of their own

national cuisine. Most foreign tourists prefer Chinese

cuisine at 15.5%, secondly Turkish at 14,2%, in the third

place Italian at 13.3% and in the fourth place French at


Table 4 - Is the prestige of the restaurant important

for you?

Valid Cumulative




29 12.9 12.9 12.9

disagree 28 12.4 12.4 25.3

undecided 39 17.3 17.3 42.7

agree 41 18.2 18.2 60.9



88 39.1 39.1 100.0

Total 225 100.0 100.0

Table 4 shows that 12.9% (29 people) of the respondents

do not deem the prestige of the restaurant important, 12.4%

(28 people) agree to it, while 17.3% (39 people) remained

neutral in this question. 18.2% (41 people) think that it is

really important and for 39.1% (88 people) this aspect is

very important.

Henceforth I will prove or refute my assumptions. I am

able to prove that my H1 0 hypothesis is correct (the

0.399 value of the Chi-Square tests is higher than the 5%

significance level); therefore I reject the alternative

hypothesis stating that tourists visiting our country taste

the local specialities in restaurants.

Table 5- Chi-Square Test



Value df (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 4.054 a 4 0.399

Likelihood Ratio 4.067 4 0.397


.537 1 0.464


N of Valid Cases 225

Figure 4 - Boxplot

Based on data from Table 6 and Table 7, as per the twosample

t-test, I can conclude that the average of the two

groups is not significantly different (t(223)=0.732,

p=0.465). Women’s openness to tasting local dishes is an

average of 2.50 (standard deviation = 1.544), while

male’s average is 2.64 (standard deviation = 1.442),

therefore men are more open than women to eating

regional cuisine.

Table 6 - Independent Samples test




















t df Sig









223 0.4




















Table 7 - Group statistics





gender N Mean Deviation Mean

A10-Are you female 120 2.50 1.544 0.139

open to tastingmale




105 2.64 1.442 0.145


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Table 8 - Chi-Square Tests

Value df




Pearson Chi-Square 19.672 a 4 0.001

Likelihood Ratio 20.069 4 0.000



.755 1 0.385

N of Valid Cases 223

Table 8 above illustrates the analysis of the H2.1

hypothesis, the result of the Chi-Square tests. Since the

value of the Chi-Square is below 5% significance (0.01),

I accept the null hypothesis that the respondents’

preferences in the tasting of Hungarian dishes is not

affected by their gender.

Table 9 - Cross tabulation


















strongly 12 37. 19 61.3 31 100



disagree 30 60 20 40 50 100

undecide 18 75 6 25 24 100


agree 37 61, 19 33.9 56 100




22 35.


40 64.5 62 100

Table 9 presents well that from the respondents, 81

people disagree, 24 did not provide an answer and 118

people agree with the statement that Hungarian dishes are


I was also curious as to what extent their nationality

affects them regarding this question. I formed five groups,

the first group included the neighboring countries, the

second Western Europeans, the third Central and Eastern

Europeans, the fourth Southern Europeans and the fifth

the Northern Europeans. I assume that the respondents’

nationality has no effect on their perception of the

tastiness of Hungarian dishes. The data is presented in

Table 7 below. When examining the H2.2 hypothesis, I

came to the following conclusion. Since the significance

level is 0.035, H0 is rejected, so I accept the alternative

hypothesis (H1), which states that there is a significant

difference between the nationality of tourists and their

perception of the tastiness of Hungarian dishes.

Table 10 - Chi-Square Tests

Value df




Pearson Chi-Square 27.620 a 16 0.035

Likelihood Ratio 28.865 16 0.025



1.097 1 0.295

N of Valid Cases 218














Table 11 - Cross tabulation

Neig We

hbo strs






































































S-E N-


































Table 11 shows the following. From the tourists coming

from Hungary’s neighboring countries, 16 people

disagree, ten gave neutral answer and 25 people think

that Hungarian dishes are delicious. As for tourists from

Western Europe, the biggest group of the sample, 33

people disagree, 19 people gave neutral answers and 40

people thinks that Hungarian food is delicious. The third

smallest cluster was the tourists from Central and Eastern

European countries, of which only one person refrained

from answering, 14 people disagree and 15 people agree

that our food is delicious. From Southern Europeans, five

out of 19 people disagree, five people did not respond

and nine people agree with my statement. From the

inhabitants of the Scandinavian countries, nine people

disagree, six people remained neutral and 13 people

agree with regards to Hungarian food’s tastiness. Overall,

102 out of 218 people agree (46.7%), 39 people (17.8%)

are neutral and 77 people (35.3%) disagree.

Figure 5 below illustrates that among the average of the

listed explanatory variables, the highest 3.91 is the

importance of homemade meals, which is in their opinion

is the most important. In the second place is organic





















Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

food with 3.34 and in the third place with 3.25 is the

consumption of local food. The average of the other four

dishes only slightly differs from each other. In the fourth

place with 3.17 is ready-made meals, in the fifth with

3.14 are menus put together by the restaurants and in the

sixth place with the same average 3.13 are slow-cooked

(confit) meals and a la carte meals.

Figure 5 – The importance of choice

Figure 6 illustrates shows that slow-cooked and a’la carte

meals (average 3.13); eating menus (average 3.14) are

the least important. The average for ready-made meals

is 3.17, local dishes is 3.25 and organic food is 3.34.

Home made meals have the highest average and the

lowest standard deviation, so this is the most important

factor in the choice of food for tourists.

Figure 6 – The aspects of tourists’ food


Figure 6 examines tourists’ eating habits. 129 people like

to consume local meals; a la carte eating and menu (preassembled

three-course lunch or dinner) both have 114

people. 77 people voted for meals prepared through new

cooking methods and techniques appliances such as

smart ovens),- 68 people for the ready-made meals. The

lowest amount, 48 people would eat organic meals.

I examined tourists’ opinions on Hungarian dishes on a

5-grade semantic scale; one of the aspects was how tasty

or tasteless they find the food. The average score was 3.2

at 1.38 standard deviation, which means that it is

moderately different from neutral judgement. The

average saltlessness and saltiness of foods was 1.87 at

0.93, which means that respondents found our food more

salty than saltless. I got similar results on the spicy and

unspiced end-scales, with an average of 1.77, standard

deviation 0.90, meaning tourists consider Hungarian

dishes spicy rather than unspiced.

Table 12 - Tests of Equality of Group Means


Lambda F df1 df2 Sig.

Zscore: A7.1-

Hungarian 0.987 0.960 3 220 0.413

Goulash soup

Zscore: A7.3-

"Jókai" beans 0.998 0.112 3 220 0.953


Zscore: A7.4-

Chicken 0.978 1.674 3 220 0.174


Zscore: A7.5-

Hungarian 0.965 2.650 3 220 0.050


Zscore: A7.6-

Beefsteak 0.910 7.227 3 220 0.000

Budapest Style

Zscore: A7.7-

Stuffed 0.935 5.087 3 220 0.002


Zscore: A7.8-

Fried filet of


Carp pickled

2.808 3 220 0.040

and onions

Zscore: A7.9-

Pâte' de foie 0.967 2.464 3 220 0.063






0.892 8.851 3 220 0.000

cake ’Somlói’




Pancakes filled 0.936 5.015 3 220 0.002

with cottage


The data in Table 12 indicates the significance level of

certain dishes. Beefsteak Budapest style got 0.00, stuffed

cabbage 0.02, Hungarian sponge cake ’Somlói’ style 0.00,

cottage cheese pancakes 0.02. Since the other foods have

a significance level higher than 0.05, these foods were

excluded from the analysis. Value of chicken paprikash

is 0.174 so Beefsteak Budapest is more known than the

other one.

Table 13 – Variance analysis


% of


Function EigenvalueVariance Cumulative % Correlation

1 .868 a 59.8 59.8 0.682

2 .408 a 28.1 87.9 0.538

3 .175 a 12.1 100.0 0.386

Table 13 above demonstrates that 46.6% of the total

variance is explained by the first explanatory variable

(0.682*0.682=46.6); the second is 28.9%, while the third

variable explains 14.9%. I reject H3 0 hypothesis (that

beefsteak Budapest style is less known than chicken


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

paprikash), because chicken paprikash is not significant

(0.174 see table 12), more than 0.005. So I accept the

alternative hypothesis stating that the previous meal is

better known than the latter.

In one of the open questions, I examined which

Hungarian food comes first to tourists’ mind. The result

of this is well illustrated in Table 7 below. The dominance

of breaded foods can be clearly demonstrated, fried pork

was 58 people’s first thought, fried fish for 42 people and

fried chicken for ten people. The scone was 23 people’s

first thought, pâte' de foie gras for 22 people, goulash

soup for 21 people, Gundel pancakes for 17 people and

pasta with cottage cheese for 12 people.

Figure 7 - The favorite dishes (tourists’


Out of 56 restaurants only three prepare meat using a

sous-vide methods of cooking. Baking (roasting) on a

slow heat 13, in oven four and only one restaurant uses

organic food.

Unfortunately, none of the soups are made using new

cooking techniques such asporcini cappuccino. In most

of the restaurants, traditional Hungarian dishes are served

combined with some of the finest of international cuisine.

Kóny ox tail soup is not even included on the restaurant’s

menu in the village it was named after. Szigetköz

Fisherman’s soup (including the common barbel) can be

found in eight restaurants, three of which are located in

the Szigetköz, two in Rábaköz and three in Győr Basin.

The other specialty of Szigetköz, pickled fish, prepared

in a very traditional way, can be found in three restaurants

in Szigetköz and two in Rábaköz. The other fish specialty,

roasted garlic bream is only available in one tavern in

Szigetköz. Cottage cheese pasta is available in a total of

4 places in Szigetköz and Rábaköz. From the regional

main dishes, seven can be found in local restaurants (18

places), pork chop Óvári style (pork, mushrooms and

óvári cheese) is available in four restaurants near to Győr

and four in Szigetköz. Three restaurants (two in Rábaköz

and one in Győr) offer pork chop fried Kapuvár style

(stuffed with bacon, sausage and onion) to their guests.

Rolled meat of Hanság is on the menu of three restaurants

in Hanság, slaughterman liver (pork liver, roasted

marrow) was only included in one restaurant’s menu

from Rábaköz. Beef stew Pannonhalma cellar style (beef

stew marinated with red wine from Pannonhalma) is

offered at one restaurant in Győr; stuffed pork rib

Rábaköz style is also only available at one place.

Szigetköz style stuffed pork rib (in breadcrumbs with

bacon, onions, ham, mushrooms and eggs) is only offered

at one restaurant in Győr. Regarding desserts, pancakes

and Hungarian sponge cake ’Somlói’ style are prioritized,

neither Öttevény cherry sponge cake, nor Csanak wine

dumplings or Csorna strudel cake can be found on

restaurant menus.


In this article, I achieved the goals I set, answered my

research questions and hypotheses. I accepted my first

hypothesis stating ’Tourists visiting Hungary are not

gastronomads’. The first point of my second hypothesis

stating ’The preference of respondents (Hungarian dishes

are tasty) is not affected by the respondents’ gender’ is

also accepted. I rejected the second point of the second

hypothesis stating ’There is no significant difference

between the respondents’ nationality and their opinion on

the spiciness of the dishes’. I also rejected the third

hypothesis ’From our Hungarian dishes, beefsteak

Budapest style is not known better among tourists than

chicken paprikash’.

The questionnaires suggest that further research could be

carried out in other important tourist regions such as the

Balaton region, Budapest and Alföld, the Great Plain.

This particular study examined foreign tourists’ habits

from the aspect of hospitality but other aspects could also

be analysed. I came to a surprising conclusion in

relation to foreign cuisines, namely, all cuisines can be

traced back to ancient cuisine. This cuisine I called

Sumerian, from which Byzantium, and the ancient

Roman, and later the French cuisine developed as well.

According to foreign tourists, surprisingly the French

cuisine is the least favorite amongst them.

Only few restaurants offer allergy-friendly - for instance

special lactose-gluten-protein meals; I only found one

restaurant in Szigetköz, which offered the above


Indeed, Hungarian cuisine should be promoted in a

different way, which includes more than just Wiener

schnitzel (breaded pork cutlet) or Parisian cutlet (cutlet

coated in batter). It was also surprising that ready-made

meals do not play an important role for the tourists, if

limited time is available, people tend to save time on their

meals to have more time for sightseeing. Cheaper menus

are not really important for tourists. My study clearly

supported the importance of home-made meals.

As one of the main conclusions of this study, I found that

most tourists visiting Győr have been here more than two

times, meaning they come back to us. They like our city.

My other main conclusion is that tourists prefer local,

fresh and artisan food to frozen goods, even if they are

more expensive. So the quality is really important.

What this implies is that it would be necessary for

restaurants or revalue their supplies and offers.

We should offer more local and organic foods to our

foreign guests. By deliberately switching cooking

methods and techniques, the prepared meals would better

respond to changing customer needs.

We can be justly proud of our cuisine, our Michelin star

restaurants, our chefs and our Hungarikums. I suggest

local restaurants should offer meals of other regions in

their menus. Unfortunately, arguably, we are slowly

forgetting our traditions, our lifestyle has changed

considerably in recent decades, and this is reflected in

both our eating culture and dressing habits as well. This,


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

of course, does not mean returning to the old habits, but

rather to rethink old, traditional Hungarian dishes. At the

same time, it is not clear why Hungarians have not yet

accepted the new cooking techniques that have already

been adopted by Hungarian gastronomy.

Business and sport tourism are key areas for the

development of the city’s tourism industry.

Thermal Spa and thermal recreational packages are also

good possibilities for Győr to attract more tourists to our


Another segment worth developing is to target sports fan

clubs as we can provide a high-quality gastronomic

experience in Győr for other sport club members.


Borda, J., Sándor, L., Szabó. E., Csizmadia, L., and

Szigeti A. (1993). Gasztronómiai Lexikon. Budapest:

Mezőgazda Kiadó. p.161.

Bujdosó, Z.,Kerekesné Major, Á., and Ujvári, K. (2012).

Gasztronómia a vendéglátásban. Digitális Tankönyvtár.

Gyöngyös. Károly Róbert Főiskola: ISBN 978-963-


Happ, É., (2014). Fenntartható turizmus és

felelősségvállalás = Sustainable tourism and

responsibility, Gazdaság és Társadalom.(1) pp. 90-101.

Happ, É., Albert-Tóth, A. (2017). Opportunities of an

Industrial City in the Leisure Tourism. World Academy

of Science, Engineering and Technology International

Journal of Social and Business Sciences Vol:11, No:10,

Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO) Territorial

and tourism statistics,aviable: aviable:


Ivancsóné H.Zs., Ercsey I. (2014). A horgászati szokások

összehasonlító elemzése. XVIII. Apáczai-

Napok.Tudomámyos Konferencia:Quid est veritas?


