Issue 02/2016



ISSN 1862-5258

Plant based Material for

Eyeglass Lenses | 39


02 | 2016


bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11

Design for Recyclability | 44


Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging | 12

Marine Pollution / Marine Degradation | 16


... is read in 92 countries




The first focus topic in this issue is Marine Pollution / Marine Degradation. We

are all aware of the tremendous pollution of our oceans and waterways by plastic

debris. And I assume we also all agree that the most obvious thing to do is to ensure

no plastics end up in the oceans (or better still, in the environment at all),

whether by preventing littering or improving waste management in general.

It’s a problem that’s been a topic of endless discussion, with enough having

already been said on the subject to fill any number of volumes. In this issue

of bioplastics MAGAZINE we attempt to focus on the issues surrounding the

biodegradability of certain plastics. Do biodegradable plastics offer potential

for a solution – or at least for certain aspects of the problem? As I’m sure

this topic will spark controversy and open up debate, we’re kicking off the

discussion with this issue. Please feel free to send us your comments and

views on the topic.

In the Basics section, we cover the question: “What needs to be considered

when designing a plastic product, in order to facilitate easy recycling at

the end of its useful life?” For a comprehensive overview, we have included

both conventional plastics and bioplastics with their particularities.

If you are curious about what we were excited about in our first issues

ten years ago, just flip to page 45, where we continue the new “blast from

the past” series.

And we’re launching yet another new series of articles under the title

“Brand-Owner’s perspective on bioplastics and how to unleash their full potential”

. See p. 33, where Michhael Knutzen of Coca-Cola shares his thoughts with us.

Have you already downloaded our App for smartphones and tablets? Just go to

Apple-Appstore or the Android Google Playstore and search for bioplastics. During

our anniversary year, all our content can also be downloaded for free. This means that

you can read bioplastics MAGAZINE and follow us on twitter on your mobile devices –

wherever you are.

The call for proposals for the 11 th Global Bioplastics Award (see page 55) is open!

Please send us your suggestions: if you have seen or heard about any eligible services

or products in the market that you really liked, whether your own or someone else’s,

we’ll add these to our long list. The 11 th “Bioplastics Oscar” will be presented during

the 11 th European Bioplastics Conference on November 29 th in Berlin, Germany.

And finally, we’d like to remind you of our 4 th PLA World Congress in Munich,

Germany on May 24 th and 25 th . The programme is now complete and may be found on

page 10.

We look forward to seeing you at one of the many upcoming events, and until then,

enjoy reading bioplastics MAGAZINE.

Sincerely yours

Michael Thielen

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11

ISSN 1862-5258

Plant based Material for

Eyeglass Lenses | 39


02 | 2016


Design for Recyclability | 44


Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging | 12

Marine Pollution / Marine Degradation | 16


... is read in 92 countries

Follow us on twitter!

Like us on Facebook!

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 3




March / April

Thermoforming /

Rigid Packaging

12 Thermoforming and easy peel films

14 a-PHA modified PLA for thermoforming

Marine Pollution /

Marine Degradation

16 Plastics, biodegradation,

and risk assessment

18 Designing for biodegradability in ocean


21 PHA – truly biodegradable

22 Trash is mobile

24 UNEP Report on biodegradable plastics

& marine litter

26 Statement of Open Bio to the UNEP report



finding the right bioplastics


10 4 th PLA World Congress, programme

28 Chinaplas Showguide & Preview


32 The 100 % bio-PET/polyester approach


34 Breaking down complex assemblies

From Science & Research

40 HMF from chicory salad waste


42 Bioplastics packaging:

design for a circular plastics economy

44 Design for recyclability

10 Years Ago

45 IBAW industry association becomes

European Bioplastics

3 Editorial

5 News

33 Brand Owner’s View

38 Application News

46 Glossary

50 Suppliers Guide

53 Event Calendar

54 Companies in this issue

Publisher / Editorial

Dr. Michael Thielen (MT)

Karen Laird (KL)

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)

Head Office

Polymedia Publisher GmbH

Dammer Str. 112

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany

phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469

fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468

Media Adviser

Florian Junker

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468

Chris Shaw

Chris Shaw Media Ltd

Media Sales Representative

phone: +44 (0) 1270 522130

mobile: +44 (0) 7983 967471


Ulrich Gewehr (Dr. Gupta Verlag)

Max Godenrath (Dr. Gupta Verlag)


Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.

1004 Riga, Latvia

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.

Print run: 3,700 copies

(plus 1000 copies printed in China for

Chinaplas): Total print run: 4,700 copies

bioplastics magazine

ISSN 1862-5258

bM is published 6 times a year.

This publication is sent to qualified

subscribers (149 Euro for 6 issues).

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in

92 countries.

Every effort is made to verify all

Information published, but Polymedia

Publisher cannot accept responsibility

for any errors or omissions or for any

losses that may arise as a result. No

items may be reproduced, copied or

stored in any form, including electronic

format, without the prior consent of the

publisher. Opinions expressed in articies

do not necessarily reflect those of

Polymedia Publisher.

All articles appearing in bioplastics

MAGAZINE, or on the website www. are strictly

covered by copyright.

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions

for publication. Submissions are

accepted on the basis of full assignment

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher

GmbH unless otherwise agreed in advance

and in writing. We reserve the right

to edit items for reasons of space, clarity

or legality. Please contact the editorial

office via

The fact that product names may not be

identified in our editorial as trade marks

is not an indication that such names are

not registered trade marks.

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British

spelling. However, in articles based on

information from the USA, American

spelling may also be used.


A part of this print run is mailed to the

readers wrapped in I’m Green

bio-polyethylene envelopes sponsored

by FKuR Kunststoff GmbH, Willich,



Photo: shutterstock/BestPhotoStudio

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daily upated news at


France supports biobased & home-compostable bags

European Bioplastics (EUBP), the association representing the bioplastics industry in Europe, welcomes the approval of the

French implementation decree on single-use plastic bags, which was published by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable

Development and Energy last week on 1 February 2016.

“The decree sets out clear requirements for the reduction of single-use plastic bags in favor of biobased, biodegradable and

home-compostable bags. This is an important measure and supports the efforts of EUBP to emphasise the essential role of

bioplastics for the circular economy in Europe,” says Hasso von Pogrell, Managing Director of EUBP.

In September last year, the French government notified the European Commission and its 27 EU colleague nations of its draft

decree (décret) restricting use of plastics carrier bags in France. The decree, as part of the new law on Energy Transition and

Green Growth, was intended as the instrument to implement the obligations on plastics bags that had been adopted by the

French Assemblée Nationale to implement the EU requirements, and stated:

“The decree defines the conditions for the application of the legislative provisions of the Environmental Code, aiming to ban

the marketing of disposable plastic bags, with the exception, for bags other than carrier bags, of compostable bags that can be

disposed of with household composting waste and which entirely or partially consist of bio-sourced materials.”

On 21 December 2015, the European Commission formally issued a detailed letter to the French government objecting to

parts of its draft decree to restrict the use of single use plastics carrier bags. As of 1 February, however, an implementation

decree setting out the requirements and conditions in greater detail has been approved and will come into effect on 1 July

2016. The decree applies to single-use carrier bags below a thickness of 50 µm, which will have to meet the requirements of

the French standard for home composting and feature a biobased content of at least 30 %. The minimum biobased content

will increase progressively to 40 % in 2018, 50 % in 2020, and 60 % in 2025. Appropriate bioplastics materials have been readily

available on the market for quite some time, and manufacturers are eagerly waiting in the wings.

Christophe Doukhi-de Boissoudy, president of French association Club Bio-plastiques comments: “We welcome the

mobilisation of public authorities in order to finally achieve such a measure. It will allow biobased and biodegradable plastics

stakeholders to harness the benefits of their research efforts to develop new biodegradable and compostable plastics that

reduce our dependency on oil. The decree will help to reduce the plastic bags pollution as well as to revive economic activity for

French plastics converters, as 90 % of fruit and vegetable bags are currently being imported.”

The law makes France one of the first European countries to take concrete measures on plastic bags in favor of biobased and

compostable bags in an effort to comply with the European Directive to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic bags. It

also underpins the benefits of separate collection of organic waste with biodegradable and compostable bags. The draft decree

was amended to take the notions of the European Commission and the French State Council into account.

“We expect the French decree to serve as an example for European legislation and to contribute to the increased demand of

sustainable bioplastic solutions,” von Pogrell concluded. KL

Corbion PLA plant in Thailand

Corbion has announced in early March that after completing the pre-engineering stage of its proposed 75,000 tonnes per

year PLA polymerization plant in Thailand on schedule, the project is now moving into the basic engineering phase.

The new plant will be located in Thailand, Rayong Province, at the existing Corbion site and will produce a complete portfolio

of PLA polymers, ranging from standard PLA to high-heat resistant PLA. The company announced the project in 2014, citing

strong customer interest in PLA as the motivation behind the investment, although at that time, Tjerk de Ruiter, CEO of Corbion,

stressed that “we will only commence with this investment if we can secure at least one-third of plant capacity in committed

PLA volumes from customers”.

The pre-engineering phase commenced in 2015, after “the necessary technical and financial validation for such a plant” had

been secured.

Construction, which is expected to require capital expenditures of approximately EUR 65 million for the PLA plant and

EUR 20 million for the lactide plant, is expected to start later this year with a targeted start-up in the second half of 2018.

Additionally, Corbion will expand its existing lactide plant in Thailand by 25,000 tonnes per year. With this expansion the

company will be able to serve both its own PLA plant and current and future lactide customers. The lactide expansion will also

enable the production of a wider range of lactides than is currently possible.

Corbion’s pre-marketing activities continue and a portfolio of PLA resins is commercially available for technical validation.

Corbion will also continue to explore strategic opportunities as part of its PLA growth strategy. KL

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 5


daily upated news at

NatureWorks: methane as third-generation feedstock

The new USD 1 million 771 m² (8,300 sqft) laboratory at NatureWorks world headquarters (Minnetonka, Minnesota, USA) is

the latest milestone in the company’s multi-year program to commercialize a fermentation process for transforming methane,

a potent greenhouse gas, into lactic acid, the building block of Ingeo PLA biopolymer. It includes the hiring of six scientists to

staff the new facility.

The methane to lactic acid research project began in 2013 as a joint effort between NatureWorks and Calysta Energy, Menlo

Park, California, USA, to develop a fermentation biocatalyst. In 2014, laboratory-scale fermentation of lactic acid from methane

utilizing a new biocatalyst was proven, and the United States Department of Energy awarded USD 2.5 million to the project. In

2016, the opening of the new laboratory at NatureWorks headquarters marks another major advancement in the journey from

proof of concept to commercialization.

“A commercially viable methane to lactic acid conversion technology would be revolutionary,” said Bill Suehr, NatureWorks

Chief Operating Officer.

“It diversifies NatureWorks away from the current reliance on agricultural feedstocks, and with methane as feedstock, it

could structurally lower the cost of producing Ingeo. It is exciting to envision a future where greenhouse gas is transformed

into Ingeo-based compostable food serviceware, personal care items such as wipes and diapers, durable products such as

computer cases and toys, films for wrapping fresh produce, filament for 3D printers, deli packaging, and more.”

Based on the research collaboration between NatureWorks and Calysta, NatureWorks hopes to subsequently develop a

2,223 m² (25,000 sqft) pilot plant in Minnesota by 2018 and hire an additional 15 employees. Within the next six years the

company is looking at the possible construction of a USD 50 million demonstration project. It’s conceivable that within the next

decade NatureWorks will bring online the first global-scale methane to lactic acid fermentation facility. KL |

Avantium and BASF: JV to make PEF

BASF and Avantium announced in mid-March that they have signed a letter of intent and entered into exclusive negotiations

to establish a joint venture (JV) for the production and marketing of furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), as

well as marketing of polyethylenefuranoate (PEF), based on this new chemical building block.

The JV will use the YXY process ® developed by Avantium in its laboratories in Amsterdam and pilot

plant in Geleen, Netherlands, for the production of biobased FDCA. It is intended to further develop

this process as well as to construct a reference plant for the production of FDCA with an annual

capacity of up to 50,000 tonnes per year at BASF’s Verbund site in Antwerp, Belgium. The aim is to

build up world-leading positions in FDCA and PEF, and subsequently license the technology for

industrial scale application.

FDCA is the essential chemical building block for the production of PEF. Compared to PET,

for instance, PEF is characterized by improved barrier properties for gases like carbon dioxide

and oxygen. This can lead to longer shelf life of packaged products. Due to its higher mechanical

strength, thinner PEF packaging can be produced, which means less material is required. This

makes PEF particularly suitable for the production of certain food and beverage packaging, for

example films and plastic bottles. After use, PEF can be recycled.

“With the planned joint venture, we want to combine Avantium’s specific production technology

and application know-how for FDCA and PEF with the strengths of BASF,” said Dr. Stefan Blank,

President of BASF’s Intermediates division. “Of particular importance is our expertise in market

development and large-scale production as an established and reliable chemical company in the

business of intermediates and polymers,” Blank added.

“The contemplated joint venture with BASF is a major milestone in the development and

commercialization of this game-changing technology. Partnering with the number one chemical

company in the world, provides us with access to the capabilities that are required to bring this

technology to industrialization,” said Tom van Aken, Chief Executive Officer of Avantium.

“The joint venture will further strengthen the global technology and establish the market

leadership for FDCA and PEF. With BASF, we plan to start production of FDCA to enable the first

commercial launch of this exciting bio-based material and to further develop and grow the market

to its full potential.” KL/MT |

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11


CO 2

-based building block

for PEF

Stanford scientists have discovered a novel way to make PEF

from carbon dioxide (CO 2

) and inedible plant material, such as

agricultural waste and grasses as a low-carbon alternative to PET.

“Our goal is to replace petroleum-derived products with plastic

made from CO 2

,” said Matthew Kanan, an assistant professor of

chemistry at Stanford. “If you could do that without using a lot of

non-renewable energy, you could dramatically lower the carbon

footprint of the plastics industry.”

The scientists focused on the development of polyethylenefuranoate,

or PEF. The properties of PEF, including their

advantages over PET have been described manifold in bioplastics

MAGAZINE. However, the plastics industry is trying hard to find a

low-cost way to manufacture it at scale. The bottleneck has been

figuring out a commercially viable way to produce the precursor

FDCA sustainably.

Instead of using sugar from corn to make FDCA, the Stanford

team has been experimenting with furfural, a compound made

from agricultural waste that has been widely used for decades.

But making FDCA from furfural and CO 2

typically requires

hazardous chemicals that are expensive and energy-intensive to

make. “That really defeats the purpose of what we’re trying to

do,” Kanan said.

The Stanford team’s approach has the potential to significantly

reduce greenhouse emissions, Kanan said, because the CO 2

required to make PEF could be obtained from fossil-fuel power

plant emissions or other industrial sites. KL/MT

Hybrid technology to

make biobased nylon

Engineers at Iowa State University have found a way to combine

a genetically engineered strain of yeast and an electrocatalyst to

efficiently convert sugar into a new type of nylon.

Previous attempts to combine biocatalysis and chemical

catalysis to produce biobased chemicals have resulted in low

conversion rates. That’s usually because the biological processes

leave residual impurities that harm the effectiveness of chemical


The engineers’ successful hybrid conversion process is

described online and as the cover paper of the Feb. 12 issue of

the journal “Angewandte Chemie International Edition”.

“The ideal biorefinery pipelines, from biomass to the final

products, are currently disrupted by a gap between biological

conversion and chemical diversification. We herein report a

strategy to bridge this gap with a hybrid fermentation and

electrocatalytic process,” wrote lead authors Zengyi Shao and

Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Iowa State assistant professors of

chemical and biological engineering who are also affiliated with

the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center

for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC) based at Iowa State. KL/MT

IKEA to move away

from fossil plastics

IKEA SUPPLY AG and Newlight Technologies have

announced that they have entered into a supply

collaboration, and technology license agreement

that will supply IKEA with AirCarbon from Newlight’s

commercial-scale production facilities and enable IKEA

to produce AirCarbon thermoplastic under a technology


Under the agreement, IKEA will purchase 50 % of

the material from Newlight’s 23,000 tonnes per year

plant in the United States, and subsequently IKEA has

exclusive rights in the home furnishings industry to use

Newlight’s carbon capture technology to convert biobased

greenhouse gases, first from biogas and later

from carbon dioxide, into AirCarbon thermoplastics for

use in its home furnishing products. Both the companies

will work together to identify and select the low cost

carbon sources and development of the technology to

use a range of renewable substrates, with a long term

goal to develop capacities up to 453,000 tonnes per year.

The AirCarbon plants are initially intended to run using

biogas from landfills as their sole carbon feedstock

inputs, with expansion into other AirCarbon feedstocks

over time, such as carbon dioxide.

Minh Nguyen Hoang,

Category Manager

of Plastics at IKEA of

Sweden says: “IKEA

wants to contribute

to a transformational

change in the industry

and to the development

of plastics made from

renewable sources.

In line with our

sustainability goals, we are moving away from virgin fossil

based plastic materials in favor of plastic produced from

renewable sources such as biogas, sugar wastes, and other

renewable carbon sources. We believe our partnership

with Newlight has the potential, once fully scaled, to be

an important component of our multi-pronged effort to

provide IKEA’s customers with affordable plastics products

made from renewable resources.”

Added CEO of Newlight, Mark Herrema: “IKEA’s

partnership with Newlight marks an important shift in

how the world can make materials: from fossil fuels to

captured carbon, from consumption to generation, from

depletion to restoration. IKEA is a leader in the concept

of harnessing its operations to improve the world, and

we are proud to be a part of that effort.”

IKEA’s long-term ambition is for all the plastic material

used in their home furnishing products to be renewable

or recycled material. The company is starting with their

home furnishing plastic products, representing about

40 % of the total plastic volume used in the IKEA range.”


bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 7


finding the right bioplastics

In the recent years there have been many developments worldwide in the field of bioplastics, both in biodegradable polymers

and in biobased polymers and of course combinations of both. Many new exciting applications have been launched and the

forecasts for biobased applications are looking extremely positive.

Helian Polymers, based in Venlo, The Netherlands is a company specialized in the field of masterbatches, bioplastic

compounds and materials for 3D Printing. Since 2003 Helian Polymers has been active developing both additives and

compounds for bioplastics.

This combined knowledge has led to the start of the company colorFabb, today a leading producer of 3D printing filaments

from various engineered biopolymers, with great experience in online ordering and supplying systems with a sophisticated


A new development of Helian Polymers is the soon to be launched online material platform called This

web based platform is intended to support potential users of bioplastics to select the ideal type for a certain application and at

the same time offering the opportunity to order initial quantities for test runs. On the other hand, it supports material suppliers

to offer their various types and grades and – backed by Helian Polymer’s infrastructure – get initial test quantities supplied to

interested customers. will feature a wide variety of both biodegradable polymers and

compounds as well as biobased polymers and composites. The focus of this platform

is to bring initial ordering quantities to the market in a fast and transparent way, by

partnering up with the leading manufacturers of bioplastics worldwide.

The interactive website offers support to select the right bioplastic for a certain

application using various categories and filters and eventually order small lots of

25/50/100 kg for trial purposes. The materials will be send worldwide with DHL or

UPS, including molded sample plaques (cf. photo) of the ordered materials. is planned to go live mid of May this year. bioplastic MAGAZINE

supports this new and unique initiative platform and acts as media partner. MT

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Market study on

Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers in the World

Capacities, Production and Applications: Status Quo and Trends towards 2020

NEW: Buy the most comprehensive trend reports on bio-based polymers – and if you are not satisfied, give it back!

Bio-based polymers: Worldwide production

capacity will triple from 5.7 million tonnes in

2014 to nearly 17 million tonnes in 2020. The

data show a 10% growth rate from 2012 to 2013

and even 11% from 2013 to 2014. However,

growth rate is expected to decrease in 2015.

Consequence of the low oil price?

million t/a

Bio-based polymers: Evolution of worldwide production capacities

from 2011 to 2020


actual data


The new third edition of the well-known 500

page-market study and trend reports on

“Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers

in the World – Capacities, Production and

Applications: Status Quo and Trends Towards

2020” is available by now. It includes consistent

data from the year 2012 to the latest data of 2014

and the recently published data from European

Bioplastics, the association representing the

interests of Europe’s bioplastics industry.

Bio-based drop-in PET and the new polymer

PHA show the fastest rates of market growth.

