AESM Vol 18-Issue 2 2020

The latest Australian Emergency Services Magazine. The latest in news from the emergency services sector and emergency management. Regular columns from Associate Professor Erin Cotter-Smith, Dr Michael Eburn and Paramedic Tammie Bullard. Anzac Day Issue, Tributes and In Memoriam, Coronavirus impacts and vaccine news. Supporting emergency service workers after a national crisis, In the Spotlight and the latest travel adventure in Emergency Breaks.

The latest Australian Emergency Services Magazine. The latest in news from the emergency services sector and emergency management. Regular columns from Associate Professor Erin Cotter-Smith, Dr Michael Eburn and Paramedic Tammie Bullard. Anzac Day Issue, Tributes and In Memoriam, Coronavirus impacts and vaccine news. Supporting emergency service workers after a national crisis, In the Spotlight and the latest travel adventure in Emergency Breaks.


Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

VOL <strong>18</strong>: Isssue 2, <strong>2020</strong><br />



We’ve got your back.<br />

Emergency Services Health is a not-for-profit<br />

health fund that exists to enhance the physical<br />

and mental health and wellbeing of Australia’s<br />

emergency services community.<br />

We do this by providing health insurance products,<br />

support, information and services designed<br />

exclusively for the needs of our members.

We treat our members like colleagues.<br />

That’s because they are.<br />

Fire Response &<br />

Recovery Sector<br />

State Emergency<br />

Response &<br />

Recovery Sector<br />

We’re rallying for<br />

everybody working and<br />

volunteering to protect<br />

our communities.<br />

Ambulance & Medical<br />

Response & Recovery<br />

Sector<br />

Water Response &<br />

Recovery Sector<br />

Why Choose Us?<br />

Our simple products are<br />

tailored to the lifelong needs<br />

of our members.<br />

We provide top quality cover, and<br />

will stand beside our members<br />

when they need us most.<br />

Our approach is personal;<br />

we care about our members.<br />

We’re run for the benefit<br />

of members. We’re a true<br />

not-for-profit. We’re not<br />

driven by corporate investors<br />

or overseas owners demanding<br />

shareholder dividends.<br />

Who Can Join?<br />

Emergency Services Health is open to people across Australia who were<br />

or are employed (including volunteering) in emergency services, and their<br />

families. Our focus on the emergency services community means we make<br />

sure we provide the most relevant products and best quality service for the<br />

lifelong health and wellbeing of our members.<br />

For more information:<br />

PHONE<br />

1300 703 703<br />

EMAIL<br />

enquiries@eshealth.com.au<br />

VISIT<br />

eshealth.com.au<br />

Emergency Services Health Pty Ltd ABN 98 131 093 877




Where are we with<br />

a Coronavirus<br />

Vaccine<br />

“<br />


IT’S TIME TO<br />


WHO HAVE<br />

SERVED<br />

Nearly 1 in<br />

5 serving Australian<br />

Defence Force (ADF)<br />

personnel were<br />

estimated to have<br />

sought help for stressrelated,<br />

emotional,<br />

mental health or<br />

family problems over<br />

a 12 month period<br />

21<br />

“<br />

A closer look at the<br />

structure of the<br />

coronavirus and the<br />

development of a<br />

potential vaccine.<br />

11<br />


Helping Emergency<br />

Service Workers<br />

Recover after a<br />

National Crisis<br />

The impact of trauma<br />

on Emergency Service<br />

Workers after the recent<br />

bushfire season<br />

Pandemic Drones<br />

- Useful or the<br />

beginning of a police<br />

state?<br />

From delivering medical<br />

supplies, to helping keep<br />

people indoors – drones can<br />

do a lot in a pandemic, so<br />

what is the downside?<br />

33<br />

25<br />

In Memoriam<br />

A tribute to WW2 veteran<br />

Arnold William Forrester.<br />

Arnold sadly passed away<br />

this year. He was the last<br />

member of the 39th Infantry<br />

Battalion of the Kokoda Track<br />

campaign.<br />

The Great War<br />

WW 1<br />

An examination of The Great<br />

War, WW1. How it began<br />

and the impact it has had<br />

on world politics and within<br />

the hearts and minds of<br />

Australian ideology.<br />

27<br />

17<br />



• Editor’s Note<br />

4<br />

• Recent Events<br />

Boosting Paramedic Recruits on the Frontline<br />

Time to prepare for Bushfire season <strong>2020</strong><br />

NSW Junior Lifesaver of the Year Awards<br />

• Emergency Law with Dr Michael Eburn<br />

• Let’s Talk Mental Health with A/Prof Erin Cotter- Smith<br />

• The Good, The Bad & The Ugly Paramedic<br />

• In the Spotlight - Dawn Hartog Toolangi FIre Brigade<br />

• Emergency Breaks - Mornington Peninsula, Victoria<br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

9<br />

15<br />

31<br />

37<br />

39<br />


<strong>AESM</strong> APP<br />

Stay connected and up<br />

to date on all the latest<br />

emergency services news<br />

on the website PLUS have<br />

access to the magazine via<br />

our dedicated App on both<br />

Apple IOS and Google<br />

Android platforms<br />


Associate Professor Erin Cotter-Smith<br />

Course Coordinator of the School of<br />

Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan<br />

University. Research Consultant at The<br />

Code 9 Foundation. Well-Being Team Co-<br />

Lead, The Australian Red Cross.<br />


Dr Michael Eburn - PHD, Barrister<br />

and leading expert in law relating to<br />

emergency management & emergency<br />

services.<br />



Tammie Bullard is a paramedic and<br />

sessional lecturer based in Western<br />

Australia. Author of The Good, The Bad<br />

& The Ugly Paramedic<br />


Editorial Content<br />

press@ausemergencyservices.com.au<br />

Advertising Enquiries<br />

advertise@ausemergencyservices.com.au<br />

Distribution Enquiries<br />

distribution@ausemergencyservices.com.au<br />


Suite 112, Locked Bag 1<br />

ROBINA TC, QLD 4230<br />



Each edition features a<br />

profile on a person, team,<br />

partnership, squad or unit<br />

to showcase their unique<br />

contribution to the Emergency<br />

Services industry.<br />

Explore local surrounds, or<br />

new places that are only a<br />

short plane trip or drive away,<br />

so you can maximise every<br />

minute of those days when<br />

your name doesn’t appear<br />

next to a call sign on the roster<br />

Scan Me<br />

to download the <strong>AESM</strong> App<br />


Is your organisation ready to cope with a<br />

mission critical emergency incident?<br />

Incidents such as bushfires, natural disasters or emergency mission tactical scenarios require<br />

public safety agencies to have the right communications technologies in place before these<br />

emergencies hit.<br />

The Simoco SRB250 is a rapid deployment repeater that is designed to provide radio coverage to<br />

a critical incident, emergency situation or extends existing Public Safety systems, either analogue<br />

or APCO Digital P25. It provides deployable “on demand” coverage for vehicle and portable radio<br />

users in VHF or UHF.<br />

Quick and rapid<br />

deployment<br />

Ruggedised pelican<br />

device<br />

Enhanced battery<br />

operations<br />

Link radio<br />

capability into GRN<br />

Integration with<br />

other digital<br />

operators/systems<br />

Deployable by<br />

non-technical staff<br />

Contact us<br />

inquiry.aus@simocowirelesssolutions.com<br />

+61 1300 363 607<br />

www.simocowirelesssolutions.com<br />

www.thepapermillfood.com<br />


The Paper Mill has something for everyone, and serves breakfast, lunch and dinner.<br />

With four eating options all under one roof, we suit any occasion, budget or appetite.<br />