Juhász, J., Szőke, I., O-Nagy, G., and Kovalovszky M.

(2006). Magyar Értelmező Kéziszótár. Negyedik

változatlan kiadás. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. p.435.

Juhász, J., Szőke, I., O-Nagy, G., and Kovalovszky M.

(2006). Magyar Értelmező Kéziszótár. Negyedik

változatlan kiadás. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. p.1414.

Lengyel, M., (1992). A turizmus általános elmélete,

Budapest: Viva Reklámügynökség, p.212.

Tasnádi, J., (2002): A turizmus rendszere, Budapest:

Aula Kiadó, p. 280.

The publication of present research was supported by the

internationalization, the creation of aftergrowth of

lectorors, researchers and students, improvement of

transfering knowledge and technology, such as tools of

intelligent specialization named project EFOP-3.6.1-16-

2016-00017 in the Széchenyi István University.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Problems of disabled tourists in nautical tourism

Aleksandra Łapko

Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Economics and Transport Engineering,

ul. H. Pobożnego 11, 70-507 Szczecin, Poland

Tel.: +48-91-48-09-692 e-mail address: a.lapko@am.szczecin.pl


The aim of the article is to diagnose the basic problems faced

by disabled tourists in marinas. For the needs of the study, a

research hypothesis has been made that marinas are only

slightly adapted to serve this group of tourists. The

conducted research in West Pomeranian marinas in Poland

has shown shortcomings of organizational and

infrastructural nature. Literature research, observation and

direct interview were used. It should be noted that this

subject is rarely addressed in the scientific literature, and

given its importance to a part of society, such a gap should

be fulfilled. The research results presented in the article,

good practices and recommendations can be valuable

material for people managing marinas or designers. It may,

in effect, contribute to an increase in the number of disabled

tourists. They could also increase comfort of other groups of

tourists in particular elderly tourists and families with small



nautical tourism, disabled tourists, management of marinas,

infrastructure of marinas


According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (1980),

a disability can be defined as: any restriction or lack

(resulting from any impairment) of ability to perform an

activity in the manner or within the range considered normal

for a human being [1]. In Poland, the term ‘disabled persons’

is defined in the Charter of Rights of Persons with

Disabilities [2] stating that the disabled are persons whose

physical, mental or mental fitness permanently or

periodically impedes, limits or prevents daily life, study,

work and social involvement in accordance with legal and

customary standards. Next there is a provision saying that the

disabled have the right to independent and active life and

cannot be discriminated. This is in line with the European

Disability Strategy 2010-2020: A Renewed Commitment to

a Barrier-Free Europe [3] including provisions stating that it

is necessary to ensure accessibility to goods, services

including public services and assistive devices for people

with disabilities. This is to be implemented, among others,

through improving the accessibility of sports, leisure,

cultural and recreational organizations, activities, events,

venues, goods and services including audiovisual ones;

promoting participation in sports events and the organization

of disability-specific ones. With regard to tourism it means

the possibility of full participation in trips, in accordance

with interests and needs. It is estimated that one in six people

in the European Union (EU) has a disability that ranges from

mild to severe, which is about 80 million. Among people

aged over 75, people with disabilities constitute up to one

third of the population [3]. Therefore, it is a large part of

society, which could become a potentially significant

segment of customers among tourists, also connected with

sailing [4], [5], [6]. Certainly, it cannot be assumed that all

disabled persons would be willing to go sailing, but this

number can be significant. This has been shown by the

results of research carried out in 2006 by Bergier B.,

Kubinska, Z. and Bergier, J., among 750 disabled persons.

The research showed that 64.2%, would willingly participate

(four or more times a year) in different types of sailing

cruises [7]. The interest of persons with disabilities in

nautical tourism can also be demonstrated by existing

organizations gathering disabled sailors and organizing

sailing cruises for this tourist sector. In Poland, it is provided

by Fundacja Empatia having a yacht adapted to the needs of

the disabled [8]. Every year, several courses and sailing

camps are organized in different parts of the country. The

organizers are sailing clubs or PEFRON (State Fund for

Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons in Poland). For this to

happen, it is necessary to adapt the tourist offer related to this

form of tourism to their needs. The basis, however, is to

provide adequate infrastructure, which is the basis for

tourism participation. It should be noted that taking into

account the needs of disabled persons when designing

tourism infrastructure should be a standard. It is not about

creating separate places that can be used by people with

disabilities, but also about full integration, enabling inclusion

of people with special needs, in particular disabled but also

aged people, in the tourism sector [9]. With regard to nautical

tourism, proper adaptation of yachts as well as the

infrastructure of yacht ports shall play a very important role.

It is the adaptation of yacht ports that will be the subject of

consideration in this article. Ports are places where cruises

start and end and which are often visited during the cruise.

Sailors arrive to the ports to visit the nearby tourist

attractions, as well as to rest or replenish supplies. The

availability of ports for disabled sailors is an important

criterion when planning a cruise route. In order for yachts to

be accessible to people with disabilities, certain

infrastructural and organizational solutions should be

introduced to facilitate the use of their offers. It should be

remembered that the group of disabled persons is diverse in


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

terms of the degree and type of disability.

There are four types of disability: physical, intellectual,

sensory and secondary. Physical disability includes [10] -

paraplegia, i.e. two-limb paralysis due to spinal cord injury

at various levels or brain damage,

– hemiplegia, i.e. half-paralysis of one half of the body,

caused by damage to the corticospinal tract in the brain,

– tetraplegia, or quadriplegia caused by damage to the

cervical spinal cord – amputations.

Intellectual disability includes congenital or traumatic brain

injury as well as cerebral palsy [10]. Sensory disability is, in

relation to the sense of sight: blindness or sight impairment,

and with regard to the sense of hearing: deafness or hearing


Secondary disability includes diabetes and asthma [11].

The aim of the article is to determine the basic problems that

disabled persons may encounter in yacht ports and propose

possible solutions. It was assumed that the lack of

appropriate modifications, taking into account the specific

needs of this segment of tourists, may lead to the exclusion

of disabled persons from the nautical tourism market, or limit

their activity in this area in a given region. In the same time

it means limiting the group of potential consumers, and thus,

it is an unfavorable phenomenon from the point of view of



In the article literature research, observation and direct

interview methods were used. Interviews were conducted

with disabled persons and with employees of yacht ports.

Persons with disabilities participating in the research include:

one person with a physical disability, using crutches and

using an orthopedic apparatus and one blind person. These

people are active boaters. They participated in many cruises

carried out in the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea, in which

other disabled persons also participated. In addition, study

visits and direct interviews were made with employees of

selected Polish marinas located in the West Pomeranian

province (North Marina in Świnoujście, Marina Wapnica,

Marina on the Młyński Canal in Stepnica, North-East Marina

in Szczecin) and German marinas in Kröslin and Lauterbach.

The topic discussed in the article was also consulted with the

architect Zbigniew Andruszkiewicz, who designs marinas.

Research and collection of documentation was carried out

from February to May 2018.

Problems encountered in marinas by the


Research conducted in four yacht ports located in Poland in

the West Pomeranian province showed that they are partly

adapted to the needs of persons with disabilities. It should be

noted that these ports belong to the West Pomeranian Sailing

Route and in recent years have undergone a thorough

modernization, or (as in the case of the port in Wapnica or

Kołobrzeg) were built properly from scratch. Adaptation to

the needs of disabled persons mainly concerns buildings that

are located in the ports. Pursuant to § 3 of the Regulation of

the Minister of Infrastructure on technical conditions to be

met by buildings and their location [12] as amended

buildings on the premises of yacht ports are classified as

public buildings. According to this document, such buildings

mean buildings intended for (...) services, including tourism,

sports, passenger services in (...) road, sea or inland

waterway transport, and other buildings designed to perform

similar functions, as well as office or social buildings. There

must be at least one access to such buildings for persons with


Therefore, in the studied ports there are sanitary facilities and

administration and service buildings adapted to the needs of

disabled tourists. They are equipped with ramps with the

appropriate angle of inclination (Photo 1).

Photo 1 - A ramp for the disabled that leads to the

administration building in the Marina Wapnica (A.Łapko)

In the port of Kołobrzeg, there is a two-storey building with

club halls, a restaurant and a viewing terrace, which in

addition to the ramp has been equipped with a lift adapted to

the needs of disabled persons to provide them access to all

services. In addition, the interviewed employees of the ports

declared that in the event of receiving information about the

yacht with a disabled crew, appropriate assistance in

maneuvers at the port and mooring will be provided.

Employees of the North Marina in Świnoujście were also

ready to organize the conversion of berth, so that a yacht with

a disabled crew could moor in the vicinity of sanitary and

administrative buildings. The approach presented by the

employees is promising and proves that disabled sailors can

meet with a friendly approach in these ports. Nevertheless,

there are still many problems that people with disabilities can

encounter in their marinas. It should be noted that due to the

very large diversity among the group of disabled persons, it

is difficult to identify these problems. They are most often

associated with the specificity of the disability and often

similar to those that occur when a given person uses other


In general, however, on the basis of the conducted research,

it was found that the problems most often reported by

disabled persons using yacht port services have an

infrastructural or organizational genesis. Table 1 presents

their brief categorization indicating which groups they


Table 1 - Classification of deterrents encountered at the

marinas by disabled persons depending on the type of


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe



e of




















Source: own work




























x x x x x

x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x

Architectural deterrents are especially difficult for people

with physical and sensory disabilities. Moving around the

yacht ports with stairs is a very big problem for those people.

Buildings are usually easily accessible in most ports but there

are a lot of places in the ports that people with disabilities

may find difficult to reach. The problem may be a slippery

deck surface or an unpaved quay covered with grass. In the

case of wheelchair users, the problem is too narrow spaces -

it is not only about passages, such as doors, but also about

jetties and other movement areas. A major disadvantage is

also the lack of special sanitary facilities.

Persons with physical disabilities using crutches or

orthopedic appliances need rest places, e.g. benches. This

also applies to people with secondary disabilities who suffer

from severe diabetes or asthma. The lack of such places in

the marina is a very serious problem for such people because

of having to move around a long distance, e.g. between

berths, administrative buildings and toilets.

For the disabled, one of the biggest deterrents to sailing is

getting on and off a boat. Many ports have floating piers

equipped with so-called Y-boms, i.e. mooring jetties [13]. Y-

boms can have different constructions, some of them are very

narrow floating piers, others are simply steel profiles the task

of which is to determine berths. In ports equipped with Y-

boms, the yachts are moored by the bow or stern to the quay.

If Y-boms are narrow piers, they can sometimes make it

possible to leave the side of the yacht, but because of their

small width and great unsteadiness, they cannot be used by

people with disabilities. It is also a big problem for people

with disabilities to overcome the difference in levels between

the deck and the quay. Auxiliary devices are needed to level

this difference.

Persons using wheelchairs encounter problems using

standard solutions applied in yacht ports, and among them

sanitary devices, which, for example, are too high mounted.

Blind people, in turn, cannot use standard information boards,

or, for example, the menu in the port tavern.

Among the most common organizational deterrents, the lack

of information on facilities existing at the port dedicated to

disabled persons plays a very important role. In addition,

some information tools, such as websites, are not adapted for

use by people with certain disabilities, such as the visually

impaired and the blind.

Not all yacht ports, analyzed for the purposes of the article,

had websites, but those that did have them did not put any

information about them on facilities for people with


The lack of proper marking is a big problem. People with

sensory disabilities are often unable to use the standard

characters available in the area of ports. They are usually of

optical character and are not always easy and obvious in

reception. There are no spaces dedicated to disabled persons

in the ports (e.g. car parking for disabled persons or marked

berths for yachts).

People working at the marinas are very rarely trained in

helping people with disabilities. They are not always able to

adapt the message to their needs, or help them during

maneuvers in ports.

Proposals of selected infrastructure and organizational

solutions to facilitate the use of marinas for people with


As mentioned in the previous part of the article, despite the

partial adaptation of West Pomeranian marinas to the needs

of persons with disabilities, this group still faces problems

when using these facilities. In the further part of the article,

some infrastructural and organizational facilities were

proposed that could significantly affect the comfort and

safety of disabled persons in the marinas. The presented

solutions can be treated as "good practices" implemented in

the German Baltic Sea Resort yacht ports located in Kröslin

and in the Lauterbach marina on the island of Rügen, as well

as in other German yacht ports the infrastructure of which

was analyzed in the Report: Marinas for „Best agers”[14].

Interestingly, they were created not so much for disabled

persons but for older people. The elderly are a very important

group of German yacht port customers. European society is

aging, so the number of older people participating in nautical

tourism is growing. This is particularly evident in Germany,

where it is estimated that about half of recreational boaters

are over 60 years old. According to the forecasts in 2025, the

largest group of sailors in German yacht ports will be people

aged 61-75, which is why it is crucial to adapt these objects

to their needs [14]. Older people are often characterized by

reduced physical and sensory fitness. Therefore, it has been

noticed that infrastructural solutions introduced for them at

yacht ports will often be desirable also from the point of view

of disabled persons. Interestingly, it shall be stated that the

beneficiaries will also be families with small children who

often require similar solutions. Since the introduction of

infrastructural solutions is usually associated with the need

to incur large financial outlays, the extension of the group of

potential beneficiaries is an important argument. Therefore,

in the further part of the article, selected measures are

presented characterizing the benefits of their introduction for

the disabled, but also for other groups of port users. The


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

measures were considered for boaters visiting the ports, not

residents. Table 2 presents organizational solutions, in Table

3 infrastructural solutions.

Based on the data contained in Table 2, it can be concluded

that the proposed solutions will be beneficial for almost all

port users. Many Polish marinas do not have their own

websites (for example, a marina in Świnoujście – a large

modern port with 350 parking spaces, which only has a page

on the website of its operator – "Wyspiarz" Sport and

Recreation Center only in Polish). For many boaters,

websites are the basic tool for route planning. The website

should include information about facilitations for individual

user groups. The information should be written in a simple

and understandable way. Barrier free websites are websites

that can also be used by visually impaired and blind people,

because the information they contain can also be listened to.

Table 2 - Proposed organizational solutions and groups of

potential beneficiaries

Measures for Effects for Effects for other customers

disabled disabled


Elderly Familie Other






marina offer

and its offer

for various

group of


Simply trip


yes yes yes

Barrier free


Hotline to


the arrival or

to request


Sign from

the water

side with the


about free

berth and

their size

Clear, easy

to read,


and high





Simply trip













safety and

comfort of


yes no yes

yes yes yes

yes yes yes

yes yes/no yes/n


Source: Own study based on Report: Marinas for "Best

Agers" – Requirements as a result of the demographic

change – a baseline study, GA-MA Consulting GmbH,

prepared in the frame of the South Coast Baltic Project, 2018

The possibility of early notification of arrival and orders of

assistance while berthing would be a great facilitation for the

disabled, but also for other people who for some reason may

have some maneuvering problems in the port, e.g. beginner

sailors, the elderly, people with small children. This solution

seems to be the easiest to implement (readiness to provide

such assistance was reported by, among others, marina

employees in Świnoujście). However, for this to happen it is

necessary to provide sailors with access to contact

information along with an indication of the telephone

number to the employee on duty.