Europe looses considerable shares in total

production to Asia. The bio-based polymer

turnover was about € 11 billion worldwide

in 2014 compared to € 10 billion in 2013.





2011 | 2015

2% of total

polymer capacity,

€11 billion turnover

























Full study available at

The nova-Institute carried out this study in

collaboration with renowned international

experts from the field of bio-based building

blocks and polymers. The study investigates

every kind of bio-based polymer and, for the

second time, several major building blocks

produced around the world.

What makes this report unique?

■ The 500 page-market study contains

over 200 tables and figures, 96 company

profiles and 11 exclusive trend reports

written by international experts.

■ These market data on bio-based building

blocks and polymers are the main source

of the European Bioplastics market data.

■ In addition to market data, the report offers a

complete and in-depth overview of the biobased

economy, from policy to standards

& norms, from brand strategies to

environmental assessment and many more.

■ A comprehensive short version

(24 pages) is available for free at

To whom is the report addressed?

■ The whole polymer value chain:

agro-industry, feedstock suppliers,

chemical industry (petro-based and

bio-based), global consumer

industries and brands owners

■ Investors

■ Associations and decision makers

Content of the full report

This 500 page-report presents the findings of

nova-Institute’s market study, which is made up

of three parts: “market data”, “trend reports”

and “company profiles” and contains over 200

tables and figures.

The “market data” section presents market

data about total production capacities and the

main application fields for selected bio-based

polymers worldwide (status quo in 2011, 2013

and 2014, trends and investments towards

2020). This part not only covers bio-based

polymers, but also investigates the current biobased

building block platforms.

The “trend reports” section contains a total of

eleven independent articles by leading experts

Order the full report

The full report can be ordered for 3,000 €

plus VAT and the short version of the report

can be downloaded for free at:

NEW: Buy the trends reports separately!


Dipl.-Ing. Florence Aeschelmann

+49 (0) 22 33 / 48 14-48

in the field of bio-based polymers. These trend

reports cover in detail every important trend

in the worldwide bio-based building block and

polymer market.

The final “company profiles” section includes

96 company profiles with specific data

including locations, bio-based building blocks

and polymers, feedstocks and production

capacities (actual data for 2011, 2013 and

2014 and forecasts for 2020). The profiles also

encompass basic information on the companies

(joint ventures, partnerships, technology and

bio-based products). A company index by biobased

building blocks and polymers, with list of

acronyms, follows.


4 th PLA World Congress

24 – 25 MAY 2016 MUNICH › GERMANY

bioplastics MAGAZINE presents:

3 rd PLA World Congress

The PLA World Congress in Munich/Germany, organised by bioplastics MAGAZINE

now for the 4 th time, is the must-attend 27 conference + 28 MAY for 2014 everyone MUNICH interested › GERMANY in PLA,

its benefits, and challenges. The global conference offers high class presentations

from top individuals in the industry from Europe, USA, New Zealand and China and

also offers excellent networkung opportunities along with a table top exhibition.

Please find below the programme. More details and a registration form can be

found at the conference website

4 th PLA World Congress, programme

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

07:00-08:30 Registration, Welcome-Coffee

08:30-08:45 Michael Thielen, Polymedia Publisher Welcome Remarks

08:45-09:15 Constance Ißbrücker, European Bioplastics Keynote Speech: The current situation of PLA in Europe and globally

09:15-09:40 Michael Carus, nova-Institute The role of PLA in the Bio-based Economy

09:40-10:05 Ramani Narayan, Michigan State University Understanding the PLA molecule – From stereochemistry to applicability

10:05-10:30 Udo Mühlbauer, Uhde Inventa-Fischer New features of Uhde Inventa-Fischer’s PLAneo ® process

10:30-10:45 Q&A

10:45-11:10 Coffee

11:10-11:35 Mariagiovanna Vetere, NatureWorks Ingeo – developing new applications in a circular economy perspective

11:35-12:00 Hugo Vuurens, Corbion Purac Latest application innovations in PLA bioplastics

12:00-12:25 Björn Bergmann, Fraunhofer ICT InnoREX: European project reveals processing options for intensified PLA production

12:25-12:40 Q&A

12:40-13:45 Lunch

13:45-14:10 Jan Henke, ISCC Sustainable supply chains for PLA production

14:10-14:35 Patrick Zimmermann, FKuR Advanced PLA solutions

14:35-15:00 Daniel Ganz, Sukano Sustainability without compromises – Discover a toolbox of solutions for PLA

15:00-15:25 Chung-Jen (Robin) Wu, Supla Not just PLA, it is SUPLA

15:25-15:40 Q&A

15:40-16:00 Coffee

16:00-16:25 Vittorio Bortolon, Plantura Italia Plantura, ecofriendly automotive biopolymer

16:25-16.50 Amparo Verdú Solís , AIMPLAS New PLA based fibres for automotive interior applications

16:50-17:00 Q&A

17:00-17:30 Panel discussion (t.b.d.) PLA market development: chances, obstacles and challenges (t.b.c.)

from 19:00 Bavarian Night Hofbräuhaus, Munich

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

08:50-09:00 Michael Thielen, Polymedia Publisher Welcome remarks, 2 nd day

09:00-09:25 Jan Noordegraaf, Synbra An expanding update on BioFoam E-PLA foam applications

09:25-09:50 Kate Parker, Biopolymer Network / Scion Functional bio based foam – expanding into new areas

09:50-10:15 John Leung, Biosolutions Heat resistant PLA sheet foam

10:15-10:40 Vasily Topolkaraev, Kimberly-Clark Novel Nanocellular PLA-polyolefin Hybrid Composites

10:40-10:55 Q&A

10:55-11:20 Coffee

11:20-11:45 Antje Lieske, Fraunhofer IAP Development of industrially feasible structure variations of polylactide

11:45-12:10 Gerald Schennink, Wageningen UR PLA for durable applications comparing PLA hybrids with nucleated PLA (t.b.c.)

12:10-12:35 Nico Schmidt, Univ. App. Sc. Hamm-Lippstadt LED-Application

12:35-13:00 Bert Lagrain, KU Leuven PLA: a perfect marriage between bio- and chemical technology

13:00-13:15 Q&A

13:15-14:15 Lunch

14:15-14:40 Remy Jongboom, Biotec BIOPLAST 900, what else?

14:40-15:05 Tanja Fell, Fraunhofer IVV Present and potential future recycling of PLA waste – Chances and opportunities

15:05-15:30 Nikola Kocić, Südd. Kunststoffzentrum SKZ Degradation of PLA during long-term storage

15:30-15:55 Ruud Rouleaux, Helian Polymers How to find the right bioplastic for your application?

15:55-16:05 Q&A

16:05-16:10 Michael Thielen, Polymedia Publisher Closing remarks

Subject to changes, please visit the conference website

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

organized by

4 th PLA World Congress

24 – 25 MAY 2016 MUNICH › GERMANY

is a versatile bioplastics raw

PLA material from renewable resources.

It is being used for films and rigid packaging,

for fibres in woven and non-woven applications.

Automotive industry

and consumer electronics are thoroughly

investigating and even already applying PLA.

New methods of polymerizing, compounding

or blending of PLA have broadened the range

of properties and thus the range of possible


That‘s why bioplastics MAGAZINE is now

organizing the 4 th PLA World Congress on:

24 – 25 May 2016 in Munich / Germany

Experts from all involved fields will share their

knowledge and contribute to a comprehensive

overview of today‘s opportunities and challenges

and discuss the possibilities, limitations

and future prospects of PLA for all kind of

applications. Like the three congresses

the 4 th PLA World Congress will also offer

excellent networking opportunities for all

delegates and speakers as well as exhibitors

of the table-top exhibition.

The team of bioplastics MAGAZINE is looking

forward to seeing you in Munich.

The conference will comprise high class presentations on

› Latest developments

› Market overview


› High temperature behaviour

› Blends and comounds

› Additives / Colorants

› Applications (film and rigid packaging, textile,

automotive,electronics, toys, and many more)

Contact us at:

for exhibition and sponsoring opportunities

› Fibers, fabrics, textiles, nonwovens

› Reinforcements

› End of life options

(recycling,composting, incineration etc)







Supported by:

Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging


and easy peel films


Warwick Armstrong

General Manager

Business Development and Marketing

Plantic Technologies

Altona, Victoria, Australia

The growing trend of consumer awareness towards

the impact of their actions on the environment has

seen Plantic Technologies Ltd (Altona, Victora, Australia),

a part of the Kuraray group, successful in supplying

some of the world’s largest retailers and produces

high barrier rigid bioplastic materials. Plantic’s thermoformable

rigid bottom webs are providing a new class in

ultra-high barrier films made from renewable

and recyclable materials.

Plantic Technologies has achieved a

unique place in the world market

for bioplastics through proprietary

technology that

delivers biodegradable

and renewable


alternatives to


plastics based on

corn and cassava,

which is not genetically


Unlike other bioplastics

companies who utilise

organic materials but whose

polymers are still developed in

refineries, Plantic’s polymer as well as its

raw material, are grown in a field. This means

that the resins are derived from the natural occurring

polymers in starch and converted in a proprietary process

into materials that can be used as a packaging material.

Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide consisting

of the polymers amylose and amylopectin and used as an

energy store in green plants. Larger amounts of starch

are particularly found in cereal crops (such as corn, wheat

and rice) and also tubers (such as potato and cassava).

The entire process integrates the science of organic

innovation with commercial and industrial productivity in

a new way. The result is both a broad range of immediate

performance and cost advantages, and long-term

environmental and sustainability benefits.


ES AND PLANTIC EF represent the company’s flagship

products for rigid and flexible packaging. These products

are a direct replacement for conventional polymers and

when compared with oil based products an independent

assessment (carried out by Quantis – Environmental

Life Cycle Assessment Consultants) found that Plantic’s

products use up to 40 % less energy and provide a

reduction in greenhouse gases by up to 70 %.

Plantic HP, a fully biodegradable high barrier structure

forms the core of all Plantic products and depending on

the customer needs the outer skins can be made to seal

onto conventional PE and PET sealing layers. Proving

popular amongst retailers is one of the latest released

products from Plantic: An easy peel skin pack range with

the ability to seal to PET and PE top webs that is available

in a wide range of colours and textures.

Plantic R, a fully recyclable high barrier product is being

used extensively for red meat applications. Plantic R seals

to most traditional PET based top webs. This rigid

product runs on all traditional thermoforming

lines and gives the producer the opportunity

to down gauge whilst achieving a higher

barrier performance and stronger

pack presentation.

Plantic Technologies is

supplying major supermarket


in Australia, Europe

and America

in applications

such as fresh case

ready beef, pork, lamb

and veal, smoked and

processed meats, chicken,

fresh pasta and cheese applications.

Plantic’s products

have proven to have exceptional

gas barrier properties which dramatically

extend the shelf life of the

packaged product (for more details

see bM 05/2015, pp. 40).

Plantic Technologies is expanding

rapidly and refining its technology to meet the ever growing

global needs for more environmentally and performance

efficient packaging materials. Plantic Technologies has

released a new range of flexible materials with the same

environmental and performance characteristics as their

rigid based structures. These flexible options are proving

already to be a preferred choice for many consumers,

retailers and processors.

“Plantic materials are not just about being a sustainable

material, it has an ultra-high barrier that can improve

the shelf life of a product, and reduce food waste. With

Plantic materials you can have an enormous impact on

value change and reduce the effects of climate change,

both by reducing food waste and using more sustainable

materials.” Brendan Morris Plantic Technologies Limited

CEO and Managing Director said.

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

World’s first, Plant-based

High Refractive Index Material

for Eyeglass Lenses,

Do Green MR

Mitsui Chemicals Inc. (MCI) has set out to contribute to society by

providing innovative, high quality products and services to customers

while maintaining harmony with the environment on a global scale.

MCI has over 30 years of experience in the development and

production of innovative optical lens materials for the global market,

particularly with its thin & lightweight eyeglass lenses made from the

“MR series” of high refractive index materials.

with the SWANS program of Yamamoto Kogaku Co., Ltd., which has

a history of designing sports products that offer comfort and

performance, and Itoh Optical Industrial Co., Ltd., which has

expertise in high-performance eyeglass lens manufacturing. The

sunglasses were provided not only to participating athletes but also

to referees at the triathlon and staff in the Executive Office. By

sponsoring the event, MCI not only provided plant-based

sunglasses, but also appealed to the social/ethical activities of the

Do Green initiative. MCI’s support was widely praised by the people

involved in the triathlon.

MR-60 plant-based lenses in standard eyeglasses

MCI has developed MR-60 , a plant-based high refractive index lens

material for standard eyeglasses, by using a biomass-derived

industrial isocyanate and a biomass-derived polythiol as well as a

non-metallic catalyst for polymerization. In 2014, MR-60 was

certified by the the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

as a plant-derived product with a biomass of 57%. It was also

certified by the Japan Organics Recycling Association (JORA) as a

plant-derived product with a biomass of 30-40%. The ultra-high

refractive index glass lens material MR-174 , which was previously

available on the market, also acquired certification as a plant-derived

product with a biomass of 82% from the USDA and as a

plant-derived product with a biomass of 30-40% from the JORA in


(The degree of biomass from JORA is

the ratio between fossil fuel-derived

carbon and biomass-derived ingredients;

the biomass degree from the USDA is

the ratio between fossil fuel-derived

carbon and biomass-derived carbon as

tested according to ASTM-D6866-12.)

MR-60 biomass certifications from


MR-60 plant-based lenses in sunglasses

MCI launched the first activity of the Do Green initiative during

October 27-29 th , 2015, with 153 farmers and residents of Gujarat,

India. The Do Green initiative strives to solve vision related issues

faced by farmers who produce the raw material of MCI’s

plant-derived product. The Do Green initiative relies on cooperation

with a local Indian optometrist and an eye care professional from the

Japanese lens specialty store Lensya. ICA Japan, a registered NGO,

and Holistic Child Development India, a local NGO in India, assisted

with coordination. The Do Green initiative began as a way to

contribute to society. MCI aims to connect manufacturers, retailers,

and consumers with the message of the Do Green initiative through

Do Green products.

MCI’s Do Green products include the world’s only plant-derived

poly-isocyanate STABiO ; Econykol , a polyol derived from castor oil

from seeds that are grown in Gujarat,India; as well as the plant-based

lens materials MR-60 and MR-174 . MCI is continuing to develop

new Do Green plant-based materials.

MCI was a sponsor of the “2015 World Triathlon Series Yokohama”

held in Yokohama, Japan, an event which aimed to “contribute to

society through sports” . The event utilized the sustainability

management system standard ISO 20121. MCI made the decision to

carry out joint development with Yokohama City on sunglasses made

with MR-60 . The sunglasses were produced through collaboration

Eye care professional conducting an

eye exam with a machine

Optometrist conducting an eye exam

(Do Green initiative in India)

MITSUI CHEMICALS EUROPE GmbH, Functional Chemicals Division

Oststr. 34, 40211 Dusseldorf, GERMANY,

E-mail:, TEL: +49-211-1733277, FAX: +49-211-1719970

Read more about MCI’s Do Green MR in “MR View No.7 & No.8” at the following URL.

Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging

a-PHA modified PLA

for thermoforming

Recent reports indicate an emerging market trend

toward sustainable packaging options due to environmental

awareness among consumers for alternatives

with improved biodegradability. For instance, the

Foodservice Packaging Institute’s 2015 Trends Report

found that there was an increasing focus on compostable

packaging and the expectation is that more companies

will need to address the demand for sustainable

packaging applications in the near future.

PLA is one of the more commonly used biopolymers

in industrial compostable applications. Because

PLA is derived from renewable sources, it is a sought

after solution for green packaging material. It is well

understood that the physical properties of PLA can

present challenges during processing as well as in

the performance of finished articles. One problem is

the inherent brittleness and relatively low toughness

of PLA that can present challenges in adapting the

biopolymer to new packaging applications. For example,

petroleum-based performance modifiers diminish

biobased content and at increased addition rates can

compromise compostability. This underscores the need

to identify new additives for PLA that improve properties

while maintaining biobased content and industrial


Metabolix, a leader in PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate)

technology, launched a new amorphous PHA (a-PHA)

biopolymer material in 2015. This a-PHA specialty

material is a high molecular weight, low T g

rubber that

extends the additive space for PHA materials. Metabolix

has reported research demonstrating the use of its

a-PHA as process aids and performance modifiers for

PVC as well as performance modifiers for PLA. It should

be noted that the results produced with a-PHA in PVC

and PLA are far superior to those using semi-crystalline

versions of PHA.

Metabolix has shown that a-PHA is an effective modifier

for PLA across a range of applications including food and

consumer product packaging, film, food service ware,

3D printing filament, fibers and nonwovens. In sheet and

thermoforming applications specifically, adding a-PHA at

low loading levels (such as less than 5 %) can eliminate

the brittle fracture commonly associated with the edge

trimming, conveying and cutting of extruded sheets and

thermoformed parts. Adding a-PHA also increases the

impact strength of the finished part, and at loading levels

up to 10 %, an increase in toughness and ductility can be

achieved to such an extent that it prevents brittle failure

and splintering under impact load. Ultimately, a-PHA

modified PLA shows an excellent balance of properties

and is not limited to the 1 % loading limit of a noncompostable

modifier per ASTM D6400.

PLA modified with a-PHA represents an attractive

option for producing thermoformed containers for food

service ware. These containers have high biocontent

and are industrially compostable, per ASTM D6400 and

EN13432. Furthermore, the containers are strong, and

because PHA and PLA are biopolymers with similar

refractive indices, the containers retain a very high level

of clarity.

Consumers, brand owners and regulators continue to

drive incentives to utilize sustainable packaging materials

for carry out options as well as divert food waste from

landfills. Companies looking to meet growing demands

for compostable packaging

options should explore

a-PHA modified PLA

materials as a solution

for their food service and

consumer packaging



Michael Andrews

Director Product and Application Development

Metabolix, Inc.

Lowell, Massachussetts, USA

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11


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Marine pollution / Marine degradation

Plastics, biodegradation, and

risk assessment

Bioplastics: facts and perceptions

After 25 years on the market, we ought to know a lot

about bioplastics. Standardisation has exacted definitions

for the term, testing methods have validated their proper

recovery and, above all, industry has established a clear

purpose for their intended use. However, despite these

foundations, knowledge of what bioplastics actually are

remains confined to small circles of experts while public

opinion is at best confused. Under these circumstances,

the spread of myths and misinformation can produce a

ripple effect that threatens the acceptance of bioplastics

as a whole. Some concepts are often misunderstood (e. g.

bio-based is often synonymized with biodegradability

(in this article we will use the term bioplastics to mean

biodegradable plastics); the existence of standards is

not properly valued, so much so that sometimes we see

“biodegradable” plastics in quotation marks implying that

the supposed biodegradability has yet to be demonstrated.

Bioplastics and the marine environment

The lack of clarity about bioplastics recently surfaced in

discussions of marine litter. The problem of plastic marine

debris is not new; careless waste management requires

a serious investment in awareness, prevention, and

recovery programs at global scales. However, bioplastics

have been unwittingly dragged into the debate, with the

misperception that they could easily solve the chronic

problem of marine litter. The bioplastics industry does not

consider biodegradability as a license for littering in the

environment for several reasons that follow.

The value of biodegradability

Packaging and consumer products must have the

potential to be recovered in some way at their end of

use. In certain contexts, biodegradability allows recovery

through organic recycling. This option is contemplated

by the European Directive on Packaging [1] and it is

beneficial whenever packaging is mixed with kitchen

waste (biowaste). In fact the combination of plastic/

biowaste is not recyclable: food dirties the plastic and

plastics contaminate food. However the combination of

bioplastic/biowaste is recyclable into compost. The CEN

standard EN 13432 [2] identifies packaging for organic

recycling but makes no claims of biodegradability in any

other environment including the sea. The EN 13432 scope

is crystal-clear; there is no room for misunderstanding.

Biodegradable plastics and recycling

The contamination of plastic recycling represents another

issue that surfaces whenever a debate on bioplastics

starts. What’s surprising is that technically speaking

plastics recycling simply does not exist because the term

plastics is a collective term including different materials

that are incompatible with one another and can only be

recycled separately. Cross contamination is always an

impediment to recycling (e. g. non-biodegradable plastics

interfere with recycling of biowaste). The management of

end-of-life must comply with the specific features of each

product and waste stream. Whenever separate collection

is practiced, bioplastics are recoverable through organic

recycling and incentivize proper waste management.