@thepapermillfood | hello@thepapermillfood.com | 02 8742 4033<br />

3<br />



Welcome to the latest edition of the Australian<br />

Emergency Services Magazine.<br />

Since our last edition the world as we know it has<br />

completely changed and no one is sure that it will ever<br />

be the same again. We have been collectively thrust<br />

into a new world of social distancing and quarantine<br />

that has been challenging and eye-opening. The panic<br />

buying, pandemic chaos caught most of us off guard<br />

and we have certainly all understood the value of our<br />

family, friends and freedom like never before.<br />

Our frontline workers and emergency services have<br />

once again been called on to bear the physical, mental<br />

and emotional toll of this latest crisis. So what can<br />

we do? We can be there for each other. Support<br />

our communities by staying home, keep our nurses,<br />

paramedics and doctors safe by staying at home.<br />

Reach out if you know someone who is struggling and<br />

be there as a shoulder to lean on or to point them in<br />

the right direction for support and help.<br />

This health crisis is a double edged sword, not only<br />

threatening our health, but the economic toll on<br />

the country has been likened to that of the great<br />

depression. We have also been affected by this,<br />

however we are determined to stay present and<br />

continue to provide quality content and information for<br />

our dedicated readers and followers.<br />

We wish you and your family good health in these<br />

difficult times.<br />

Bianca Peterson<br />

Editor in Chief<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au<br />


The Australian Emergency Services Magazine<br />

is a community educational resource<br />

publication and does not promote itself<br />

as a charity or fund raising institution, nor<br />

solicit on behalf of charities and is no way<br />

financially supported by or associated with<br />

any government or similar institution.<br />

Distribution of the publication is Bi-Monthly<br />

and is circulated via a database of interested<br />

parties, including business, subscribers,<br />

advertisers, volunteer emergency<br />

organistations, and council libraries. A<br />

print and digital magazine is distributed to a<br />

targeted database in each State & Territory.<br />

Every effort is made to ensure that material<br />

presented in the Australian Emergency<br />

Services Magazine was correct at the time of<br />

printing and is published in good faith, no<br />

responsibility or liability will be accepted by<br />

Boothbook Media.<br />

The views and opinions expressed are<br />

not necessarily those of Boothbook<br />

Media and its employees. The content of<br />

any advertising or promotional material<br />

contained within the Australian Emergency<br />

Services Magazine is not necessarily an<br />

endorsement by Boothbook Media.<br />

Published by Boothbook Media<br />

ABN:72 605 987 031<br />




We are always looking for new<br />

and relevant content that<br />

our readers will enjoy. If you<br />

would like to be featured in<br />

the magazine there are many<br />

options. You may have a story<br />

you would like to share, or<br />

perhaps be featured in our “In<br />

the Spotlight” regular column.<br />

Please submit all articles or<br />

expressions of interest to the<br />

Editor for consideration at:<br />

press@ausemergencyservices.<br />

com.au<br />

Articles should be no more than<br />

1000 words and be relevant<br />

to the content within the<br />

Australian Emergency Services<br />

Magazine.<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 4





The Victorian Government will fasttrack<br />

the recruitment of 120 extra<br />

paramedics to boost the frontline of<br />

Victoria’s coronavirus response and<br />

help ensure all Victorians get the health<br />

support they need when they need it.<br />

Minister for Ambulance Services Jenny<br />

Mikakos said the new paramedics<br />

would be brought forward from the<br />

next financial year, to hit the ground<br />

from next month. She stated, “We will<br />

need our paramedics more than ever<br />

over the coming months, but we don’t<br />

want to have a situation where they<br />

have to choose between coronavirus<br />

cases and other serious conditions<br />

such as heart-attacks and strokes.”<br />

“These new recruits will help us deal<br />

with increased demand on our health<br />

system, while ensuring all Victorians<br />

continue to receive the lifesaving care<br />

they deserve.”<br />

This means Ambulance Victoria will<br />

have the resources it needs to respond<br />

to the coronavirus pandemic and flu<br />

season, while still providing the very<br />

best care to all Victorians, no matter<br />

what their condition is.<br />

The boost will also increase capacity in<br />

Ambulance Victoria’s specialist areas<br />

including the secondary triage service,<br />

where expert nurses and paramedics<br />

assess and provide advice to less<br />

serious cases.<br />

Ambulance Victoria has started the<br />

selection process and is aiming to<br />

recruit 60 staff in May and June.<br />

Seriously ill patients who need<br />

transport to access appropriate<br />

medical care – particularly those in<br />

regional areas – will also benefit from<br />

additional resources for Ambulance<br />

Victoria’s Adult Retrieval Victoria.<br />

The patient transport service will<br />

expand its 24-hour telephone advice<br />

service to provide round-the-clock<br />

telehealth, regional clinical support, coordination<br />

and critical care retrieval for<br />

the next six months.<br />

The expansion means extra patient<br />

transport officers, administrative<br />

support officers, medical consultants,<br />

medical coordinators and critical care<br />

registered nurses so patients are fully<br />

supported.<br />

The Victorian Government has invested<br />

a record $1 billion to deliver more<br />

paramedics, more vehicles and more<br />

stations. This includes a big $299<br />

million boost in the Victorian Budget<br />

2019/20.<br />

The latest data shows Victoria’s<br />

ambulances transported a massive<br />

78,820 code 1 emergency patients<br />

in the three months to the end of<br />

December – 4,513 more than a year<br />

earlier.<br />

Despite this massive increase, our<br />

dedicated paramedics reached 82.5<br />

per cent of Code 1 cases across the<br />

state within the benchmark 15 minutes,<br />

with an average response time of 11<br />

minutes and 29 seconds.<br />

5<br />



Queensland Fire and Emergency<br />

Services (QFES) is asking residents<br />

to get a head start on this<br />

year’s bushfire season by using time<br />

at home to prepare their properties.<br />

QFES Commissioner Greg Leach<br />

urged the community to be proactive<br />

in the wake of a severe 2019 bushfire<br />

season, which burnt more than 7.7<br />

million hectares of land and destroyed<br />

49 houses, 68 sheds and five<br />

commercial buildings.<br />

“The impact of the prolonged and<br />

heightened 2019 bushfire season<br />

should prompt residents to spend<br />

time now preparing,” Mr Leach said.<br />

“All Queenslanders will remember<br />

the intense bushfire season the state<br />

experienced last year and how it<br />

affected them.<br />

“An adequately prepared property<br />

can help reduce the severity of a<br />

bushfire, which is why everyone in<br />



BUSHFIRE SEASON <strong>2020</strong><br />

rural and urban areas need to take<br />

simple steps now to prepare their<br />

properties.<br />

“Residents can remove leaves and<br />

leaf litter, clear gutters, trim overhanging<br />

branches and keep lawns<br />

short to prevent bush and grass fires<br />

from starting and spreading on their<br />

property.”<br />

Mr Leach encouraged residents to<br />

reach out to their local Rural Fire<br />

Service brigade if they needed assistance.<br />

“Residents can contact their local<br />

rural fire brigade and fire wardens for<br />

advice, assistance and ideas on how<br />

to prepare their individual properties,”<br />

he said.<br />

“We will be working to minimise the<br />

bushfire risk, but bushfire prevention<br />

is a community effort.<br />

“QFES is asking, ‘what will you be<br />

doing to prepare for a bushfire’?<br />

Mr Leach said maintaining a Bushfire<br />

Survival Plan was a great way to be<br />

prepared and could be completed by<br />

visiting the Rural Fire Service website.<br />

“A well-thought-out plan could make<br />

all the difference once bushfire season<br />

is underway,” he said.<br />

“This is because a plan should clearly<br />

state what action will be taken if a<br />

bushfire is in the area.<br />

“Combined with property preparation,<br />

a bushfire survival plan is an<br />

effective measure individuals and<br />

families can take ahead of this year’s<br />

bushfire season.”<br />

People can visit ruralfire.qld.gov.au<br />

for more information on preparing<br />

for bushfire season and completing a<br />

Bushfire Survival Plan.<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 6




The <strong>2020</strong> NSW Junior Lifesavers of<br />

the Year (JLOTY) have been decided.<br />

For the first time in its 32-year<br />

history, the process for the selection<br />

of the prestigious awards for 13<br />

and 14-year old lifesavers has<br />

been completed online due to the<br />

COVID-19 pandemic.<br />

Despite not being able to attend the<br />

annual camp, the young leaders have<br />

spent time working on their digital<br />

presentation and interview skills.<br />

Many have also been carrying<br />

out tasks to assist their clubs and<br />

communities where they can, during<br />

the COVID-19 crisis. Everything<br />

from engaging the younger Nippers<br />

in online activities to helping their<br />

club management teams with<br />

scanning and even helping with club<br />

presentations.<br />

Surf Life Saving NSW Director of<br />

Membership Kerry Clancy said<br />

it’s fantastic to see the youngest<br />

lifesavers in the movement step up at<br />

this time.<br />

“Each year the calibre of our finalists<br />

is raised. This year is no exception<br />

and each have been outstanding with<br />

the move to digital interviews,” said<br />

Clancy.<br />

“I commend each one of our 22<br />

finalists from right across the state<br />

and I encourage them to continue to<br />

be strong and enthusiastic leaders in<br />

their clubs and branches,” she said.<br />

This year’s presentation was hosted<br />

on Thursday 16 April by Australian<br />

Olympic rowing hopeful and Indoor<br />

Rowing World Record holder Georgie<br />

Rowe from Collaroy SLSC. Just<br />

days after breaking the world half<br />

marathon record, Georgie said she<br />

was honoured to present the two<br />

<strong>2020</strong> NSW Junior Surf Lifesavers of<br />

the Year with their awards.<br />

“To have the courage and<br />

perseverance to come this far in this<br />

award process is an amazing feat,”<br />

said Rowe. “They have each shown<br />

to be valuable members of their club<br />

and great representatives of both<br />

their clubs and branches through<br />

their volunteering and lifesaving skills.<br />

“Some of them have been involved in<br />

their clubs since they were six-years<br />

old and the passion they have is so<br />

inspiring,” she said. “They want to<br />

develop some amazing projects to<br />

help make Surf Life Saving stronger<br />

into the future. They all have the<br />

world at their feet and I can’t wait to<br />

see where their passion takes them.”<br />

The <strong>2020</strong> NSW Female Junior<br />

Lifesaver of the Year is Chloe Carr<br />

from Bungan Beach SLSC on Sydney’s<br />

Northern Beaches.<br />

Chloe is a virtual newcomer to Surf<br />

Life Saving, but in her 12 months of<br />

being a member she has achieved<br />

her SRC (Surf Rescue Certificate),<br />

substituted on patrols with members<br />

she hadn’t met, if nothing else but<br />

7<br />



Female Junior Lifesaver of the Year Chloe<br />

Carr from Bungan Beach SLSC<br />

to expand her knowledge and patrol<br />

experience.<br />

Chloe has goals and direction that will<br />

not only take her further in Surf Life<br />

Saving, but she has shown that she is<br />

driven to take what she has learnt on<br />

the beach and convert those skills to<br />

help her in all areas of her life.<br />

Chloe is not afraid to admit that<br />

obtaining her SRC and participating<br />

in the JLOTY program has boosted<br />

her confidence, taught her how to<br />

work in a team and even become a<br />

better water person. Through the<br />

JLOTY program Chloe has shown that<br />

everyone can have a voice.<br />

Chloe would like to encourage more<br />

people within her community to<br />

participate in Surf Life Saving because<br />

she believes that learning about the<br />

beach and her community opened<br />

her eyes to the world and all its<br />

possibilities.<br />

The <strong>2020</strong> NSW Male Junior Lifesaver<br />

of the Year is Kale Puata from North<br />

Avoca SLSC on the Central Coast.<br />

Kale has enjoyed many different<br />

areas of Surf Life Saving since starting<br />

as a six-year-old. The highlight for him<br />

was being part of the Surf Life Saving<br />

Central Coast Rookie Program.<br />

After gaining his SRC (Surf Rescue<br />

Certificate) he has been involved<br />

in leadership camps, fundraising<br />

and he also loves competing and<br />

representing his club.<br />

Kale would love to see a Rookie<br />

Buddy program set up within Surf<br />

Life Saving to help build member<br />

confidence and experience.<br />

The panel said Kale was very earnest<br />

in all his responses and were<br />

impressed with his commitment to<br />

continue to develop as a leader in his<br />

club and community.<br />

This is the first time both Bungan<br />

Beach and North Avoca lifesavers<br />

have taken out the Junior Lifesaver of<br />

the Year award.<br />

Surf Life Saving NSW President<br />

George Shales said he was thrilled<br />

with the calibre of the finalists.<br />

“I’m extremely proud of our 22<br />

remarkable young lifesavers, who<br />

Male Junior Lifesaver of the Year Kale<br />

Puata from North Avoca SLSC<br />

are no doubt leading the way with an<br />

amazing team of like-minded clubmates.<br />

Their energy is just what we<br />

need at this time and I encourage<br />

each of them to maintain their<br />

positive attitude and continue their<br />

great work into the next season.<br />

“Congratulations to Kale and Chloe<br />

on being named our <strong>2020</strong> Junior<br />

Lifesavers of the Year. You join a long<br />

list of highly successful and inspiring<br />

previous winners. There are great<br />

things ahead for you. Make the most<br />

of every opportunity,” said Shales.<br />

With thanks to NSW Surf Life Saving for<br />

this article and accompanying images.<br />

Kadia<br />

is an Occupational<br />

Therapy practice supporting<br />

the Eastern Suburbs of Melbourne.<br />

We are dedicated to helping our clients<br />

0400 121 513<br />

accomplish their goals in living with a disability<br />

daniel@kadia.com.au<br />

because everyone deserves a chance to create. 5 Foulds Ct, Montrose Vic 3765<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 8

AUSTRALIAN EMERGENCY LAW with Dr Michael Eburn<br />











COVID-19 FEARS<br />

March 28, <strong>2020</strong><br />

PHD<br />

Barrister<br />

Leading expert in Law<br />

relating to Emergency<br />

Management & Emergency<br />

Services<br />

Follow Michael Eburn<br />

Facebook- facebook.com/<br />

EburnM/<br />

Twitter - @EburnM<br />

For his latest articles on<br />

Emergency Law go to:<br />

www.emergencylaw.wordpress.com<br />

Today’s correspondent is a<br />

paramedic who<br />

… received a Signal 1 job (that’s the<br />

Victorian code for lights, sirens, urgent<br />

response) to one of the major nursing<br />

homes for a reported stroke patient.<br />

On arrival at the facility, the<br />

receptionist was unaware of why we<br />

were there (pretty common, not a<br />

problem). She then asked us to read<br />

and sign a full A4 page document<br />

with questions relating to COVID-19<br />

inclusion criteria; have we travelled<br />

overseas recently, have we interacted<br />

with other people who have been<br />

overseas recently etc.<br />

She then insisted we submit to a<br />

tympanic temperature test.<br />

My partner returned a reading of 37.3<br />

and was refused entry to the facility.<br />

I advised the receptionist that the<br />

normal temperature range is anywhere<br />

between 36.5 and 37.5 degrees Celsius.<br />

She replied that her instructions were<br />

that nobody with a temperature over<br />

37.2 would be permitted entry and<br />

the recently contracted security guard<br />

next to her desk would see those<br />

instructions were carried out.<br />

We were both stunned.<br />

A paramedic employed by a<br />

jurisdictional ambulance service is<br />

being refused access to a patient that<br />

on-site nurses had deemed to require<br />

urgent care and transport.<br />

My question to you is; is that legal?<br />

The question ‘is that legal’ raises<br />

so many issues because there<br />

are so many relationships at play.<br />

The operator of the facility has a<br />

duty to try to minimise the risk of<br />

COVID-19 to residents and staff,<br />

they also have a duty to ensure that<br />

residents get the medical care they<br />

need. Victoria ambulance also owes<br />

various duties to everyone involved.<br />

The receptionist and the security<br />

guard have obligations to obey the<br />

directions of their employer and<br />

you cannot expect them to know<br />

whether 37.5o is or is not safe if<br />

they’ve been told no-one above 37.2<br />

o is to come in. And you may think<br />

that’s an unreasonable and arbitrary<br />

line but all lines are arbitrary and<br />

we don’t know who came up with<br />

the 37.2 line or on what basis, but<br />

if it is a nursing home one might at<br />

least expect that medical advice was<br />

considered.<br />

With all those variables the only<br />

question I’m going to answer is<br />

‘is it legal to exclude a paramedic<br />

employed by Victoria ambulance’?