In German Baltic Sea Resort at the entrance to the port from

the water side there is a sign with information about free

berths (width depth) and contact details to the harbor master

(Figure 1).

Figure 1 - Sign from water side with info about width of

boxes for the jetties Baltic Sea Resort

Source: Report: Marinas for "Best agers"[14]

Such a solution makes it easier to find the right place in the

port and, if necessary, allows to contact the port employee

and ask for assistance. Information signs in the port area

should be visible and legible also for people with vision

problems. In particular, it would be beneficial for people with

a disability and older people, but the beneficiaries would

probably be all the port customers who could find their

information more easily.

Most of the infrastructure solutions presented in Table 3,

similarly to the organizational solutions presented in Table 2,

would facilitate the stay in the port not only for disabled

persons, but also for other groups of tourists. Separating the

special-purpose stopping places (berths) in the port (like

parking spaces for cars) would allow disabled persons and

families with children to berth the yacht in the vicinity of

sanitary facilities, administration buildings and a car parking,

which is a great convenience for those people. Berth would

have to be separated at the quay allowing a longside mooring.

Sanitary facilities should be well-marked and available 24

hours a day. There should also not be time limits in their use.

The ports often have shower devices equipped with token

timers, which turn off automatically after a certain time, e.g.

5 minutes. This problem was pointed by a person with motor

disability, arguing that people with disabilities often need a


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

lot more time than “ordinary” boaters and should not use

such solutions. It would be perfectly optimal if there was a

special toilet for people with disabilities in the port area with

access to ground level or a slightly inclined wide ramp. The

access should be marked with high contrast and well

illuminated, and the doors should be 0,80 m wide or more.

Although, as mentioned earlier, these toilets were observed

in all studied Polish marinas, but unfortunately this is not the


Table 3 - Proposed organizational solutions and groups of

potential beneficiaries

Measures for

Effects for other customers



Elderly Families Other

Special berths

near the


facilities or









accessible 24h

Car parking

place close as

possible to the

berth and

other transport


Fresh water

and electricity

supply near

the boat


places with



Stairs for easy

entry and exit

from the boat

Wide jetties



hazards, nonslip






of stay



of stay



of stay,



of people





of stay





entry and




of stay,






safety of




yes yes no

yes yes yes

yes yes yes

yes yes yes

yes yes yes

yes yes yes

yes yes yes



Non slip

access ramps

between jetty

and land side


seating on the



of people






safety of




of people






safety of




of people






safety of


yes yes yes

yes yes yes

yes yes yes

Source: Own study based on Report: Marinas for "Best


There are no such solutions in older facilities that have not

recently undergone modernization. An important facilitation

is the provision of berths with fenders and guide ropes, as it

facilitates mooring. From the point of view of disabled

persons, but also others with certain physical limitations, it

is a good idea to provide berths with ladders, steps or

platforms leveling the difference between the quay and the

yacht deck (Figure 2 and 3).

Figure 2 - Mobile step at berth Marina Lauterbach

Source: Report: Marinas for "Best agers"[14]


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Figure 3 - Fixed staircase at finger pier - Baltic Sea Resort

Source: Report: Marinas for "Best agers"[14]

The quays and jetties should be sufficiently wide (not less

than 1.20 m) and their surface should not be slippery. Again,

it can be said that such a solution will have a positive impact

not only on the safety of the disabled, but all other port users.

In addition, the port area should be equipped with benches

and other rest areas.


The disabled constitute a significant part of European society.

Despite this, they are relatively rarely involved in nautical

tourism. This may be due, of course, to the lack of interest of

the disabled in this form of activity, but another reason may

be the lack of an appropriate offer. In recent years, both in

Poland and other European countries, there are more and

more offers of cruises and sailing courses organized for this

group of people, yachts constructed and equipped in such a

way that they can comfortably and safely navigate disabled

persons. Such initiatives meet with great interest, which may

indicate that a large proportion of disabled persons are

interested in sailing. The article draws attention to the

necessity of adapting marinas to the needs of disabled

persons, as they are important places visited during cruises

for rest, replenishment of supplies and for tourist purposes.

Their equipment and the organization of the service

provision process may, to a large extent, determine the

choice of a cruise route, as well as decision of the disabled

to engage in this form of tourism at all.

The research shows that the infrastructure of Polish marinas,

which have undergone modernization in recent years, is

partly adapted to the needs of the disabled. This applies

mainly to sanitary, administration and service buildings and

results from the existing regulations regarding the

construction of public buildings. During study visits,

attention was also paid to the positive attitude of port

employees towards persons with disabilities.

However, people with disabilities still face some problems

while staying at the marina.

The article attempts to diagnose these problems and indicates

some solutions that could contribute to the improvement of

the current state. The method of literature research,

observation and direct interview was used to accomplish the

assumed objective of the article.

As research has shown, the deterrents that may be

encountered by persons with disabilities in their area are

often specific to their disability, but most often they can be

classified as infrastructural and organizational problems.

Infrastructure problems often arise when getting on and off

the yacht and result from the need to change the difference

in levels between the deck and the quay. The narrow and

unstable Y-booms are also very problematic. Organizational

problems usually concern the lack of adequate information

or the appropriate form of message.

The article draws attention to interesting solutions that can

contribute to increasing the comfort and safety of disabled

persons in some German ports. Yachts in Germany are

largely adapted to serve older people, considered a key target

group. This is due to the growing share of this group among

users of nautical tourism. Older people are often

characterized by reduced physical and sensory fitness, which

makes their needs close to the needs of persons with

disabilities. Thus, some of the solutions used in German

ports, which are beneficial for the elderly, would also be

facilitation for the disabled. Moreover, their adaptation and

implementation in Polish yacht ports would facilitate the use

of these solutions not only for disabled people but also for

example for families with children, and often all groups of

boaters. Such universal solutions of both organizational and

infrastructural nature were presented as recommendations,

“good practices” to be implemented in Polish marinas. Due

to the large number of potential beneficiaries and often low

costs associated with their implementation, the proposals are

worth considering. They could contribute to the increase in

the number of tourists using port services, increase the

comfort of stay and contribute to increased security. It would

be beneficial to use the presented solutions as standard in the

design, development and equipping of marinas.


The results of the research were created within the

framework of the research work entitled Badanie wybranych

aspektów logistycznych turystyki żeglarskiej No. 9/S/IZT

/2017 financed by subsidies from the Ministry of Science and

Higher Education for the financing of statutory activities.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe


[1] International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities,

and Handicaps, A manual of classification relating to

the consequences of disease, World Health Organization

Geneva 1980, apps.who.int – 4.05 2018.

[2] Uchwała Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 1

sierpnia 1997 r. Karta Praw Osób Niepełnosprawnych.

M.P. 1997 nr 50, poz. 475.

[3] Communication from the Commission to the European

Parliament, the Council, the European economic and

Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions,

European Disability Strategy 2010-2020: A Renewed

Commitment to a Barrier-Free Europe, eurlex.europa.eu

– 4.05 2018.

[4] Israeli, A. A. (2002). A preliminary investigation of the

importance of site accessibility factors for disabled

tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 41(1).

[5] Christofle, S., & Massiera, B. (2009). Tourist facilities

for disabled persons on the French Riviera: a strategic

model of the controversial plans to develop the seafront

areas. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 13(2-3).

[6] Łapko, A., & Kamińska, M. (2016). Rejsy i szkolenia

żeglarskie dla osób niepełnosprawnych jako

modyfikacja produktu turystycznego służąca

intensyfikacji ruchu turystycznego w tym segmencie

konsumentów. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu

Szczecińskiego. Ekonomiczne Problemy Turystyki, (2


[7] Bergier, B., Kubinska, Z., Bergier, J. (2013). Interests

and needs for participation in tourism among disabled

from eastern regions of Poland. Annals of Agricultural

and Environmental Medicine, 20(4).

[8] jachtempatia.pl – 7.05 2018.

[9] Leidner, R. (2008). Tourism accessible for all in Europe.

Ehical: Barrier Free Tourism. Retrieved December 16,

2016, from www.tourism-review. com – 4.05 2018.

[10] Prusiński A. (2005), Neurologia praktyczna,

Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL.

[11] niepelnosprawni.pl – 7.05 2018.

[12] Rozporządzenie Ministra Infrastruktury w sprawie

warunków technicznych, jakim powinny odpowiadać

budynki i ich usytuowanie z dnia 12 kwietnia 2002 r.

(Dz.U. Nr 75, poz. 690) tj. z dnia 17 lipca 2015 r.

(Dz.U. z 2015 r. poz. 1422) zmiany (zm. Dz.U. z 2017 r.

poz. 2285).

[13] Mazurkiewicz, B. K (2010), Porty jachtowe i mariny.

Projektowanie, Gdańsk: Fundacja Promocji Przemysłu

Okrętowego i Gospodarki Morskiej.

[14] Report: Marinas for „Best agers”– Requirements as a

result of the demographic change – a baseline study,

GA-MA Consulting GmbH, prepared in the frame of

South Coast Baltic Project, 2018.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Smart management systems in cities and their marketing

A case of the city Waterloo, Canada

Marica Mazurek

MSc., PhD. candidate

Zilinska university

Univerzitná 8215/1

010 26 Žilina



Competitiveness of cities forces the city and public

sector representatives to invent new methods of

management and use the innovative thinking.

Success of cities, based on Etzkowitz

and Leydesdorff (2000), has to take into account

new strategies of co-operation of the academic

institutions with the local authorities, entrepreneurs

(in our case in tourism business) and new graduates

focused on high-tech industries and start-up

businesses. This trend is based on the principles of

New Economic Geography (Krugman, 1995, Porter,

1998) and the new Theory of Growth (Romer,

Arthur), which enforce the importance of knowledge

capital and smart technologies. Hjalager (2002)

supported the idea of the importance of the

institutional innovations and Ward (1998) mentioned

that universities and research institutes are key

entities to promote smart technologies and decisions

in a city (Triple Helix concept). The purpose of the

paper is to discuss the results of research conducted

in Waterloo, Canada, Ontario, which belongs to the

Ontario Technological Triangle. Waterloo is a city of

two universities, Waterloo University and Wilfred

Laurier University. The purpose of the paper is to

discuss the results of research conducted in Waterloo,

Canada, Ontario, which was focused on the

competitiveness growth through the implementation

of the smart management systems (Triple Helix

Model) in the city marketing and governance. Some

of these approaches influenced also tourism business

due to multiplication effect and the growing

competitiveness is a source of a continual growth of

students, visitors and entrepreneurs to the city and

the region.

Key words:

Smart systems of management, Triple Helix,

partnerships, high-tech industries, start-ups in

tourism, tourism marketing


Developing the competitiveness of a city

forces that city and its public-sector representatives

invent new methods of management and use

innovative thinking. Success of cities, according to

Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (2011, 2000), Etzkowitz

and Zhou (2007), Lyydesdorff and Ivanova (2016,

2015), Saffinelin et al. (2014), Obed et al. (2016),

Weining et al. (2016) concept, has to take into an

account new strategies of co-operation between

academic institutions and local authorities,

entrepreneurs and new graduates, focused on hightech

industries and start-up businesses. This trend is

based on the principles of New Economic

Geography (Krugman, 1994; Porter, 1998) and the

new Theory of Growth (Romer,1990, Lewis, 2003 ),

which emphasize the importance of knowledge

capital and smart technologies.

The educational institution in a city might

be a good example of innovative and smart decisions

leading to the growth of competitiveness of the city.

Hjalager (2002) supported the idea of the importance

of institutional innovations and Ward (1998)

mentioned that universities and research institutes

are key entities to promote smart technologies and

decisions in a city (Triple Helix concept). In this

concept, the utilization of smart technologies and

new visions is crucial. The interactive model of cooperation,

embedded in the concept of an

entrepreneurship university, has been used instead of

the former linear model.

A territory represents a place which is

significant for the economic and social development.

This idea has been confirmed by Lusch et al. (2011),

Vargo and Lusch (2004, 2008), Gnoth (1998),

Buhalis (2000), etc. Merging of the economic and

social function of territories is crucial in the

perception of innovative approaches to destination

marketing and, especially, city marketing from the

perspectives of modern governance theories.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Porter (1985) especially considered strategy,

structure and rivalry in the system of management

and marketing of a territory to be the main factors of

competitiveness. According to Kotler (1984) and

Cooper (2005), marketing is one of the important

sources of added value for a territory. Shipley and

Newkirk (1998) underlined the importance of

strategic and dynamic management, and Katz (1988),

Mintzberg (1989) and Anderson (1990) stressed the

importance of innovative management.

Literature review

The creation of competitive territories

requires the implementation of the factors of

competitiveness, economic growth, and

development. For instance, Reinisto (2003)

mentioned such factors as economic stability, costs,

productivity, local support of services and networks,

but so called “soft factors” are also important and are

becoming crucial for cities and their competitiveness.

Such factors include quality of life, culture,

management, flexibility and dynamics, partnerships,

and co-creation of value with customers.

Merging the factors of competitiveness

with the social factors of the environment is a good

example of a holistic approach to city development.

The so called “soft factors” are based on the creation

of a positive image, ethical principles, credibility and

tolerance, especially the reputation of a territory. The

implementation of the transparency principle is

crucial in the governance of a specific city or a

territory: governance, public participation, creativity,

integration and co-operation in cities are becoming

key conditions of the successful functioning of a city,

its marketing and branding. In particular,

partnerships in cities are one of the most important

trends in marketing of territories. Kotler (2002)

stated that local partnerships with companies and

representatives of the public sector are critical

factors of success.

Similarly, the authors Go and Govers (2009)

defined marketing of territories as a process of

traditional segmentation, creation of product

strategies, aim definition and positioning, and

promotion. However, the authors underlined the

necessity of co-operation among the institutions in

specific territories (cities or different entities), e.g.,

ministries, chambers of commerce, financial

institutions, etc.), but also educational and cultural

institutions, entrepreneurs, and citizens.

One good example of a successful approach

to the marketing of cities is place branding, which

has also been supported by Reinisto and Moilanen

(2009), Go and Govers (2009), Hankinson (2001),

etc. Place branding is used for more than 20 years

(Gnoth, 1998; Cai, 2002; Heath & Wall, 1992;

Prideaux et al. 2002; Marzano, 2006; Kotler, 2002;

Hankinson, 2001; Reinisto & Moilanen, 2009; etc.).