Biodegradation in nature

To avoid misleading communications, it is critical

that the term biodegradable only be associated with

the relevant degradation environment (where) and

its associated conditions (how much and how long).

In agriculture, tests specific to soil define mulch film

Fig. 1:Testing degradation in an aquarium

(photo: HYDRA Institute for Marine Sciences)

Fig. 2: Testing biodegradation in sediment

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Marine pollution / Marine degradation


Francesco Degli Innocenti

Ecology of Products and Environmental Communication


Novara, Italy

biodegradation because this depositional environment

is microbiologically different from composting. Similarly,

tests specific to the marine environment are now under

development (cf fig. 1). Novamont studied the behaviour

of MATER-BI through ASTM [3] and ISO [4] test methods

(cf fig. 2). Tests performed in marine sediments showed

biodegradation (as CO 2

evolution) in excess of 90 %

(absolute or relative to cellulose) in less than one year;

Certiquality (Certification Institute; Milan,) verified

these results within the European Commission’s pilot

program ETV [5]. These results are in agreement with

previous findings [6].

Biodegradability and risk assessment

How should we interpret these very promising

biodegradation data? Generally speaking, the

environmental risk depends on the concentration of

the environmental stressor and on its residence time

in the environment. The lower the concentration and

the shorter the residence time, the better. Bioplastics

do not immediately disappear upon exposure to the

sea. However, biodegradability is a factor that reduces

the risk by reducing the stressor’s residence time.

Therefore, on one hand the idea of solving the problem

of plastics in the ocean just by shifting to bioplastics is

unfounded. On the other hand, for those applications

where accidental release is certain or very probable,

biodegradability can become a means of decreasing

the environmental risk. Materials that show full and

relatively fast biodegradation may be suitable for plastic

products known to wear down or become stranded

(for example, fishing gear) and scatter into the sea.

Bioplastics like MATER-BI materials hold promise for

aquaculture professional applications (e. g. nets for

mussels farming, cf. fig. 3) where the disposal of plastic

waste is an inevitable outcome.

Fig. 3: Mussel farming nets (Source unknown, found e. g. in

presentations by ISPRA [7])

[1] European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC of 20

December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste

[2] EN 13432:2000 Packaging. Requirements for packaging

recoverable through composting and biodegradation. Test scheme

and evaluation criteria for the final acceptance of packaging

[3] ASTM D7991 – 15 Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic

Biodegradation of Plastics Buried in Sandy Marine Sediment under

Controlled Laboratory Conditions

[4] ISO/DIS 19679 Plastics — Determination of aerobic biodegradation

of non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sediment interface

— Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide


[6] F. Degli Innocenti (2012) Single-use carrier bags: littering, bans and

biodegradation in sea water. Bioplastic Magazine 042012 (vol 7):44-




bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 17

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

Designing for biodegradability

in ocean environment

A solution or exacerbating the solution?

The Problem

The issue of plastics and microplastics leaking into the

oceans is the subject of much discussion and concern [1].

Articles in print and electronic media document not only

the unmanaged plastic waste entering the oceans but the

negative impacts on the marine ecosystem as a whole

[2 – 4].

United Nations (UN) estimates suggest that 80 % of

ocean plastic comes from land based sources, and the

actual number is probably higher [1]. These estimates

are based on the fact that most plastic waste is typically

buoyant and that much of it could be found floating across

the ocean in the large gyres. The remaining 20 % of

ocean plastic is believed to originate from marine-based

sources, such as oil rigs, fishing vessels, piers, and boats

transporting freight or passengers.

In a recent paper published in the high impact peer

reviewed journal Science [5], we reported that in 2012, 4.8

to 12.7 million tons of plastics leaked into oceans from

land based mismanaged wastes in 192 countries located

within 50 km of a coast – primarily from the developing

countries of Asia. This is shown in detail in figure 1. The

mismanaged plastic waste shown as blue bars goes

from 31.9 million tons in 2010 to 69.9 million tons in 2025

without any intervention and business as usual. The red,

green, and orange bars represent three different scenarios

of mismanaged waste leakage into the oceans – 15 %,

25 %, and 40 % for each of the years. Therefore, without

any intervention, 10.4 to 27.7 million tons of mismanaged

plastic waste in these costal countries will leak into the

oceans by 2025. These are conservative figures and other

literature papers put this number much higher.

Is marine biodegradability a solution or


In response, scientists and technologists in academe

and industry are developing and introducing plastics

for biodegradability in the marine environment as

a solution to the problem of plastic pollution of the

oceans. There are ASTM standards for determining

the percent biodegradability in marine environment –

ASTM D6691 is Standard Test Method for Determining

Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in the Marine

Environment by a Defined Microbial Consortium or

Natural Sea Water Inoculum; ASTM D7473-12 Standard

Test Method for Weight Attrition of Plastic Materials

in the Marine Environment by Open System Aquarium

Incubations; a new Standard Test Method for Determining

Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastics Buried in Sandy

Marine Sediment under Controlled Laboratory Conditions.

The operating temperatures for these laboratory scale

test methods are around 23 to 28 °C. Certain PHA

(polyhydroxyalkanoates) films show 80 %+ biodegradability

in river water at 25 °C as shown in figure 2. Synthetic

polyesters – polyethylene succinate, polyethylene adipate,

and polybutylene adipate are biodegradable in river water

at 25 °C as shown in figure 3.

Fig. 1: Land based mismanaged plastic waste from 192 countries located within 50 km of a coast –

primarily from the developing countries of Asia [5]




Mismanaged plastic waste (MMT/year)

15% leakage to ocean

25% leakage to ocean

40% leakage to ocean








2010 2015 2020 2025


18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Marine pollution / Marine degradation


Ramani Narayan

Distinguished Professor,

and Sayli Bote

Research Assistant at Biobased Materials Research Group

Michigan State University

East Lansing, Michigan, USA

However, the ocean (marine) environment is NOT

a managed disposal environment like composting or

anaerobic digestion which are sound end-of-life options

for food and biowaste components of the solid waste

stream along with truly and completely biodegradablecompostable

plastics. Furthermore, ocean temperatures

drop precipitously as you go down in depth (4 ° C on reaching

2,000 m) and the ocean environment can be much different

and less active than the lab test environment. So these

marine biodegradable plastics (which show complete

biodegradability in a lab test method) could remain in

ocean environments for very long period of time and cause

serious environmental impacts that have been recorded

for ocean microplastic wastes.

Therefore, designing for marine biodegradability is

NOT A SOLUTION to plastics pollution in the ocean

environment. The goal should be to prevent these

plastics from entering the ocean environment in the first

place. For products used in the marine environment like

fishing nets, lobster pots, biodegradability may provide a

value attribute so that if it is inadvertently lost and enter

into the ocean environment they are utilizable as food by

the microbial populations over a period of time. However,

this cannot and should not be used for making marketing

claims especially in Business to Consumer (B2C)

communication. The marine biodegradability test method

Standards are useful in evaluating the persistence, fate,

and impact of plastics in the ocean environment but not to

be used in marketing claims.

Solution for microplastics in ocean

environment and the role for biodegradability.

Another major finding of the Science paper (5) is that

reducing the amount of land based mismanaged wastes

generated in these developing Asian countries would

significantly reduce plastics waste entering into the

oceans. For example:

• Reducing mismanaged waste by 50 % in the Top 5

countries corresponds to a 26 % reduction.

• Reducing mismanaged waste by 50 % in Top 10

countries corresponds to a 34 % reduction.

• Reducing mismanaged waste by 50 % in Top 20

countries corresponds to 45 % reduction.

• Reducing mismanaged waste by 50 % in Top 35

countries corresponds to 75 % reduction.

Figure 4 schematically shows the effect of this reduction

on the overall land based mismanaged waste generation

(blue bar) – from 69.1million tons with zero intervention

BOD-biodegradability (%)






P(3HB-co-36 % 3HP)




0 7 14 21 28

Time (day)

Fig. 2: Biodegradability of PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoates) films in

river water at 250 °C

Fig. 3: Biodegradability of synthetic polyesters in river water at

25 °C [5]

BOD-biodegradability (%)






Poly(ethyelene succinate)

Poly(ethylene adipate)

Poly(butylene adipate)

Poly(butylene sebacate)


0 7 14 21 28

Time (day)

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 19

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

in 2012 to 17.1 million tons in 2025 by just reducing the

mismanaged waste by 50 % in the top 35 countries. The red,

green, and orange bars show the corresponding reductions

in the amount of the mismanaged plastic waste entering the

oceans based on 15 %, 25 %, and 40 % leakage – for example

if one assumes the 15 % leakage scenario, the amount of

plastic waste entering the oceans is reduced from 10.4 million

tons to 2.1 million tons (red bar, figure 4).

Therefore, developing systems to divert land based

mismanaged plastic waste to managed end-of-life disposal

systems like recycling, waste-to-energy, and composting or

anaerobic digestors would prevent the mismanaged plastic

waste from entering into the oceans. These efforts along with

educational and consumer awareness messaging can clearly

advance the goal to cleaner ocean environment.


Keep plastics out of the marine environment through:

• Recover organics (biowastes) and compostable plastics

through compostable and anaerobic digestion. Design for

compostability/biodegradability in managed end-of-life disposal

systems for single use, disposable, packaging and molded

products and remove it from the mismanaged waste stream

• Recover value plastics for mechanical or chemical

recycling including waste to energy


1. Microplastics in the ocean: A global assessment, United Nations Joint

Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP),

Working Group 40, 2015,

2. ‘Plastics, the environment and human health’ compiled by R. C.

Thompson, C. J. Moore, F. S. vom Saal and S. H. Swan Phil. Trans. R. Soc.

London, Ser. B 264 (2009) doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0030

3. A. A. Koelmans, E. Besseling, and E. M. Foekema, “Leaching of plastic

additives to marine organisms,” Environmental Pollution, 2014, Volume

187, pp. 49–54; C. K. Pham, E. Ramirez Llodra, C. H. S. Alt, T. Amaro, M.

Bergmann, M. Canals, J. B. Company, J. Davies, G. Duineveld, F. Galgani,

K. L. Howell, V. A. I. Huvenne, E. Isidro, D. O. B. Jones, G. Lastras, T.

Morato, J. N. Gomes-Pereira, A. Purser, H. Stewart, I. Tojeira, X. Tubau, D.

V. Rooij, and P. A. Tyler, “Marine litter distribution and density in European

seas, from the shelves to deep basins,” PLoS ONE, 2014, Volume 9,

Number 4; Y. C. Jang, J. Lee, S. Hong, J. Y. Mok, K. S. Kim, Y. J. Lee, H.

W. Choi, H. Kang, and S. Lee, “Estimation of the annual flow and stock

of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes,” Marine

Pollution Bulletin, 2014, Volume 86, Numbers 1–2, pp. 505–11; Trash free

seas report: Every piece, every person, every community matters; Results

from the 2014 International Coastal Cleanup, Ocean Conservancy, 2015,

4. C. M. Rochman, E. Hoh, T. Kurobe, and S. J. Teh, “Ingested plastic

transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress,”

Scientific Reports, 2013, Volume 3; C. M. Rochman, T. Kurobe, I.

Flores, and S. J. Teh, “Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in

adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed

chemical pollutants from the marine environment,” Science of the Total

Environment, 2014, Volume 493, pp. 656–61.

5. Jenna R. Jambeck, Roland Geyer, Chris Wilcox, Theodore R. Siegler,

Miriam Perryman, Anthony Andrady, Ramani Narayan, Kara Lavender Law,

Science, Vol 347, Issue 6223, pg 768, 2015

6. Y. Doi et al. Polym. Deg. & Stab., 51, 281, 1996

Fig 4: Reducing mismanaged plastic waste by controlled managed waste systems reduces plastic waste

leakage into ocean




Mismanaged plastic waste (MMT/year)

15 % leakage to ocean

25 % leakage to ocean

40 % leakage to ocean








0 26 34 41 75

Reduction (%)


for Plastics

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20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

PHA – truly biodegradable

Most packaging will far outlast the useful life of any of

the products they protect, causing a growing concern

for packaging disposal due to the shortage of space

for landfills. Furthermore, burning is not a sustainable option

in many countries since some traditional plastics can create

toxic fumes which cause damage to people’s health and the


The advantages of traditional plastics are widely recognized.

The challenge is making materials that are just as effective

while eliminating any detrimental effects to our planet. There

is a tremendous amount of research in the area of bioplastics,

with the promise of medium chain length (mcl) PHAs leading

the way as a viable alternative to traditional polymers.

To understand the difference between mcl PHAs and other

biopolymer alternatives, it is helpful to understand what mcl

PHA’s are and how they are made. Medium chain length PHA

polyesters are produced by a natural bacterial fermentation

process. Selected bacteria are fed natural food sources such

as sugars, lipids, or fatty acids to produce PHAs granules as

an energy reserve, much like humans store fat in their bodies.

These granules are harvested by fracturing the cell walls of the

host bacteria and separating the PHA granules from the cell

debris. This highly controlled process yields polyesters within

specific ranges of molecular weights, chain lengths, and comonomers

allowing MHG to produce polymers with a wide

array of physical and mechanical properties, including barrier

properties suitable for food packaging. Extensive testing is

currently underway with committed brand owners who are

working to validate these materials in several manufacturing

disciplines. Commercial launch of elected products will occur

before the end of 2016, with PHA being commercially available

to the general marketplace in 2018.

Unlike most biopolymers available today, PHA is not just

compostable in industrial composting plants. Although

industrial compostability is a giant step in the right direction,

the conditions must be conducive for hydrolysis to promote the

polymer decomposition. PHA polymers degrade enzymatically

and have a decomposition profile similar to cellulose.

Virtually any environment that contain microbials will utilize

PHA polymers as a food source and consume it. Thus PHA

is, what MHG calls “truly biodegradable” – meaning it also

degrades in a home composter as well as in soil, sweet- and

sea water. These claims have been independently verified by

the most recognized certification body in the world, Vinçotte

International. Vinçotte awarded MHG all available certifications

for safe biodegradation, including their first ever “OK Marine

Biodegradable” certification, validating the legitimacy of the

testing to recognized international standards.

MHG is proud of achieving this milestone as a step toward

helping the planet. Over the past years, the growing level of

pollution contaminating the oceans has been highlighted

in all traditional and social media. The ugly truth is that

pollution is a blight on all environments wherever it occurs,

and proven to be very difficult to control in some areas. MHG

does include biodegradability as one of many attributes of

this amazing new polymer. However, MHG in no way promotes

or condones the improper disposal of any material. Only the

brand owners can choose to best way to market the attributes

of MHG polymers since they alone determine what features

bring value to their brand or product. But when litter does

occur and PHA materials inadvertently find their way into the

ecosystem, PHA materials by MHG provide the final level of

insurance, allowing microorganisms to return these polymers

to the earth. Just like they would with any other natural food

source in their environment.


John T. Moore

Vice President- Business Development

Meredian Holdings Group

Bainbridge, Georgia, USA

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 21

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

Trash is mobile

OK biodegradable MARINE certification


Petra Michiels

Contract Manager


Vilvoorde, Belgium

If gravity would not exist

Trash is mobile. Certainly plastic items are usually very

light and are transported by rivers and winds. Gravity brings

garbage down to the sea level. If gravity would not exist, the

floating trash islands at sea would not have grown to such

vast extensions.

The cause of marine debris is mainly located at land.

Depending on the literature, land based sources account

for 60 to 90 % of marine litter globally. Solving a problem by

tackling its root is always more effective than just fighting its

symptoms. Therefore the solution for marine debris has to be

sought mostly at land.

Prevention and remediation

When it comes to solving problems, of whatever kind, this

can be done either before the problem occurs: by prevention,

or afterwards, by remediation.

In the case of marine debris, prevention can be stimulated

by market instruments such as subsidies or oppositely taxes,

or a legal ban of certain materials. Also communication and

education can change attitudes regarding litter. Any litter that

is avoided, whether it is high in the mountains, in cities or at

the sea shores, helps against the marine debris problem.

Remediation is the removal of garbage. This can be done by

active human intervention. Or if a material is biodegradable

in a marine environment, it disappears without further

interaction needed.

Dread in perspective

Marine biodegradable products are a very sensitive topic.

The perceived dread is that it could accidently encourage

people to litter at sea. However, this perception is based on

the idea that marine debris is mainly created at sea. And

also on the thought that people would indeed increase their

littering when they know a product biodegrades. These are

assumptions that need to be put in perspective.

Scope of products

When launching the OK biodegradable MARINE certification

system in March 2015, the risk of misunderstandings amongst

consumers was treated with high priority. Therefore in this

certification system, a clear distinction is made between:

(1) the certification of the claim of marine biodegradation and

(2) the authorization to communicate about this certification.

Only for a very limited group of products, authorization to

communicate on the product about the OK biodegradable

MARINE certificate is allowed. It concerns products that

are actually used – and therefore unavoidably spilled – in

the marine environment (e. g. fishing line, fishing baits, cull

panel, etc.). For these products, marine biodegradability can

actually be a real interest to their consumers.

Mentioning the OK biodegradable MARINE logo on all

other products that could possibly encourage the customer

to marine littering is not allowed. For these products

marine biodegradability is an unknown functionality with an

intrinsic added value: if it inadvertently ends up in the marine

environment, it will be utilized by microorganisms.

Verification of the claim

Marine biodegradability is an added value to any product

or packaging regardless of where it is consumed. The

chance that it eventually ends up at sea will always exist.

Any supplier who invests in adding this functionality to his

product or packaging should have the opportunity to have this

information verified according to international standards. This

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

verification is not only a reference to harmonize the claim

but also offers the supplier the opportunity to distinguish

his truly marine biodegradable product from any doubtful

claim of his competitors.

Therefore there is a need for a neutral verification

system of the claim of marine biodegradability. In March

2015 Vinçotte has launched the OK biodegradable MARINE

certification system. Before a product can be certified,

it is tested in four different ways, based on the following


• biodegradation: measured by oxygen consumption or

CO 2

production: OECD 306, ISO 16221, ASTM D6691

• ecotoxicity: water quality is measured on aquatic

organisms (daphnids, fish, algea, cyanobacteria, …

according to the relevant OECD standards or OPPTS


• disintegration: in lack of an international standard, a

set of requirements (delay, temperature, replicates,

pass levels, …) is developed specifically for the OK

biodegradable MARINE certification in cooperation with

international experts

• limits of heavy metals and fluor content: ISO 17088,

and a limit for cobalt as defined in ASTM D6400

To conclude

It is hard to tell which remedy will be proven to be most

effective against marine debris. Trash that has the inherent

capacity of disappearing without human intervention is

without no doubt a plus. Having said this, negative side effects

e. g. possible confusion of consumers must not be overlooked.

However the need for a unique verification system in order

to avoid all sorts of claims regarding marine biodegradability

is not in dispute.

organized by

supported by

20. - 22.10.2016

Messe Düsseldorf, Germany

Bioplastics in







PLA, an Innovative


Bioplastics in

Durable Applications

Subject to changes

Call for Papers now open

Contact: Dr. Michael Thielen (

At the World‘s biggest trade show on plastics and rubber:

K‘2016 in Düsseldorf bioplastics will certainly play an

important role again.

On three days during the show from Oct 20 - 22, 2016

bioplastics MAGAZINE will host a Bioplastics Business

Breakfast: From 8 am to 12 noon the delegates get the

chance to listen and discuss highclass presentations and

benefit from a unique networking opportunity.

The trade fair opens at 10 am.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 23

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

UNEP Report

on biodegradable plastics & marine litter

Summarized and interpreted by

Karen Laird and Michael Thielen

Photo: Ludwig Tröller / CreativeCommons

In November 2015 the United Nations Environment Programme

(UNEP) published a report, entitled “Biodegradable

Plastics and Marine Litter. Misconceptions,

Concerns and Impacts on Marine Environments”.

The objective of (the) briefing paper is to provide a

concise summary of some of the key issues surrounding

the biodegradability of plastics in the oceans, and whether

the adoption of biodegradable plastics will reduce the

impact of marine plastics overall [1].

Plastic debris is ubiquitous in the marine environment,

comes from a multitude of sources and is composed of a

great variety of polymers and copolymers [1].

It has been suggested that plastics considered to be

biodegradable may play an important role in reducing the

impact of ocean plastics. Environmental biodegradation is

the partial or complete breakdown of a polymer as a result

of microbial activity, into CO 2

, H 2

O and biomasses, as a

result of a combination of hydrolysis, photodegradation

and microbial action (enzyme secretion and within-cell

processes). Although this property may be appealing, it is

critical to evaluate the potential of ‘biodegradable’ plastics

in terms of their impact on the marine environment, before

encouraging wider use [1].