The Ambulance Services Act<br />

1986 (Vic) does not give any<br />

statutory authority to allow<br />

Victoria Ambulance to insist on, or<br />

force entry (compare that to the<br />

Ambulance Services Act 1991 (Qld)<br />

s 38 ‘Powers of authorised officers’).<br />

There is therefore no offence in<br />

refusing paramedics entry. (There<br />

may be relevant offences and<br />

obligations under nursing home<br />

licensing legislation regarding the<br />

proprietor’s obligations to residents<br />

but that is about the proprietor’s<br />

duties to the patients and that is<br />

beyond the scope of this blog).<br />

The common law of necessity<br />

would suggest that paramedics<br />

can force entry – see Paramedics<br />

forcing entry to premises (March<br />

25, 2014). The response has to be<br />

proportionate however and here<br />

they were not refusing entry to<br />

Ambulance Victoria or to everyone,<br />

just to one person. The other<br />

paramedic, my correspondent could<br />

go in and assess the patient and<br />

other paramedics may have been<br />

allowed in. Using force to push past<br />

the receptionist and security guard<br />

would not only inflame the situation<br />

and risk injury, it may also have been<br />

unreasonable in the circumstances.<br />

The Ambulance Services Act 1986<br />

(Vic) s 39B says:<br />

At the request of an operational staff<br />

member providing care or treatment<br />

to a patient or attempting to provide<br />

care or treatment to a patient,<br />

a police officer is authorised to<br />

remove any person who interferes<br />

or may interfere, by his or her<br />

presence or otherwise, with the<br />

provision of care or treatment.<br />

Police could have been called and<br />

they could have ‘removed’ the<br />

receptionist and security guard but<br />

whether they would have done so is<br />

another question.<br />

Imagine a paramedic turned up,<br />

untidy, obviously dirty uniform,<br />

unclean hands dirt with obvious dirt<br />

under the fingernails etc and strong<br />

body odour suggesting that they<br />

hadn’t had a shower for some time.<br />

I don’t think anyone would think it<br />

would be unreasonable for a health<br />

facility to say ‘you’re not coming in<br />

here’. In COVID-19 times the health<br />

risk is not so obvious but if there are<br />

indicia (in this case a temperature<br />

over 37.2o ) why would the right to<br />

refuse be any different?<br />

Things are legal unless there is a<br />

law that says they are not. The<br />

Ambulance Services Act 1986 (Vic)<br />

does not say that an occupier has to<br />

allow access to the paramedics, and<br />

in this case they were not refusing<br />

access to Ambulance Victoria just<br />

one paramedic. And if one were to<br />

consider their duty to their residents<br />

one cannot say that refusing<br />

access to this one paramedic was<br />

unreasonable where the institution<br />

had determined an indicium for<br />

access. Whilst that decision may<br />

have created an increased risk<br />

to one patient (ie they would be<br />

assessed by one, rather than two<br />

paramedics) it also reduced another<br />

risk to all the residents (the risk of<br />

introducing COVID-19). It would no<br />

doubt be subject to a lot of expert<br />

evidence before anyone could<br />

determine whether the decision was<br />

or was not a reasonable response to<br />

the competing risks.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Given that they were not refusing<br />

access to Ambulance Victoria, and<br />

they were not refusing access for no<br />

reason I cannot see that the action<br />

was prohibited or unlawful. It was<br />

not a breach of any provision of the<br />

Ambulance Services Act 1986 (Vic).<br />

The issue is not however ‘was the<br />

action legal?’ but ‘was the indicia<br />

reasonable?’ and that’s a question<br />

for clinicians.<br />

This article originally appeared on the<br />

blog Australian Emergency Law (https://<br />

emergencylaw.wordpress.com/) and is reproduced<br />

with the permission of the author.<br />

As a blog post it represents the author’s opinion<br />

based on the law at the time it was written. The<br />

blog, or this article, is not legal advice and cannot be<br />

relied upon to determine any person’s legal position.<br />

How the law applies to any specific situation or<br />

event depends on all the circumstances.<br />

If you need to determine legal rights and obligations<br />

with respect to any event that has happened, or<br />

some action that is proposed, you must consult<br />

a lawyer for advice based on the particular<br />

circumstances. Trade unions, professional<br />

indemnity insurers and community legal centres can<br />

all be a source for initial legal advice.<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 10




SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes<br />

COVID-19, is changing how we live.<br />

With a rapid increase in cases, we<br />

are now isolating in our homes to<br />

“flatten the curve”.<br />

However, it will be nearly impossible<br />

to eradicate the virus simultaneously<br />

all around the world. And when we<br />

do emerge from isolation, the virus<br />

could potentially re-establish itself.<br />

Our best chance to keep it in check<br />

in the future will be to develop a<br />

vaccine.<br />

Australia’s CSIRO has just begun<br />

testing two new vaccine candidates.<br />

These are just two of many potential<br />

vaccines that scientists are working<br />

on around the world.<br />


All vaccines must contain two<br />

components:<br />

• the adjuvant, a molecule that<br />

acts as a “danger signal” to<br />

activate your immune system<br />

• the antigen, a unique molecule<br />

that acts as a “target” for the<br />

immune response to the virus.<br />

The adjuvant must be mixed with<br />

the antigen to activate an immune<br />

response. But you can’t induce any<br />

old immune response – you must<br />

trigger the right type of response for<br />

the infection you’re targeting.<br />

Researchers divide immune<br />

responses broadly into those that<br />

make:<br />

• antibodies, which bind to the<br />

surface of viruses to prevent<br />

infection of cells<br />

• T cells, which kill cells that have<br />

become infected with the virus.<br />

Adjuvants and antigens are selected<br />

to induce antibody and/or T cell<br />

responses to ensure we have the<br />

right kind of immune response<br />

against the right target.<br />

The ideal vaccine would be safe,<br />

easy to administer, simple and<br />

cheap to manufacture, and provide<br />

long-term protection against<br />

COVID-19. This protection would,<br />

hopefully, completely prevent<br />

infection with SARS-CoV-2.<br />

But, to begin with, we’d even be<br />

happy with a vaccine that could<br />

reduce the amount of virus<br />

generated during a typical infection.<br />

If an infected person is making less<br />

virus, they are less likely to infect<br />

others. Less virus could also reduce<br />

the amount of damage caused by an<br />

infection in the patient.<br />


To design an effective vaccine for<br />

SARS-CoV-2, we need to understand<br />

the virus.<br />

The genetic sequence of SARS-<br />

CoV-2 is very similar to two other<br />

coronaviruses – 79% identical to<br />

the original SARS (severe acute<br />

respiratory syndrome) from 2003,<br />

and around 50% identical to MERS<br />

(Middle East respiratory syndrome)<br />

from 2012.<br />

Researchers working on SARS and<br />

MERS vaccines are now providing<br />

critical basic information on vaccines<br />

that may work for SARS-CoV-2.


Vice-Chancellor’s Research Fellow,<br />

School of Health and Biomedical Sciences,<br />

RMIT University<br />


Professor of virology and theme leader<br />

for viral infectious diseases,<br />

The Peter Doherty Institute for<br />

Infection and Immunity<br />

This article was first published on “The Conversation”

We know COVID-19 patients who<br />

develop severe disease have low<br />

numbers of T cells, but we don’t have<br />

clear evidence of whether T cells can<br />

protect against COVID-19.<br />

We know some experimental vaccine<br />

designs for MERS and SARS can make<br />

disease symptoms worse in animals,<br />

but we don’t know whether this would<br />

happen with SARS-CoV-2.<br />

The basic components of a vaccine include the adjuvant and the antigen.<br />

Since there are still a lot of<br />

unknowns, we have to cover all<br />

bases. Fortunately, dozens of vaccine<br />

designs are now advancing towards<br />

clinical testing.<br />

Other researchers working on viral<br />

vaccines for dengue, Zika, hepatitis C,<br />

HIV and influenza are also pivoting to<br />

use their knowledge for SARS-CoV-2.<br />

The SARS-CoV-2 virus uses ribonucleic<br />

acid (RNA) as its genetic material.<br />

This is usually associated with high<br />

mutation rates, which can be a<br />

problem for vaccines, as viruses can<br />

mutate their antigens to evade the<br />

immune response. Fortunately, SARS-<br />

CoV-2 seems to have a moderate rate<br />

of mutation to date, meaning it should<br />

be susceptible to a vaccine.<br />

The SARS-CoV-2 viral particle is<br />

covered by “spike” proteins. This spike<br />

protein binds to a molecule on the<br />

surface of lung cells called the human<br />

angiotensin-converting enzyme 2<br />

(ACE2).<br />


KNOW<br />

Importantly, for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines,<br />

we don’t yet know what type of<br />

immune response is needed.<br />

We know patients who recover from<br />

COVID-19 can produce antibodies,<br />

but we don’t know what kind of<br />

antibodies.<br />


Vaccine development during a<br />

pandemic happens at a global scale<br />

and is underway in several countries,<br />

including Australia.<br />

The first vaccine to make it into<br />

clinical trials in mid-March is a lipidencapsulated<br />

mRNA vaccine. For this<br />

vaccine, a short piece of the genetic<br />

material from the virus (mRNA) is<br />

There’s a lot of spike protein on the<br />

outside of the virus, making it a prime<br />

target for our immune response. So<br />

most researchers have focused on<br />

the spike protein as an antigen for<br />

SARS-CoV-2.<br />

The spike protein may be a good target for a potential vaccine.<br />

Insurance Services Pty Ltd<br />

www.irecon.com.au<br />

Irecon offers the backing of one of Australasia’s biggest General Insurance Brokers.<br />

Our knowledge of the local insurance industry is second to none and our experience in handling<br />

insurance for many thousands of customers enables us to provide dependable advice you can always trust.<br />

Unit 4 / 31 Cawdor Rd, Camden, NSW, 2570 customercare@irecon.com.au 02 4655 4311<br />

13<br />


coated with an oily layer (lipid).<br />

The lipid helps the mRNA get inside a<br />

person’s muscle cells, and the mRNA<br />

provides a blueprint to make the<br />

spike protein the antigen (target).<br />

The mRNA itself acts as an adjuvant<br />

(danger signal).<br />

This vaccine is now being given to<br />

volunteers in a phase I clinical trial in<br />

Seattle.<br />

The main advantage of this vaccine<br />

is that it can be manufactured very<br />

quickly. The DNA sequence of SARS-<br />

CoV-2 used to design this vaccine<br />

was first published in January and<br />

the vaccine was ready for trials in<br />

mid-March, which is an incredibly tight<br />

turnaround for a vaccine.<br />

But this type of vaccine has not been<br />

widely used in humans and we don’t<br />

know if it will induce robust immune<br />

responses. While modest immunity<br />

would be better than no immunity,<br />

we may need additional, more potent<br />

vaccines in the longer term.<br />

Another type of vaccine researchers<br />

are exploring is called a subunit<br />

vaccine. In a subunit vaccine, the spike<br />

protein is used as the antigen (target),<br />

mixed with an adjuvant (danger signal)<br />

to activate the immune system. The<br />

shape of the spike protein must be<br />

highly consistent to generate a robust<br />

immune response.<br />

A team at the University of<br />

Queensland is using a “molecular<br />

clamp”, which is a short piece of<br />

protein that holds a larger protein in<br />

the correct shape. They are working<br />

together with CSIRO, which is now<br />

producing large quantities of this<br />

clamped antigen and is beginning<br />

testing of this and other vaccines.<br />

We’re moving through the vaccine pipeline quickly to develop a vaccine for COVID-19.<br />

There are also newer approaches,<br />

such as “viral vector” vaccines.<br />

Scientists make a viral vector by taking<br />

genetic material from SARS-CoV-2<br />

and inserting it into a harmless virus.<br />

When this is given to a person, the<br />

docile viral vector can’t cause any<br />

disease but it looks like a vicious virus<br />

to the immune system, and so it can<br />

generate robust immune responses.<br />

These vaccines were rolled out rapidly<br />

for the Ebola epidemic in West Africa<br />

in 2014 and in Congo in 20<strong>18</strong>/19 with<br />

promising results.<br />

They’re on their way for SARS-CoV-2,<br />

with CSIRO beginning to test a viral<br />

vector called ChAdOx1.<br />

Finally, researchers are trialling a<br />

vaccine called “BCG”. This vaccine<br />

was developed 112 years ago for<br />

tuberculosis, but it seems to also<br />

provide general health benefits.<br />

Infants vaccinated with BCG had<br />

better overall survival and fewer viral<br />

respiratory infections in conditions<br />

with higher mortality and more<br />

circulating infections.<br />

We don’t know how a tuberculosis<br />

vaccine can protect against unrelated<br />

viruses but researchers at a number<br />

of institutions, including the Murdoch<br />

Children’s Research Institute, are<br />

preparing to trial the BCG vaccine<br />

in health-care workers to see if it<br />

reduces COVID-19 infections or<br />

disease severity.<br />


SPEED<br />

Vaccine development is usually a long<br />

process involving both pre-clinical and<br />

clinical testing. For example, it took<br />

more than 15 years for Professor Ian<br />

Frazer and his team to develop and<br />

license the human papillomavirus<br />

(HPV) vaccine.<br />

In stark contrast, experts have<br />

estimated a vaccine for SARS-<br />

Cov-2 may take 12-<strong>18</strong> months. A<br />

huge international infrastructure is<br />

mobilising to develop a vaccine at an<br />

unprecedented speed.<br />

However, safety will always be<br />

paramount with vaccines, so<br />

researchers are accelerating but not<br />

skipping clinical trials. Now we eagerly<br />

await the initial results.<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 14