This concept is embedded in the principle of brand

equity forming, which is based on the creation of a

positive image and loyalty of consumers (users of a

territory). The brand equity principle is based on the

creation of value with a customer and, as Go and

Govers (2009), stated that place branding is

mobilizing the creation of partnerships and networks

between the private and public sector in order to

create the offer in territories. For this reason,

partnerships are crucial for the improvement of


It is not only partnerships of the public,

private and not-for profit sector entities which are

important in a territory, such as a city, but especially

the mutual partnership network among the

educational institutions in a city, the entrepreneurs,

public sector representatives and not-for profit

entities. Ward (1998) mentioned that universities and

research institutes are key elements and are often

important partners in public and private partnerships.

The creation of a co-operative platform between a

city and the academic environment (Triple Helix

approach) is crucial for the establishment of

potential for innovation and economic growth;

moreover, it is necessary for the growth of the

knowledge economy in cities and the city’s

successful development.

Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (2000) studied

this topic from the point of view of successful

territories or cities: their research was focused on the

creation of strategic alliances of academic

institutions with the local public sector and

entrepreneurs. They claimed that this type of

partnership can create a new innovation milieu,

which leads to the regeneration of the whole system

in a territory. Exactly the same opinion and trends are

offered by the “New Theory of Growth” (Romer,

1990; Lewis, 2003) and these ideas were also

mentioned in the concepts of the “New Economic

Geography” (Krugman, 1994, Porter, 1998).

These theories underline the importance of

knowledge, knowledge capital and technologies and

stress the necessity of governmental support in order

to improve the behavioral and technological

parameters of territories (cities), their processes and

focus on the growth of the educational level of

territories (cities), information flow, and creation of

networks (partnerships). The idea of forming

clusters and partnerships is crucial, especially among

the educational community and the public and

private entities in a city, as well as the importance of

knowledge capital, technologies and the

improvement of behavioral and technological

parameters of cities. The proponents of these ideas

were, for instance, Romer (1986), Barro and Sala-i-

Martin (1995). Hjalager (2002) mentioned that this

might be an example of the institutional innovation.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

The following example (Morschett et al., 2009) is the

system of innovation (knowledge infrastructure).

Factors of



Source: Morschett et. al. (2009).

Figure 1: Educational infrastructure

The main concept is the “entrepreneurshipfocused

university”, which utilizes the interactive

model of innovation, instead of the linear model. The

interactive model contains feedback components and

the following scheme explains the concept and role

of marketing and educational products, as well as the

ideas of innovation incorporated in the model.

The Idea




Social capital





Education and




New knowledge in Science and



Science & Research Realization Marketing

Needs of a society and market









Source: Rothwell and Zegveld (1985) (adapted).

Figure 2: The Interactive model of Innovation

(amended upon the relationship to the educational


This concept is embedded into the idea of

continual change in the approach to the marketing of

territories or cities and the creation of value with a

customer (co-creation principle), which is based on

the continual change of the classical paradigm of the

planning process (so called Chicago School) to

Neoliberalism. These ideas were stressed also by

Anholt (2007). Lusch and Webster (2011) expressed

their opinion about the necessity of the added value

of marketing in territories or cities and their ideas are

discussed in the following table.

Table 1: Change of added value of marketing



Source of




Main goal





Purpose of








Value for the






Company and

its production



Value creation










unions of



focused on the


Value of use





Equity of coowners







about customers









of value with

the consumer

Value in the




Total value for








Learning and


Reactions to

the demands

of customers


Human rights



Source: Lusch and Webster (2011), Marketing’s

Changing Contribution to Value, Journal of

Macromarketing, 31(2) 129-134.

Kavaratzis and Ashworth (2008)

underlined the idea that the whole process of

marketing requires a tight co-operation with the

users of a territory or city and this process might

allow co-creation – common production of services

or goods - and it leads to the strengthening of the role

of a customer and a strategic priority (Heding et. al.,

2009). The roles of the community, moral rules,

qualitative values and ethics are becoming stronger,

which has been also confirmed by Kotler (2002),

(Ashworth and Vooght, 1990; Reinisto, 2001;

Hankinson, 2001, 2004, 2005; Kotler and Gertner,

2002). For instance, Asplund (1993), Crouch and

Ritchie (2003) stressed Kotler´s idea of the

importance of “soft factors of development”, e.g.,

niche factors of development, which mean more

sustainable territorial development, quality of life

improvement and cultural development. Sundbo

(2008) stressed the importance of psychographic

factors of demand creation. Vargo and Lusch (2004)

mentioned so-called new dominant logic, which is

based on the importance of services, exchange

processes and relationships. It means a change of

marketing theories and practice and a move from


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

marketing management toward marketing.

A change also appears in the perception of

partnerships among the creators and users of

strategies and it opens a space for co-creation and coproduction,

as has been mentioned by Lusch et. al

(2007), where the idea of co-operation is merged into

one process and changes the view of marketing and

partnerships. The idea of partnerships is one of the

basic concepts of success and competitiveness (for

instance, Poon´s model of competitiveness). The role

of partnerships and co-creation of value with a

customer is crucial for the creation of successful

strategies of territorial development. For this reason,

cities should focus their attention on the question of

co-creation of value with customers and users of a


Summit on city tourism “New paradigms in City

Tourism Development” in Barcelona, where

Buhalis (2014) defined a smart territory as a territory

which is characterized by its innovative approach

and development, and invests in its human and social

capital. Participatory governance, partnerships,

technologies, human and social capital are all crucial

aspects of a smart territory or city, as has been noted

in the following scheme by Buhalis (2014). This

concept does not only concern tourism development,

but could be generalized to the other activities in a


Source: Lusch et. al. (2007).

Figure 3: Development of marketing, partnership

and co-creation.

Vargo and Lusch (2006) stated that the

customer is always a value creator and this fact is a

main factor of success for the creation of a

competitive and innovative marketing strategy

concept for territorial or city development. These

ideas have also been stressed by authors such as

Boerema and Sondervan (1988), Prahalad and

Ramaswarny (2000, 2004).

These three trends – strengthening the role

of governance, the importance of partnerships and

the creation of value with the users of a territory or

city, e.g., co-creation, could be considered as crucial

factors of competitiveness improvement. In

accordance with the neoliberal approach to the

management of territories or cities, several authors,

such as Boisen (2007), Boisen (2007a), Daniels et

al.(1995) tried to combine the traditional approach to

marketing with the concept of governance, creation

of partnerships (collaborative governance) and cocreation

processes (participatory governance).

Another important trend in the marketing of

cities is the process of strengthening creativity and

creating creative clusters, as well as the creation of

smart cities.

In accordance with the newest trends of

development and competitiveness should be

mentioned some new concepts and ideas, which have

been developed, for instance, at the 3rd Global

Source: Buhalis (2014).

Figure 4: Smart city

Several successful cities in Europe served

as an example for the creation of the model of a smart

city (Figure 4) based on the combination of the

following characteristics: smart economy, smart

mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart

living conditions, smart governance. Such authors as

Anthopouls et al. (2011), Carvalho (2015), Hollands

(2015), Kitchin (2015), Nam and Pardo (2011),

Shelton, Zook & Wiig (2015), Suzuki and

Finkelstein (2013), Suzuki (2017) supported the idea

of smart city creation and development.

Source: www.smart-cities.eu, 2016.

Figure 5: Model of a smart city

Merging the modern technological

environment with the ethical social environment and

the economic environment is a precondition of the


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

innovative development of cities. The following 6-

stars model contains the requirements for the

successful development of a city.

Source: Adapted from Lendel, 2009.

Figure 6: 6 Stars model amended for the territorial

purposes (concept of CCM)

Applications of these approaches and

models are visible in many successful cities in the

world. The application of the Triple Helix approach

and smart city concepts are especially present in

cities, which are competitive, popular among

entrepreneurs, students and citizens. The success

stories of these cities, territories and countries might

be a good example for other cities which are looking

for a better position and managerial progress. One

such territory is Canada’s Technological Triangle;

Kitchener-Waterloo-Guelph. In our study, we were

mostly focused on the city of Waterloo, which is

home to the most innovative university of Canada,

the University of Waterloo.


During this study, both primary and

secondary research approaches were applied. The

sources of secondary research were internet

publications, projects dealing with the studied topic,

especially dealing with partnerships and smart

destinations, and materials about the municipality of

Waterloo. Primary sources of the research were

principally discussions with representatives of the

public sector in the city of Waterloo and academics

from the University of Waterloo during a

postgraduate study stay at the University of Waterloo

from 2006-2010.

In this period of research, representatives of

the academic environment, e.g. professors,

administrators of the University of Waterloo were

interviewed both formally and informally. Some of

the interviewed academics were members of public–

private partnerships and had expertise as the

governmental representatives in specific

commissions and boards. The case study method was

followed, using qualitative research to obtain results

which created a picture of the case of Waterloo and

indicate the reasons for its success story. This

research was conducted in several stages during the

stated period of time, especially during the personal

stay in Canada; however, some later period should

also be mentioned, especially the years 2011 till

2016, when additional materials were collected

during additional visits and research in Canada and

through personal and digital contact and

correspondence (e-mails, Skype, Facebook, etc.).

Concerning the case-study research method,

Stake (2005), Cresswell (2009), Yin (2009, 2004,

2003) and others recommend this method as suitable

for the application of the inductive approach, which

allows applying existing theories. Cresswell (2007)

stressed the importance of this method, especially if

a researcher wanted to apply several sources of

results during a longer period of time in order to

achieve richness of data and understanding of a

problem. The case-study method has been supported

by Xiao and Smith (2006), Cresswell (2002) and

Patton (2002). The method of structured and

unstructured discussion was used for the

improvement of the empirical research, which is also

our own research and the findings are based on the

primary and, mostly, secondary sources. Empirical

research is a first stage of research, which might

create a thorough picture of the case under

examination and is especially based on personal

experience, which has been incorporated into the

findings. The originality of the research and findings

is that they are not only based on existing sources,

but a researcher had to personally experience the

innovative environment during an extended period.

Discussions were conducted face-to-face or online,

by e-mails or personally, and some questions were

repeated to obtain a clearer picture. Several other

methods have been used, for instance, analysis of

results, comparative analysis, synthesis, analogy,

generalization, etc.


The Waterloo region, with over half a

million citizens, is familiar for its competitiveness in

Canada, and the city of Waterloo with its

approximately 113 thousand inhabitants bears the

same designation as the whole region. The City of

Waterloo is known as a part of the so-called

Technological and Knowledge Triangle, whose fame

is based on high-tech technologies in co-operation

with one of the most innovative universities, not only

in Ontario and Canada, but all over the world.

Waterloo University is one of the best universities in

the world and, in the ranking of McLeans, occupies

the first place for innovations in the Canadian


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe




The university is predominantly scienceoriented

and the newest study programs are focused

on nanotechnologies. The study programs are

closely connected with practical applications and

entrepreneurship platforms, such as the Science and

Technological Park Research in Motion (RIM),

which was familiar for the production of BlackBerry

cell phones. Waterloo is also home to Wilfred

Laurier University, with a strong Business program.

The University of Waterloo has a campus also in Abu

Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates, but, based on the

latest research, the University of Waterloo cannot

recruit the expected number of students in Dubai

after three years of existence. A partnership with the

United Arab Emirates Higher Colleges of

Technology still does not guarantee the full number

of planned students (about 500), and for this reason

the University of Waterloo had to shutter its branch

campus in Dubai. It might be important not only to

co-operate and create a partnership, but also to take

into account the location and the opportunities for

continuous growth.

The former Rector of Wilfred Laurier

University, Robert G. Rosehart, mentioned that

“Waterloo region contains all parts which are

important for a success: the educated and skilled

labor, best academic capacity and local educational

institutions and the ability to attract investors in

order to gain a financial success”. Besides the

international high-tech company, RIM, Waterloo

City is a seat of many important companies; for

example, D2L (formerly Desire2Learn), McAfee,

Agfa, Sybase, Google, Electronic Arts, Dalsa and

Sandvine, Kik Interactive, Miovision Technologies,

Thalmic Labs, etc. Waterloo is also a seat of the

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, which is

focused on research in technologies

(nanotechnologies) and physics. Other partners of

the educational institutions and the city are The

Centre for International Governance Innovation and

the Institute for Quantum Computing.

The City of Waterloo is a leader in

innovation in Canada with the highest index of

patents, entrepreneurship incubators and start-ups.

Results of primary research revealed that ethics, a

positive image and good governance are important

for the success of Waterloo. The respondents

mentioned especially the importance of investment

and entrepreneurship opportunities, culture, quality

of educational facilities, health care, social services,

employment opportunities, etc. Waterloo ranks as

the 25 th city in the world in the creation of

ecosystems and start-ups. For this position, the city

had to be one of the leaders in partnerships, technical

talents and, especially, to be a place of an existing

academic environment with two excellent


The municipality of Waterloo is strongly

involved in co-operation with the universities,

especially the University of Waterloo, in the creation

of start-up businesses. There are Business

Educational Partnerships which allow the students to

take part in practical education in local businesses.

Governmental support is crucial, together with

mutual financial help from public sources and

additional support from private sources for scientific

and technological purposes. One example is the

network Communitech and Accelerator Centre as a

subject of mutual co-operation between the

universities and the professional entrepreneurship

entities. The University of Waterloo creates

partnerships with the region of Waterloo, city of

Waterloo, and cities of Kitchener, Cambridge,

Stratford, Dumfries, Wellesley, Wilmont and


The University of Waterloo is tightly joined

in a co-operation with the Chamber of Commerce

and the Deputy for Entrepreneurship (CAO). An

important partner for the University of Waterloo is

Communitech, which is also a sponsor of several

events in the city, for instance Waterloo Innovation

Summit, Techtoberfest, TechLeadership Conference

and a Startup Weekend. One important example of

co-operation between the University of Waterloo and

its partners is the pilot program ASCEnt

(Accelerating Social Cause Entrepreneurs). Close

co-operation of the academic institutions and city of

Waterloo with the twin city of Kitchener have

doubled the investments into both cities, especially

in the area of the use of 3D technologies in health

care, the entertainment business, architecture,

internet media, digital publications and music. The

Government of Ontario also supports financially the

creation of start-ups in the province in a program

called Entrepreneurs Residence and the MaRS

Market Intelligence program. For example, in 2014,

the investment of Canada into start-ups was more

than 2.3 billion CAD.

The University of Waterloo co-operates

tightly with the American Silicon Valley, with

exchanges of students, practices, and experts. The

City of Waterloo established special centers in the

city, which contains about 6000 companies with

approximately 250 thousand employees in the IT

sector of Ontario. One example is Ontario

Technology Corridor. The IT technologies sector in

this city represents an entity which is able to create

20% of the GDP of Canada. The Accelerator Centre

Directly is placed at the University of Waterloo and

supports the entrepreneurship of high-tech

technological companies.