The report found that complete biodegradation of plastics

occurs in conditions that are rarely, if ever, met in marine

environments, with some polymers requiring industrial

composters and prolonged temperatures of above 50 °C

to disintegrate. There is also limited evidence suggesting

that labelling products as biodegradable increases the

public’s inclination to litter, as some people are attracted

by technological solutions as an alternative to changing

behaviour. Labelling a product as biodegradable may be

seen as a technical fix that removes responsibility from

the individual, resulting in a reluctance to take action.

As stated in the report, plastics most commonly used

for general applications, such as polyethylene (PE),

polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are not

biodegradable in marine environments (nor in any other,

MT). Polymers, which biodegrade under favourable

conditions on land, such as acetyl cellulose (AcC),

UN Photo Martine Perret

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

polybutylene succinate (PBS), polycaprolactone (PCL),

polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and others are much slower to

break up in the ocean and their widespread adoption

is likely to contribute to marine litter and consequent

undesirable consequences for marine ecosystems.

“Recent estimates from UNEP have shown as much as

20 million tonnes of plastic end up in the world’s oceans

each year,” said Achim Steiner, Executive Director of the

UN Environment Programme (UNEP) in a press release.

“Once in the ocean, plastic does not go away, but breaks

down into microplastic particles. This report shows there

are no quick fixes, and a more responsible approach to

managing the lifecycle of plastics will be needed to reduce

their impacts on our oceans and ecosystems.”

These microplastics have, in recent years, become a

source of growing concern. Microplastics are particles

up to five millimetres in diameter, that are either

manufactured or created when plastic breaks down. Their

ingestion has been widely reported in marine organisms,

including seabirds, fish, mussels, worms and zooplankton.

The UNEP study also analyzed the environmental

impacts of oxo-degradable plastics, enriched with a pro

oxidant, such as manganese, which precipitates their

fragmentation. It found that in marine environments

even this fragmentation is fairly slow and can take

up to 5 years, during which products made from this

type of plastic continue to pollute the ocean. Moreover,

convincing evidence showing that oxo-degradable

polymers completely biodegrade to CO 2

and water after

fragmentation is still lacking.

According to UNEP, oxo-degradable plastics can pose

a threat to marine ecosystems even after fragmentation.

The report says it should be assumed that microplastics

created in the fragmentation process remain in the ocean,

where they can be ingested by marine organisms and

facilitate the transport of harmful microbes, pathogens

and algal species. The report also quotes a UK government

review that stated that “oxo-degradable plastics did not

provide a lower environmental impact compared with

conventional plastics”. The recommended solutions for

dealing with end-of-life oxo-degradable plastics were

incineration (first choice) or landfill. In addition, the

authors observed that: as the (oxo-degradable) plastics

will not degrade for approximately 2 – 5 years, they will still

remain visible as litter before they start to degrade.

The report more or less confirms what many in the

industry have known for a long time, and it contains

important information for the public at large – both as

regards oxo-degradable plastics and biodegradable


Well-written and well-researched, the report is by

no means an attack on biobased plastics, but rather an

attempt to get a message out and to create awareness.

As its authors put it: “Assessing the impact of plastics in

the environment, and communicating the conclusions to

a disparate audience is challenging. The science itself is

complex and multidisciplinary. Some synthetic polymers

are made from biomass and some from fossil fuels,

and some can be made from either. Polymers derived

from fossil fuels can be biodegradable. Conversely,

some polymers made from biomass sources, such

as maize, may be non-biodegradable. Apart from the

polymer composition, material behaviour is linked to

the environmental setting, which can be very variable in

the ocean. The conditions under which biodegradable

polymers will actually biodegrade vary widely.”

And the report closes with the final conclusion: On the

balance of the available evidence, biodegradable plastics

will not play a significant role in reducing marine litter [1].

[1] UNEP 2015. Biodegradable Plastics & Marine Litter. Misconceptions,

Concerns and Impacts on Marine Environments. Nairobi.

a pdf-version is available at

Photo: M. Thielen,

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 25

Marine pollution / Marine degradation

Statement of Open Bio

to the UNEP (2015) report on „Biodegradable Plastics and Marine Litter.

Misconceptions, concerns and impacts on marine environments.”

Executive summary

While the Open- Bio consortium generally appreciates the

UNEP report (cf. pp. 24 in this issue of bM) for its contributions

to explaining and clarifying many aspects concerning the

relation between different plastic materials and marine

plastic litter, several aspects are criticized as well.

• Both the summary and the conclusion simplify matters

too much, thus inviting confusion by the public and

policy makers.

• Some of the final conclusions concerning the possible

role of biodegradable plastics are not solution- oriented

and remain rather pessimistic, whereas the main text

offers several well- elaborated segments of the general

topic, where solutions via market regulation, legislation,

directed scientific research and industrial development

could be achieved in relatively short time or may be

readily adopted through political action.

• The statements on rate of biodegradation and impact

made by the report are not differentiated enough. More

research is clearly needed.

• In terms of communication and labelling, even more

concise wording is needed and a strict distinction

should be made between B2B communication and B2C

communication in order to avoid litter.

The Open- Bio statement furthermore offers some

corrections to technical mistakes of the UNEP report and

preliminary results from the project’s research.

The Open- Bio group concludes that biodegradable

plastics are not a solution to littering. Littering

must be opposed by means of prevention, waste

management (that includes separate collection and

organic recycling of biodegradable plastics), public

awareness, etc. On the other hand, plastics that

are shown to be truly biodegradable in the marine

environment could be profitably used in those

applications where dispersion in the sea is certain or

highly probable (e. g. fishing gear, fish farming gear,

beach gear, paint, etc.).

General considerations

It is certain that littering needs to be avoided and

reduced possibly to zero by all means (prevention,

cutting waste streams, raising public awareness,

etc.). But for certain applications it is inevitable that

plastic products will enter the oceans, via rivers or

e. g. by loss of fishing gear or wear of tourist beach

equipment. Wouldn’t it be better if this litter was

biodegradable? This is stated with always seeing that

biodegradable litter is still litter, and should also be

avoided at all means! However, it will at least not

remain there forever, compared to non- biodegradable

plastic litter.

Rate of biodegradation and its risk assessment

A point of critique concerns the frequently mentioned rate

of (bio)degradation in the UNEP report. It is not differentiated

between the inherent biodegradation rate of an industrial

biodegradable material and the degradation rate of the item

that finally ends up in the environment. The report states that

biodegradable plastics do degrade under marine conditions

but are much slower than in industrial composting, and

also when tested in gastrointestinal fluids of a turtles, and

will therefore still harm the marine environment. Most

biodegradable plastics are not water- soluble. This means

that the biodegradable plastic products will not immediately

“disappear” when they reach the sea but persist in this

environment for a given time (a residence time). By means of

a risk assessment it is possible to characterize the magnitude

of risks to ecological receptors (e.g. mammals, birds, fish,

corals, microorganisms or even whole ecosystems) from the

stressors, that may be present in the environment. Plastic

items littered to the sea do have impact on several levels,

some of which are well documented and some still lack

scientific knowledge (GESAMP 2015, Bergmann et al. 2015).


In terms of impact to the marine environment, little

research has been completed comparing non- biodegradable

and biodegradable plastics. There are scientific studies on

the impacts of non- biodegradable litter and parts of the

knowledge can be transferred to biodegradable litter, but

not all of it. More research on the impact of biodegradable

polymers is clearly needed. Therefore we think that the

statement of the UNEP report is important, however a bit


The global perspective

In the discussion we miss the global view and also more

options for developing countries. Many have currently

no (or insufficient) waste management infrastructures

in place. But the plastic consumption in many of these

countries (esp. China, Indonesia, India, etc.) are expected

to rise tremendously in the coming years. In the case of

mismanagement and the waste ending up in the ocean, it

would not remain there forever when it is biodegradable

under marine conditions.


Biodegradable plastics do not hinder plastic recycling

by being ‘biodegradable’ or ‘compostable’ (investigated

by Open- Bio consortium, Task 6.4), but because recycling

requires pure waste streams. Any contamination of a waste

stream of a particular plastic (e. g. PE) with another type

of polymer (whether it is biodegradable or not) requires

good separation practices. Only so called ‘oxo- degradable’

plastics pose a threat to plastic recycling by compromising

the quality of the final product.

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

This is the short version - source:


The long version is available at:


The labelling of ‘oxo- degradable’ plastics as

‘biodegradable’ or ‘compostable’ is not correct (see

EN 13432:2000) because these materials simply

fragment and do not biodegrade, no matter where

their life cycle will end. Open- Bio confirms that a

label or certification should be not misleading and

should not lead to wrong behaviours. The information

should preferably only be used at the industrial

level to describe material properties to business

partners, but not on a broad consumer level unless

necessary. Based on the current state of knowledge

we recommend also not to label a product for the

general public unless necessary for the specific

application, but to enforce by political means that

those products which will certainly or probably end up

in the marine environment need to be biodegradable

in the specific marine environment of application. The

Open- Bio team is currently working on an update of

the standard methodology taking into account the

current standards for marine biodegradation (see

Open- Bio D5.5).

First results from Open- Bio and further


First results from Open- Bio do confirm the

statement of the report that degradation is slower

under marine conditions than under composting

conditions and that it depends on the material type

and specific environmental conditions. The work

within Open- Bio shows that the tested polymers do

biodegrade under optimal laboratory conditions.

Linking the lab data with the data we obtain from field

and mesocosm experiments will allow us to validate

the lab test. Further ecotoxicological tests should be

added to the tests, which will provide more insight on

the impact of biodegradation. The goal is to develop a

test scheme and specifications (time and percentage

of biodegradation, temperature range, etc.) for

the biodegradation under marine conditions to be

finalised by a standardisation organisation. That will

provide policy makers and the industry with a good

instrument to implement biodegradable polymers

where they can be part of a concept to mitigate

unavoidable marine litter.

Polymers that are proven to be biodegradable

in the marine environment can thus improve the

situation in case plastic is not to be replaced by other

materials, in concert with all possible measures like

prevention, waste management, public awareness,

etc. Summarising the mentioned points, we think that

the public, mass- media, industry and policy makers

have a great potential and possibilities to support the

protection of the environment here. •



29/30 November 2016

Steigenberger Hotel Berlin




For more information email:

@EUBioplastics #eubpconf2016

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 27

Booth Company on Floorplan

C8B05 Anhui Tianyi Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.

N3P11 AU CO., LTD. 1

N3L09 BASF (China) Company Ltd. 2

N3M15 bioplastics MAGAZINE 3

N3A21 China XD Plastics Company Ltd.

N3J61 Coating p. Materials co., Ltd.

N1F01 Croda Europe Ltd

N4F01 Dandong Ritian Nano Technology CO., LTD.

N3S45 Doill Ecotec Co., Ltd., Korea 4

N3S41 Dongguan Xinhai environmental protection material Co., Ltd. 5

N2E51 Emery Oleochemicals HK LTD

N3K01 EnerPlastics L.L.C. 6

N1C21 Evonik Degussa (China) Co., Ltd.

N3P59 Fukutomi Company Ltd.

N4M01 Gema Elektro Plastik VE Elektronik San. Dis Tic. A.S.

N3L05 GRABIO Greentech Corporation 7

C9B51 GuangDong ShunDe LuHua Photoelectric New Mat. Ind.Co.

N2R01 Hairma Chemicals (GZ) Ltd.

N4L21 Hebei Jingu Plasticizer Co., LTD.

N2S15 Jacobson van den Berg (Hong Kong) Ltd

N3R41 Jetwell Trading Limited

N3M19 Jiangsu Jinhe Hi-tech Co.,Ltd 8

N3K15 Jiangsu Torise Biomaterials Co., Ltd 9

C10F17 Jinan Shengquan Group Co.,Ltd

N3L01 JinHui ZhaoLong High-Tech Co.,Ltd 10

N1G41 Kingfa Science and Technology Co., Ltd

N1G01 Kuraray (Shanghai) Co., Ltd

C13F61 Lifeline Technologies

C2E41 Maosheng Environmental Protection Technology Co.,Ltd

N3M15 Matchexpo 3

N3L07 Minima Technology Co., Ltd. 11

N3L51 Miracll Chemicals Co., Ltd.

N1E01 Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation

N3K09 Natureworks LLC 12

N1B01 Ngai Hing Hong Plastic Materials (HK) Ltd.

N3K05 Polyalloy Inc. 13

W1D55 Procotex Corporation

N3P01 Proviron Functional Chemicals N.V. 14

C11F41 Rajiv Plastic Industries

N3K11 Reverdia 15

N3L21 Roquette 16

N2D41 Samyang Corporation

N4J61 Shandong Jiqing Chemcal Co., Ltd.

C8E51 Shanghai Xiner Low-carbon Environmental Technology Co., Ltd

N4K09 Shenzhen All Technology Limited

N3M11 Shenzhen Esun Industrial Co., Ltd. 17

N3M17 Shenzhen Polymer Industry Association 30

N1L25 Sukano Sdn Bhd

N3M05 Suzhou Hanfeng New Material Co.,Ltd. 18

N3S51 Suzhou Hydal Biotech Co.,Ltd 19

N3S49 Suzhou Mitac Precision Technology Co., Ltd. 20

N3M03 Taizhou Sudarshan New Material Co.,Ltd 21

N1F41 Teijin Kasei (HK) Ltd

N3S43 TÜV Rheinland (Shnghai) CO LTD 22

N3L11 Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH 23

W3M15 Wei Li Plastics Machinery (H.K.) Ltd

C13A21 WeiFang Graceland Chemicals CO., LTD

N3L15 Weihai Lianqiao New Material Science&Technology Co.,Ltd 24

C14E51 Woosung Chemical CO.,Ltd.

N3K21 Wuhan Huali Environmental Technology Co., Ltd. 25

N3P51 Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester co., ltD.

N3M01 Yat Shun Hong Company Ltd 26

C13A49 Yongxi Plastics Technology

N3M21 Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd 27

N3K07 Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd. 28

N3P01 Zhejiang Pu Wei Lun Chemicals Co.,Ltd 14

N3S29 Zhuhai Xunfeng Special Plastics Co. Ltd. 29

Layout Plan courtesy Adsale Exhibition Service

Show Guid

19 20 4 22 5

1 14

17 26


bioplastics MAGAZINE



8 18



28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

In this Show Guide you find the majority of compa

compounds, additives, semi-finished products and

this centerfold out of the magazine an

Show Preview

CHINAPLAS 2016 Preview








15 6




CHINAPLAS, recognized as Asia’s No. 1 and theworld’s

No. 2 plastics and rubber trade fair by the industry,

will hold its 30 th edition in 2016 in Shanghai. To celebrate

the reach of the milestone, there will be more attractions

and celebration activities at the show for all to join!

Looking back, when CHINAPLAS was held for the

first time in Beijing in 1983, the exhibition area was only

2,000 m², and 90 % of the exhibitors were from overseas.

At that time, the production technology in China was still

at a very low level, CHINAPLAS visitors mainly came to

learn the advanced technologies from overseas countries.

Today, China has become a big manufacturing country

with strong production ability, and is exporting the most

plastics and rubber machineries in recent years. In the

past three decades, CHINAPLAS has been moving forward

together with the Chinese market, and has developed into

a platform for the showcase of both overseas technologies

and Chinese machineries for export.



25 12

Hall N3

The 30 th CHINAPLAS will be held from 25 to 28 April, 2016

at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre, PR China,

with an exhibition area over 240,000 m², and more than

3,200 exhibitors are expected. The show is supported by a

number of country and region pavilions, including Austrian,

German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Swiss, Taiwanese,

and USA Pavilions. With broader range of exhibits, the

number of theme zones will rise to sixteen, among which

the “Automation Technology Zone”, “Composite & High

Performance Materials Zone” and “Recycling Technology

Zone” are all new to the coming show in Shanghai.

Intelligent production lines and systems, industrial robots,

high performance materials, composite materials, the

latest and most complete recycling solutions as well as

other plastics and rubber technology breakthroughs will be

showcased under one roof.

As in recent years, the setup of theme zones at

Chinaplas is always a good indicator of market needs.

Thus CHINAPLAS 2016 will again feature a Bioplastics

Zone in Hall N3. If you visit Chinaplas make sure to visit

the booth of bioplastics MAGAZINE in Hall N3 (booth N3M15).

On the following pages you will find some short

reports of some of the 66 exhibitors showing bioplastics

related products or services, 30 of which are located in

the Bioplastics Zone in hall N3. This preview will be

complemented by a review in the next issue. MT

nies offering bioplastic products, such as resins,

much more. For your convenience, you can take

d use it as your personal show guide

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11


Show Preview

Wuhan Huali

Wuhan Huali will present PSM ® biodegradable

& biobased plastics materials and finished

products during Chinaplas 2016. PSM bioplastics

are made through modification and plasticization

from renewable, natural materials, such as corn,

potato, tapioca or wheat starch, bamboo cellulose

and sugarcane. PSM biodegradable plastics are

certified by third party certification bodies Vinçotte

and DIN Certco, and obtained the OK Compost and

Compostable certificates. PSM biobased plastics are

also certified by Vinçotte with the OK-Biobased and

received 4 stars (more than 80 %). PSM biodegradable

and biobased plastic materials can be widely applied

in film blowing, thermoforming, injection moulding

and foaming processes.s.

N3K21 25 |


From 3D printer filaments to new ultra-high barrier

film, NatureWorks showcase Ingeo polylactide.

NatureWorks features 3D860 – a new Ingeo

formulation for 3D PLA filament designed to provide

impact resistance and heat resistance rivalling ABS

and other styrenics in terms of performance and

for use in home and business/industrial printing of

durable parts, as well as for prototyping parts for

durable injection molded goods. A number of new,

innovative 3D printed products will be on display

including print-it-yourself headphones and masks.

NatureWorks also showcases a new ultra-high

barrier Ingeo-based flexible substrate designed to

keep processed foods fresh on store shelves. This

is the first application of Ingeo for longer shelf life

foods that are increasingly packaged in pouches.

Other Ingeo biobased products on display include

compostable food serviceware, nonwovens, fibers,

films, rigid packaging, and toys and other injection

molded or extruded durables.

N3K09 12

JinHui ZhaoLong

JinHui ZhaoLong High Technology Co. Ltd is one of the largest

biodegradable plastic enterprises in China with a 20,000 tonnes/

annum PBAT production line. JinHui ZhaoLong are currently

manufacturing ECOWORLD (PBAT) and ECOWILL which is a

family of modified PBAT compounding materials that comprise

Ecowill FS-0330 (Ecoworld PBAT blended with corn starch) and

Ecowill FP-0330 (Ecoworld PBAT blended with PLA). After three

years of development since its first establishment in 2012,

JinHui ZhaoLong has now been able to provide qualified PBAT

and PBAT compounds with high stability and consistency which

have acquired numbers of certifications issued by both domestic

and international authoritative certification bodies. Besides, the

company has developed a large number of domestic and foreign

high-quality upstream and downstream customers.

N3L01 10


Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co. Ltd., established in 1993 and

headquartered in Guangzhou, is a global leader in high

performance modified plastic industry. Kingfa initiated its bio

program in 2001 and decided to make ECOPOND ® a sub-brand

in Kingfa.

Ecopond provides a complete package solution for retailers,

such as roll bags (for fish and meat), shopping bags and

some other packaging films that directly contact with foods.

Compostable waste bags provide a sanitary and convenient

collection solution for organic waste management. With the

development of E-commerce and environmental awareness,

Ecopond also finds a huge potential market in packaging such as

air-bubble bag and air cushion film.

Kingfa intensely cooperates with the Chinese government and

environmental research organizations to implement biodegradable

mulch film experiments in different areas. An exclusive formula is

designed for every area and different crops like potatoes, peanuts,

corn, cottons, etc., taking various changing weather condition and

soil condition into account. The experiments prove great success

in many places with fruitful output of the crops.

In 2014, Kingfa added 3D printing application to the Ecopond

family and began the business with promotion of its highly renowned

modified PLA series. Ecopond 3D printing raw materials are widely

applied in the mainstream Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM).


30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Show Preview

Doill Ecotec

Doill WPC (Wood-Plastic Composites) compounds are new

eco-friendly materials in pellet form which are manufactured

with a special binding technique using wood flour and

thermoplastic polymers (PP, PE, ABS, ASA, PS, SAN, PMMA,

PLA, etc). The materials are suitable for extrusion and

injection molding with advanced woody feeling, excellent

durability, excellent water-proof properties, easy molding

characteristics, reducing CO 2

, bio-based plastic materials

and recycled to 100 %.