Lets Talk Mental<br />

Health<br />

with Associate Professor<br />

Erin Cotter-Smith<br />



The risk of “moral injury”<br />

As millions of people are currently<br />

staying at home around the world<br />

to minimise the transmission of<br />

COVID-19, essential frontline workers<br />

are doing the exact opposite. They<br />

go to work and put themselves at<br />

risk of exposure to help protect their<br />

communities.<br />

Figures reported in The Lancet<br />

indicate that more than 3300 healthcare<br />

workers in China had been<br />

infected as of early March. In Italy,<br />

around 20% of responding healthcare<br />

workers have been infected.<br />

Frontline workers have been<br />

describing physical and mental<br />

exhaustion after making difficult triage<br />

decisions and dealing with the pain of<br />

losing patients and colleagues – all in<br />

the ever-present threat of exposure<br />

and infection.<br />

And as the pandemic continues,<br />

access to personal protective<br />

equipment (PPE) decreases, with<br />

personnel in some facilities treating<br />

patients with limited access to gloves,<br />

masks and gowns.<br />

15<br />


Impossible decisions<br />

The COVID-19 pandemic will likely<br />

put essential frontline workers in an<br />

unprecedented predicament, forcing<br />

them to make impossible decisions<br />

around how best to allocate scant<br />

resources to equally needy patients,<br />

how to balance the needs of the<br />

community with their own physical<br />

and mental health care needs, and<br />

how to align their duty to patients<br />

with their duty to their families.<br />

Making these decisions will likely<br />

impact their mental health and<br />

could result in the development of<br />

what we call moral injury.<br />

The emergence of “moral injury”<br />

The term moral injury emerged<br />

from work with military veterans<br />

to describe the psychological<br />

consequences of bearing witness to<br />

the aftermath of human suffering<br />

and failing to prevent distressing<br />

outcomes.<br />

The idea helps conceptualise the<br />

ways in which a person’s sense of<br />

self and the world is disrupted by<br />

a betrayal of their sense of “what’s<br />

right”. During a pandemic, they may<br />

be forced to make decisions that go<br />

against their usual standards and<br />

moral code, resulting in negative<br />

thoughts about themselves or<br />

others (e.g. “I am a terrible person”<br />

or “the decisions we made cost a<br />

life”).<br />

Those who develop moral injuries<br />

are likely to experience feelings of<br />

guilt and shame, which can result<br />

in social isolation and emotional<br />

numbing.<br />

While moral injury is not a clinical<br />

mental health condition, if left<br />

unaddressed, these moral injuries<br />

can go on to contribute to the<br />

development of conditions like<br />

depression, anxiety, post-traumatic<br />

stress disorder (PTSD) and even<br />

suicidal ideation.<br />

Writing in a new analysis piece in<br />

The BMJ Professor Neil Greenberg<br />

and co-authors applied the concept<br />

of moral injury to COVID-19 frontline<br />

workers.<br />

They outlined the relevance and<br />

value of the concept as a framework<br />

to help understand the mental<br />

health challenges faced by frontline<br />

workers - suggesting that these<br />

types of moral injuries would<br />

inadvertently result from their<br />

actions - or lack of - which violate<br />

their moral or ethical code.<br />

It is likely that during the COVID-19<br />

pandemic many frontline workers<br />

will encounter situations where they<br />

have to make difficult decisions,<br />

where they have to withhold<br />

potentially life-saving care because<br />

there are not enough resources to<br />

go around.<br />

Some will encounter situations<br />

where instead of being able to say<br />

to a grieving relative “we did all we<br />

could” - they will only be able to say,<br />

“we did the best we could with the<br />

resources we had available” – and<br />

that won’t be enough.<br />

That is the seed of a moral injury. It<br />

will hurt, and perhaps hurt for a long<br />

time, unless we now start to prepare<br />

and support frontline workers who<br />

will have to face this challenge.<br />

What can we do to mitigate these<br />

moral injuries?<br />

So how can we help protect those<br />

on the frontlines from moral injury?<br />

Preparedness is key. Everyone on<br />

the frontlines needs to be aware of<br />

the moral dilemmas that they are<br />

likely to face.<br />

Professor Neil Greenberg said that<br />

there is a real and pressing need<br />

to acknowledge the mental health<br />

challenges that healthcare workers<br />

will face over the coming months in<br />

order that the right support is made<br />

available to them in a timely fashion.<br />

Social support will be useful in<br />

the management of psychological<br />

distress but where shame is an<br />

element of the distress, social<br />

contact and asking for help will<br />

often be avoided. Those on the<br />

frontlines should therefore be<br />

actively encouraged to talk about<br />

their experiences within the safety<br />

of groups who have had to make<br />

similarly difficult decisions.<br />

Furthermore, essential frontline<br />

workers should be adequately<br />

prepared to face the moral<br />

dilemmas that will be associated<br />

with the pandemic, meaning they<br />

Associate Professor<br />

Erin Cotter-Smith<br />

PhD, MPH, MClinEpi<br />

Course Coordinator<br />

Edith Cowan University<br />

Research Consultant<br />

The Code 9 Foundation<br />

need to provided with a full and<br />

realistic assessment of what they will<br />

likely face – and the decisions they<br />

may need to make.<br />

Leaders should help make sense<br />

of morally challenging decisions<br />

through active discussion and<br />

by encouraging the use of peer<br />

support programs. It is also integral<br />

that leaders are aware that no one<br />

on the frontlines is invulnerable to<br />

moral injury - even the most resilient<br />

team members may become<br />

overwhelmed.<br />

There is a need to ensure that all<br />

those providing vital functions on<br />

the frontlines of this pandemic are<br />

supported through any difficult<br />

decision-making processes.<br />

And after the pandemic is over…<br />

We will need to take the time to<br />

reflect on - and learn from - the<br />

extraordinarily difficult experiences<br />

of frontline workers the world over<br />

in order to create a meaningful,<br />

rather than traumatic, narrative.<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 16