One of the latest examples of the


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

partnership of the city of Waterloo, in order to

become a leading smart city in the world and create

an intelligent community, is the creation of a

strategic partnership with the company Intuitive

Business Intelligence Today and the company

OpenText. In 2007, the City of Waterloo was

designated in New York as a member of the world’s

intelligent communities (ICF). An important factor

for the city is a close co-operation with both

universities and the improvement of governance in

the city. For instance, it resulted in the creation of socalled

“information governance” (Enterprise

Information Management), which is focused on

cloud-based management and techniques,

integration of data, regulation, etc. Tight cooperation

exists among the partners of the city and

the university with several think-tanks, including, for

instance, the Perimeter Institute, Center for

International Governance, institutions of creative

business. As an example of mutual successful cooperation

between the University of Waterloo and

other partners in the city could be mentioned two

case studies – the Communitech partnership and


Case study Communitech is a partnership

of 450 partners, mostly focused on innovations,

leadership, networks, and promotion. Communitech

is a partnership which aims to “support technological

companies in the whole region, in the cities of

Waterloo and Kitchener and the creation and support

of the whole territory as the technological cluster”

and the creation of the digital network Canadian

Digital Media Network (CDMN). Another good

example of partnership is MIN (Manufacturing

Innovation Network) as a partnership of local

producers, academic institutions, municipal

government, and associations involved in marketing,

network creation and innovations. The goal of MIN

is to centralize e-markets and innovation activities as

well as the creation of brand awareness.

Case study Velocity is an example of

the co-operation of the University of Waterloo with

the local entrepreneurship environment. A similar

program at the Wilfred Laurier University is called

Launchpad. Since 2008 Velocity enabled to establish

160 start-up companies, collected about 250 million

CAD, and created about 800 working positions. The

company, Velocity, usually does not reveal its annual

budget, but it is well known that it collected for its

activities in the past approximately 2 million CAD

as a personal gift from the company Kik and its

founder Teda Livingston, as well as having financial

support from the Ontario government and Canadian


Since 2008 Velocity has been

interconnected with 6 entrepreneurship activities:

Velocity Residence, Velocity Garage, Velocity Alpha,

Velocity Science, Velocity Foundry and Velocity

Fund Finals (VFF). It is crucial that this start-up

nursery is focused on education and has been placed

at the University of Waterloo. In the framework of

this co-operation, 75 companies have been

established in the City of Waterloo and 45 other new

companies (all together 120 companies) are ready to


One of the latest examples of mutual cooperation

and interest was a visit of the Prime

Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau to the University

of Waterloo in January 2016, where the Canadian

government offered the investment of 12 million

CAD for the activities of SOWC (Southern Ontario

Water Consortium), which creates a partnership of

90 enterprises, not-for profit companies co-operating

in about 80 projects. 6 faculties of the University of

Waterloo are involved in these activities. Prime

Minister Trudeau supported the activity of Velocity

and start-up creation and, according to information

from January 2016, based on his support has granted

financial support of 12 million CAD for creation of

start-ups in the Velocity system. Based on this

financial support from the Canadian government, the

University of Waterloo could strengthen the capacity

of its business. Additionally, it allowed the

university to enlarge the area of the Velocity

Company from 2600 m 2 to 7000 m 2 , which means

more than double the area of Velocity’s start-up

capacity. This is an excellent example of

governmental support and the openness of public

sector representatives to support smart technologies.

The idea of entrepreneurship is focused on

the young entrepreneurs who are interested in

creating new start-ups at the University of Waterloo

and in the City of Waterloo. An interesting

contribution is also the Velocity Residence program,

which offers accommodation facilities for the young

entrepreneurs in the city and at the university and the

availability of the Velocity Fund, which is able to

offer annually financial grants of 375 thousand CAD

for young entrepreneurs. One example of the success

of the Velocity company is so called LibertyBit, on

which is based the Bitcoin financial exchange

system as an innovative form of world finance.


The functioning of partnerships, excellent

reputation and the image of a place are important for

a city, especially partnerships with academic

institutions and research institutes.

Theoretical Implications

Knowledge capital and smart technologies

in cities, as well as partnerships among educational


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

institutions and private and public-sector

representatives are based on several opinions of

different authors, such as Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff

(2000), and are important tools of success in the

period of growth of smart technologies. Innovations

which are institutionally based (as stated by Hjalager,

2002) stress the value of research institutes, smart

technologies and smart decisions in cities, which is

confirmation of the idea that the Triple Helix concept

is really important for cities which want to succeed.

The application of modern approaches to

strategic innovation management and marketing of a

specific territory (in our case a city) and the

implementation of modern and innovative

approaches to governance (co-creation and

partnerships, especially among the educational

institutions of cities, public and private sector

entities) has been one of the major factors of success

of specific countries, and especially cities, which

were able to apply innovative management and

marketing tools. It has been studied in several

conceptual materials before starting of this research.

Practical Implications

Education, knowledge, reputation, image,

partnerships and co-creation are nowadays trends of

success. For this reason, it is not a surprise that

several private entrepreneurial businesses supported

research and education at the University of Waterloo

and contributed almost 10% of their profits for

educational and research purposes. Investment and

partnerships with universities, which are not only

innovative, but also offer the educational product at

a high-quality level, is one of the preconditions of

effective leadership and success. Waterloo is one

good example of it and many cities and universities

should learn from it. It should be a rule in countries

where education is not a priority.

Waterloo University and the City of

Waterloo are excellent examples of this mutual cooperation

and the success story of the Kitchener-

Waterloo Region, Province of Ontario and the whole

of Canada. The idea of interconnection of the

academic environment with the business milieu and

public sector in a city gives an advantage, which is

crucial for success. The value for territories is

especially in partnership co-operation and mutual

trust, good image and reputation, giving them a

competitive advantage, and not only in terms of

recognized advantage components such as, for

instance, natural resources, history or culture.

Management, marketing, human capital, safety and

partnerships might be decisive when similar

territories exist, but do not apply the same tools of

management and marketing or are more or less

vulnerable. Nowadays, competitive advantage is a

tool of success in territories and cities. For this

reason, many cities, even with a sound comparative

advantage potential, but without great managerial or

leadership skills or marketing strategies, and without

the investment in knowledge potential and reputation,

could rank lower in competitiveness.

Limitations and Future Research

One limitations of this research could be

that this is only a part of the research conducted and

planned in Canada, which was done during the

period 2006-2010 in the framework of post-graduate

studies at the University of Waterloo. The second

phase of this research was added later, in the years

2011-2016. The limitation could be the different time

frame for this type of research and probably the

influence of technical and managerial changes

during the period of 10 years since it started.

Future research regarding smart

management systems and the application of the

Triple Helix Model might be more focused on the

comparison of some different countries and their

most innovative universities. This comparison could

be helpful for governments and the universities to

understand several cultural disparities when dealing

with innovations and managerial decisions. Despite

the high level of competitiveness and innovations,

some cities and countries might suffer from cultural

influence and differences. For this reason, it might

be interesting to compare how, for instance, the

Triple Helix Model might exist in some Asian or

Muslim countries and compare them in order to

achieve a multidimensional theoretical and practical

knowledge of smart management in the world.


Andersen, H. T. (1990). The Planning of Change –

Some Factors that Planners Keep Forgetting. In

Sundbo, J. (1998) (Eds.) The Theory of

Innovation: Entrepreneurs, Technology and

Strategy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Anholt, S. (2007). Competitive identity: The new

brand management for nations, cities and regions.

Journal of Brand Management, 14, 474-475.

Anthopouls, L. G., Vakali, A. (2011). Urban

Planning and Smart cities: Interrelations and

Reciprocities. Springer- Verlag Berlin

Heidelberg, 2011.

Ashworth, G., J. & Vooght, H. (1990). Selling

the City: Marketing Approaches in Public Sector

Urban Planning. London and New York:

Belhaven Press, 1990.

Asplund, C. (1993). Placehunting International.

Om konsten att gora sig mer attraktiv for

investeringar. Eurofutures, Stockholm. In

REINISTO, S. K. 2003. Success Factors of

Place Marketing: A Study of Place Marketing

Practices in Northern Europe and the United

States. Helsinki University of Technology,

Institute of Strategy and International Business,


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Doctoral Dissertations 2003/4.

Barro, R., Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995). Economic

Growth. New York: McGraw-Hill. In: Blažek, J.,

Uhlíř, D. 2011. Teorie regionálního rozvoje.

Nástin, kritika, implikace. Praha: Karolinum. 342


Boerema, E.M.& Sondervan, H.J. (1988).

Ondernemersgerichte city-marketing, in:

Tijdschrift voor Marketing, Januari 1988, 35-41.

Boisen, M. (2007). Strategic Marketing for middlesized

cities in the Netherlands. Master Thesis,

University of Utrecht, Utrecht.

Boisen, M. (2007a). City Marketing in contemporary

urban governance, paper presented at the 51st

World Conference of the International Federation

of Housing and Planning (IFHP), Copenhagen,

23-26 September, Denmark.

Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive

destination of the future. In Tourism

Management, 21, 97-116.

Buhalis, D. (2014, December 15 th ). Contribution

on smart tourism to the UNWTO 3rd Global

Summit on city tourism “New paradigms in City

Tourism Development”, Retrieved from




Cai, L. (2002). Cooperative branding for rural

destinations. Annals of Tourism Research. Vol.

29, No.3, 720-742.

Carvalho, L. (2015). Smart cities from scratch? A

socio-technical perspective, Cambridge Journal

of Regions, Economy and Society, 8: 43–60.

Cooper, C. (2005). Knowledge management in

tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No.

1, 47-64.

Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research:

Planning, conducting, and evaluating

quantitative and qualitative research. Upper

Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Pearson.

Creswell, J. W. (2007).Qualitative inquiry and

research design: Choosing among five traditions.

Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design:

Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods

approaches, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Crouch, G.I.& Ritchie, J.R.B. (2003). The

Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism

Perspective, Cambridge: CABI Publishing. 272


Daniels, A. J. et al. (1995). Strategische planning

van steden: Een benadering vanuit City

Marketing. Rotterdam: Rotterdams Instituut voor

Bedrijfseconomische Studies. In Boisen, M. The

role of city marketing in contemporary urban

governance. (Retrieved from Boisen, M. (2012)



Governance.pdf, on March, 20 th , 2014.

Etzkowitz, H. & Leyedesdorff, L. (2000). The

Dynamics of Innovation: From National Systems

and 'Mode 2' to a Triple Helix of University -

Industry-Government Relations. Research

Policy, 29 (2), 109-123.

Etzkowitz, H.& Zhou C. (2007). Triple helix

international theme paper, Singapore, Available

online at www.nus.edu.sg/nec/Triple Helix x

6/Singapore Theme Paper Chinese.pdf

(Retrieved September 5th, 2016)

Etzkowitz, H.(2011). Triple helix: science,

technology and the entrepreneurial spirit",

Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in

China, Vol. 3 Issue: 2, 76-90.

Fyall et al. 2006. Emerging destination management

status: perspectives from England. A Conference

„Cutting Edge Research in Tourism – New

Directions, Challenges and Applications. School

of Management, University of Surrey, United

Kingdom, 6-8 June, 2008.

Fyall, A., Garrod, B. 2005. Tourism Marketing: A

Collaborative Approach. Channel View

Publications, Clevendon. In Fyal, A. (2006) eds.

Emerging destination management status:

perspectives from England. A Conference

“Cutting Edge Research in Tourism – New

Directions, Challenges and Applications”.

School of Management, University of Surrey,

United Kingdom, 6–8 June 2006.

Gertner, R. (2011). A (tentative)Meta-Analysis of the

Place Marketing and Place Branding Literature,

Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 19, No. 2,


Gnoth, J. (1998). Conference Reports: Branding

Tourism Places. Annals of Tourism Research, 25,

pp. 758-760. In Morgan, N.J. Pritchard, A. &

Pride R. (2004) (Eds). Destination Branding:

Creating the Unique Destination Proposition.

Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Go, F.& Govers, R. (2009). Place Branding. London:

Palgrave MacMillan.

Hankinson, G. (2001). Location branding: A study

of twelve English cities. Journal of Brand

Management, Vol. 9 (2), 127-142.

Hankinson, G. (2004). Relational network brands:

Towards a conceptual model of place brands.

Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10, 109-121.

Hankinson, G. (2005). Destination Brand Images: A

Business Tourism Pespective. Journal of Service

Marketing, 19 (1), 24-32.

Heath, E. & Wall, G. (1992). Marketing Tourism

Destinations: A Strategic Planning Approach. In

Marzano, G. (Eds.) Relevance of Power in the

Collaborative Process of Destination Branding.

11th Annual Conference on Graduate education

and Graduate Student Research in Hospitality

and Tourism, 5-7 January, 2006, Seattle, the



Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Heding, T., Knudtzen, C. F., & Bjerre, M. (2015).

Brand management: Research, theory and

practice. Routledge.

Hjalager, A-M. (2002). Repairing innovation

defectiveness in tourism. Tourism Management,

23, 465-474.

Hollands, R. (2015). Critical interventions into the

corporate smart city, Cambridge Journal of

Regions, Economy and Society, 8: 61–77.

Katz, R.(1988). Managing Professionals in

Innovative Organizations, New York. In Sundbo,

J. 1998 (Eds) The Theory of Innovation:

Entrepreneurs, Technology and Strategy,

Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Kavaratzis, M.& Ashworth, G. (2008). Place

Marketing: How Did We Get Here and Where are

we Going? Journal of Place Management and

Development, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 150-165.

Kitchin, R. (2015). Making sense of smart cities:

addressing present shortcomings, Cambridge

Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8:


Kotler, P. (1984). Marketing management:

Analysis, planning and control. New Jersey:

Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P. et al. 1999. Marketing Places Europe:

Attracting Investments, Industries, Residents and

Visitors to European Cities, Communities,

Regions and Nations. London: Pearson

Education. ISBN 9780273644422.

Kotler, P. et al. (2002). Marketing Asian Places.

John Wiley & Sons (Asia), Singapore, 443 p.

Kotler, P.& Gertner, R. (2002). Country as brand,

product and beyond: A place marketing and

brand management perspective. Journal of

Brand Management, April, 9(4/5).

Krugman, P. (1994). Competitiveness – A

Dangerous Obsession. In: Foreign Affairs, 1994,

73, No. 4.

Lendel, V. (2009). Riadenie vzťahov so zákazníkmi v

podniku. Dizertačná práca. Žilinská univerzita,

Fakulta riadenia a informatiky.

Lewis, W. A. (2003). The Theory of Economic

Growth. Oxon: Routledge.

Leydesdorff, L.& Ivanova, I. (2015). Knowledgegenerating

efficiency in innovation systems: The

acceleration of technological paradigm with

increasing complexity. Technological

Forecasting and Social Change 96, 254-265.

Leydesdorff, L., Ivanova, I. (2016). “Open

Innovation” and “Triple Helix” Models of

Innovation: Can Synergy in Innovation Systems

be measured? Journal of Open Innovation:

Technology, Market and Complexity, 2(1), 2016,


Lusch, R. F. et. al. (2007). Competing through

service: Insights from service-dominant logic.