Extrusion molding applications include decking, cladding,

louver, sound-proof walls, floor, furniture, blinder, panels,

foamed products, interior products, filaments for 3d printing,

etc.. By injection molding the following applications can be

produced: kitchen utensils, cutting board, food containers,

food trays, flower boxes, hangers and scoops, cosmetic

containers, automobile parts, industrial products, and much


N3S45 4

Uhde Inventa-Fischer

The Polymer Division of ThyssenKrupp Industrial

Solutions AG focuses on the development, engineering

and construction of efficient plant concepts and processes

in the fields of monomers, intermediates, polymers and


At Chinaplas 2016 ThyssenKrupp will present their

latest innovations and developments in biobased polymers

They believe in providing cost-efficient processes for

the production of non-petroleum-based polymers, such

as polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS)

as well as its monomers and intermediates lactic acid,

succinic acid and lactide. to fulfill the vision of sustainably

replacing a considerable amount of conventionally

produced materials in the near future.

ThyssenKrupp’s state-of-the-art technologies

are backed by more than 50 years’ experience in

the development, engineering and design of leading

polymerization processes, as well as t h e

engineering and construction

of more than 400

production plants


the world.



Coating p. Materials Co.

CPMC will present new eco-friendly solutions, targeted at synthetic leather and related

industries. This bio-based calendaring grade TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethane) can not only

solve the problems caused in PVC and PU synthetic leather industries, but also have five

advantages as the follows.

CPMC’s TPU has many advantages including good physical properties, degradable, nontoxic

and non-plasticizer. The process is eco-friendly and offers a high yield rate, and there

is no DMF residue in the final products. As a result, the products can solve VOC emission

problem effectively. The production technology of calendaring grade TPU for eco-friendly

synthetic leather is the same as for PVC, existing PVC synthetic leather equipment can be used. The functions and features are

similar to PVC/PU synthetic leather.

Customers who upgrade use advanced these eco-friendly materials, can promote your brand values and increase

consumers’brand image.

The presented bio-based calendaring grade TPU for eco-friendly synthetic leather can be applied to furnishings industry,

clothing industry, car industry, footwear industry and so on.


Oxo-fragmentable plastics

And finally there are a number of companies offering oxo-fragmentable plastics such as EnerPlastics (N3K01) or Rajiv

Plastic Industries (C11F41). However, as of yet, bioplastics MAGAZINE does not consider such products as bioplastics. We are still

waiting for satisfactory scientifically backed evidence by internationally accepted independent laboratories, proving a complete

biodegradation into water, carbon-dioxide and biomass without accelerating any measurement nor extrapolating any initially

measured degradation. MT

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 31


The 100 % bio-PET/polyester


The bio-PET bottle is now followed by a bio-PET T-shirt

According to different forecasts of e.g. European Bioplastics

or the Institute of Bioplastics and Biocomposites

(IfBB), the bioplastic market will continue to grow in

the next years with bio-PET 30 representing the lion’s share

(> 75 %). 30 wt.% of this bio-PET 30 is represented by biobased

mono ethylene glycol (MEG). In order to be able to produce

100 % biobased PET, many different technologies for the

production of PTA (purified terepthalic acid) or its precursor

paraxylene (PX) are currently under development.

Bio-PET 30

Bio-PET 30 was introduced in 2009 and can by now be

found in the marketplace used by brands such as Coca-Cola,

Danone, Nestle etc. in more than 25 countries around the

world. Bio-MEG is currently made from bio-ethylene which

is dehydrated from ethanol and dropped into the current

ethylene glycol production plants with co-production of DEG

(di-ethylene glycol) and TEG (tri-ethylene glycol). Ethanol is

well known to be made from fermentation of sugars including

those from first and second generation biomass. Ethanol

could also be converted from syngas (CO+H 2

) which could as

well be biobased if made from biomass.

There are other routes under development to make bio-MEG

from sugars and carbon dioxide (CO 2

). For example, sugars

could directly go under catalytic reactions to generate MEG,

MPG (mono propylene glycol) and others. The key issue is

how to make more MEG than MPG which could be made from

glycerol and usually cheaper than MEG. While CO 2

is used

for MEG production, oxalic acid is formed as an intermediate

after electrochemical reaction of CO 2

and further reduced to


100 % bio-PET/polyester

The first batch of empty bottles made from 100 % bio-PET

were demonstrated by Coca-Cola (PlantBottle) in 2014 with

biobased PTA technology from Virent and Far Eastern New

Century (FENC). Last year, at Milan Expo, the first 100 %

bio-PET bottles filled with beverages were introduced; again

made using bio-PX from Virent’s pilot scale production and via

FENC’s conversions. At the Sustainable Plastics conference

in Cologne on March 1 st , 2016, FENC showed the world’s first

100 % bio-polyester shirt. The weaving and dyeing properties

of the 100 % bio-polyester fibres proved to be the same as

those of petro based polyester. This is a great progress of

FENC’s 100 % bio-polyester and shows the possible use of biobased

PX/PTA for dropping in to many other all downstream

polyester applications.

100 % bio-PX/PTA technologies

In Virent’s BioForming process sugar is catalytically

converted into bio-PX. Another similar approach is the

pyrolysis to crack biomass to BTX (mixture of benzene toluene

xylene) which could be dropped into the petro refinery for

PX separation. There are many other approaches to convert

6-carbon (C6) sugars to bio-PX or PTA (C8).

H 3

C CH 3

Paraxylene (PX), C8H10

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11


Si mple mathematics will help us to understand

all these converting pathways. The first example is

2+2+2+2=8 by using 3 ethylene molecules (CH 2

+CH 2

+CH 2


to synthesize hexene (C 6

H 12

) which could be further

converted to PX via Diels-Alder reaction with ethylene

and dehydration. Or hexene could be formed by addition

reaction of isobutene and ethylene (C 4

H 8

+2CH 2

=C 6

H 12

) as a

part of 4+2+2=8 pathway with Diels-Alder and dehydration

reactions. Next example is 2+6=8 by adding ethylene to

sugar fermented muconic acid, 5-hydromethylfurfual

(HMF) or HMF derivatives and then further chemically

converted to PTA. The third calculation is 3+5 where

lactic acid ester combined with bio-isoprene and function

group transformation to di-acids. The last, but the least

pathway is 4+4=8 by combining 2 isobutene to bio-PX with

cyclization and oxidation steps. Of course, the subtraction

instead of addition will work such as 10-2=8 which could be

achieved by chemical oxidation to bio-PTA from limonene.

While so many biological and/or chemical conversions of

biomass/sugars to bio-PX/PTA, the winner of this 100 %

bio-PX/PTA commercialization is still unknown, while the

first commercial plant is the most difficult step due to the

technology uncertainty of scaling up and a huge capital

expenditure (CapEx), for much smaller scale compared to

current petro-based PX/PTA plants.


Fanny Liao

Senior Vice President of RD

Far Eastern New Century Corporation


Brand Owners

Brand-Owner’s perspective

on bioplastics

and how to unleash its full potential



Inspired by a panel discussion during the 10 th European Bioplastics Conference in Berlin last November, bioplastics MAGAZINE

is now starting a new series, titled Brand-Owner’s perspective on bioplastics and how to unleash its full potential.

Here we ask brand owners for a short statement, quasi as a message to the bioplastics industry.

The series starts with Michael W. Knutzen of The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, Georgia, USA:

Innovation comes from inspiration, and at The Coca-Cola Company we

are greatly inspired by the very people who drink our beverages.

Our consumers expect us to deliver the beverages they know and love

in a package that meets their needs such as convenience and safety,

but also in a package that is environmentally considerate.

Michael W. Knutzen,

Global Program Director PlantBottle at

The Coca-Cola Company

PlantBottle packaging has been meeting consumer expectations

since 2009. The first-ever fully recyclable PET plastic beverage bottle

made partially from plants looks and functions just like traditional

PET plastic, but has a lighter footprint on the planet and its scarce


bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 33


Breaking down

complex assemblies


Callum Smith

Beta Analytic

London, UK

Upon signing the Agriculture Act of 2014, US President

Barack Obama said that it was an innovation bill.

Among the myriad provisions in the bill, which encourages

growth in the increasingly large biobased market, was

an update to the USDA BioPreferred ® program’s guidelines

concerning biobased content testing for complex assemblies.

What are complex assemblies?

Complex assemblies are products for which the percentage

biobased carbon content cannot be determined from a single

radiocarbon measurement, such as bicycle saddles, blenders

and automobiles. Radiocarbon ( 14 C) is abundant in biomass

and absent in petrochemicals so differentiation is readily

made in products, but the analytical method is size limiting,

so the shape and size of complex assemblies may require

precise subsampling and calculations to derive a formulated

percentage biobased carbon content.

Biobased testing strategies for complex


Conscious of the benefits of promoting the uptake of

biobased intermediate ingredients in the market, the USDA

has incorporated guidelines addressing biobased content

testing for products in the BioPreferred program. Due to

size or shape or chemical and physical properties, complex

assemblies require special procedures. This will typically

involve measuring individual components and mathematically

deriving a single result or sub-sampling individual components

and combining them in a mass proportion of the whole for a

single result. In some difficult cases, such as oil-based paints

where oil may be encapsulating calcium carbonate in a way

that it cannot be effectively eliminated, the product may best

be analysed prior to the addition of the carbonate filler.

Darden Hood, President of Beta Analytic, a senior

technical author of ASTM-D6866 and advisor to CEN and

ISO committees on the use of radiocarbon remarks, “for

100 grams of a complex assembly consisting of three solid

components A, B, and C, where 50 grams is A, 20 grams is

B and 30 grams is C the strategy is quite straightforward to

overcome size limitation. Subsample 5 grams of A, 2 grams

of B, 3 grams of C, and combine them for one radiocarbon

analysis. In more difficult cases, discussion may be required

to obtain the appropriate percentage biobased carbon result

while working within the specifications of the standard. All

organic carbon species need to be quantitatively recovered

as CO 2

from the product since each component may have a

unique percentage biobased carbon content. Loss of any

proportion of any one them will lead to an inaccurate result;

requiring complicated lab procedures for materials such

as hand sanitisers and solvent mixtures of highly different

volatility. In the case of complex assemblies, close discussion

with the laboratory promises to yield accurate and easily

communicable data better than ever before. In turn, this

should help to promote the production and consumption of

biobased products, signalling an exciting new phase across

all of the industries involved”.

Key components of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system, used

for counting cosmogenic radionuclides in organic matter

Fictive, not existing example: A wristwatch could consist of:

50 grams of bio-based Polyamide 6.10 (the housing), 20 grams

of PLA (the glass) and 30 grams of biobased polyurethane (the

wristband). The clockwork inside is assumed to be metal, and

doesn’t count… (Photo: Marcin Bartkowiak)

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Drive Innovation

Become a Member

Join university researchers and industry members

to push the boundaries of renewable resources

and establish new processes and products.

See us at K 2016

October 19-26, 2016

Düsseldorf, Germany

Hall 5, Booth C07-1

Application News

Foodstuff packaging

The compounder and plastics distributor FKuR Kunststoff

GmbH, Willich, Germany, the film manufacturer Oerlemans

Plastics BV, Genderen, the Netherlands, and the specialist

foodstuffs packaging distributor BK Pac AB, Kristianstad,

Sweden, are closely working together on expanding the

possibilities for using bio-based plastics for sustainable

foodstuffs film packaging.

In this transnational cooperation project, FKuR is the

distributor for the Green PE from the world-leading,

Brazilian biopolymer manufacturer Braskem which is used

to produce the film. This 100 % recyclable, sugar cane-based

polyethylene helps to reduce the environmental impact caused

by greenhouse gases because using renewable raw materials

binds up to 2.15 tonnes of atmospheric CO 2

for each tonne of

Green PE. And since the plastic is not biodegradable, this CO 2

remains bound in the plastic over the entire product life cycle.

In the next step, Oerlemans Plastics uses the Braskem

bio-based PE supplied by FKuR in its two production sites in

Genderen and Giessen in the Netherlands to produce highquality

flexible films.

The printed and perforated films produced from Green

PE are sent to the Scandinavian distributor BK Pac, which

specialises in packaging materials such as films, trays,

bags, carton boxes etc. for vegetables, fruit, meat and other

foodstuffs. Being a local company, BK is highly familiar with

the requirements of its customers and the market and can

therefore feed valuable information back into the value chain

which can be used for further development and innovation.

Since the introduction of the product line based on Braskem’s

Green PE, the three companies have been continuously

working together on extending and further developing the

line with the aim of promoting this bio-based plastic as

a sustainable alternative on the Scandinavian market. As

Patrick Zimmermann, Marketing & Distribution Manager at

FKuR Kunststoff, says: “Our successful collaboration with

Oerlemans Plastics and BK Pac is typical of our continuous

search for ways of increasing product sustainability by using

renewable resources. It is also a model for many further

possible national and multinational cooperative projects.

It clearly demonstrates the potential of such projects to

conserve resources and help to maintain an environmental

balance while at the same time generating economic benefits

along the entire value chain by using Green PE.” |


Bioplastic for furniture

In JELUPLAST ® , the German company JELU-WERK

presents a novel and versatile material for furniture

making. Like plastic, Jeluplast can be moulded threedimensionally

and offers wide scope for design, yet it

possesses the positive attributes of wood. Jeluplast thus

attains higher rigidity and flexural strength than plastics.

In its appearance, feel and smell, the new material closely

resembles wood, delivering creative design and usage

opportunities for designers and the furniture industry.

Due to its special properties, this versatile material is

suitable both for outdoor and indoor use. Jeluplast is free

from formaldehyde, chlorine, phenol, plasticisers and PVC.

It can be processed, for instance, to make high-quality

seating shells, decorative elements or feet for shelves

and cabinets using injection moulding. By means of

compression moulding, the bioplastic can be processed to

produce stable boards for the substructure of upholstered

furniture, for example, and for shelving, side and back walls

as well as for cabinet doors. Panels and injection moulded

parts from Jeluplast can be glued, bolted, dyed, coated and


Furniture made from Jeluplast is also suitable for

damp interiors, such as bathrooms, kitchens and saunas,

because it is resistant to moisture. The bioplastic’s weather

resistance makes it an attractive material for outdoor

applications too. It is suitable for garden furniture, exterior

railings, fences, wall cladding and decking boards.

Bioplastic with consistent running properties

Jeluplast consists of food-safe thermoplastic and natural

fibres. The proportion of natural fibres can be set individually

between 50 and 70 %. Depending on the type of plastic,

Jeluplast consists up to 100 % of sustainable materials.

The properties of the plastic used determine whether

the end product is long-lasting or biodegradable. The

properties can be further adjusted by means of additives.

Flame retardants can be added as well as additives that

make the material more resistant to moisture.

Jelu-Werk offers biocomposites based on polyethylene,

polypropylene, thermoplastic starch (TPS), polylactides

(PLA) and other plastics. The fibres used are wood

fibres and cellulose fibres. Compounding helps the WPC

granulates from Jelu to achieve higher compression and to

be processed better. The bioplastic has consistent running

properties on the machine, facilitating a higher output.

Jeluplast can be processed by injection moulding, extrusion,

compression moulding, blow moulding or foaming. MT

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11



Visit us at Sustpack 2016

Chicago, IL

11 - 13 April 2016

Renewable . Ambient Compostable Plastic . FCN Approved

First 30 60 120 180


day days



120 180

days days

Excellent Heat


Heat resistance up to

100 C

Runs well with

LDPE machine

*This test was conducted under natural condition in Bangkok, Thailand.

Dreaming of naturally compostable bioplastic ? Here is the answer.

BioPBS is revolutionary in bioplastic technology by excelling 30°C compostable and being essentially bio-based in accordance

with OK COMPOST (EN13432), OK COMPOST HOME marks, BPI (ASTM D6400) for composting and DIN CERTCO for biobased

products. It is compostable without requiring a composting facility and no adverse effects on the environment.

BioPBS is available in various grades, which can be applied in a wide range of end use applications ranking from paper

packaging, flexible packaging, agricultural film, and injection molding. It provides non-process changing solution to

achieve better results in your manufacturing needs, retains the same material quality, and can be processed in existing

machine as good as conventional material. In comparison with other bioplastics, BioPBS is excellent heat properties

both heat sealability and heat resistance up to 100 °C. In addition to those benefits, it is only few compostable polymers

complying with food contact of U.S.FCN NO.1574, EU 10/2011 and JHOSPA.



BioPBS is available in various grades that conform to the following international standards for composting and biobased.

For more information

PTTMCC Biochem : +66 (2) 2 140 3555 /

MCPP Germany GmbH : +49 (0) 152 018 920 51 /

MCPP France SAS : +33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32 /

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd. A Joint Venture Company of PTT and Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation

555/2 Energy Complex Tower, Building B, 14th Floor, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

T: +66 (0) 2 140 3555 I F: +66(0) 2 140 3556 I

Application News

Bio-PET Solar control

window films

Toray Plastics (America), Inc., the only United States

manufacturer of polypropylene, polyester, metallized,

and bio-based films, has developed a bio-based biaxially

oriented polyester film for use in the manufacture

of solar control window films for commercial and

residential applications.

New Lumirror brand BioView PET film is manufactured

with Toray’s proprietary sustainable resin blends, which

are made with approximately 30 % renewable feedstock.

The new BioView bio-based film is a multi-layer structure

with surface and optical qualities that are strictly controlled

by Toray’s proprietary coextrusion technology. It is notable

for its very low haze, excellent handling and processing

characteristics, and high scratch resistance. BioView offers

a performance that is equal to that of traditional solar

window films during solar film manufacturing, installation,

and use in technically demanding applications that require

exceptional optical clarity.

First PLA wine bottle

Bodega Matarromera (Valladolid, Spain) has successfully

completed the development of a new sustainable bottle

for their wines. It is a packaging manufactured from PLA,

and it is the first bottle manufactured with this

material to reproduce the design of traditional

glass bottles for wine, with some main

advantages: it is lighter (50 grams)

fully-recyclable and has a lower

environmental impact

in its manufacturing


AIMPLAS, the Plastics Technology

Centre (Valencia,

Spain), has been

subcontracted by Bodega


within this project

to design the new sustainable

bottles, as well as

the preform mould

and the blowing

mould to produce

them. In addition,

AIMPLAS has also

carried out the characterisation of

the new packaging

that, thanks to an

inner coating with

silicon oxide, has

proven to offer a considerable

improvement of barrier properties

against different gases.

This project has

counted on the funds

of the programme EEA GRANTS, funded

by Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein, as well as by the

Ministry of Science and Innovation from Spain through

CDTI. The research is framed within the company’s

commitment with environmental sustainability, what will

allow a differentiation and increase of competitiveness

in new markets with a high environmental awareness

as well, as the Nordic countries and specifically the

Scandinavian airlines. MT |

Toray Plastics is a major producer of traditional films,

made with or without UV protection, used for solar window

film applications. The company has been on the leading

edge of bio-based resin technology and plans to produce

polyester film to be used in the manufacture of solar

control window film that is made entirely of sustainable

feedstock. A patent is pending for the new film.

“This is a very exciting development for window film

technology and for the commercial and residential

building markets,” says Milan Moscaritolo, Senior Sales

and Marketing Director of the Lumirror Division. “The

construction industry continues to look for innovative ways

to help developers reduce energy costs. Creating a film that

lessens the impact on the environment, without sacrificing

solar protection performance, was the natural next step in

the evolution of the technology. The BioView film represents

a perfect marriage between an environment-friendly film

and an energy-saving application.” KL

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Application News

Biobased sunglasses for Yokohama World Triathlon

Mitsui Chemicals Inc. (MCI), headquartered in Toyko, Japan has developed

MR-60, a plant-based high refractive index lens material for standard

eyeglasses, by using a biomass-derived industrial isocyanate and a biomassderived

polythiol as well as a non-metallic catalyst for polymerization. In 2014,

MR-60 was certified by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a

plant-derived product with a biomass of 57 %.

Last year MCI was a sponsor of the World Triathlon Series Yokohama held in Yokohama, Japan, an event which aimed to

“contribute to society through sports”. The event utilized the sustainability management system standard ISO 20121. In a joint

development with Yokohama City MCI developed sunglasses made with MR-60 for athletes, referees and staff in the Executive

Office of the Triathlon event. The sunglasses were produced in close collaboration with the SWANS program of Yamamoto

Kogaku Co., Ltd., a company that has a history of designing sports products that offer comfort and performance, and Itoh

Optical Industrial Co., Ltd., who have expertise in high-performance eyeglass lens manufacturing.