It’s been a challenging start to<br />

the year for many people – but<br />

for Australians, the current<br />

COVID-19 crisis is not the first we’ve<br />

faced this year. Indeed, Australia’s<br />

recent bushfire crisis has made<br />

history as one of the largest and<br />

most catastrophic natural disasters<br />

on record. Garnering worldwide<br />

attention, the fires ravaged homes,<br />

wildlife, and millions of acres of<br />

Australian bushland, leaving behind<br />

little more than blackened debris. At<br />

the peak of the crisis, smoke clouds<br />

were even visible from space. But<br />

despite the widespread destruction,<br />

not all of the damage inflicted has<br />

been as clear to see. For emergency<br />

service workers suffering posttraumatic<br />

stress and anxiety, it’s the<br />

invisible bruises that are often the<br />

most difficult to heal.<br />

In an interview with a major<br />

newspaper, former Fire and Rescue<br />

NSW Commissioner Greg Mullins<br />

voiced concerns about the welfare<br />

of firefighters in the heart of the<br />

crisis, reporting many were traveling<br />

long distances to work 12-hour<br />

shifts in gruelling conditions with<br />

“nothing left in the tank”. The same<br />

could be said for the hundreds of<br />

SES workers and paramedics, who<br />

no doubt faced equally horrific<br />

scenes rescuing and treating<br />

distressed residents. Indeed, it is<br />

likely the same reality currently<br />

facing the hundreds of thousands<br />

of healthcare workers fighting to<br />

contain the Coronavirus.<br />

Emergency service workers play an<br />

integral and indispensable role in<br />

our community, and in the midst of<br />

Stuart Taylor<br />

CEO and<br />

Co-founder<br />

of Springfox<br />

For over a decade, Stuart has engaged and<br />

inspired with his workshops, keynotes and<br />

conference presentations to more than 20,000<br />

people globally with measurable impact<br />

achieved across many organisations.<br />

His early career included periods of rapid<br />

advancement within organisations as diverse<br />

as the Royal Australian Air Force, KPMG,<br />

and Heinz, developing his broad experience<br />

in aerospace engineering, IT, finance and<br />

psychology.<br />

A potentially devastating diagnosis of brain<br />

cancer in 2002 led Stuart on a personal<br />

journey back to physical, cognitive,<br />

emotional and spiritual health. The<br />

experience gave Stuart a unique appreciation<br />

of the tangible benefits of the practices that<br />

helped him overcome a 2.5-year prognosis<br />

and demanding cancer treatments.<br />

Stuart became a strong advocate for<br />

incorporating cultural practices into the<br />

Australian workplace to nurture wellbeing<br />

through the body, heart, mind and spirit.<br />

Stuart formalised this resolve in 2003,<br />

founding The Resilience Institute in Australia<br />

- now Springfox.<br />

Stuart’s broadened perspective and empathybased<br />

approach enables him to identify<br />

challenges and customise effective strategies<br />

for clients seeking optimal organisational<br />

performance. Stuart’s ultimate purpose is<br />

helping people and organisations, typically<br />

through leadership and senior teams, shift<br />

into a more compassionate space in order to<br />

reach sustainable high performance.<br />


a crisis, it can be all too easy for these<br />

everyday heroes to disregard their<br />

own well-being. This is something we<br />

witnessed during the recent bushfire<br />

crisis, and something we’re seeing<br />

again now as COVID-19 sweeps<br />

across the globe. Yet despite the<br />

stress and high stakes of working<br />

on the frontline in the heat of the<br />

moment, it’s typically in the months<br />

following an event that emotional and<br />

mental trauma is most acute.<br />

The consequences of trauma are<br />

significant for anyone, but for<br />

emergency service workers in<br />

particular, there’s often a lot more<br />

on the line. On a professional<br />

level, the impact of trauma can<br />

lead to impaired performance,<br />

slower reaction times, and difficulty<br />

communicating or making decisions.<br />

This can also extend outside the<br />

workplace leading to strained<br />

relationships, anxiety, withdrawal,<br />

sleep difficulties and depression.<br />

Knowing how to recognise, recover<br />

from and move forward after trauma<br />

is a vital part of looking after our<br />

health and well-being, especially<br />

for those in a line of work that so<br />

frequently encounters chaos and<br />

distress.<br />


Not everyone will feel diminished by a<br />

traumatic event, but many will – and<br />

it’s important to be able to recognise<br />

even the more subtle symptoms, as<br />

well as those that may be developing<br />

months after. For firefighters and<br />

emergency service workers, this may<br />

already be a reality; for healthcare<br />

workers currently dealing with an<br />

influx of virus cases, this is likely<br />

around the corner. Mood changes<br />

like increased agitation, irritability or<br />

hostility and feelings of hopelessness,<br />

guilt or self-depreciation are key<br />

indicators of emotional trauma. You<br />

may also experience a loss of interest<br />

or pleasure in previously enjoyed<br />

activities and may feel a sense of<br />

detachment from those around you.<br />

The first step in recovering from<br />

trauma is to be patient and allow<br />

yourself time to recuperate. The<br />

nature of emergency service work is<br />

undeniably demanding but carrying<br />

on with the job while suffering<br />

emotional trauma will only worsen<br />

mental ill-health in the long term.<br />

Especially in the aftermath of a crisis,<br />

taking adequate time off to rest<br />

and restore yourself mentally and<br />

physically is vital. Surround yourself<br />

with trusted friends and family<br />

who can provide non-judgemental<br />

support and seek professional<br />

help from a qualified counsellor if<br />

you’re struggling to process your<br />

thoughts and feelings. Talking<br />

about traumatic experiences can<br />

be extremely confronting but it also<br />

plays a significant role in recovery<br />

and growth.<br />



Emergency service work presents a<br />

challenge unlike any other profession.<br />

In complex and unpredictable<br />

environments, police, firefighters and<br />

paramedics typically have little to no<br />

control – circumstances can change<br />

rapidly, and there is often a high risk<br />

of injury or death. This puts immense<br />

pressure on those providing aid,<br />

where the inability to achieve a<br />

desired outcome can lead to a sense<br />

of guilt or failure.<br />

This is where emergency service<br />

workers must seek perspective,<br />

especially when recovering from<br />

trauma. For those who dedicate<br />

their lives to helping others, it will<br />

often feel natural to operate from<br />

a place of sympathy or over-caring,<br />

where there is an unrealistic desire<br />

to solve every problem. Yet in highrisk<br />

situations where very little can<br />

be controlled, this is simply not<br />

possible. In order to both nurture<br />

positive mental health and achieve<br />

optimal performance, emergency<br />

service workers must shift to<br />

operate from a place of compassion,<br />

rather than sympathy. Springfox<br />

defines operating with compassion

as managing factors within your<br />

control and assisting to the best of<br />

your ability, while recognising your<br />

limitations. Particularly for those<br />

dealing with trauma, this shift in<br />

perspective is critical in lifting the<br />

burden of responsibility and paving<br />

the way for recovery.<br />



The saying goes that time heals all<br />

wounds, yet in many cases this is only<br />

a half truth. Months after the worst of<br />

the bushfires have been contained,<br />

exhaustion and physical injuries will<br />

likely be beginning to heal – but when<br />

it comes to emotional trauma, there<br />

is more that must be done in order to<br />

fully recover from and prevent further<br />

damage.<br />

Building mental and physical<br />

resilience is the first and arguably<br />

most important step in this process.<br />

Our recent Global Resilience Report<br />

found that proactively investing in<br />

resilience reduces symptoms of<br />

distress and physical vulnerability by<br />

up to 30%. As well as seeking comfort<br />

from loved ones and professional<br />

support from a qualified counsellor,<br />

trauma recovery requires a conscious<br />

shift in thinking or perspective. Rather<br />

than focusing on failings or situations<br />

beyond your control, remind yourself<br />

of your strengths and consider<br />

the positive impact your work has<br />

enabled you to contribute. This shift<br />

in thinking will allow you to reframe<br />

your experiences and your role<br />

at work more broadly, providing a<br />

means to construct a positive ending<br />

to an otherwise negative story.<br />

Bolster these cognitive efforts by<br />

implementing practical daily habits to<br />

aid recovery and support overall wellbeing.<br />

Prioritise rest and sleep and<br />

aim for a solid 7-8 hours per night,<br />

and consume a nourishing, balanced<br />

diet to ensure your mind and body<br />

are receiving essential nutrients.<br />

Make time wherever possible for at<br />

least 30 minutes of physical exercise<br />

a day, even if this is simply an evening<br />

walk after dinner. These seemingly<br />

insignificant habits play a crucial role<br />

in enabling well-being by forming,<br />

in effect, a preventative scaffolding<br />

to support us in times of trauma.<br />

Without this structure to support us,<br />

we are particularly vulnerable to the<br />

emotional impact of a crisis.<br />

Growing through a traumatic<br />

experience can be a challenging<br />

process, but it is one worth pursuing.<br />

It’s a process that begins with<br />

recognition and recovery and ends<br />

with an enhanced mindset and a<br />

greater sense of purpose. For the<br />

men and women who dedicate their<br />

lives to serving others, trauma is an<br />

unfortunate but inevitable part of<br />

the job – but through taking time to<br />

pause, reframe and prioritise wellbeing,<br />

emergency service workers<br />

can better equip themselves for the<br />

next time duty calls.<br />

Stuart Taylor - CEO & CoFounder of Springfox<br />

Traumatic Stress Clinic<br />

Sydney Australia<br />

<br />

<br />

()<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

02 8627 3314<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

@<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 20

ANZAC DAY <strong>2020</strong><br />

Lest We Forget





With Anzac Day fast approaching, it’s time to not only thank the brave veterans<br />

who have nobly served this country, but to also ensure that our country is<br />

serving them in return.<br />

Words: Jess LeFanu<br />

The Department of Veterans’<br />

Affairs (DVA) and The Australian<br />

Institute of Health and Welfare<br />

(AIHW) have recently established<br />

a 4-year strategic partnership that<br />

seeks to create a comprehensive<br />

profile of the health and welfare of<br />

Australia’s veteran population. From<br />

2017 to 2021, the two groups look<br />

to determine how the needs of<br />

veterans differ from those of<br />

the general population.<br />

It seems the mental health<br />

of our former defence<br />

members is of the greatest<br />

concern. With a report from<br />

the AIHW recording that<br />

2010, nearly 1 in<br />

5 serving Australian<br />

Defence Force (ADF)<br />

personnel were estimated<br />

to have sought help for<br />

stress-related, emotional,<br />

mental health or family<br />

problems over a 12 month period, it’s no<br />

wonder the health and welfare of these<br />

individuals is in need of closer attention.<br />

More recently, the National Hospital<br />

in Morbidity Database found that anxiety<br />

disorders, which includes Post Traumatic<br />

Stress Disorder (PTSD), were the most<br />

common reason for Department of<br />

Defence-funded hospitalisations for<br />

men aged <strong>18</strong>-54 in 2015-16. The<br />

same was recorded for DVA-funded<br />

hospitalisations during that time for

men aged 55 and over, highlighting a<br />

worrying trend in the wellbeing of our<br />

veterans.<br />

Unfortunately, the breakdown of<br />

mental health can lead to other more<br />

troubling circumstances. According<br />

to findings from the Homelessness<br />

Amongst Australian Veterans research<br />

project released last year, almost<br />

5,800 defence veterans experienced<br />

homelessness in a 12 month period,<br />

indicating a far bigger issue than what<br />

has previously been suggested.<br />

The research project aptly<br />

determined that defence<br />

veterans are more likely to<br />

be homeless than other<br />

people in the Australian<br />

community. With the<br />

homelessness rate for the<br />

general population<br />

sitting at 1.9 percent,<br />

researchers were<br />

surprised to<br />

calculate a<br />

percentage<br />

of 5.3 among<br />

veterans who have<br />

recently left the ADF.<br />

These significant figures tend to<br />

suggest a lack of adequate policies<br />

in place for our veterans. However,<br />

the DVA and Department of Defence<br />

currently offer a housing assistance<br />

program with the sole aim of<br />

supporting individuals in maintaining<br />

housing and avoiding homelessness<br />

through a variety of services including<br />

rent assistance and social housing<br />

options.<br />

Remarkably, a report from the AIHW<br />

in 2017-20<strong>18</strong> showed the ex-serving<br />

defense members’ use of these<br />

homelessness services was actually<br />

lower than that of the Australian<br />

population - 1.1% compared with 3.4%<br />

- suggesting that the issue may lie with<br />

veterans being reluctant to ask for<br />

assistance in the first place.<br />

Yet another concerning trend<br />

among the ex-military men of our<br />

country is their rate of imprisonment.<br />

According to an Australian prison audit<br />

conducted in South Australia last year,<br />

ex-service members are imprisoned<br />

twice as often as men in the general<br />

Australian population.<br />

Unfortunately, the lack of support<br />

for the mental health issues affecting<br />

these individuals is then worsened<br />

when they are incarcerated because<br />

the Department of Veterans Affairs no<br />

longer provides assistance.<br />

Without proper support networks<br />

and rehabilitation services in place<br />

for the mental wellbeing of these<br />

imprisoned ex-servicemen, there<br />

is a real possibility of remaining in<br />

the detrimental cycle of offending<br />

and reoffending or even more dire<br />

consequences.<br />

Perhaps the greatest concern within<br />

the Australian Defence Force and<br />

the wider Australian community is<br />

about suicide among serving and exserving<br />

ADF personnel, with ex-serving<br />

members, in particular, facing an<br />

increased risk. Alarmingly, the suicide<br />

rate for ex-servicemen is nearly 20%<br />

higher than the national average, with<br />

ex-servicewomen twice as likely to take<br />

their own lives compared with other<br />

Australian women.<br />

Additional data from the Australian<br />

Institute of Health and Welfare<br />

suggests that ex-serving men aged<br />

between <strong>18</strong>-29 have a higher<br />

suicide rate when compared<br />

with Australian men of the<br />

same age. The same AIHW<br />

report also recorded 419<br />

suicides from 2001-2017<br />

in serving, reserve<br />

and ex-serving<br />

Australian Defence<br />

Force personnel<br />

who have served<br />

since 2001,<br />

encouraging the<br />

government to<br />

introduce further suicide<br />

prevention and mental<br />

health support services for both<br />

personnel and their families.<br />

The Federal Minister for Veterans<br />

and Defence Personnel Darren<br />

Chester described the deaths within<br />

the veteran community as ‘tragic.’<br />

He added, “The only acceptable<br />

number [of suicides] is zero. There<br />

are improvements being made...but I<br />

know more can be done to ensure we<br />

are supporting our veterans and their<br />

families now and into the future.”<br />

Earlier this year, Prime Minister Scott<br />

Morrison made the announcement<br />

that Australia will set up an<br />

independent body to investigate<br />

military veteran suicides. Backed by<br />

At Melbourne Machinery Hire<br />

we supply dry hire machinery fit for your needs.<br />

Wet hire options subject to availability.<br />



info@melbournemachineryhire.com<br />

0422 715 038<br />

23<br />


$40 million of government funding,<br />

the body will be led by a permanent<br />

commissioner who will explore and<br />

recommend ways to boost mental<br />

health within Australia’s armed forces.<br />

A Veteran Family Advocate will also<br />

be appointed to represent the views<br />

of veterans and their families, shape<br />

policy and advocate for changes to<br />

current veteran services and benefits<br />

on offer.<br />

The Department of Veterans’ Affairs<br />

estimated, as of 30 June 20<strong>18</strong>, that<br />

there were 641,000 living Australian<br />

veterans who have ever served in the<br />

ADF. For current serving members,<br />

the Department of Defence provides<br />

health care that covers a range of<br />

services including primary health care,<br />

dental care, mental health services,<br />

hospital care, rehabilitation and<br />

specialist services.<br />

For those that have transitioned to<br />

civilian life, health care services are<br />

available under the same conditions<br />

that apply to everyday Australians,<br />

including Medicare and private sector<br />

services. However, veterans may also<br />

be entitled to a range of support<br />

provided and funded by the DVA. This<br />

support consists of health and welfare<br />

services that include counselling in<br />

addition to medical, pharmaceutical<br />

and specialist services.<br />

Additional support is also available<br />

to assist with the transition from<br />

military to civilian life and covers career<br />

counseling, financial information,<br />

employment and interview skills,<br />

training and education, and more.<br />

These vital services, along with<br />

others supported by the DVA and<br />

Department of Defence, look to be<br />

improved through the independent<br />

body promised by the Prime Minister.<br />

The high rate of homeless and<br />

imprisoned veterans, along with a<br />

disturbing spike in the suicide rate of<br />

ex-members, seems to highlight the<br />

challenges some veterans may face<br />

transitioning from military service back<br />

to civilian life. It has been suggested<br />

that certain aspects of military service<br />

can make it challenging to maintain<br />

relationships and social support once<br />

they leave the defence force, which<br />

is why it is essential that our veterans<br />

receive appropriate resources.<br />

Thankfully, the Australian government<br />

seems to be taking a step in the right<br />

direction in regards to veteran services<br />

as they bring to light the issues<br />

affecting our ADF personnel. As Prime<br />

Minister Morrison said in a statement,<br />

“Those veterans and all serving men<br />

and women protect our community<br />

and our freedoms. It is our duty to do<br />

the same for them.”<br />

If you or someone you know needs<br />

help, contact Lifeline on 13 11 14<br />

or visit lifeline.com.au for additional<br />

resources.<br />

Open Arms Veterans & Families<br />

Counselling provides mental health<br />

and wellbeing support for current and<br />

ex-serving Australian Defence Force<br />

personnel and their families. Visit<br />

openarms.gov.au or phone <strong>18</strong>00 011<br />

046 for assistance.<br />

info@silverspade.com.au<br />

CANADA BAY NSW 2046<br />

www.silverspade.com.au 0410 101 011<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 24