Journal of Retailing 83 (1, 2007). 5–18.

Lusch, R. F.& Webster, F. E. (2011). A Stakeholder-

Unifying, Cocreation Philosophy for Marketing.

Journal of Macromarketing 31(2), 129-134.

Marzano, G. (2006). Relevance of Power in the

Collaborative Process of Destination Branding.

11th Annual Conference on Graduate Education

and Graduate Student Research in Hospitality

and Tourism, 5–7 January, 2006, Seattle, USA.

Mintzberg, H. (1989). Mintzberg on Management,

New York. In: SUNDBO, J. (eds.) 1998. The

Theory of Innovation: Entrepreneurs,

Technology and Strategy, Cheltenham: Edward


Morschet, D. et al. (2009). Strategic International

Management. Wiesbaden: Gabler.

Morschett, D., Schramm-Klein, H., & Zentes, J.

(2015). Strategic international management (pp.

978-3658078836). Springer.

Nam, T.& Pardo, T. A. (2011). Smart City as Urban

Innovation: Focusing on Management, Policy

and Context. In E. Estevez & M. Janssen (Eds.),

Proceedings of the 5th International Conference

on Theory and Practice of Electronic

Governance (ICEGOV2011). Tallinn, Estonia:

ACM Press.

National Reputation Ranking (2015, November 5th).


(Retrieved in

October 10 th , 2015).

Obed, R. et al. (2016). Restoring the Relevance:

Conceptualizing and Collaboratin Model for

Business Schools. Internatinal Interdisciplinary

Business-Economics Advancement Journal

(IIBA), Vol. 1, 85-93, October 2016.

Patton, Q. (2002). Qualitative research and

evaluation methods. Sage Publications,

Thousand Oaks.

Porter, M. (1985). Competitive Advantage. New

York: Free Press.

Porter, M. E. (1998). Clusters and New Economies

of Competition. Harvard Business Review,

Nov/Dec, 77-90.

Prahalad, C.K. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Cocreation

Experiences: The Next Practice in Value

Creation, Journal of Interactive Marketing 18(3):


Prahalad, C.K.& Ramaswarny, V. (2000). Co-opting

customer competence of the corporation.

Harvard Business Review, 78, 79-87.

Prideaux, B. & Cooper, C. (2002). Marketing and

destinations growth: A symbiotic relationship

or simple coincidence? Journal of Vacation

Marketing. 9 (1), 35 – 48.

Prideaux, B. et al. (2002). Destination Branding.

Paper presented at the Missouri Association of

Convention & Visitor Bureaus Annual Meeting.

In Marzano, G. (ed.) Relevance of power in the

collaborative process of destination branding.

11th Annual Conference on Graduate education

and Graduate Student Research in Hospitality

and Tourism, 5 – 7 January, 2006, Seattle, USA.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Reinisto, S. & Moilanen, T. (2009).How to Brand

Nations, Cities and Destinations. Palgrave

Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Reinisto, S. K. (2001).

Lisensiaatintutkimus:Kaupungin kehittaminen

merkkituotteena. Lahden ja Helsingin

tapaustutkimukset. Licenciate Study: City

Branding – Case Studies Lahti and Helsinki.

Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.

Reinisto, S. K. (2003). Success Factors of Place

Marketing: A Study of Place Marketing Practices

in Northern Europe and the United States.

Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of

Strategy and International Business, Doctoral

Dissertations 2003/4.

Romer, P. M. (1990). Human capital and growth:

Theory and evidence, Carnegie-Rochester

Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol.

32(1), 251-286, January.

Romer, P.M. (1986). Increasing Return and Long-

Run Growth. The Journal of Political Economy,

Vol. 94, No 5 (Oct. 1986), 1002-1037.

Rothwell, R.& Zelveld, W. (1985).

Reindustrialization and Technology. Harlow:


Safinelin, L.N et al. (2014). The Triple Helix Model

of Innovation. Mediterranean Journal of Social

Sciences, Vol. 5, No 18, August 2014.

Shelton, T., Zook, M.& Wiig, A. (2015). The

‘actually existing smart city’, Cambridge

Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8: 13–


Shipley, R. & Newkirk, R. (1998). Visioning: Did

anybody see where it came from? Journal of

Planning Literature, 12 (4), 407-416.

Stake, R. (2005). “Case studies’ in handbook of

qualitative research. Sage Publications.

Sundbo, J. (2008). Creating Experiences in the

Experience Economy. Cheltenham: Edward

Elgar Publishing.

Suzuki L.R. (2017). Smart Cities IoT: Enablers and

Technology Road Map. In: Rassia S., Pardalos P.

(eds) Smart City Networks. Springer

Optimization and Its Applications, Vol 125.

Springer, Cham.

Suzuki, L. R., Finkelstein, A. (2013). An

Introduction to Digital Cities. Working Paper 01.

University College London, UK.

Technische Universität Wien. Welcome to the

www.smart-cities.eu website. (Retrieved in

January 5 th , 2016).

Vargo, S.L. & Lusch, R. F. (2008). Servicedominant

Logic: Continuing the Evolution,

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,

Vol. 36, No. 1, 1-10.

Vargo, S.L.& Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a

new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of

marketing. Vol. 68 (1), 1-17.

Vargo, S.L.& Lusch, R. F. (2006). Servicedominant

logic: What it is, what it is not, what it

might be. In R. F. Lusch, & S. L. Vargo (Eds.),

The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog,

debate, and directions (pp. 43–56). Armonk, NY:

ME Sharpe.

Vargo, S.L.& Lusch, R. F. (2006). The servicedominant

logic of marketing: Reactions,

reflections, and refinements. Marketing Theory,

6(3), 281–288.

Ward, S. V. (1998). Selling Places - The

marketing and promotion of towns and cities

1850-2000. London: Routledge.

Weining, L. et al. (2016). A Study of

Transformational Leadership, Strategic

Flexibility, and a Firm Performance: The

Moderating Role of Environmental Dynamism.

Internatinal Interdisciplinary Business-

Economics Advancement Journal (IIBA), Vol. 1,

no. 2, 73-84, October 2016.

Xiao, H.& Smith, S. (2006). The making of tourism

research: Insights from a social science journal.

Annals of Tourism Research, 33 (2), 490-507.

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and

methods (3 rd ed.). NewburyPark, Sage


Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and

methods (4 th ed.). NewburyPark, Sage


Yin, R.K. (2004). The case study anthology.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

A Cyber Security Framework for Independent Hotels

Enrico Panai

University of Sassari, Italy



Cyber security is becoming a mandatory asset for the

tourism market. While chain hotels have already started to

implement their cyber security strategies, independent hotels

are struggling with the complexity of digital security. We do

not yet have standard indicators to measure the economic

impact of a cyber threat or the return on investment of

infrastructure or training; nevertheless, evidence exists that

for independent hotels the impact of a cyber-attack could be

disastrous. While scholars debate about establishing shared

indicators to identify the economic impact of a cyber security

breach, companies and governmental agencies are acting

with standard countermeasures. Nevertheless, independent

Inspired by the work of Antonio Magliulo on cyber security

awareness in the tourism market (Magliulo, 2013, 2016;

Magliulo & Wright, 2014), this paper argues for the need to

change the paradigm commonly used in cyber security with

the purpose of making a contribution to the development of

a new framework specially designed for independent hotels.

In fact, on the one hand, big companies, like hotel chains,

manage to industrialize and share the cyber security

processes, and on the other hand, small organizations, like

independent hotels, struggle with complexity. Therefore,

independent hotels dominate the global hotel market. In

Europe and in Asia, they are at the base of the whole sector

with a market share of 88% and 95%, respectively. 19

hotels need a more specialized approach due to their

peculiar nature and organization. Therefore, instead of using

general frameworks, we suggest a cyber security paradigm

specifically created for the tourism market. Our goals are to

simplify the language, clarify the organizational hierarchy,

and keep the attack surface as small as possible. In brief,

inspired by an Italian Cyber Security Framework for small

business enterprises, we propose a prototype of a customized

cyber security framework for independent hotels that, we

think, will have a direct effect on the protection of the hotels’

data and on the safeguards for business and leisure travelers’

privacy: two essential pillars for the growth of hotel


Firstly, with a literature review we showed that the value of

cyber security is still underestimated in the tourism market,

albeit the importance of the subject has obligated

governmental organizations to take immediate actions and

countermeasures. Secondly, we analyzed the Italian

approach to cyber security for small business enterprises

(SBEs) and we suggested that this approach is not yet aligned

to the business-as-usual practices and the work pace of

independent hotels. Finally, inspired by the Italian National

Cyber Security Framework and the 15 Essential Controls for

small business enterprises, we proposed the prototype of a

cyber security framework for independent hotels.


Cyber Security, Independent Hotels, Framework, Italy

· The Importance of Cyber Security in the

Tourism Market Place

While the classical delinquent behavior in hotels has been


According to Interpol, cybercrime is a fast-growing area of

crime. 18 The criminals exploit anonymity, distance, and

speed to commit crimes on the Internet, democratizing

cybercrimes, thus increasing the level and quantity of cyberrisks.

The rapid expansion of the last few years has made

cyber security a central field for business organizations,

governmental agencies, and educational institutions, as well

as for any individual connected to the Internet. While cyber

security is important for everybody, special attention should

be given to the tourist market. In fact, unlike other businesses,

a cyber security breach in a hotel can impact, not only the

organization, but also individual citizens in their roles of

business or leisure tourists.

widely discussed, the cyber security threats are still

underestimated. The main reason is that, in general, cyber

victims tend not to report cyber violations. Moreover, as the

FBI has highlighted, due to “the elusive nature of cybercrime

[translating] into a critical need for high levels of expertise

in investigating cybercrime matters, we do not dispose of

enough specialized people in order to counter common cyber

delinquency” 3 (Kubic, 2001). It follows that “Internet fraud

does not have traditional boundaries as seen in the traditional

schemes.” That is the reason why “no one knows the full

extent of the fraud being committed on the Internet” and why

“not all victims report fraud, and those who do, do not report

it to one central repository.” According to the “Cyber

Security: Underpinning the Digital Economy” (Rowse, 2013)

19 HRS Global. (2016). Think independent. Retrieved from



Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

of the general reluctance to report the incident (CLUSIT,

report by the Institute of Directors and Barclays Bank,

20 https://www.eugdpr.org/

companies are ignoring the cyber-attacks they are facing. 2013).

And even when their businesses have been severely affected,

they may not be clear on what it means to report cybercrime

and what the police will require (Goussard, 2017). That is

consonant with the fact that “eight in ten adults do not expect

cybercriminals to be brought to justice” (Kubic, 2001).

Adam Palmer, Norton Lead Cyber Security Advisor,

believes that: “Many criminals reside in a foreign country so

it’s no surprise that people regard them as ‘faceless’ - they

physically are. And because international cybercrime is hard

to uncover and prosecute, people genuinely aren’t seeing

Several matrixes of cybercrimes have been developed (Borg

& Bumgarner, 2017) with a defensive approach and an

information system point of view. Although a matrix helps to

understand some aspects of attacks, degrees of vulnerability,

and how to protect oneself, a defensive approach does not

help to understand the nature of cyber threats and their

consequences. Moreover, an information system point of

view assumes that every kind of organization uses a similar

justice being done” (Norton Institution, 2010). People tend

to think that only 21% of online crimes have been perpetrated

by organized criminals, but the Norton Report shows that 90%

of cyber-attacks are a direct result of organized crime. In fact,

if it takes 4 weeks to check on the problem (Norton

Institution, 2010), it will take on average 191 weeks in an

enterprise to identify a data violation (Ponemon Institute,


information system, and it tends to dissociate the information

architecture from the business.

Evidence shows an increase of cyber-attacks perpetrated by

criminal organizations and community as a service (CaaS -

The peculiarity of the hospitality industry is that a customer

is in reality a “guest” who is looking for a “discreet

environment, tranquility and security” and a hotel that

“prevents the disclosure of the incidents of delinquency that

crime-as-a-service) (Europol, 2017). The increase of cyberattacks

perceived as petty crimes leads us to think that it will

be difficult to collect and combat efficiently the cybercrime

in the hospitality industry.

occur in them” (Moira, Mylonopoulos, & Vasilopoulou,

2013). To protect their guests, hotels need to know what type

of breaches or stolen data they can deal with, to whom an · Collecting Data

attack is directed (who is the main target), and who will be

affected by the indirect consequences. While we hope for

We lack data about cyber security. Among the various

further development on the subject, we suggest categorizing

metrics to measure the results of IT safety is undoubtedly the

hotels’ cybercrimes by the type of breach, main target, and

most difficult dimension to evaluate because it consists of

indirect consequences.

both technical factors and human factors, and in particular it

comes from a balanced synthesis of perceptions that derive

Table 1 – example of hotels’ cybercrime

from different stakeholders, both inside and outside the

organization (CLUSIT, 2016). It is one of the reasons why




Target Direct goals Indirect


& risks

the EU enacted a General Data Protection Regulation for

European countries. 20 In particular, the GDPR rules, which

would be valuable for collecting cyber security data, are the

g, Stolen



i. Establish the role of a Data Protection Officer

Hotel Credit Guest’s Hotel’s

(DPO), who will assure compliance to the hotel

Information Cards money reputation

cyber security policy (art.37).


ii. The Data Protection Officer (DPO) will maintain a

record of all accidents or anomalies (art.30).

Guest PC Personal Identity, Hotel’s

iii. The Data Protection Officer (DPO) will interact and

via Wi-Fi informat Credit Cards, reputation,

communicate with the national authorities (art.60-

Hotel ion Business or Legal Fees






· The World Economic Forum on Cyber Security

Hotel Ransom Hotel’s Hotel’s

Collecting data will allow to better understand 21

Information ware money reputation, (Magliulo, 2016) the phenomenon in order to increase the



competitiveness of a destination already vastly discussed by


scholars (Magliulo, 2013). From an economic point of view,

Failure within 6

this lack of data makes it impossible to precisely evaluate the


impact of cyber threats in the hospitality industry. Even the

most important international study regarding tourism

It is very difficult to measure the size and the cost of the competitiveness, The Travel & Competitiveness Report

phenomenon. In Italy, for example, there are no official 2017 (World Economic Forum, 2017) published by the

statistics on the economic damage caused by cyber incidents, World Economic Forum, does not take into account the

either because of the “cultural difficulty” in recognizing that uniqueness of cyber security risks. According to the World

an accident has occurred on the part of the victims or because Economic Forum (2017), the competitiveness of the national


The question « How can we increase the competitiveness of a

destination? » was introduced by Magliulo (2016).


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

tourism system is related to 14 Pillars: price competitiveness,

natural resources, air transportation, infrastructures, etc.

Among them, we find ‘Safety and Security’ (Pillar 2) and

‘ICT Readiness’ (Pillar 5).