Both companies accomplished the project in a real short period of time. Itoh Optical Industrial, who was involved in the lens

development had to overcome challenges with the non-metallic catalyst being used for the lens material. However, together

with Yamamoto Kogaku and Mitsui Chemicals the project could be successfully

finished. Mr. Masakazu Honda of Itoh Optical Industrial said in MCI’s customer

Journal MR View [1] that in addition to high functionality and high quality they were

now also involved in looking at a low environmental burden.

Yamamoto Kogaku has worked on numerous products in the field of sports

eyewear with the brand called SWANS. Together with the other project partners,

Yamamoto Kogaku also succeeded in mastering challenges such as the unknown

drilling and cutting characteristics of MR-60 [1].

And the article in MR View continues that the project partners learned that “those

taking part in a triathlon were earnestly looking for suitable sunglasses” and “the

functions required of sports sunglasses are slightly different when running or

riding a bicycle.” [1]

By sponsoring the event, MCI not only provided plant-based sunglasses, but also

appealed to the social/ethical activities of the Do Green initiative. MCI’s support

was widely praised by the people involved in the triathlon. MT

[1] MR View issue No7, September 2015,

Ikea’s alternative for polystyrene

Looking for eco-friendlier packaging, the Swedish furniture and retail giant Ikea has recently announced their intention to

use an organic, mushroom-based packaging for its flat-pack furniture and thus to move away from polystyrene foams.

Developed by New York based company Ecovative, Mushroom ® Packaging is made using mycelium, or rather mushroom

roots, which functions similar to the roots of other plants. Mycelium fastens the fungus to the ground and absorbs nutrients

(cf. bioplastics MAGAZINE issue 01/2014).

Already known for its use as a biobased building material, mycelium is beneficial because it grows quickly into a dense

material, which can then be easily moulded into custom shaped packaging.

For Ikea, the lifecycle of the material also plays a role. Joanna

Yarrow, head of sustainability for Ikea told the Telegraph that Ikea

was looking at introducing mycelium packaging because “a lot of

products come in polystyrene, traditionally, which can’t be – or is

very difficult to – recycle.” While polystyrene is a non-biodegradable

plastic, mycelium packaging will biodegrade naturally within a

few weeks, if disposed of properly in a dedicated composting


Ikea confirmed it was looking at working with Ecovative, who are

leaders in the field for innovating with mushroom materials. MT

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 39

From Science and Research

HMF from

chicory salad


800,000 tonnes: That’s how much waste in the form

of chicory roots is generated during the production

of chicory salad in Europe per year. Currently, after

harvesting the chicory salad, the roots are disposed of

in composting or biogas plants. What a waste, thought

two researchers of the University of Hohenheim,

Germany. Because these roots can be used to generate

hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a basic material in the

future plastics industry.

The biennial chicory plant only spends the first five

months on the fields. In mid-October the leaves are

mulched and the roots are harvested, stored in a cool

place, and then brought to special growing rooms.

Only there will the new buds, the future chicory salad,


Fig. 1: 30 % of the chicory plant can be used for making HMF

(Source: Wikipedia/Rasbak)

But in contrast to the food production, at the

University of Hohenheim the focus lies primarily on the

non-edible root. “The root makes out approximately

30 % of the plant (cf. fig.1). The stored carbohydrates

are not fully used for the formation of the buds and

valuable reserve substances remain. However, the

roots can only be used once for chicory growing and

have to be thrown away after the buds are harvested”,

explains agricultural biologist Dr. Judit Pfenning.

Polyamides, polyester, or plastic bottles

Prof. Andrea Kruse, of the Institute for Agricultural

Engineering at Univ. Hohenheim explains what they

do: “On the rack in figure 2 you can see pencil-sized

stainless steel tube reactors. These are filled with

chopped chicory roots and water. After adding diluted

acid into the ultra-stable pressure container, it is heated

up to a temperature of 200 °C.” This results in a watery

product which is then processed in further proprietary

steps to produce unpurified hydroxymethylfurfural

(HMF) in the form of yellow-brown crystalline powder.

This is a precursor to form furandicarboxylic acid

(FDCA), identified by the US Department of Energy (DoE)

as one of the 12 most important platform chemicals.

FDCA serves as a raw material for polyamides (e. g.

for nylon stockings), for polyesters, polyurethanes or –

more concrete – to make PEF (polyethylene furanoate).

PEF can for example be used for the production of

bottles, as a biobased alternative to PET.

Chicory-made HMF as part of bioeconomy

As part of a previous research project Kruse already

found a way to extract the basic chemical HMF from

fructose. However, she is of the opinion that chicory

roots as a source are more elegant. After all: “Fructose

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

From Science and Research

is edible. There are better uses for

it than extracting HMF.” This is not

the case for chicory roots. “Until

now, they were waste.”

The challenge: storage and

quality of the roots

The project poses a challenge:

“The root is only of interest for

the industry if we can guarantee

permanent quality,” explains Prof.


To this end, the technical

chemist cooperates with the

plant scientist Judit Pfenning

from the Department of General

Crop Farming. “In general, the

conditions are very good,” explains

Pfenning, “because the consumer

who wants to eat the chicory

also has very high and consistent

quality expectations. That is why

only roots of very high quality are

transferred from the fields into

the commercial growing rooms

operating with water-forcing


Another research aspect: How

the roots can be stored without

going bad. The problem is that

chicory is a seasonal business.

However, suppliers of the chemical

industry want permanent

deliveries in order to be able to

constantly use their plants.

“This project can only be carried

out through interdisciplinary

cooperation,” emphasize the

scientists. One the one hand the

project includes quality control,

growing trials, and storage

experiments, and on the other

hand laboratory experiments and

conversion technology. MT

Fig. 2: Chicory waste can be used as a source for different plastics,

e. g. nylon or PEF for bottles (Photo: Univ. Hohenheim)

Fig. 3: Chicory is harvested from special growing rooms.

(Source: Wikipedia/slick)

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 41


Bioplastics packaging:

design for a circular

plastics economy


Hasso von Pogrell

Managing Director

European Bioplastics

Berlin, Germany

Applying the principles of a circular economy from

the onset to the design stage of bioplastic materials

and packaging solutions offers a competitive edge

for the bioplastics industry. Today, packaging is the single

largest field of application for bioplastics with currently

70 % (1.2 million tonnes) of the global bioplastics production

capacity, forecast to reach 80 % (6.5 million tonnes) in

2019. The increase in demand is mainly driven by a growing

awareness of society’s impact on the environment as well

as the continuous advancements and innovations in new

materials and applications. Yet, their true value lies in their

characteristic of being derived from renewable resources

and being recyclable as secondary raw materials that reenter

the circular economy by design.

Renewable feedstock

Biobased plastics have the unique advantage over

conventional plastics to reduce the dependency on

limited fossil resources and to reduce greenhouse gas

emissions or even be carbon neutral. Biobased plastics

are partly or fully derived from biobased resources that

are sustainably sourced and regrow on an annual basis,

such as sugarcane, corn, or sugar beet. Moreover, first

successful projects explore the possibilities to create

bioplastics from non-food crops and waste products that

promise to become an efficient resource in the mid- and

long-term. By replacing the fossil content in plastics with

plant-based content, carbon is taken from the atmosphere

and bound in the material. These biobased materials are

then used to manufacture a broad range of products with a

potentially neutral or even negative carbon footprint, many

of which are durable and can be reused or easily recycled

many times. Consequently, biobased plastics can help the

EU to meet its 2020 targets of greenhouse gas emissions


Closed resource cycle

Bioplastics can make a considerable contribution to

increased resource efficiency through a closed resource

cycle and use cascades, especially if biobased materials

and products are being either reused or recycled and

eventually used for energy recovery (i.e. renewable

energy). Bioplastics are suitable for a broad range of endof-life

options with the overwhelming part of the volumes

of bioplastics produced today already being recycled

alongside their conventional counterparts where separate

recycling streams for certain material types exist (e.g.

biobased PE in the PE-stream or biobased PET in the

PET stream). Furthermore, compostability is an add-on

property of certain types of bioplastics that offers additional

waste treatment options at the end of a product’s life.

Biodegradable products, such as compostable biowaste

bags, food packaging, or cutlery can easily be treated

together with organic waste in industrial composting

plants and are thus diverted from landfills and turned into

valuable compost. This way, bioplastics can contribute to

higher recycling quotas in the EU, a more efficient waste

management, and the transition to a circular economy.

Improved product performance

The bioplastics industry has come up with numerous

innovative technical and material solutions. Besides being

biobased and therefore reducing the carbon footprint

of a product, biobased plastics also offer new material

properties for an improved performance, including

enhanced breathability, increased material strength, and

improved optical properties. Some new materials offer

multiple functionalities combined in one material, such as

PBS-based materials or functional biodegradable coating

materials for example, where only one film will be needed

to protect the good or food.

Bioplastics are essential for the transition to a

circular economy

Our industry strongly supports the principles of the

European Commission’s Circular Economy Proposal, which

for the first time links the bioeconomy and circular economy,

and which aims to treat waste as a valuable resource and

make Europe’s economy cleaner and more competitive.

The proposal outlines measures to cut resource use,

reduce waste, and to enable true circularity across Europe

by setting clear measures, methodologies, and standards.

The European Commission’s Action plan ‘Closing the loop

– An EU action plan for the Circular Economy’ in particular

aims to incentivise the production of more durable, easier

to repair, reuse, and recycle products. A corresponding

revision of the Ecodesign Directive is already underway

and a proposal is soon to be expected. In this context,

European Bioplastics supports the position of the Ellen

MacArthur foundation and the World Economy Forum in

their report on the ‘New Plastics Economy’, which states

that recyclability alone is not sufficient enough to create

circularity and resource efficient products. Ecodesign

requirements should also take efficient use of feedstock

and efficient waste management solutions into account.

True ecodesign is only possible if the notion of circularity

is implemented. Focussing only on recyclability falls short

of what it desired to achieve. Given the still too high quota

of landfilling in the EU and the comparatively low quota of

recycling, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive

approach to the problem: In order to provide an incentive

to drastically reduce waste, while at the same time support

renewable energy (e.g. biogas) and increase secondary raw

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11


materials (i.e. compost), separate waste

collection has to become binding for all

EU Member States as soon as possible,

including and in particular separate

biowaste collection. Secondly, we need

legal measures to reduce and eventually

phase-out landfill, the earlier the better.

The European Commission’s Circular

Economy Proposal addresses all stages

of the product life cycle and a range of

responsible economic sectors, including

product design. Yet, in order to be able

to harness the many benefits of the

‘design for circularity’ it is essential to

acknowledge the contributions of biobased

materials to the circular economy by

promoting biobased and biodegradable

packaging and facilitating a level playing

field and equal access for all sectors using

biomass. Secondly, we need to drastically

improve the waste collection infrastructure

across Europe and to get better at diverting

valuable material streams away from


Life cycle of bioplastics (EUBP)



The specialists in plastic recycling systems.

An outstanding technology for recycling both

bioplastics and conventional polymers


bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 43


Design for recyclability

By Michael Thielen

Plastic recycling not only plays a vital role in increasing

resource efficiency, it is essential for the transition to a

circular economy. While reduce and reuse obviously take

priority over recycling in the waste hierarchy, recycling is the

next preferred option to be pursued. Ideally, plastics should

be mechanically recycled as often as is feasible prior to their

“final” recycling in the form of incineration (waste-to-energy

recycling) or – where possible – composting or anaerobic digestion

(biological recycling). Mechanical recycling refers to

the various mechanical processes – including grinding or

milling and subsequent melting – used to recover waste plastics

and ultimately to produce regranulate from which new

products can be injection moulded, extruded, thermoformed,

blow moulded or otherwise produced. However, it is fair to say

that the recyclability of any product is to a very large extent

dictated by the way the product is designed. Design decisions,

such as materials selection, the methods of assembly, labeling

techniques, decorating techniques, and the like, all have

a very significant influence on the ability to recycle a product

or its constituent materials [1].

All plastic products

Regardless of whether a plastic product is made from

conventional plastics or from biobased and/or biodegradable

plastics, there are a number of factors to be considered with

regard to recyclability.

Standard material identification: A variety of different

material marking systems

are used to identify the

material from which a

plastic item or component

is manufactured. [1]

Thermoplastics are the materials of choice, since only

this group of plastics can be mechanically recycled without

significant changes occurring in the properties of the materials.

However, depending on the specific type of thermoplastic, the

properties of these plastics can also undergo changes, both

major and minor, over successive recycling loops (changes

in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, color,

additive effectiveness, etc.). [1]

Minimize the number of components and minimize the

variety of used materials: Use snap fits (e.g. for CD jewel

cases) and living hinges (e.g. for shower gel caps). If a second

material is needed, for example for multi-shot mouldings, try

to choose two materials that can be recycled together (e.g.

PC, PBT and ABS) or that all can be biodegraded (such as PLA

and PBAT). [1]

Avoid the use of colour pigments or use the smallest

possible amount, as these will subsequently not be able to

be removed from a compound. “The fewer pigments you

use, the lighter the colour of the recyclate will be and thus

the broader the range of potential future applications,” says

Michael Scriba, general manager of recycling company mtm

(Niedergebra, Germany), in the recent issue of K-Profi [2]. “If

pigments must be used, use light colours,” he adds. He also

noted that fillers, such as chalk, may not be beneficial for a

recycling process, as they modify the density of a material and

hinder a gravimetric separation of plastics [2].

Another important topic are labels. Paper labels and

glues should be avoided. “Plastic/glue/paper combinations

are difficult to separate,” says Scriba. “During the washing

process, the paper absorbs water, the fibres clump together

and lead to high temperature development in the extrusion

process which can then lead to undesired odor and stains in

the recyclate” [2]. Hence in-mould labeling, with plastic labels

made from the same plastic as the labelled product itself, are

to be preferred.

Design for easy disassembly is recommended for multicomponent

products, for example by means of snap fits or

screws. Again: use recycling friendly labels and attachments.

Avoid coatings and glues [1].

Biodegradable plastics

All of the aspects mentioned above certainly also apply in

respect of biodegradable plastics. Many biodegradable plastics

can be mechanically recycled. The most important additional

aspect is that all components (e. g. all layers of a multilayer

laminate or coextruded product) must be biodegradable.

Make sure that colour masterbatches (pigments and carrier)

are biodegradable, as well. The same is true for labels and


Biobased plastics

The above mentioned recommendations also hold true with

regard to biobased plastics. After they have undergone as

many as possible mechanical recycling cycles, the preferred

end-of-life solution for these plastics is incineration [3]. In a

well-managed waste-to-energy incineration plant, biobased

plastics are a kind of a renewable energy source.

And finally, exactly the same technical, logistical and

economic conditions for mechanical recycling apply in the

case of bioplastics as for conventional plastics. Basically,

all bioplastics can be technically identified and separated

from the waste stream. This means that the volume of a

particular type of plastic in the waste plastics determines

whether separation is economical or not. From the point of

view of waste logistics, therefore, separability is not the issue

– the bottleneck is the fact that the amounts of bioplastics

are simply too small for recycling to offer an economically

profitable option [3, 4].

[1] Bonten, C.: personal consultation, Feb 2016

[2] Regel, K.: “Verpackungen brauchen ein recyclingfreundliches Design”,

K-Profi, 1-2/2016, pp20

[3] Endres, H.-J.: personal consultation, March 2016

[4] Bellusova, D., Endres H.-J.: Mechanisches Recycling und Stabilisierung

von Biokunststoffen, VDI Technikforum „Einsatz und Verarbeitung von

Biokunststoffen“, Berlin, 30.09. - 01.10.2015

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Published in bioplastics MAGAZINE




10 years ago

In March 2016, Dr. Harald Kaeb says:

“I chaired and managed the association from 1999 to 2009, during a period of strong growth

and fundamental changes. It turned into a multi-sectorial international business organisation,

covering biodegegradable, compostable and non-biodegradable durable plastics and products.

We started media work and advocacy, everything grew like sugarcane. It was very exciting.”



The industrial platform for bioplastics and biodegradable polymers,

IBAW, has re-named itself to become “European Bioplastics”. The new

name expresses the geographic focus of its work and the emphasis

placed on the role of renewable raw materials in production of plastics

with regard to sustainable development and innovation. The members

of IBAW have decided with a very large majority on the new name and

have developed new statutes to prepare the organisation for the future.

Dr. Harald Kaeb

Chairman of European Bioplastics

IBAW industry

association becomes

European Bioplastics

Since its foundation in 1993, the association has undergone dynamic

development. Founded as an industrial working group to define compostability

and biodegradability of plastics, IBAW developed into body

representing the interests of the bioplastics and biodegradable polymers

industry. The association comprises today companies from different

sectors: agricultural feedstock companies, producers of polymer

building blocks and plastics additives, plastics

producers and converters, industrial end users, as

well as service providers in the form of consulting,

research and waste management companies. The

number of member companies has increased from

35 to 56 within the past 18 months.

As a multi-sector association, European Bioplastics

represents all issues within the product life cycle

– from the cradle to the grave or even back to the

cradle. All types of applications are covered. The association

will deal not only with biodegradable polymer products, that

comply with the EN 13432 standard, but also with those that are nonbiodegradable

but based on renewable raw materials.

The mission of the association is to support and promote

- the growth and use of renewable raw materials in products and applications

- innovation leading to lower environmental impact of durable and

non-durable plastic products

- independent third party certification and product labelling based on

the EN 13432 standard, if biodegradability and compostability are


- separate collection of organic waste including compostable products,

and composting

- the identification and evaluation of other eco-efficient end-of-life options

European Bioplastics will support the market introduction of renewable

and biodegradable polymer products. This includes establishment

of proper framework conditions and the communication of reliable upto-date

information. On June 19 the association will introduce itself

in Brussels, in November it will organise a two-day conference at the

same location. More information is to be found on its website.

8 bioplastics [06/01] Vol. 1

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 45


Glossary 4.2 last update issue 02/2016

In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again

the same expressions appear that some of our readers

might not (yet) be familiar with. This glossary shall help

with these terms and shall help avoid repeated explanations

such as PLA (Polylactide) in various articles.

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics

e.V.) is a term used to define two different

kinds of plastics:

a. Plastics based on → renewable resources

(the focus is the origin of the raw material

used). These can be biodegradable or not.

b. → Biodegradable and → compostable

plastics according to EN13432 or similar

standards (the focus is the compostability of

the final product; biodegradable and compostable

plastics can be based on renewable

(biobased) and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources).

Bioplastics may be

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;

- based on renewable resources but not be

biodegradable; and

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.

1 st Generation feedstock | Carbohydrate rich

plants such as corn or sugar cane that can

also be used as food or animal feed are called

food crops or 1 st generation feedstock. Bred

my mankind over centuries for highest energy

efficiency, currently, 1 st generation feedstock

is the most efficient feedstock for the production

of bioplastics as it requires the least

amount of land to grow and produce the highest

yields. [bM 04/09]

2 nd Generation feedstock | refers to feedstock

not suitable for food or feed. It can be either

non-food crops (e.g. cellulose) or waste materials

from 1 st generation feedstock (e.g.

waste vegetable oil). [bM 06/11]

3 rd Generation feedstock | This term currently

relates to biomass from algae, which – having

a higher growth yield than 1 st and 2 nd generation

feedstock – were given their own category.

It also relates to bioplastics from waste

streams such as CO 2

or methane [bM 02/16]

Aerobic digestion | Aerobic means in the

presence of oxygen. In →composting, which is

an aerobic process, →microorganisms access

the present oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere.

They metabolize the organic material

to energy, CO 2

, water and cell biomass,

whereby part of the energy of the organic material

is released as heat. [bM 03/07, bM 02/09]

Since this Glossary will not be printed

in each issue you can download a pdf version

from our website (

bioplastics MAGAZINE is grateful to European Bioplastics for the permission to use parts of their Glossary.

Version 4.0 was revised using EuBP’s latest version (Jan 2015).