In Memoriam<br />


Words: Jess LeFanu<br />

Images: Australian War Museum

Born in Daylesford on the 25th<br />

of August 1919, Arnold William<br />

Forrester spent his early childhood<br />

moving between rural mining<br />

towns in country Victoria. As the<br />

Great Depression began crippling<br />

the country, 10-year-old Arnold<br />

went to live in Melbourne with his<br />

great aunt. There, he continued his<br />

schooling until turning fourteen and<br />

going to work at the Preston Hosiery<br />

Factory.<br />

When WWII began in 1939, the<br />

factory became a reserved industry<br />

and took on numerous government<br />

contracts. Shifting its focus from the<br />

production of stockings, the Preston<br />

Hosiery started making thousands<br />

of long wool socks for enlisted<br />

soldiers overseas.<br />

Over the next two years, the war<br />

intensified in the Pacific and Arnold<br />

was called up to join the army just<br />

a couple months after his 21st<br />

birthday. Shortly after receiving the<br />

call-up notice by mail, he joined the<br />

57/60th Battalion and spent only a<br />

few days “country bush training” in<br />

Seymour, VIC before being informed<br />

that a special unit was being<br />

created.<br />

Ten men from Arnold’s battalion<br />

were required for the new unit<br />

being sent to Bacchus Marsh and<br />

when no volunteers emerged,<br />

names were simply drawn from<br />

a hat. The tenth name selected<br />

belonged to an eighteen year old<br />

boy with a widowed mother back at<br />

home. When the poor lad became<br />

emotional over being chosen, the<br />

decision was made to redraw.<br />

Arnold Forrester was the next name<br />

pulled from that hat, thus propelling<br />

him into the now infamous 39th<br />

Infantry Battalion.<br />

Approximately ten weeks from<br />

the time Arnold initially joined<br />

the 57/60th, it was time for him<br />

to set sail out of Woolloomooloo.<br />

With no proper training for the<br />

jungle conditions he would soon<br />

experience and only “a bit” of<br />

rifle shooting on the range, he<br />

boarded the Aquitania as one of two<br />

thousand soldiers from the 53rd<br />

and 39th Battalions on their way to<br />

Papua New Guinea.<br />

Arnold Forrester was a company<br />

runner during the battles against<br />

the Japanese on the Kokoda Track<br />

in 1942. The 39th Battalion spent<br />

nine days traversing through rain<br />

and thick mud, crawling on hands<br />

and knees to make it over the almost<br />

vertical peaks of the dense jungle<br />

terrain. Walking for eight hours a day<br />

and enduring intensely cold nights,<br />

these brave soldiers became an<br />

integral part of the Battle of Isurava.<br />

It was while withdrawing from<br />

this particular battle that Arnold<br />

Forrester became instilled in<br />

Australian war history as part of the<br />

infamous photo by award-winning<br />

war cinematographer, Damien Parer.<br />

The image captures Arnold and five<br />

other men from his battalion smiling<br />

and carrying rifles as their shoes sink<br />

deep in the muddy Kokoda Track.<br />

In a 2004 interview for the<br />

Australians at War Film Archive, Mr.<br />

Forrester spoke about not recalling<br />

the day the photo was taken. He<br />

said, “I don’t know anything about<br />

it. I don’t remember. We were just<br />

happy to be relieved and getting<br />

out.”<br />

After the war ended, Arnold headed<br />

back to country Victoria and worked<br />

briefly for the Forestry Commission<br />

before spending 28 years at the<br />

largest fish hatchery in the state.<br />

On his 60th birthday in 1979, he<br />

was awarded a Queen’s Medal for<br />

his long and faithful service. Invited<br />

to Government House for the<br />

presentation, he stood beside fellow<br />

medal recipients Ron Barassi and<br />

Stirling Moss.<br />

Mr. Forrester relocated to Townsville<br />

in his later years, but remained<br />

friends with all the men featured in<br />

the iconic war photo. They gathered<br />

once a year for dinners held by the<br />

Kokoda Track Foundation and also<br />

at reunions for the 39th Infantry<br />

Battalion.<br />

Over the years, Arnold attended<br />

numerous Anzac Day celebrations<br />

including one memorable service<br />

back on Papua New Guinean soil.<br />

Gathered at dawn, onlookers watched<br />

as a group of present day soldiers<br />

were brought over on a barge to<br />

recreate the beach landing that<br />

took place all those years ago. Mr.<br />

Forrester said to the Australian at<br />

War Film Archive about the service,<br />

“It’s all very, you know, it brings back<br />

memories.”<br />

A veteran through and through,<br />

Arnold Forrester was outraged in<br />

2011 when the decision was made<br />

to ban WWII Diggers from marching<br />

in the Townsville Anzac Day parade.<br />

Presented with the option of riding in<br />

a restored military vehicle so as not to<br />

slow down proceedings, the then 91<br />

year old told the Townsville Bulletin,<br />

“It is a march all said and done and in<br />

my book, we should be able to march<br />

if we are able. We won’t hold up<br />

proceedings.”<br />

Still going strong, Mr. Forrester<br />

celebrated his 100th birthday in<br />

August 2019 surrounded by friends<br />

and family. He was proud to have<br />

received letters from Prime Minister<br />

Scott Morrison and Queen Elizabeth<br />

II on the day. His daughter, Margaret<br />

Pavlovic, told 7NEWS Townsville, “He’s<br />

the most incredible person for his<br />

age, still got his faculties and still has<br />

a sense of humour.”<br />

Arnold William Forrester passed away<br />

in February of this year and was the<br />

last surviving veteran of the wellknown<br />

Kokoda Track photograph<br />

that has been printed in history<br />

textbooks and proudly displayed in<br />

war memorials. He was a celebrated<br />

WWII soldier who bravely fought for<br />

his country and will be remembered<br />

by many this Anzac Day and into the<br />



WW1<br />

An examination of how and why this event<br />

unfolded, its impact at the time, and its relevance<br />

to politics today.<br />

Romain Fathi<br />

Lecturer, History, Flinders University

In October 19<strong>18</strong>, a young man was<br />

temporarily blinded on the Western<br />

Front and evacuated to hospital.<br />

For four long years, he had served in<br />

the German Army alongside 11 million<br />

men.<br />

Whether his blindness came from a gas<br />

attack or a sudden bout of nerves is<br />

still being debated. But it is clear that,<br />

like hundreds of millions of people<br />

at the time, his wartime experience<br />

shaped the rest of his life.<br />

This was during the first world war –<br />

the foundational event of the violent<br />

20th century – and that young man<br />

was Adolf Hitler.<br />


Sparked in the Balkans as a result of<br />

European nationalism and imperial<br />

rivalries, the first world war raged from<br />

July 1914 to November 19<strong>18</strong>. It pitted<br />

the 48 million soldiers of the Allies –<br />

led by the French, British and Russian<br />

empires – against the 26 million<br />

soldiers of the Central Powers – led by<br />

the German, Austro-Hungarian and<br />

Ottoman empires, who lost the war.<br />

It was a truly global conflict fought on<br />

battlefields across the world, but also<br />

on the home front – in people’s living<br />

rooms, fields and factories.<br />


Over four long years, the world<br />

collapsed in what was then the largest<br />

industrial war ever fought. The conflict<br />

left over 10 million soldiers and 6<br />

million civilians dead.<br />

Over 20 million men were wounded<br />

– both physically and mentally –<br />

rendering them unable to resume<br />

civilian life. What’s more, the war<br />

facilitated the spreading of the Spanish<br />

flu pandemic, which killed at least 50<br />

million people in 19<strong>18</strong>-19.<br />


The Allies’ “victory” in 19<strong>18</strong> did not<br />

result in a safer and better world, and<br />

the first world war failed to become<br />

the “war to end all wars”.<br />

Conflict raged on in the Middle East<br />

and colonial outposts right through the<br />

1920s. For many, war did not stop with<br />

the Armistice of November 11, 19<strong>18</strong>.<br />

In fact, given the scale of devastation<br />

across Europe, it is not clear who won<br />


“Winners” and “losers” alike<br />

lost population, resources and<br />

infrastructure. Yes, there were marginal<br />

gains here and there for some, but<br />

most countries came out of the<br />

bloodshed crippled financially. Some<br />

were politically crippled, too.<br />

Perhaps one clear winner did emerge<br />

from the conflict, however: the United<br />

States.<br />

The US sold materials and lent money<br />

to the Allies during the war and,<br />

as a result, amassed gold reserves<br />

that underpinned its post-war<br />

global economic dominance, while<br />

other countries were gripped in an<br />

inflationary spiral.<br />

To a lesser extent, Japan, too, benefited<br />

from the conflict. Fighting on the same<br />

side as the Allies fuelled the country’s<br />

militarisation and imperial ambitions in<br />

Asia.<br />

Another outcome of the war was<br />

the disintegration of the centuriesold<br />

Austro-Hungarian, Russian and<br />

Ottoman empires, alongside the more<br />

recently-formed German empire,<br />

forever transforming the world’s<br />

political landscape.<br />

The first world war also prompted<br />

the Russian Revolution, which further<br />

altered the course of the 20th century.<br />

The “winners” were not immune from<br />

turbulence, either. France and Britain<br />

were confronted to various challenges<br />

in the colonies that had supported<br />

them throughout the conflict, in<br />

Africa or in India for instance. Local<br />

populations demanded more autonomy<br />

and at times even rebelled against their<br />

colonial masters.<br />

The new world that emerged from this<br />

global conflict was one filled with hope,<br />

but riven by unrest, revolutions and<br />

ethnic conflicts.<br />

A chaplain reads the burial service beside the grave of a fallen Australian in a cemetery in a wood.<br />