Safety and security are measured based on the following


· Business costs of crime and violence

· Reliability of police services

· Index of terrorism incidence

· Homicide rate/100,000 pop.

· Road traffic accidents

ICT Readiness is assessed with reference to the following


· ICT use for biz-to-biz transactions

· Internet use for biz-to-consumer transactions

· Internet users % pop.

· Fixed-broadband Internet subscriptions /100 pop.

· Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions /100 pop.

· Mobile-broadband subscriptions /100 pop.

· Mobile network coverage % pop.

· Quality of electricity supply

We see that of the 14 pillars for competitiveness shown by

the WEF, only one relates to security, but it is more oriented

toward physical and material safety (e.g., wars, crime) than

information, data, or cyber security. Another, dealing with

ICT readiness, does not consider cyber security problems

either. Basically, it seems that the concepts of cyber security

and information security have been absorbed by the general

concept of security; yet we believe that they should be


· Alarming Statistics about Cybercrime

However, all reports on cybercrimes and cyber-attacks are

alarming. According to the Verizon Data Breach

Investigation Report, three-quarters of these victims are

small businesses and may not have dedicated security staff

and/or processes (Verizon, 2017). According to a study by

PwC for the UK Department for Business, Innovation, and

Skills, cyber-attacks cost small businesses between £65,000

and £115,000 on average; moreover, 90% of small business

don’t use any data protection at all for company and

customer information (Viuker, 2015). Furthermore, avoiding

attacks is vital to their survival, in fact according to the

Symantec 2015 Internet Security Threat Report (Symantec,

2015), 60% of small businesses go out of business within six

months of an attack. And, in contrast to what we could

assume, the cyber security awareness and internal cyber

hygiene are critical. In fact, 1% of Employees are

Responsible for 75% of Cyber Security Risk. A research

carried out by Axelos, a UK government/Capita joint venture,

found that 75 percent of large organizations suffered staffrelated

security breaches in 2015, with 50 percent of the

worst breaches caused by human error (Axelos, 2016).

· Attack cases in the hospitality market

Although we still cannot mine big data about cybercrimes,

some cases became popular by the press and in literature. In

2015, Trump Hotels and MOHG were attacked. “Trump

Hotels had 7 of their establishments attacked through

infected POS terminals and computers at their restaurants,

gift shops and other businesses, resulting in compromised

customer credit card information. MOHG was attacked by

malware infecting POS (Point-of-Sale) terminals which

resulted in thousands of credit cards compromised Hilton

Worldwide Hilton suffered a compromise of customers'

complete credit card information. Starwood had 105 of their

properties attacked with malware targeting POS terminals.

Hyatt Hotels Hyatt had customer credit card data stolen from

249 of their hotels through infected point-of-sales terminals”

(Kroehl, 2017).

In 2016, “IHG had more than 1,000 properties compromised

with malicious software targeting cash registers to siphon

customer debit and credit card data” (Kroehl, 2017). In 2017,

“Travel industry giant Sabre Corp. disclosed what could be

a significant breach of payment and customer data tied to

bookings processed through a reservations system that serves

more than 32,000 hotels and other lodging establishments”

(Kroehl, 2017). On the 6th of December 2016, the four-star

hotel Romantik Seehotel Jägerwirt, in Austria, was hit by

ransomware (Burgess, 2018). All data was encrypted, and a

2 Bitcoins ransom was paid (approximately 1500 Euros at

that time period) in exchange for the decryption key. Despite

paying the ransom, the hackers attacked the hotel again a few

weeks later. Beyond the temporary dysfunctions, the cyberattack

has damaged the Austrian’s hotel e-reputation,

causing a financial loss.

Nevertheless, cyber-attacks didn’t concern only the hotels’

organizations, but also their guests’ cyber-safety. In fact,

several cyber-attacks propagated from hotels’ information

system to guests. For example, the DarkHotel APT, a spearphishing

malware, was used starting from 2007 (GReAT,

2014) as an advanced persistent threat or APT by a group

known as Tapaoux or DarkHotel (Zetter, 2014) to attack high

profile business guests. According to Costin Raiu, manager

of Kaspersky's Global Research and Analysis Team, this is a

very high level of cyber-attack: "Nobody else as far as we

know has managed to do something similar, .... This is [an]

NSA-level infection mechanism" (Zetter, 2014). The

DarkHotel’s threat actors have targeted thousands of

business travelers around the world, simply using the

unprotected Wi-Fi infrastructure of hotels. This kind of

attack can also have serious political consequences; in

September 2016 the Bitdefender Labs researchers come

across a very particular DarkHotel attack known as Inexsmar

which seems to be used in a campaign that targets political

figures (Rusu, Vatamanu, & Maximciuc, 2017).

If certain attacks involve politicians, it is reasonable to

believe that attacks perpetrated via Wi-Fi can also implicate

leisure travelers and lower-level business travelers. As a

matter of fact, the information that they bring with them

could be important to build cyber-attacks to higher-level

executives, using social engineering strategies. Still, we can

tell stories or investigate case studies, but not analyze big

data to have a global view of the phenomenon.

· Governmental Campaigns

national governments have already paid attention to the risk

of cyber security threats, particularly for their travelling


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

citizens. In the last few years, many countries have published

national cyber security policies. For most policies, increasing

cyber security awareness has become an essential task.

Consequently, actions have been taken by governments to

improve awareness through conferences, meetings,

guidelines, and campaigns. For example, in Australia the

Government established from 2008 a cyber security

awareness week, known as Stay Smart Online Week. In

Europe, the ENISA (European Union Agency for Network

and Information Security) had chosen the entire month of

October to raise cyber security awareness. And while the

pilot project of the European Cyber Security Month

(ECSM) started already in 2012, the USA waited until 2016

to adapt the same strategy, when the DHS (Department of

Homeland Security) established the month of October as the

National Cyber Security Awareness Month (NCSAM). 22

These campaigns were designed to engage and educate

public and private partners in order to raise awareness of the

importance of cyber security. Many technical and behavioral

guidelines have been published by governmental agencies.

Generally, they give advice to travelers regarding the use of

mobile devices. In France, the ANSSI (Agence nationale de

la sécurité des systèmes d'information) released cyber

security guidelines for tourists (Passeport de conseils aux

voyageurs) specifically designed for business travelers. In

the UK, the 5th of April 2016, the NCSC (National Cyber

Security Center) published a post on the cyber security of

mobile devices (Safe Use of Mobile Devices and the

Internet), offering advice for overseas travels.

· Immediate Action Required for Hotels

Even if the main objective of those campaigns is to protect

their citizens during their travels, this kind of communication

can indirectly influence the perception of hotels’ cyber

security in travelers, thus affecting the global reputation of

the market. Moreover, if we consider that it takes four weeks

to resolve an average cybercrime incident (Norton Institution,

2010), the economic impact can be significant. And, if we

consider that over 60% of hacked small and medium-sized

businesses go out of business after six months, the resilience

of an independent hotel can be catastrophic. That is why we

think that hotels should act immediately to improve their

cyber hygiene. In brief, even if we still do not have shared

indicators, researchers agree that the hospitality industry,

especially hotels, are exposed to cyber threats and must

rapidly take countermeasures.

The Need for Alignment: The Case of Italy

The importance of cyber security is evident, and

countermeasures have been taken by companies and

governments to protect national businesses. Nevertheless,

they are generally too general (theoretical) or too specific

(technical). Not all kinds of business can have the necessary

resources to apply a global approach to cyber security. To be

efficient, hygienic cyber security behaviors should overlap

with the business-as-usual practices. This is particularly

important for small and independent hotels, which are

affected by irregular peaks of work. In consequence, we need

to develop an essential framework, specifically designed for


· From a General to a Small Company’s


Tourism plays a key role in Italy. According to the 2016

Tourism Report (Touring Club Italiano, 2017), the tourism

industry and its revenues are worth € 17.8 billion, or 10.3%

of the GDP, with about 2.7 million workers. Therefore, Italy

is the fifth most visited country in the world rankings (United

Nations World Tourism Organization, 2017).

Unlike the United States, the second country in the tourism

world rankings, where only 40% of hotels are independents

against 60% of chains (STR, 2017), in Europe the majority

of hotels are independents, up to 88% (HRS Global, 2016).

Therefore, chains in the Italian market stand at 4.2% in terms

of hotels, a lower figure compared to Spain (28%), France

(20.8%), the UK (15.7%), and Germany (14.5%) (Horwath

HTL, 2017).

· The Case of Italy

To prevent attacks, all countries developed national cyber

security frameworks. In Italy, the Cyber Intelligence and

Information Security Research Center (CIS) of the

University of La Sapienza in Rome developed a framework

inspired by the NIST’s Framework for Improving Critical

Infrastructure Cyber Security. 23 The objective has been to

release a general framework to create a shared language

between experts and companies. The Framework also

introduced a corpus of knowledge about risk management to

fight cyber threats and reduce the breaches. Nevertheless, for

the CIS this wasn't enough.

In fact, in Italy, up to 95% of businesses count an average of

3.9 employees (ANSA, 2015), making the CIS general

frameworks too complex for small and very small companies.

That is the reason why the CIS in 2016 decided to develop a

smaller and more adapted framework of Cyber Security

Essential Controls (Baldoni, Montanari, & Querzoni, 2017),

with the purpose of allowing a system administrator of a

small or medium company, without specific knowledge of

computer security, to achieve the minimum level of cyber

security compliance. We strongly believe that the attempt to

adapt a general cyber framework to small businesses is the

right approach for the Italian and, in general, the European

market. In accordance with this approach, we took a further


While the CIS made an excellent effort to simplify the

general framework, this kind of approach doesn’t account for

the hospitality industry’s peculiar type of work. Even the

simplified framework of Cyber Security Essential Controls

could result in a difficult task for the hospitality industry. In

fact, a common cyber security framework is generally based

on the cyber risks centered approach where the organization

is constant in time. Nonetheless, most of the hotels in Italy

are seasonal companies, and this peculiarity could impact the

efficiency of the framework.


On the role of awareness in tourism security, see Magliulo and Wright


23 National Institute of Standards and Technology. https://www.nist.gov


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

· Peculiarities of Hotels.

more adapted to the Italian context, the CIS, Cyber

Intelligence and Information Security Research Center of the

In general, the hotel industry is characterized by seasonality

University of La Sapienza in Rome, rapidly simplified it. In

in which we can recognize different degrees of seasonality.

fact, in Italy, the clear majority of companies are medium,

Seasonality is established by the time interval between the

small, and very small. Moreover, generally they do not have

opening and closing of the structure. According to Butler and

cyber security staff. Those reasons pushed the CIS for a more

Mao (1996), there are four different patterns in which

elementary and efficient tool. The result was an easier to use

seasonality occurs:

Cyber Security Essential Controls framework. The

· Single-peak seasonality (it is the most common: a

framework proposes 15 Cyber Security Essential Controls

single, clearly identifiable and relatively fixed,

that can be adopted and implemented by medium, small, or

time-span of peak demand)

micro enterprises to reduce the number of vulnerabilities in

· Two-peak seasonality (characterized by two clearly their systems and to increase the awareness of internal staff,

identifiable and fixed time-spans of peak demand) in order to cope with the most common cyber-attacks

· Non-peak seasonality (where no time-span of peak (Baldoni et al., 2017).

demand can be identified)

· Dynamic seasonality (characterized by a single or On the one hand, in Italy most hotels are independents, like

multiple time-spans of demands, which are, small enterprises. On the other hand, Italy is considered a

however, not fixed).

country with a high seasonality (like Montenegro, Cyprus,

Denmark, Croatia, Sweden, Greece, Iceland, Bulgaria, and

Hotels have different periods of activity, and more or less France) (Eurostat, 2015), this means that it endures high

long periods of closure of the activity. So, there are cultural peaks of work and a large turnover. Hence, in this paper, we

locations where a period of activity can last a whole year or take a step forward. Inspired by the process-oriented design,

sun-and-sea locations that stay open only a few months. The we reworked the CIS’s National Cyber Security Framework

different kinds of seasonality can imply an important change and contextualized its 21 subcategories into a “seasonal”

on the global organization of the hotel. For example, hotels framework, more adapted to the Italian hospitality industry

with single peak seasonality may have a large turnover of process models. Finally, we assigned the 15 Cyber Security

employees, and consequently a significant loss of implicit Essential Controls 25 to the new structure ( slightly changing

knowledge (Eurostat, 2015).

the original numbering).

Any period of activity is categorized by shadows of intensity At first, we defined 3 periods of activity and then the

or degrees of seasonality. A degree of seasonality plays a frequency of activities. Periods of activity have been

major role in determining the employees’ behavior. A period shaped on the seasonality pace:

of activity is categorized in Low, Green/Off-Peak, Peak. In i. The period prior to the seasonal opening is the

such a manner, during peak periods, employees risk being

period when we design and plan the activity

overloaded, and therefore, less strict in respecting the cyber

globally (in this phase we have the time to work on

security rules. Those reasons (seasonality, pace of activity,

the governance)

and turnover) can affect negatively the cyber security ii. The period of low activity or prior to the peak, when

strategies of an independent hotel. We should instead find a

we should test and improve the efficiency of our

way to increase the cyber security hygiene of small


hospitality structures without affecting their performance iii. The peak, when employees should be well trained

and their quality of service.

and internal communication about cyber security

must become fluid.

· Season-centered design

The frequency of activities shows the occurrence of the

To achieve this goal, we tried to harmonize the cyber security

controls, and we divided those into: Seasonal preconditions,

layer in a normal seasonal process, instead of blindly

Regular maintenance and analysis of risks, and Daily

applying it. Rather than a cyber security functional-centered

requirements. While seasonal preconditions overlap with the

approach, we propose a new framework based on a seasonalcentered

approach inspired by a process-centered design

period prior to the seasonal opening, the others change in

intensity and in quality from low activity to peak periods.

(Gruhn, 2002). In brief, standard cyber security frameworks

risk being unfit for independent hotels’ organization, and we

May we dare a parallel, we should think of an ancient fortress

need a new seasonal-centered approach.

where seasonal preconditions are like walls, drawbridges,

ditches, and watch towers; regular maintenance and analysis

A Prototype Framework for Independent of risks of the fortress is the activity done by master


craftsmen and military strategists; the daily requirements are

In all European countries, the national cyber security agency processes, guardians, and people’s awareness. We should lay

developed recommendations for enterprises, industries, and the foundations for cyber security at the very start of a period

administrations. In Italy, the core framework was inspired by (through seasonal preconditions), frequently verify that our

the Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cyber resources are working and are adapted to new risks (through

Security, developed by the NIST, 24 the US’s National regular maintenance and analysis of risks), and finally, fan

Institute of Standards and Technology. Therefore, to get the flame of cyber security awareness every day (through

24 https://www.nist.gov

25 www.cybersecurityframework.it/en


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

daily requirements).