[*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)

Anaerobic digestion | In anaerobic digestion,

organic matter is degraded by a microbial

population in the absence of oxygen

and producing methane and carbon dioxide

(= →biogas) and a solid residue that can be

composted in a subsequent step without

practically releasing any heat. The biogas can

be treated in a Combined Heat and Power

Plant (CHP), producing electricity and heat, or

can be upgraded to bio-methane [14] [bM 06/09]

Amorphous | non-crystalline, glassy with unordered


Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch

molecule with very high molecular weight

(biopolymer, monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,

monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]

Biobased | The term biobased describes the

part of a material or product that is stemming

from →biomass. When making a biobasedclaim,

the unit (→biobased carbon content,

→biobased mass content), a percentage and

the measuring method should be clearly stated [1]

Biobased carbon | carbon contained in or

stemming from →biomass. A material or

product made of fossil and →renewable resources

contains fossil and →biobased carbon.

The biobased carbon content is measured via

the 14 C method (radio carbon dating method)

that adheres to the technical specifications as

described in [1,4,5,6].

Biobased labels | The fact that (and to

what percentage) a product or a material is

→biobased can be indicated by respective

labels. Ideally, meaningful labels should be

based on harmonised standards and a corresponding

certification process by independent

third party institutions. For the property

biobased such labels are in place by certifiers

→DIN CERTCO and →Vinçotte who both base

their certifications on the technical specification

as described in [4,5]

A certification and corresponding label depicting

the biobased mass content was developed

by the French Association Chimie du Végétal


Biobased mass content | describes the

amount of biobased mass contained in a material

or product. This method is complementary

to the 14 C method, and furthermore, takes

other chemical elements besides the biobased

carbon into account, such as oxygen, nitrogen

and hydrogen. A measuring method has

been developed and tested by the Association

Chimie du Végétal (ACDV) [1]

Biobased plastic | A plastic in which constitutional

units are totally or partly from →

biomass [3]. If this claim is used, a percentage

should always be given to which extent

the product/material is → biobased [1]

[bM 01/07, bM 03/10]

Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable Plastics

are plastics that are completely assimilated

by the → microorganisms present a defined

environment as food for their energy. The

carbon of the plastic must completely be converted

into CO 2

during the microbial process.

The process of biodegradation depends on

the environmental conditions, which influence

it (e.g. location, temperature, humidity) and

on the material or application itself. Consequently,

the process and its outcome can vary

considerably. Biodegradability is linked to the

structure of the polymer chain; it does not depend

on the origin of the raw materials.

There is currently no single, overarching standard

to back up claims about biodegradability.

One standard for example is ISO or in Europe:

EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability

- Test scheme and specifications

[bM 02/06, bM 01/07]

Biogas | → Anaerobic digestion

Biomass | Material of biological origin excluding

material embedded in geological formations

and material transformed to fossilised

material. This includes organic material, e.g.

trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, algae and

waste of biological origin, e.g. manure [1, 2]

Biorefinery | the co-production of a spectrum

of bio-based products (food, feed, materials,

chemicals including monomers or building

blocks for bioplastics) and energy (fuels, power,

heat) from biomass.[bM 02/13]

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly

distributed base polymers

Bisphenol-A (BPA) | Monomer used to produce

different polymers. BPA is said to cause

health problems, due to the fact that is behaves

like a hormone. Therefore it is banned

for use in children’s products in many countries.

BPI | Biodegradable Products Institute, a notfor-profit

association. Through their innovative

compostable label program, BPI educates

manufacturers, legislators and consumers

about the importance of scientifically based

standards for compostable materials which

biodegrade in large composting facilities.

Carbon footprint | (CFPs resp. PCFs – Product

Carbon Footprint): Sum of →greenhouse

gas emissions and removals in a product system,

expressed as CO 2

equivalent, and based

on a →life cycle assessment. The CO 2


of a specific amount of a greenhouse gas

is calculated as the mass of a given greenhouse

gas multiplied by its →global warmingpotential


46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11


Carbon neutral, CO 2

neutral | describes a

product or process that has a negligible impact

on total atmospheric CO 2

levels. For

example, carbon neutrality means that any

CO 2

released when a plant decomposes or

is burnt is offset by an equal amount of CO 2

absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis

when it is growing.

Carbon neutrality can also be achieved

through buying sufficient carbon credits to

make up the difference. The latter option is

not allowed when communicating → LCAs

or carbon footprints regarding a material or

product [1, 2].

Carbon-neutral claims are tricky as products

will not in most cases reach carbon neutrality

if their complete life cycle is taken into consideration

(including the end-of life).

If an assessment of a material, however, is

conducted (cradle to gate), carbon neutrality

might be a valid claim in a B2B context. In this

case, the unit assessed in the complete life

cycle has to be clarified [1]

Cascade use | of →renewable resources means

to first use the →biomass to produce biobased

industrial products and afterwards – due to

their favourable energy balance – use them

for energy generation (e.g. from a biobased

plastic product to →biogas production). The

feedstock is used efficiently and value generation

increases decisively.

Catalyst | substance that enables and accelerates

a chemical reaction

Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of →cellulose

[bM 01/10]

Cellulose | Cellulose is the principal component

of cell walls in all higher forms of plant

life, at varying percentages. It is therefore the

most common organic compound and also

the most common polysaccharide (multisugar)

[11]. Cellulose is a polymeric molecule

with very high molecular weight (monomer is

→Glucose), industrial production from wood

or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and

fibres [bM 01/10]

Cellulose ester | Cellulose esters occur by

the esterification of cellulose with organic

acids. The most important cellulose esters

from a technical point of view are cellulose

acetate (CA with acetic acid), cellulose propionate

(CP with propionic acid) and cellulose

butyrate (CB with butanoic acid). Mixed polymerisates,

such as cellulose acetate propionate

(CAP) can also be formed. One of the most

well-known applications of cellulose aceto

butyrate (CAB) is the moulded handle on the

Swiss army knife [11]

Cellulose acetate CA | → Cellulose ester

CEN | Comité Européen de Normalisation

(European organisation for standardization)

Certification | is a process in which materials/products

undergo a string of (laboratory)

tests in order to verify that the fulfil certain

requirements. Sound certification systems

should be based on (ideally harmonised) European

standards or technical specifications

(e.g. by →CEN, USDA, ASTM, etc.) and be

performed by independent third party laboratories.

Successful certification guarantees

a high product safety - also on this basis interconnected

labels can be awarded that help

the consumer to make an informed decision.

Compost | A soil conditioning material of decomposing

organic matter which provides nutrients

and enhances soil structure.

[bM 06/08, 02/09]

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are

→ biodegradable under →composting conditions:

specified humidity, temperature,

→ microorganisms and timeframe. In order

to make accurate and specific claims about

compostability, the location (home, → industrial)

and timeframe need to be specified [1].

Several national and international standards

exist for clearer definitions, for example EN

14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability -

Test scheme and specifications. [bM 02/06, bM 01/07]

Composting | is the controlled →aerobic, or

oxygen-requiring, decomposition of organic

materials by →microorganisms, under controlled

conditions. It reduces the volume and

mass of the raw materials while transforming

them into CO 2

, water and a valuable soil conditioner

– compost.

When talking about composting of bioplastics,

foremost →industrial composting in a

managed composting facility is meant (criteria

defined in EN 13432).

The main difference between industrial and

home composting is, that in industrial composting

facilities temperatures are much

higher and kept stable, whereas in the composting

pile temperatures are usually lower,

and less constant as depending on factors

such as weather conditions. Home composting

is a way slower-paced process than

industrial composting. Also a comparatively

smaller volume of waste is involved. [bM 03/07]

Compound | plastic mixture from different

raw materials (polymer and additives) [bM 04/10)

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different


Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system

boundaries of an environmental →Life Cycle

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities

from the cradle (i.e., the extraction of raw materials,

agricultural activities and forestry) up

to the factory gate

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated

as C2C): Is an expression which communicates

the concept of a closed-cycle economy,

in which waste is used as raw material

(‘waste equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not

a term that is typically used in →LCA studies.

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system

boundaries of a full →Life Cycle Assessment

from manufacture (cradle) to use phase and

disposal phase (grave).

Crystalline | Plastic with regularly arranged

molecules in a lattice structure

Density | Quotient from mass and volume of

a material, also referred to as specific weight

DIN | Deutsches Institut für Normung (German

organisation for standardization)

DIN-CERTCO | independant certifying organisation

for the assessment on the conformity

of bioplastics

Dispersing | fine distribution of non-miscible

liquids into a homogeneous, stable mixture

Drop-In bioplastics | chemically indentical

to conventional petroleum based plastics,

but made from renewable resources. Examples

are bio-PE made from bio-ethanol (from

e.g. sugar cane) or partly biobased PET; the

monoethylene glykol made from bio-ethanol

(from e.g. sugar cane). Developments to

make terephthalic acid from renewable resources

are under way. Other examples are

polyamides (partly biobased e.g. PA 4.10 or PA

6.10 or fully biobased like PA 5.10 or PA10.10)

EN 13432 | European standard for the assessment

of the → compostability of plastic

packaging products

Energy recovery | recovery and exploitation

of the energy potential in (plastic) waste for

the production of electricity or heat in waste

incineration pants (waste-to-energy)

Environmental claim | A statement, symbol

or graphic that indicates one or more environmental

aspect(s) of a product, a component,

packaging or a service. [16]

Enzymes | proteins that catalyze chemical


Enzyme-mediated plastics | are no →bioplastics.

Instead, a conventional non-biodegradable

plastic (e.g. fossil-based PE) is enriched

with small amounts of an organic additive.

Microorganisms are supposed to consume

these additives and the degradation process

should then expand to the non-biodegradable

PE and thus make the material degrade. After

some time the plastic is supposed to visually

disappear and to be completely converted to

carbon dioxide and water. This is a theoretical

concept which has not been backed up by

any verifiable proof so far. Producers promote

enzyme-mediated plastics as a solution to littering.

As no proof for the degradation process

has been provided, environmental beneficial

effects are highly questionable.

Ethylene | colour- and odourless gas, made

e.g. from, Naphtha (petroleum) by cracking or

from bio-ethanol by dehydration, monomer of

the polymer polyethylene (PE)

European Bioplastics e.V. | The industry association

representing the interests of Europe’s

thriving bioplastics’ industry. Founded

in Germany in 1993 as IBAW, European

Bioplastics today represents the interests

of about 50 member companies throughout

the European Union and worldwide. With

members from the agricultural feedstock,

chemical and plastics industries, as well as

industrial users and recycling companies, European

Bioplastics serves as both a contact

platform and catalyst for advancing the aims

of the growing bioplastics industry.

Extrusion | process used to create plastic

profiles (or sheet) of a fixed cross-section

consisting of mixing, melting, homogenising

and shaping of the plastic.

FDCA | 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, an intermediate

chemical produced from 5-HMF.

The dicarboxylic acid can be used to make →

PEF = polyethylene furanoate, a polyester that

could be a 100% biobased alternative to PET.

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled

by → microorganisms or → enyzmes (e.g.

the transformation of sugar into lactic acid).

FSC | Forest Stewardship Council. FSC is an

independent, non-governmental, not-forprofit

organization established to promote the

responsible and sustainable management of

the world’s forests.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 47


Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,

colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless

and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside

animals‘ connective tissue.

Genetically modified organism (GMO) | Organisms,

such as plants and animals, whose

genetic material (DNA) has been altered

are called genetically modified organisms

(GMOs). Food and feed which contain or

consist of such GMOs, or are produced from

GMOs, are called genetically modified (GM)

food or feed [1]. If GM crops are used in bioplastics

production, the multiple-stage processing

and the high heat used to create the

polymer removes all traces of genetic material.

This means that the final bioplastics product

contains no genetic traces. The resulting

bioplastics is therefore well suited to use in

food packaging as it contains no genetically

modified material and cannot interact with

the contents.

Global Warming | Global warming is the rise

in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere

and oceans since the late 19th century

and its projected continuation [8]. Global

warming is said to be accelerated by → green

house gases.

Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar).

G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar)

in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or

hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.

Greenhouse gas GHG | Gaseous constituent

of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic,

that absorbs and emits radiation at

specific wavelengths within the spectrum of

infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface,

the atmosphere, and clouds [1, 9]

Greenwashing | The act of misleading consumers

regarding the environmental practices

of a company, or the environmental benefits

of a product or service [1, 10]

Granulate, granules | small plastic particles

(3-4 millimetres), a form in which plastic is

sold and fed into machines, easy to handle

and dose.

HMF (5-HMF) | 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is an

organic compound derived from sugar dehydration.

It is a platform chemical, a building

block for 20 performance polymers and over

175 different chemical substances. The molecule

consists of a furan ring which contains

both aldehyde and alcohol functional groups.

5-HMF has applications in many different

industries such as bioplastics, packaging,

pharmaceuticals, adhesives and chemicals.

One of the most promising routes is 2,5

furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), produced as an

intermediate when 5-HMF is oxidised. FDCA

is used to produce PEF, which can substitute

terephthalic acid in polyester, especially polyethylene

terephthalate (PET). [bM 03/14, 02/16]

Home composting | →composting [bM 06/08]

Humus | In agriculture, humus is often used

simply to mean mature →compost, or natural

compost extracted from a forest or other

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.

Hydrophilic | Property: water-friendly, soluble

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used

in conjunction with a plastic which is not water

resistant and weather proof or that absorbs

water such as Polyamide (PA).

Hydrophobic | Property: water-resistant, not

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is water

resistant and weather proof, or that does not

absorb any water such as Polyethylene (PE)

or Polypropylene (PP).

Industrial composting | is an established

process with commonly agreed upon requirements

(e.g. temperature, timeframe) for transforming

biodegradable waste into stable, sanitised

products to be used in agriculture. The

criteria for industrial compostability of packaging

have been defined in the EN 13432. Materials

and products complying with this standard

can be certified and subsequently labelled

accordingly [1,7] [bM 06/08, 02/09]

ISO | International Organization for Standardization

JBPA | Japan Bioplastics Association

Land use | The surface required to grow sufficient

feedstock (land use) for today’s bioplastic

production is less than 0.01 percent of the

global agricultural area of 5 billion hectares.

It is not yet foreseeable to what extent an increased

use of food residues, non-food crops

or cellulosic biomass (see also →1 st /2 nd /3 rd

generation feedstock) in bioplastics production

might lead to an even further reduced

land use in the future [bM 04/09, 01/14]

LCA | is the compilation and evaluation of the

input, output and the potential environmental

impact of a product system throughout its life

cycle [17]. It is sometimes also referred to as

life cycle analysis, ecobalance or cradle-tograve

analysis. [bM 01/09]

Littering | is the (illegal) act of leaving waste

such as cigarette butts, paper, tins, bottles,

cups, plates, cutlery or bags lying in an open

or public place.

Marine litter | Following the European Commission’s

definition, “marine litter consists of

items that have been deliberately discarded,

unintentionally lost, or transported by winds

and rivers, into the sea and on beaches. It

mainly consists of plastics, wood, metals,

glass, rubber, clothing and paper”. Marine

debris originates from a variety of sources.

Shipping and fishing activities are the predominant

sea-based, ineffectively managed

landfills as well as public littering the main

land-based sources. Marine litter can pose a

threat to living organisms, especially due to

ingestion or entanglement.

Currently, there is no international standard

available, which appropriately describes the

biodegradation of plastics in the marine environment.

However, a number of standardisation

projects are in progress at ISO and ASTM

level. Furthermore, the European project

OPEN BIO addresses the marine biodegradation

of biobased products.[bM 02/16]

Mass balance | describes the relationship between

input and output of a specific substance

within a system in which the output from the

system cannot exceed the input into the system.

First attempts were made by plastic raw material

producers to claim their products renewable

(plastics) based on a certain input

of biomass in a huge and complex chemical

plant, then mathematically allocating this

biomass input to the produced plastic.

These approaches are at least controversially

disputed [bM 04/14, 05/14, 01/15]

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic

size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast.

Molecule | group of at least two atoms held

together by covalent chemical bonds.

Monomer | molecules that are linked by polymerization

to form chains of molecules and

then plastics

Mulch film | Foil to cover bottom of farmland

Organic recycling | means the treatment of

separately collected organic waste by anaerobic

digestion and/or composting.

Oxo-degradable / Oxo-fragmentable | materials

and products that do not biodegrade!

The underlying technology of oxo-degradability

or oxo-fragmentation is based on special additives,

which, if incorporated into standard

resins, are purported to accelerate the fragmentation

of products made thereof. Oxodegradable

or oxo-fragmentable materials do

not meet accepted industry standards on compostability

such as EN 13432. [bM 01/09, 05/09]

PBAT | Polybutylene adipate terephthalate, is

an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester that has the

properties of conventional polyethylene but is

fully biodegradable under industrial composting.

PBAT is made from fossil petroleum with

first attempts being made to produce it partly

from renewable resources [bM 06/09]

PBS | Polybutylene succinate, a 100% biodegradable

polymer, made from (e.g. bio-BDO)

and succinic acid, which can also be produced

biobased [bM 03/12].

PC | Polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester,

petroleum based and not degradable, used

for e.g. baby bottles or CDs. Criticized for its

BPA (→ Bisphenol-A) content.

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil

based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as

a blend component.

PE | Polyethylene, thermoplastic polymerised

from ethylene. Can be made from renewable

resources (sugar cane via bio-ethanol) [bM 05/10]

PEF | polyethylene furanoate, a polyester

made from monoethylene glycol (MEG) and

→FDCA (2,5-furandicarboxylic acid , an intermediate

chemical produced from 5-HMF). It

can be a 100% biobased alternative for PET.

PEF also has improved product characteristics,

such as better structural strength and

improved barrier behaviour, which will allow

for the use of PEF bottles in additional applications.

[bM 03/11, 04/12]

PET | Polyethylenterephthalate, transparent

polyester used for bottles and film. The

polyester is made from monoethylene glycol

(MEG), that can be renewably sourced from

bio-ethanol (sugar cane) and (until now fossil)

terephthalic acid [bM 04/14]

PGA | Polyglycolic acid or Polyglycolide is a biodegradable,

thermoplastic polymer and the

simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Besides

ist use in the biomedical field, PGA has been

introduced as a barrier resin [bM 03/09]

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) or the

polyhydroxy fatty acids, are a family of biodegradable

polyesters. As in many mammals,

including humans, that hold energy reserves

in the form of body fat there are also bacteria

that hold intracellular reserves in for of

of polyhydroxy alkanoates. Here the microorganisms

store a particularly high level of

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11


energy reserves (up to 80% of their own body

weight) for when their sources of nutrition become

scarce. By farming this type of bacteria,

and feeding them on sugar or starch (mostly

from maize), or at times on plant oils or other

nutrients rich in carbonates, it is possible to

obtain PHA‘s on an industrial scale [11]. The

most common types of PHA are PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate,

PHBV and PHBH. Depending

on the bacteria and their food, PHAs with

different mechanical properties, from rubbery

soft trough stiff and hard as ABS, can be produced.

Some PHSs are even biodegradable in

soil or in a marine environment

PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA), a

biodegradable, thermoplastic, linear aliphatic

polyester based on lactic acid, a natural acid,

is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar

or starch with the help of micro-organisms.

Lactic acid comes in two isomer forms, i.e. as

laevorotatory D(-)lactic acid and as dextrorotary

L(+)lactic acid.

Modified PLA types can be produced by the

use of the right additives or by certain combinations

of L- and D- lactides (stereocomplexing),

which then have the required rigidity for

use at higher temperatures [13] [bM 01/09, 01/12]

Plastics | Materials with large molecular

chains of natural or fossil raw materials, produced

by chemical or biochemical reactions.

PPC | Polypropylene Carbonate, a bioplastic

made by copolymerizing CO 2

with propylene

oxide (PO) [bM 04/12]

PTT | Polytrimethylterephthalate (PTT), partially

biobased polyester, is similarly to PET

produced using terephthalic acid or dimethyl

terephthalate and a diol. In this case it is a

biobased 1,3 propanediol, also known as bio-

PDO [bM 01/13]

Renewable Resources | agricultural raw materials,

which are not used as food or feed,

but as raw material for industrial products

or to generate energy. The use of renewable

resources by industry saves fossil resources

and reduces the amount of → greenhouse gas

emissions. Biobased plastics are predominantly

made of annual crops such as corn,

cereals and sugar beets or perennial cultures

such as cassava and sugar cane.

Resource efficiency | Use of limited natural

resources in a sustainable way while minimising

impacts on the environment. A resource

efficient economy creates more output

or value with lesser input.

Seedling Logo | The compostability label or

logo Seedling is connected to the standard

EN 13432/EN 14995 and a certification process

managed by the independent institutions

→DIN CERTCO and → Vinçotte. Bioplastics

products carrying the Seedling fulfil the

criteria laid down in the EN 13432 regarding

industrial compostability. [bM 01/06, 02/10]

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or

carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family.