A series of peace treaties, the most<br />

memorable one being the Treaty of<br />

Versailles of June 1919, endeavoured<br />

to secure and build a global peace,<br />

laying the basis for new international<br />

institutions such as the League of<br />

Nations. Its role was to prevent future<br />

wars through conflict resolution and<br />

diplomacy. But the treaty also required<br />

the demilitarisation of Germany,<br />

demanded that Germany acknowledge<br />

its responsibility for causing the war,<br />

and inflicted severe war reparations on<br />

the country.<br />

The end of the fighting also brought<br />

more challenges. Tens of millions of<br />

soldiers were demobilised and returned<br />

home, prompting issues related to<br />

public health, unemployment and<br />

domestic violence. Hitler, for example,<br />

returned to Munich with no family, no<br />

career prospects and no place to stay.<br />

He would resent the Treaty of Versailles<br />

his whole life, and claim that Germany<br />

was not defeated on the battlefield, but<br />

stabbed in the back by internal enemies<br />

– the Jews, the left and the republicans.<br />

But let it not be said that the first<br />

world war caused the second, nor that<br />

it made Hitler who he subsequently<br />

became. In the late 1920s, Germany<br />

was doing pretty well under the Weimar<br />

Republic – so well that this period was<br />

dubbed “the Golden Age”. Pacifism<br />

was a strong bipartisan force in 1930s<br />

France, Britain and Belgium. Another<br />

future was entirely possible.<br />


Yet, in the inter-wars years, the<br />

repercussions of the first world war<br />

remained omnipresent.<br />

Old empires had left a vacuum for<br />

new states like Poland, Yugoslavia<br />

and Czechoslovakia to form, and the<br />

borders of those new states were soon<br />

contested.<br />

Even the 1929 financial crash was partly<br />

related to the first world war. This was<br />

because states accumulated debt to<br />

finance the conflict, and their debt<br />

increased even more as they continued<br />

Deco<br />

Sand<br />

Ballast<br />

Road Base<br />

Rocks<br />

Jenkins Quarries<br />

<br />

Sand, Soil & Gravel Supplies<br />

<br />

<br />

29<br />


orrowing to pay war reparations after<br />

the war had ended. This contributed to<br />

global inflation and financial insecurity,<br />

two factors of the 1929 crash. The first<br />

world war – or rather, its consequences<br />

– seemed endless.<br />

And it is those consequences which<br />

undeniably created some of the<br />

conditions which set the second global<br />

conflict ablaze. Not least through<br />

armament, such as tanks, military<br />

aviation, submarines, chemical weapons<br />

– all of which became weapons of<br />

choice during the first world war and<br />

played a crucial role in the second.<br />

But the second world war had its own<br />

intrinsic causes not directly related<br />

to the first world war. These included<br />

the development of new totalitarian<br />

ideologies, mass media, anti-Semitism,<br />

and the failures of the League of<br />

Nations as well as liberal democracies<br />

to oppose dangerous regimes.<br />

Interestingly, some historical actors and<br />

historians believe that the two world<br />

wars cannot be separated, and form, in<br />

fact, a Thirty Years’ War.<br />

Certainly, the repercussions of the<br />

first world war are still being felt<br />

today. Intergenerational grief and<br />

family history spurs hundreds of<br />

thousands of people to engage in digital<br />

commemorations or commemorative<br />

tourism at former battlefields.<br />

The land, too, remains deeply affected.<br />

In Belgium and France, for instance,<br />

war-time explosive devices continue<br />

to kill people, and will still be found for<br />

hundreds of years to come.<br />

to the first world war. The Middle East<br />

is a case in point. Decisions taken<br />

during and after the war laid the basis<br />

for ongoing conflicts due to contested<br />

boundaries and spheres of influences<br />

in the region.<br />

The end of the war was not the victory<br />

the Allies claimed it was. But politicians<br />

and military leaders had to justify the<br />

dead and the enormous sacrifices<br />

they had demanded from their people.<br />

Thinking back, the most chilling part of<br />

the vain bloodbath is that the citizens of<br />

the belligerent nations did support the<br />

war and its sacrifices for years, some<br />

until the breaking point of revolt.<br />

The first world war was a turning point<br />

in history as it irremediably altered<br />

political, economic, social and cultural<br />

life around the globe. First world war<br />

studies remain one of the most active<br />

fields of historical research today<br />

precisely because of the relevance of<br />

the conflict throughout the 20th and<br />

21st centuries.<br />

Understanding the first world war is<br />

thus an exercise in comprehending<br />

the depth of human commitment to<br />

destruction, violence and resilience at<br />

a scale never experienced before 1914.<br />

But it also reminds us of the fragility of<br />

peace, and of our duty as citizens to<br />

remain vigilant of nationalism.<br />

This article was first published on “The Conversation”<br />

In some places, the soil is so<br />

contaminated by chemical agents from<br />

the first world war that nothing has<br />

grown there since.<br />

Finally, much of the geopolitical<br />

struggles of modern times date back<br />

A group of soldiers standing below a parapet with sandbags after being damaged by enemy shells.<br />

<br />

_<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 30

The Good, The Bad & The Ugly<br />


Tammie Bullard is a paramedic and sessional lecturer based<br />

in Western Australia. Author of The Good, The Bad & The Ugly<br />

Paramedic - A pain free approach to best patient care and<br />

professionalism.<br />



Empathy may be a confusing and<br />

contrary word but it is one with great<br />

value, particularly in providing a buffer<br />

against professional burnout and in<br />

building positive relationships with<br />

patients. As one of those “soft skills”<br />

integral to the paramedic’s toolkit, it<br />

is encouraging to see how widely its<br />

importance is increasingly promoted in<br />

training, service delivery, leadership and<br />

culture.<br />

Confusion arises, for the most part,<br />

around the definition itself. Amongst<br />

similar concepts of sympathy,<br />

compassion, mimpathy, compathy,<br />

unipathy and transpathy, each holds<br />

different meaning to the individual.<br />

For simplicity’s sake, a broad<br />

overview of empathy may be that of<br />

understanding how another may feel in<br />

any given situation. Whilst compassion<br />

and sympathy are often used<br />

interchangeably, they are considered<br />

less developed, more reactive<br />

counterparts to the higher level of skill<br />

involved in being empathetic.<br />

In the current climate, paramedics are<br />

feeling both the warmth of widespread<br />

empathy, for the role we are playing in<br />

pandemia, and the contrasting cold of<br />

its absence. Unintentional though this<br />

may be, the chill occurs when we are<br />

feared as potential contaminants, or<br />

dismissed, as we have no central hub<br />

to safely contain ourselves within, or<br />

forge solidarity against the danger of the<br />

outside world.<br />

Never before has it been more obvious<br />

that maintaining empathy must not be<br />

forgotten or taken for granted. It’s a twoway<br />

street whether we’re in the midst<br />

of a pandemic or stepping through the<br />

routine of everyday life.<br />

With the mutual co-operation of<br />

experienced, empathetic road users,<br />

both directions can flow in synchronicity.<br />

Keeping to our expected paths,<br />

indicating intentions, acknowledging<br />

courteous behaviour with thanks and<br />

resisting the urge to yell aggressively<br />

demonstrate our understanding.<br />

Respecting and following directions<br />

or signs, exercising patience when<br />

deviations arise and slowing down to<br />

give way when necessary make our<br />

empathetic approach to the situation<br />

obvious.<br />

So how does this apply to prehospital<br />

roles?<br />


We became paramedics with the aim of<br />

caring for patients during emergencies.<br />

Attempting to briefly understand their<br />

situation and how they may feel, can<br />

help us to deliver the best type of care.<br />

It might be “just another call for chest<br />

pain” but labelling it such may render<br />

us blind to their needs and decrease<br />

patient satisfaction. In return, anger and<br />

complaints become more likely with a<br />

possible compromise to our physical,<br />

professional and psychological safety.<br />


Passers-by don’t sign up for<br />

emergencies they unexpectedly find<br />

themselves involved in. They stop to<br />

assist out of kindness or for a myriad of<br />

other reasons. An empathetic approach<br />

to enlisting their help, or moving them<br />

along, may gain reciprocal attention and<br />

co-operation more easily whilst reducing<br />

unnecessary frustration. Theirs as well<br />

as our own!<br />


We wear the same uniform, but we’re<br />

not necessarily the same people. Whilst<br />

it’s easy to assume that someone<br />

may be better or worse off, based<br />

on what little we know, unless we are<br />

intimately connected, the reality is that<br />

we have no idea. Maintaining empathy<br />

for colleagues, without preconceived<br />

opinion, may help to create unity and<br />

decrease work-based stress, whilst oneupmanship<br />

and pity contests only widen<br />

any divide.<br />


No matter our understanding of the<br />

other’s roles, frontline and support staff<br />

work in vastly different environments.<br />

The nature of emergency services is that<br />

interaction between the two is limited,<br />

or non-existent, therefore throwaway<br />

comments regarding perceived<br />

demands, habits and attitudes to<br />

work quickly become inflammatory.<br />

Particularly as they are most often<br />

delivered by third parties interacting<br />

between both areas. Bi-directional<br />

empathy may be integral in avoiding<br />

resentment and increasing mutual<br />

respect, when the ability to build inperson<br />

relationships, cannot exist.<br />

31<br />



Whilst more difficult to adopt,<br />

embracing this approach may benefit<br />

morale, motivation and mindset.<br />

Every ambulance service is made up<br />

of a group of humans surrounded<br />

by infrastructure. That’s it. If we<br />

aim to understand and therefore<br />

empathise with how any service, as<br />

a whole, aims to fulfil its purpose,<br />

we gain clearer individual direction<br />

and reduced exposure to the stress<br />

caused by confusion or overwhelm.<br />

We may find ways of working with<br />

others to make this happen. We may<br />

realise that, individually, we do not<br />

fit the organisation’s overarching<br />

aims and begin seeking alternative<br />

career pathways. We may strive for a<br />

leadership role in which we can attempt<br />

to promote positive change. We may<br />

simply free ourselves from the shackles<br />

of frustration by taking the “personal”<br />

out of the “entity” with an empathetic<br />

overview of that entity’s goal, potentially<br />

increasing our professional longevity.<br />



Interactions with police, firefighters,<br />

other emergency services, nurses,<br />

doctors, patient care assistants,<br />

nursing home staff, roadside recovery<br />

technicians and multiple other<br />

personnel are largely based on<br />

presumption. If we can empathise with<br />

the challenges they face, we may gain a<br />

better understanding of their situation.<br />

In exercising such an approach, it may<br />

encourage similar empathy towards the<br />

challenges we face ourselves, thereby<br />

improving rapport.<br />


Overall, paramedicine garners a positive<br />

response, but it is not something to<br />

be taken for granted. We continually<br />

step over the line from our territory,<br />

into that of others, quite literally. Most<br />

professions work at their place of<br />

business, where patients and customers<br />

step in, then step out. Whilst visiting,<br />

they form an opinion of that profession,<br />

before leaving and returning to their<br />

own domain. Paramedics, however,<br />

enter the domain of others for every<br />

single call. Appearance, body language,<br />

demeanour, words and actions<br />

are the only tools we have to<br />

create an impression. No<br />

infrastructure, ambient music,<br />

soothing smells or reception<br />

staff to engender<br />

positivity. If we can<br />

use empathy and seek<br />

to understand how<br />

patients, families and<br />

bystanders may perceive<br />

our arrival and on-scene<br />

interaction, for each call,<br />

we are instantly equipped<br />

with greater potential<br />

to proceed safely and<br />

effectively.<br />


Those that keep the home fires burning<br />

need us to be ourselves when we are<br />

not in uniform. If families greet us with<br />

problems similar to three patients<br />

we’ve encountered today, this does<br />

not make them the fourth. The clock<br />

has to re-set so that we can listen,<br />

understand, validate and support<br />

them. When they mention stressors<br />

which seem trivial after the enormity of<br />

what we’ve experienced during recent<br />

shifts, we absolutely must empathise,<br />

or risk losing meaningful connection<br />

with others, should we dismiss their<br />

concerns. Maintaining empathy for<br />

those we care most deeply about, may<br />

be vital in preventing their reluctance to<br />

interact with us over time.<br />


We must, at all costs, maintain individual<br />

wellbeing otherwise, as with primary<br />

surveys, we are of no use to others<br />

when we put ourselves in danger.<br />

Self-empathy is pivotal in maintaining<br />

the boundaries that each of us must<br />

uphold, in order to feel physically and<br />

psychologically safe.<br />

Ultimately, during each shift, we have a<br />

choice in whether we stick to our side of<br />

the empathy street or not.<br />

We can choose to travel on the opposite<br />

side, where we continually run into<br />

obstacles along the way until we are<br />

left wondering why all of the other road<br />

users are frustrated with us. Would it be<br />

fair to still expect to bask in praise and<br />

attention for the paramedic profession,<br />

despite our lack of empathy and<br />

understanding for others?<br />

Alternatively, we can harness and<br />

enhance this skill for the benefit<br />

of ourselves, our families, patients,<br />

colleagues, external associates,<br />

organisations and the paramedic<br />

profession. It does require some extra<br />

effort, without doubt, but we may then<br />

feel more deserving of the reciprocal<br />

empathy and compassion from those<br />

on the other side of our two-way street.<br />

References<br />

1. Cuff, B. M. P., Brown, S. J., Taylor, L. & Howat, D. J. (2014).<br />

Empathy: a review of the concept. Emotion Review, 0(0), 1-10.<br />

DOI:10.1177/1754073914558466<br />

2. Williams, B., Lau, R., Thornton, E. & Olney, L. S. (2017). The relationship<br />

between empathy and burnout – lessons for paramedics:<br />

a scoping review. Psychology Research and Behavior Management,<br />

10, 329-337. DOI:10.2147/PRBM.S145810<br />

3. Jeffrey, D. (2016). Empathy, sympathy and compassion in healthcare:<br />

Is there a problem? Is there a difference? Does it matter?<br />

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2016, 109(12), 446-452.<br />

DOI:10.1177/0141076816680120<br />

4. Soler-Gonzalez, J., San-Martin, M., Delgado-Bolton, R. & Vivanco,<br />

L. (2017). Human connections and their roles in the occupational<br />

well-being of healthcare professionals: a study on loneliness and<br />

empathy. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01475<br />

5. Cameron, C. D. & Inzlicht, M. (2019). Empathy choice in<br />

physicians and non-physicians. British Journal of Psychology.<br />

DOI:10.1111/bjso.12342<br />

6. Gilliam, D. A. & Rayburn, S. W. (2016). Propensity for reciprocity<br />

among frontline employees. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(3),<br />