· Seasonal preconditions by managers and experts

Seasonal preconditions are like laying the foundations of a

more aware organization, to ensure the smooth running of

the business. Seasonal preconditions are established at the

very beginning of a working period (like a season), by c-level

executives, managers, and experts.

1. Identification

a) We identify the asset management (ID.AM -

Controls 1,2,3,4),

b) We identify the business environment (ID.BE),

c) We identify the governance (ID.GV - Controls 5),

d) We identify the risk assessment (ID.RA) and

e) We identify the risk management strategy


2. Responding rapidly:

a) We prepare a response planning (RS.RP),

3. Recover the information system:

a) We prepare a recovery planning (RC.RP).

Cyber Security Essential Controls include:

1) Have you started and maintained an inventory of

systems, devices, software, services, and IT

applications in use in the company? (ID.AM)

2) Have you checked that the third-party web services

in use (social network, cloud computing, e-mail,

etc.) are necessary? (ID.AM)

3) Have you identified the information, data, and

critical systems to adequately protect them?


4) Have you appointed an officer for coordinating

information and ICT systems management and

protection? (ID.AM)

5) Do you comply with the law or regulations

concerning cyber security? (GV)

· Regular maintenance and analysis of risks by

specialized people

Regular maintenance and analysis of risks are all the

controls and analysis done during the period, to assure the

resilience of the information system. Those activities are

done by cyber security experts during the working period

(like a season) with regular frequency but detached from the

business as usual (in order to avoid making tough decisions

under pressure).

1. Protection

a) We protect the organization through the access

control (PR.AC - Controls 7,8,9),

b) We protect with a data security policy (PR.DS),

c) We protect the information protection processes

and procedures (PR.IP - Controls 11,12),

d) We protect an adequate maintenance (PR.MA),

e) We protect and the use of protective technologies

(PR.PT - Controls 13)

2. Responding

a) We respond through adapted communication


b) We respond through proactive analysis (RS.AN)

c) We respond with on the fly improvements

(RS.IM - Controls 14-15)

3. Recovering

a) We recover with recovery improvements


b) We recover through rapid communication to

internal and external parties (RC.CO)

Cyber Security Essential Controls include:

6) Are your passwords different for each account?

Are they strong enough? Do you use stronger

systems (e.g., a two-factor authentication) to

connect to your service providers? (PR.AC)

7) Do authorized personnel at remote or with local

access to IT services use personal accounts that

are not shared with others? Is the access correctly

protected? Do you disable obsolete (old or no

longer used) accounts? (PR.AC)

8) Can each user only access the information and

systems he needs or is responsible for? (PR.AC)

9) Is the initial configuration of systems and devices

performed by expert personnel? Are they

responsible for their configuration? Are the

default login credentials always replaced?


10) Are information and critical data for the company

backed up periodically? Are backups stored

securely and periodically verified? (PR.IP)

11) Are networks and systems protected against

unauthorized access through specific tools (e.g.,

Firewall and other anti-intrusion devices /

software)? (PR.PT)

12) In case of an accident (e.g., an attack or malware is

detected), are security managers informed and are

the systems secured by expert personnel? (RS.IM)

13) Is the software in use (including firmware) updated

to the latest version recommended by the

manufacturer? Are obsolete and no longer

updatable devices or software decommissioned?


A DPO (Data Protection Officer) inside the organization is

necessary to align policies with the business-as-usual

practices and to report anomalies to the national cyber

security offices in charge. This is particularly important in

Europe because after the General Data Protection Regulation

(GDPR), it is compulsory to have a DPO available at any


· Daily requirements by non-specialized people

Daily requirements are all the daily processes that should be

fulfilled with regularity.

1. Detection.

a) We detect anomalies and events (DE.AE),

2. Prevention.

a) We prevent respecting the response planning,

b) We prevent continuous monitoring of the security

(DE.CM - Controls 6),

c) We prevent reviewing the procedures for detection


Cyber Security Essential Controls include:

14) Is all security software (e.g., antivirus, antimalware)

updated regularly? (DE.CM)


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

· Notes about training and awareness

Magliulo and Wright (Magliulo & Wright, 2014) highlighted

the importance of the awareness in hotels and in general in

the tourism market and suggested that we require an active

policy firstly “based on awareness”. Cyber security

awareness should take a prominent place in any organization.

It should not be considered as a task to be accomplished, but

a philosophy to embrace. For enterprises, the most important

way of protecting is the training of the personnel to raise the

cyber security awareness. Therefore, we must have training

and awareness as continuous activities. This is also

established in the category of Awareness and Training

(PR.AT - Controls 10) of the framework. This category has

been translated in tenth control:

Cyber Security Essential Controls include:

15) Are personnel adequately aware and trained on

cyber security risks and how to use the company

tools? (e.g., can they recognize e-mail

attachments, use only authorized software, etc.).

Do business leaders take care of preparing the

necessary training for all company personnel to

provide basic cyber security awareness? (PR.AT)

The tourism market is very particular because it is related to

seasonal peaks of activity, high paces and, sometimes, a large

turnover. Therefore, unlike other types of activities, linear

training of the employees could be unworkable. We suggest

that, after a rapid overview of cyber hygiene at the beginning,

all employees could have the time to raise his cyber security

awareness through a self-learning approach (for example, a

daily personal reminder of a cyber-attack case). The aim

should be to change the culture, but not to strain the


We strongly suggest that, in the previous phases, “training

by design” could reduce the time in training but get the same

effect. For example, instead of teaching not to connect an

unknown USB drive to a device, we could interpose a

memory drive scanner between every USB port and external

drive, with an explicit awareness sticker on it, claiming

“sterilize before use”. This approach will make people

increase their awareness “just in time”, at the very moment

of the action, and to renew their awareness anytime they use

a USB drive. In brief, we reshaped a cyber security

framework for small businesses to a seasonal cyber security

framework prototype more adapted to the business process

of independent hotels.


The paper presented here, starting from the importance of the

cyber security in the hospitality market, showed that the

current approaches are probably not aligned to the actual

hospitality way of work. In fact, tourism companies,

particularly, independent hotels, are characterized by a

peculiar organization of the work that is cadenced by seasons

and, in some countries, long periods of inactivity. We have

chosen Italy as a case study because it could be a bridgehead

with the Asian tourism market. As a matter of fact, its rate of


Freely paraphrased by Luciano Floridi: “The great opportunity offered

by ICTs comes with a huge intellectual responsibility to understand them

independent hotels is the highest in Europe, and very similar

to the Asian rate (HRS Global, 2016). Furthermore, in Italy

the CIS (Cyber Intelligence and information Security of the

University of La Sapienza in Rome) and other institutions

have done important work to protect small and very small

enterprises. Hence, we intended to take a further step. Based

on their previous work, the National Cyber Security

Framework and the 15 Essential Controls for small business

enterprises, we reorganized the controls by hotel seasonality.

Eventually, we proposed a Cyber Security Framework for

independent hotels in accordance with the actual

organization of hotels. Despite that our framework is only a

prototype that should be tested and improved in further

research, it may already be considered a practical tool for

helping hotels in preventing and protecting themselves and

their guests against cyber threats. Without ever forgetting

that “The great opportunity offered by Cyber security comes

with a huge intellectual responsibility to understand it and

take advantage of it in the right way.” 26


I gratefully acknowledge the support and generosity of

Antonio Magliulo, professor of Comparative history of

economic thought, Economics of tourism and culture at the

University of International Studies of Rome, without who the

present study could not have been completed.


ANSA. (2015). Istat: in Italia 4,2 milioni di microimprese,

95 % del totale.

Axelos. (2016). Are your people playing an effective role in

your cyber resilience ?

Baldoni, R., Montanari, L., & Querzoni, L. (2017). 2016

Italian Cybersecurity Report. Controlli Essenziali di


Borg, S., & Bumgarner, J. (2017). THE US-CCU CYBER-

SECURITY MATRIX: A New Type of Check List for

Defending Against Cyber Attacks. US-CCU.

Burgess, M. (2018). Could hackers really take over a hotel?

WIRED explains. Wired, 1–11.

CLUSIT. (2013). Rapporto CLUSIT 2013 sulla sicurezza

ICT in Italia.

CLUSIT. (2016). Rapporto CLUSIT 2016 sulla sicurezza

ICT in Italia.

Europol. (2017). Internet Organised Crime Threat

Assessment (IOCTA) 2017.


Eurostat. (2015). Seasonality in the tourist accommodation

sector (Vol. 2016).

Floridi, L. (2014). The 4th Revolution. How the Infopshere is

Reshaping Human Reality. Oxford University Press.

Goussard, L. (2017). Pourquoi les entreprises ne signalentelles

pas le cybercrime ? GLOBBSECURITY.

GReAT. (2014). A Story of Unusual Hospitality. Kaspersky


Gruhn, V. (2002). Process-Centered Software Engineering

Environments A Brief History and Future Challenges.

Annals of Software Engineering, (14), 363–382.

Horwath HTL. (2017). 2017, Hotels & Chains Reports, Italy.

and take advantage of them in the right way” (Floridi, 2014).


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

HRS Global. (2016). Think Independent.

Kroehl, S. (2017). Cybersecurity for Hotels and Corporate

Offices (Amazon Dig).

Kubic, T. T. (2001). FBI - The FBI’s Perspective on the

Cybercrime Problem.

Magliulo, A. (2013). A Model for the Sustainable

Competitiveness of Tourism Destinations. European

Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 4(2),


Magliulo, A. (2016). Cyber Security and Tourism

Competitiveness. European Journal of Tourism,

Hospitality and Recreation, 7(2), 128–134.


Magliulo, A., & Wright, A. C. (2014). Cyber Security in

Tourism : The Role of Awareness. Consumer

Protection, Edited by M. Sitek, I. Niedziόtka, A. Ukleja,

Alcide De Gasperi University, Jόzefόw, 71–96.

Moira, P., Mylonopoulos, D., & Vasilopoulou, P. (2013). The

Different Types of Delinquent Behavior in the

Hospitality Industry. Case Study from Greece.



Norton Institution. (2010). Cybercrime Report: The Human


Ponemon Institute. (2017). 2017 Cost of Data Breach Study

Global Overview 2017 Cost of Data Breach Study:

Global Overview, (June), 35.

Rowse, A. (2013). Cyber Security: Underpinning the digital


Rusu, A., Vatamanu, C., & Maximciuc, A. (2017). Inexsmar:

An unusual DarkHotel campaign. Bitdefender.

STR. (2017). 2017 Global Hotel Study.

Symantec. (2015). Internet Security Threat Report (Vol. 20).


Touring Club Italiano. (2017). Rapporto sul turismo 2016.

United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2017). Unwto

Tourism Highlights - 2017 Edition.


Verizon. (2017). 2017 Data Breach Investigations Report.


Viuker, S. (2015). Cybercrime and hacking are even bigger

worries for small business owners | Business | The

Guardian. The Guardian.

World Economic Forum. (2017). The Travel &

Competitiveness Report 2017: Paving the way for a

more sustainable and inclusive future.

https://doi.org/ISBN-13: 978-1-944835-08-8

Zetter, K. (2014). DarkHotel: A Sophisticated New Hacking

Attack Targets High-Profile Hotel. Wired.


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

Assessment of the level of the marketing orientation of touroperators

on the European market

Aleksander Panasiuk

Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Institute of Entrepreneurship

Prof. St. Łojasiewicza 4, 30-348 Kraków, Poland

Tel: (+48) 12 6645720, Fax: (+48) 12 6645852, e-mail: aleksander.panasiuk@uj.edu.pl


The paper will discuss the implementation of the

marketing concept for the activities of touroperators. The

issues of the essence of marketing orientation and the phase

of its development will be presented. Next, the place of

touroperators on the tourist market and issues related to the

shaping of marketing orientation by tour operators will be

indicated. The links of entities in the system of creating

marketing orientation on the touroperator market and factors

that determine it will be discussed. The methodology and

results of research on the level of marketing orientation of

touroperators operating in Poland and selected countries of

the European Union will be presented. The research was

conducted in the second half of 2016 through questionnaire

surveys. The research covered 204 touroperators from

Poland and 176 from selected European countries. The

objective of this study is to present the concept of the

marketing orientation of touroperators as well as indicate

elements determining the level of market orientation which

stem from relationships of a touroperator with other

participants of this market.

Keywords: marketing, marketing orientation, touroperator

market, touroperator, European market


An important element of the tourism market determining

the effects of the remaining entities of this market is the

touroperator market. Touroperators are entities functioning

under highly competitive conditions and therefore strongly

support their own activities with marketing instruments. The

implementation of the marketing concept to company

activities lead to adopting marketing orientation which

enables achieving a long-term competitive advantage. Taking

into consideration the position of touroperators in the tourism

market structure, that is between partial tourism service

providers and sales agents and final consumers, and

simultaneously this highly competitive market in the global

conditions, it is deemed that touroperators are characterized

by a high level of marketing orientation. The objective of this

study is to present the concept of the marketing

orientation of touroperators as well as indicate elements

determining the level of market orientation which stem from

relationships of a touroperator with other participants of this

market. Moreover, the article also includes the research

findings of the assessment of the level of the market

orientation on touroperators functioning in Poland and

selected European Union countries. This is a theoretical and

empirical study. Such research methods were applied as a

critical analysis of literature on the subject, logical operations

and statistical methods.

The essence and stages of marketing orientation


Marketing orientation is the effect of understanding,

acceptance and internalization of the rules of marketing

management in a given organization (i.e. adopting the rules

to its organizational structure) [7]. In literature, the term

marketing orientation is often associated and/or connected

with other terms: market orientation, customer orientation,

competitive orientation [15, 28].

The interpretation of marketing orientation can be

conducted by presenting views on marketing development.

The impact of changing conditions on the emergence and

development of marketing [5] can be presented with

consecutive stages (phases). On the one hand, these stages

show the historical evolution of marketing, but on the other

hand they refer to the stages of company development which

marketing adopts for the purposes of its activities. Taking

account of many views on the development of marketing, six

stages can be distinguished, i.e.:

· production orientation,

· product orientation,

· sales orientation,

· market (marketing, traditional marketing) orientation,

· strategic marketing orientation,

· social orientation (social responsibility, social

marketing) [1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 14, 21].

In literature, there is a general agreement on the

evolution of companies’ orientation which due to various

conditions, including competition [12], are subject to

constant transformations. Marketing orientation, which

reflects producers’ interest in consumer needs, is conducted

through the integration of production and trade in marketing

activities [24]. Market research is also effectively used and

constitutes the basis for making decisions and introducing

marketing management in a company. The most significant

task is to determine needs and demands of the target market


Proceedings 4 th EATSA – FRANCE 2018

Challenges of tourism development

in Asia & Europe

as well as to adopt a company so that means of fulfilling

consumer needs are provided in a more effe