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar

units. For example, there are known mono-,

di- and polysaccharose. → glucose is a monosaccarin.

They are important for the diet and

produced biology in plants.

Semi-finished products | plastic in form of

sheet, film, rods or the like to be further processed

into finshed products

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction

of glucose changing the aldehyde group

to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as

a plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate)

consisting of → amylose and → amylopectin,

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca

etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains

in definite way the result (product) is

called starch. Each molecule is based on 300

-12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection,

there are two types → amylose and →

amylopectin known. [bM 05/09]

Starch derivatives | Starch derivatives are

based on the chemical structure of → starch.

The chemical structure can be changed by

introducing new functional groups without

changing the → starch polymer. The product

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the

hydrophilic character is not the same.

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When

every hydroxyl group is connected with an

acid one product is starch-ester with different

chemical properties.

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can be

synthesised by treating the → starch with propane

or butanic acid. The product structure

is still based on → starch. Every based → glucose

fragment is connected with a propionate

or butyrate ester group. The product is more

hydrophobic than → starch.

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best

outcomes for the human and natural environments

both now and into the indefinite future.

One famous definition of sustainability is the

one created by the Brundtland Commission,

led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister

G. H. Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission

defined sustainable development as

development that ‘meets the needs of the

present without compromising the ability of

future generations to meet their own needs.’

Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic,

social, institutional and environmental

aspects of human society, as well as the nonhuman


Sustainable sourcing | of renewable feedstock

for biobased plastics is a prerequisite

for more sustainable products. Impacts such

as the deforestation of protected habitats

or social and environmental damage arising

from poor agricultural practices must

be avoided. Corresponding certification

schemes, such as ISCC PLUS, WLC or Bon-

Sucro, are an appropriate tool to ensure the

sustainable sourcing of biomass for all applications

around the globe.

Sustainability | as defined by European Bioplastics,

has three dimensions: economic, social

and environmental. This has been known

as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”.

This means that sustainable development involves

the simultaneous pursuit of economic

prosperity, environmental protection and social

equity. In other words, businesses have

to expand their responsibility to include these

environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability

is about making products useful to

markets and, at the same time, having societal

benefits and lower environmental impact

than the alternatives currently available. It also

implies a commitment to continuous improvement

that should result in a further reduction

of the environmental footprint of today’s products,

processes and raw materials used.

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or

melt when heated and solidify when cooled

(solid at room temperature).

Thermoplastic Starch | (TPS) → starch that

was modified (cooked, complexed) to make it

a plastic resin

Thermoset | Plastics (resins) which do not

soften or melt when heated. Examples are

epoxy resins or unsaturated polyester resins.

Vinçotte | independant certifying organisation

for the assessment on the conformity of bioplastics

WPC | Wood Plastic Composite. Composite

materials made of wood fiber/flour and plastics

(mostly polypropylene).

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,

garden residue.


[1] Environmental Communication Guide,

European Bioplastics, Berlin, Germany,


[2] ISO 14067. Carbon footprint of products -

Requirements and guidelines for quantification

and communication

[3] CEN TR 15932, Plastics - Recommendation

for terminology and characterisation

of biopolymers and bioplastics, 2010

[4] CEN/TS 16137, Plastics - Determination

of bio-based carbon content, 2011

[5] ASTM D6866, Standard Test Methods for

Determining the Biobased Content of

Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using

Radiocarbon Analysis

[6] SPI: Understanding Biobased Carbon

Content, 2012

[7] EN 13432, Requirements for packaging

recoverable through composting and biodegradation.

Test scheme and evaluation

criteria for the final acceptance of packaging,


[8] Wikipedia

[9] ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases -- Part 1:

Specification with guidance..., 2006

[10] Terrachoice, 2010,

[11] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications.

Markets, Polymedia Publisher,


[12] Lörcks, J.: Biokunststoffe, Broschüre der

FNR, 2005

[13] de Vos, S.: Improving heat-resistance of

PLA using poly(D-lactide),

bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol. 3, Issue 02/2008

[14] de Wilde, B.: Anaerobic Digestion, bioplastics

MAGAZINE, Vol 4., Issue 06/2009

[15] ISO 14067 onb Corbon Footprint of


[16] ISO 14021 on Self-declared Environmental


[17] ISO 14044 on Life Cycle Assessment

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 49

Suppliers Guide

1. Raw Materials



Conrathstraße 7

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou,

Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China

China contact: Grace Jin

mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843

Europe contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang

mobile: 0032 478 991619

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696

FLEX-162 Biodeg. Blown Film Resin!

Bio-873 4-Star Inj. Bio-Based Resin!

Simply contact:

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467

Stay permanently listed in the

Suppliers Guide with your company

logo and contact information.

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you

can be present among top suppliers in

the field of bioplastics.

For Example:

Showa Denko Europe GmbH

Konrad-Zuse-Platz 4

81829 Munich, Germany

Tel.: +49 89 93996226

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd. /

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563

MCPP Germany GmbH

+49 (0) 152-018 920 51


+33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32

1.1 bio based monomers

Corbion Purac

Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21

4200 AA Gorinchem -

The Netherlands

Tel.: +31 (0)183 695 695

Fax: +31 (0)183 695 604

62 136 Lestrem, France

Tel.: + 33 (0) 3 21 63 36 00

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH

Siemensring 79

D - 47 877 Willich

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51


Waldecker Straße 21,

99444 Blankenhain, Germany

Tel. +49 36459 45 0

39 mm

Polymedia Publisher GmbH

Dammer Str. 112

41066 Mönchengladbach


Tel. +49 2161 664864

Fax +49 2161 631045

Sample Charge:

39mm x 6,00 €

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue

Sample Charge for one year:

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is

bookable for one year (6 issues) and

extends automatically if it’s not canceled

three month before expiry.

DuPont de Nemours International S.A.

2 chemin du Pavillon

1218 - Le Grand Saconnex


Tel.: +41 22 171 51 11

Fax: +41 22 580 22 45

Tel: +86 351-8689356

Fax: +86 351-8689718

Evonik Industries AG

Paul Baumann Straße 1

45772 Marl, Germany

Tel +49 2365 49-4717

1.2 compounds

API S.p.A.

Via Dante Alighieri, 27

36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy

Telephone +39 0424 579711



BioCampus Cologne

Nattermannallee 1

50829 Cologne, Germany

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00

NUREL Engineering Polymers

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329

50016 Zaragoza, Spain

Tel: +34 976 465 579


Avenue Melville Wilson, 2

Zoning de la Fagne

5330 Assesse


Tel.: + 32 83 660 211

1.3 PLA

Shenzhen Esun Ind. Co;Ltd

Tel: +86-755-2603 1978

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Suppliers Guide

1.4 starch-based bioplastics

Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients

ZAC „Les Portes de Riom“ - BP 173

63204 Riom Cedex - France

Tel. +33 (0)4 73 67 17 00

Fax +33 (0)4 73 67 17 10


Biologische Naturverpackungen

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32

46446 Emmerich/Germany

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510

Grabio Greentech Corporation

Tel: +886-3-598-6496

No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu

Industrial Park,Hukou Township,

Hsinchu County 30351, Taiwan

1.5 PHA


Avenue Melville Wilson, 2

Zoning de la Fagne

5330 Assesse


Tel.: + 32 83 660 211

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials


Waldecker Straße 21,

99444 Blankenhain, Germany

Tel. +49 36459 45 0

3. Semi finished products

3.1 films

Infiana Germany GmbH & Co. KG

Zweibrückenstraße 15-25

91301 Forchheim

Tel. +49-9191 81-0

Fax +49-9191 81-212

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies

4201 Woodland Road

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA

Tel. +1 763.404.8700

Fax +1 763.225.6645


Via Fauser , 8

28100 Novara - ITALIA

Fax +39.0321.699.601

Tel. +39.0321.699.611

President Packaging Ind., Corp.

PLA Paper Hot Cup manufacture

In Taiwan,

Tel.: +886-6-570-4066 ext.5531

Fax: +886-6-570-4077

6. Equipment

6.1 Machinery & Molds

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159

D-13509 Berlin

Tel. +49 30 43 567 5

Fax +49 30 43 567 699

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG

Via Innovativa 31, CH-7013 Domat/Ems

Tel. +41 81 632 63 11

Fax +41 81 632 74 03

9. Services

Osterfelder Str. 3

46047 Oberhausen

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227

Fax: +49 (0)208 8598 1424

Institut für Kunststofftechnik

Universität Stuttgart

Böblinger Straße 70

70199 Stuttgart

Tel +49 711/685-62814

TianAn Biopolymer

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0

Metabolix, Inc.

Bio-based and biodegradable resins

and performance additives

21 Erie Street

Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

US +1-617-583-1700

DE +49 (0) 221 / 88 88 94 00

Taghleef Industries SpA, Italy

Via E. Fermi, 46

33058 San Giorgio di Nogaro (UD)

Contact Emanuela Bardi

Tel. +39 0431 627264

Mobile +39 342 6565309

4. Bioplastics products

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey

Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic

Container Industry

284 Pinebush Road

Cambridge Ontario

Canada N1T 1Z6

Tel. +1 519 624 9720

Fax +1 519 624 9721

6.2 Laboratory Equipment

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,




Dr. Harald Kaeb

Tel.: +49 30-28096930

nova-Institut GmbH

Chemiepark Knapsack

Industriestrasse 300

50354 Huerth, Germany

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40


1.6 masterbatches


Waldecker Straße 21,

99444 Blankenhain, Germany

Tel. +49 36459 45 0

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.

Esmy Huang, Marketing Manager

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,

Taichung County

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888

Fax +883(4)2277 6989

Mobil +886(0)982-829988

Skype esmy325

7. Plant engineering

EREMA Engineering Recycling

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH

Unterfeldstrasse 3

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23

Bioplastics Consulting

Tel. +49 2161 664864

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 51

Suppliers Guide

9. Services (continued)

UL International TTC GmbH

Rheinuferstrasse 7-9, Geb. R33

47829 Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany

Tel.: +49 (0) 2151 5370-333

Fax: +49 (0) 2151 5370-334

European Bioplastics e.V.

Marienstr. 19/20

10117 Berlin, Germany

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350

Fax +49 30 284 84 359

10.2 Universities

Michigan State University

Department of Chemical

Engineering & Materials Science

Professor Ramani Narayan

East Lansing MI 48824, USA

Tel. +1 517 719 7163

10.3 Other Institutions

Simply contact:

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467

Stay permanently listed in the

Suppliers Guide with your company

logo and contact information.

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you

can be present among top suppliers in

the field of bioplastics.

For Example:

10. Institutions

10.1 Associations

BPI - The Biodegradable

Products Institute

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415

New York, NY 10019, USA

Tel. +1-888-274-5646

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics

and Biocomposites

University of Applied Sciences

and Arts Hanover

Faculty II – Mechanical and

Bioprocess Engineering

Heisterbergallee 12

30453 Hannover, Germany

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69

Biobased Packaging Innovations

Caroli Buitenhuis

IJburglaan 836

1087 EM Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Tel.: +31 6-24216733

Polymedia Publisher GmbH

Dammer Str. 112

41066 Mönchengladbach


Tel. +49 2161 664864

Fax +49 2161 631045

Sample Charge:

39mm x 6,00 €

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue

39 mm

Sample Charge for one year:

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is

bookable for one year (6 issues) and

extends automatically if it’s not canceled

three month before expiry.

13 th International Conference of the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA)

1 – 2 June 2016

Rheinforum, Wesseling near Cologne (Germany)

Conference language: English

International Conference

of the European Industrial

Hemp Association (EIHA)

++ Cultivation ++ Processing ++ Economy ++ Sustainability ++ Innovation ++

Source: Hempro, Hemcore, NPSP Composites (2), Hemp Technology

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11

Don’t miss the biggest industrial hemp event in 2016 – worldwide!



now at




the next six issues for €149.– 1)

Special offer

for students and

young professionals

1,2) € 99.-

2) aged 35 and below.

end a scan of your

student card, your ID

or similar proof ...

Empack 2016 (with Biobased Village)

12.04.2016 - 14.04.2016 - Utrecht, The Netherlands

3 rd Bioplastic Materials Topical Conference

19.04.2016 - 21.04.2016 - Bloomington, (MN) USA


Chinaplas 2016

25.04.2016 - 28.04.2016 - Shanghai, China

can meet us

SINAL - les rencontres profesionnelles du biosourcé

24.05.2016 - 25.05.2016 - Châlons-en-Champagne, France

Bio-based Chemicals / Biobased Products 2016

24.05.2016 - 25.05.2016 - Amsterdam, The Netherlands


01 | 2016

4 th PLA World Congress

organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE

24 - 25. 05.2016 - Munich, Germany

ISSN 1862-5258


ISSN 1862-5258

Public Procurement | 34


Automotive | 12

Foam | 30

May 2006

ISSN 1862-5258

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Eyeglass Lenses | 39


02 | 2016

Biobased Products Europe

25 - 26. 05.2016 - Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Innovation and Sustainability in Consumer Packaging

23.06.2016 - Seoul, South Korea


26.09.2016 - 29.09.2016 - Madrid, Spain

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11

Vol. 1

bioplastics magazine

Top Talk:

Interview with Helmut Traitler,

VP Packaging of Nestlé | 10

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11


Design for Recyclability | 44


Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging | 12

Marine Pollution / Marine Degradation | 16


3 rd Bioplastics Buisiness Breakfast @ K‘2016

organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE

20 - 22.10.2016 - Düsseldorf, Germany


... is read in 92 countries

Sustainable Bioplastics

10.11.2016 - 11.11.2016 - Alicante, Spain


11 th European Bioplastics Conference

29.11.2016 - 30.11.2016- Berlin, Germany

Mention the promotion code ‘watch‘ or ‘book‘

and you will get our watch or the book 3)

Bioplastics Basics. Applications. Markets. for free

1) Offer valid until 30 April 2016

3) Gratis-Buch in Deutschland nicht möglich, no free book in Germany

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11 53

Companies in this issue

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert

Agrana Starch Thermoplastics 50


Anhui Tianyi Env. Protection Techn. 28

API 50

AU CO. 28

Avantium 6

BASF 6,28

Beta Analytic 34

Biobased Packaging Innovations 52


Biopolymer Network / Scion 10

Biosolutions 10

Biotec 10 51

BK Pac 36

Bodega Matarromera 38

BPI 52

Braskem 36

Calysta Energy 6

Center for Biopl. and Biocomposites 35

China XD Plastics Company 28

Club Bioplastique 5

Coating p. Materials 28

Coca-Cola 32

ColorFABB 8

Corbion 5,10 50

Croda Europe 28

Dandong Ritian Nano Technology 28

Danone 32

Doill Ecotec 28

Dongguan Xinhai env. prot. material 28

DuPont 50

Emery Oleochemicals HK 28

EnerPlastics 28

EREMA 43,51

European Bioplastics 5,10,32,42,45 27,52

Evonik 28 50

Far Eastern New Century 32

FKuR 10,36 2,5

Fraunhofer IAP 10

Fraunhofer ICT 10

Fraunhofer IVV 10

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 51

Fukutomi Company 28

Gema Elektro Plastik . 28

GRABIO Greentech Corporation 28 51

Grafe 50,51

GuangDong ShunDe LuHua 28

Hairma Chemicals (GZ) 28

Hallink 51

Hebei Jingu Plasticizer 28

Helian Polymers 8, 10

Ikea 7,39

Infiana Germany 51

Institut für Biopl. & Biocomposites 32 52

Iowa State University 7


Itoh Optical Ind. 39

Jacobson van den Berg (Hong Kong) 28

Jelu Werk 36

Jetwell Trading Limited 28

Jiangsu Jinhe Hi-tech 28

Jiangsu Torise Biomaterials 28

Jinan Shengquan Group 28

JinHui ZhaoLong 28 50

Kimberly-Clark Corporation 10

Kingfa 50

Kingfa Science and Technology 28

KU Leuven 10

Kuraray 12,28

Lifeline Technologies 28

Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients 51

Maosheng Env. Protection Technology 28

Matchexpo 28

Meredian Holdings Group 21

Metabolix 14 51

Michigan State University 10,18 52

Minima Technology 28 51

Miracll Chemicals 28

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation 28

Mitsui 39 13

mtm 44

narocon 51

NatureWorks 6,10,28

Natur-Tec 51

Nestlé 32

Newlight Technologies 7

Ngai Hing Hong Plastic Materials (HK) 28

nova-Institute 10 9,51

Novamont 16 51,56

NSF 35

NUREL Engineering Polymers 50

Oerlemans Plastics 36

Open-Bio 26

Plantic 12

Plantura Italia 10

plasticker 20

Polyalloy Inc. 28

PolyOne 50,51

President Packaging 51

Procotex Corporation 28

Proviron Functional Chemicals 28

PTT MCC Biochem 37,51

Rajiv Plastic Industries 28

Reverdia 28

Roquette 28 50

Saida 51

Samyang Corporation 28

Shandong Jiqing Chemcal 28

Shanghai Xiner Low-carbon 28

Shenzhen All Technology Limited 28

Shenzhen Esun Industrial 28 50

Shenzhen Polymer Industry Ass. 28

Showa Denko 50

Stanford University 7

Süddeutsches Kunststoffzentrum SKZ 10

Sukano 10,28

Supla 10

Suzhou Hanfeng New Material 28

Suzhou Hydal Biotech 28

Suzhou Mitac Precision Technology 28

Synbra 10

Taghleef Industries 51

Taizhou Sudarshan New Material 28

Teijin Kasei (HK) 28

TianAn Biopolymer 51

Toray Plastics 38

TÜV Rheinland (Shanghai) 28

Uhde Inventa-Fischer 10,28 51

UL International TTC 52


Univ. Hohenheim 40

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 51

University of Ap. Sc. Hamm-Lippstadt 10

Vinçotte 22

Virent 32

Wageningen UR 10

Wei Li Plastics Machinery (H.K.) 28

WeiFang Graceland Chemicals 28

Weihai Lianqiao New M at. Sc.& Techn. 28

Woosung Chemical 28

Wuhan Huali Environmental Technology 28

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 28

Yamamoto Kogaku 39

Yat Shun Hong Company 28

Yongxi Pplastics Technology 28

Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical 28 50

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials 28

Zhejiang Pu Wei Lun Chemicals 28

Zhuhai Xunfeng Special Plastics 28

Editorial Planner


Issue Month Publ.-Date



Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics

03/2016 May/Jun 06 Jun 2016 06 May 2016 Injection moulding Joining of bioplastics

(welding, glueing etc),


PHA (update)

04/2016 Jul/Aug 01 Aug 2016 01 Jul 2016 Blow Moulding Toys Additives





05/2016 Sep/Oct 04 Oct 2016 02 Sep 2016 Fiber / Textile /


Polyurethanes /



K'2016 preview

06/2016 Nov/Dec 05 Dec 2016 04 Nov 2016 Films / Flexibles /


Consumer & Office


Certification - Blessing

and Curse

K'2016 Review

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11






Call for proposals

Enter your own product, service or development, or nominate

your favourite example from another organisation

Please let us know until August 31 st

1. What the product, service or development is and does

2. Why you think this product, service or development should win an award

3. What your (or the proposed) company or organisation does

Your entry should not exceed 500 words (approx. 1 page) and may also

be supported with photographs, samples, marketing brochures and/or

technical documentation (cannot be sent back). The 5 nominees must be

prepared to provide a 30 second videoclip

More details and an entry form can be downloaded from

The Bioplastics Award will be presented during the

11 th European Bioplastics Conference

November 29-30, 2016, Berlin, Germany

supported by

Sponsors welcome, please contact




Using the MATER-BI trademark licence

means that NOVAMONT’s partners agree

to comply with strict quality parameters and

testing of random samples from the market.

These are designed to ensure that films

are converted under ideal conditions

and that articles produced in MATER-BI

meet all essential requirements. To date

over 1000 products have been tested.



MATER-BI is part of a virtuous

production system, undertaken

entirely on Italian territory.

It enters into a production chain

that involves everyone,

from the farmer to the composter,

from the converter via the retailer

to the consumer.



MATER-BI has unique,

environmentally-friendly properties.

It is biodegradable and compostable

and contains renewable raw materials.

It is the ideal solution for organic

waste collection bags and is

organically recycled into fertile



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