290-301. DOI:10.1108/JSM-05/2015-0194<br />

7. Schaddelee, M., Turner, S. & Gill, L. (2019). Keeping it real in<br />

changing times: pragmatic strategies to sustain empathy. Scope<br />

(Flexible Learning), 4. DOI:10.34074/scop.5004006<br />

To see more about “The Good, The Bad & The Ugly Paramedic”, head to<br />

www.gbuparamedic.com or follow GBU Paramedic on social media<br />

@gbuparamedic<br />

@gbuparamedic<br />

@gbuparamedic<br />

Tammie Bullard<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 32





Michael Richardson<br />

Senior Research Fellow, UNSW<br />

People in Western Australia<br />

may soon see more than<br />

birds in the sky, as the state’s<br />

police force has announced plans<br />

to deploy drones to enforce social<br />

distancing. The drones will visit<br />

parks, beaches and cafe strips,<br />

ensuring people comply with the<br />

most recent round of gathering<br />

rules.<br />

As COVID-19 restrictions tighten<br />

around the world, governments are<br />

harnessing the potential of drones.<br />

From delivering medical supplies,<br />

to helping keep people indoors –<br />

drones can do a lot in a pandemic.<br />

Since the outbreak began, China<br />

has used drones to deliver medical<br />

supplies and food, disinfect villages,<br />

and even provide lighting to build<br />

a hospital in Wuhan in nine days.<br />

Drone medical deliveries have cut<br />

transit times, reduced the strain<br />

on health personnel and enabled<br />

contactless handovers, reducing the<br />

risk of infection.<br />

It’s clear drones are helping combat<br />

COVID-19, as governments use<br />

them to control and monitor.<br />

But these measures may be difficult<br />

to rollback once the pandemic<br />

passes. And safeguards will be<br />

needed to prevent unwanted<br />

surveillance in the future.<br />



With cities on lockdown, drones<br />

have shown uncanny images of<br />

emptied urban landscapes from<br />

Wuhan and metros across the<br />

globe.<br />

Social distancing has inspired some<br />

quirky uses by individuals, including<br />

walking the dog and asking for a<br />

date.<br />

But the main game has been about<br />

control. China is using drones<br />

to enforce quarantine rules and<br />

deter gatherings that violate social<br />

distancing rules.<br />

One viral video showed a drone<br />

scolding an elderly woman for not<br />

wearing a mask. In some cases,<br />

traffic police and municipal officials<br />

used drones fitted with speakers to<br />

order people home and break up<br />

mahjong games.

Flying at high altitudes, drones<br />

can help police and other officials<br />

monitor large areas to identify those<br />

violating restrictions. Similar tactics<br />

are being used in Madrid and Nice,<br />

with talk of deployment in many<br />

other places.<br />


DRONE’?<br />

There are huge advantages in<br />

sending drones into disaster zones<br />

such as bushfires, or remote<br />

landscapes for search and rescue.<br />

Pilots can safely stream crucial<br />

vision from a drone’s optical and<br />

thermal cameras.<br />

But while “good drones” can be<br />

valuable in disaster, they have been<br />

criticised for giving drone warfare<br />

an ethical veneer by association<br />

with humanitarian work. Some have<br />

even argued that using drones at<br />

all risks tainting relief work, because<br />

militaries have played a major role<br />

in developing drone technologies<br />

that are also responsible for<br />

humanitarian tragedies.<br />

Like all technologies, the question<br />

with drones should be about<br />

how they are used. For instance,<br />

inspecting the breached nuclear<br />

reactor at Fukushima with drones is<br />

sensible. But embedding systems of<br />

control that can be turned against<br />

civilians is its own disaster in the<br />

making.<br />


With high definition and infrared<br />

images streamed to command<br />

stations, China’s drones may be able<br />

to use facial recognition to identify<br />

specific individuals using its Social<br />

Credit System, and fine them for<br />

indiscretions.<br />

This level of social control may be<br />

appealing in a pandemic that could<br />

cost millions of lives. But it could<br />

also have chilling effects on social<br />

and political life.<br />

Surveillance tools typically work best<br />

for social control when people know<br />

they are being watched. Even in<br />

liberal societies, people might think<br />

twice about joining climate or racial<br />

justice protests if they know they’ll<br />

be recorded by a drone overhead.<br />

Feeling like you’re constantly being<br />

watched can can create a kind of<br />

atmospheric anxiety, particularly<br />

for marginalised groups that are<br />

already closely monitored because<br />

of their religion or welfare status.<br />

Putting more drones in the sky<br />

raises concerns about trust, privacy,<br />

data protection and ownership. In<br />

a crisis, those questions are often<br />

ignored. This was clear after 9/11,<br />


<br />

Your car clean & shiny<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Sunbury, Victoria 3429<br />

0407 317 716<br />

35<br />


when the world learnt the lessons of<br />

surveillance systems and draconian<br />

national security laws.<br />


Police in the west are already<br />

deploying drones for various<br />

purposes, including at sporting<br />

events in Australia. Our defence<br />

force is buying Reaper MQ-9B<br />

drones because they are cleared for<br />

use in civilian airspace.<br />

We might be fine with delivery<br />

drones in Canberra, or disaster<br />

drones ferrying urgent medical<br />

supplies, but how would we feel if<br />

they were indistinguishable from<br />

drones piloted by police, the military<br />

or private security companies?<br />

A team at the University of South<br />

Australia is currently designing a<br />

“pandemic” drone to detect virus<br />

symptoms such as fever and<br />

coughing from a distance. Valuable<br />

as that is now, this tool could easily<br />

be used to intrusively manage the<br />

public’s health after the crisis is over.<br />

It can be difficult to see the long<br />

term impacts of choices made in an<br />

emergency. But now is the best time<br />

for policymakers to set limits on how<br />

drones an be used in public space.<br />

They need to write sunset clauses<br />

into new laws so that surveillance<br />

and control systems are rolled back<br />

once the pandemic eases, and<br />

create accountability mechanisms to<br />

ensure oversight.<br />

This article was first published on “The Conversation”<br />

Depco Drilling is committed to providing and<br />

promoting a zero harm work environment.<br />

We build on three pillars to accomplish this goal:<br />

Accountability, innovation and support.<br />

www.depco.com.au<br />

32 Chappell St, Rockhampton, QLD 4701 | info@depco.com.au | 07 4928 1133 | 0427 281 134<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 36


In each edition the Australian Emergency Services Magazine we feature a<br />

profile on a person, team, partnership, squad or unit to showcase their<br />

unique contribution to the emergency services industry. If you would like to<br />

be featured or know someone who deserves some recognition get in touch<br />

with our team.<br />

From her earliest days at university<br />

studying education, the Captain of<br />

Toolangi Fire Brigade Dawn Hartog<br />

knew she wanted to be on the<br />

ground, working with communities.<br />

She didn’t want to just be deskbound.<br />

Then, in the way of all things,<br />

on the ski slopes in America, she met<br />

an Aussie bloke and found herself at<br />

CFA as a Community Development<br />

Coordinator. Today she is a member<br />

of the CFA Board, works full time for<br />

DELWP, as well as working at the<br />

State Control Centre during incidents<br />

and emergencies, on CFA’s District 12<br />

Planning Committee and captaining<br />

her home CFA brigade at Toolangi.<br />

“I’ve been so lucky to work on tangible<br />

examples, to see the principles<br />

of emergency information and<br />

fire safety communicated better<br />

through our communities. It has<br />

been hugely gratifying to work in<br />

a career I love, that provides job<br />

satisfaction whilst doing my part to<br />

keep our communities safe, to keep<br />

our beautiful Victoria safe”, Captain<br />

Hartog said.<br />



On Sunday 8 March 2019, the world celebrated International<br />

Women’s Day. This year the CFA wanted to pay tribute to women<br />

involved in the organisation, inspired by women and inspiring<br />

others. With this year’s theme ‘An equal world is an enabled world’<br />

we sat down with one of our Board Members Dawn Hartog.<br />

“I’ve been inspired along the way<br />

by so many of the women I’ve<br />

worked with, that have empowered,<br />

mentored and shaped who I am,<br />

and the way I now support my<br />

(contemporary) peers.”<br />

As a former resident of Kinglake,<br />

Captain Hartog’s toughest challenges,<br />

and most inspiring moments,<br />

came during Black Saturday as the<br />

coordinator of a group of residents<br />

through their community fireguard<br />

group.<br />

37<br />


“Everyone put into action what we<br />

had learned, from the lead up, to<br />

the support after. It brought home<br />

several ground truths for me. We<br />

were very lucky to come out of it<br />

with no significant losses. I attribute<br />

this to the bonding together, the<br />

camaraderie we had, the knowledge<br />

that we had each other’s backs. I felt<br />

a deep sense of responsibility for<br />

everyone’s safety.”<br />

During this summer, Captain Hartog’s<br />

own brigade, Toolangi, was lucky not<br />

to have any fires close to home. So,<br />

they went to help New South Wales<br />

and north-east Victoria instead.<br />

“We were proud to support the<br />

efforts during those prolonged fires.<br />

To be deployed and be part of the<br />

fires – whether through the State<br />

Control Centre or rotation through<br />

the ranks – to be part of the fight,<br />

with boots on the ground meant a<br />

lot.”<br />

The style of leadership that most<br />

inspires Captain Hartog is one that<br />

empowers strong women into<br />

leadership positions. Last year she<br />

was elected onto the CFA Board for<br />

the first time.<br />

“I am so proud to be on the Board<br />

of an organisation I have previously<br />

worked many years for, and an<br />

organisation that I love. I’m proud to<br />

join some pretty incredible women<br />

on the Board. I have always drawn<br />

my strength and inspiration from my<br />

peers. They shape and inspire me on<br />

a daily basis,” she says.<br />

“On the ground, I actually wish that<br />

I joined a brigade 10 years before I<br />

finally did. Toolangi Fire Brigade is<br />

an amazing group of people. The<br />

camaraderie is uplifting. People roll<br />

out the door as a team, we know our<br />

lives are in each other’s hands. All of<br />

us are simply there to try and do our<br />

best.”<br />

What Captain Hartog loves most<br />

about her brigade is it is a true<br />

microcosm of her community.<br />

Many junior members, both male<br />

and female, go on to have careers<br />

or volunteer in fire management.<br />

Several of the members and office<br />

holders of the brigade are mums. A<br />

few of these ladies joined as a result<br />

of their children. Now she’s hoping<br />

her own next generation – her<br />

daughter – will be inspired to join the<br />

CFA.<br />

“It’s not mandatory or completely<br />

expected obviously… but I do hope<br />

so!”<br />

With thanks to the Victorian CFA for this article<br />

contribution.<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 38

TRAVEL<br />

Even though we can’t travel at the moment, there will be a time that we can. When<br />

that time comes it will be important to get out there and support our domestic<br />

tourist destinations. Now is the time to dream and plan your next holiday!<br />


Breaks<br />

Words: Brooke Turnbull<br />

When we think about all the things we want to do on a short break away,<br />

and there are many, we might often first think of a big city. Australian<br />

capital cities are all great options for an exciting and quick break.<br />

However, sometimes it pays to consider a location that’s away from it all.<br />

A place to relax, restore and rejuvenate.<br />

39<br />


For a short break like this, we would<br />

recommend you look no further<br />

than the Mornington Peninsula. It’s<br />

got everything you could possibly<br />

want or need, and you’ll find a huge<br />

amount to do. Whether you’re<br />

traveling by yourself, looking for a<br />

romantic getaway or a break with the<br />

kids, check out our top things to do<br />

and places to stay in the Mornington<br />

Peninsula and treat yourself.<br />

Location:<br />

The Mornington Peninsula is<br />

located about 1 hour South East<br />

of Melbourne. If you’re flying into<br />

Melbourne, we would recommend<br />

hiring a car so you have the freedom<br />

to travel around the area and visit<br />

the amazing places it has to offer.<br />

However, if you’re short on time but<br />

still want to visit, consider a day tour<br />

from Melbourne.<br />

Things to do:<br />

The Mornington Peninsula has<br />

an abundance of interesting and<br />

exciting things to do and see. If you<br />

are thinking of doing a day tour,<br />

as your time is limited, check out<br />

Acacia Luxury Private Tours. Acacia’s<br />

tour guide will pick you up from<br />

your Melbourne hotel and ferry you<br />

wherever you wish to go in a luxury,<br />

air-conditioned sedan.<br />

The best part about Acacia’s Tours is<br />

that you have full control of your own<br />

itinerary. Simply tell your guide what<br />

it is you enjoy, and they’ll organise a<br />

personal, friendly and exciting tour<br />

for you and your guests. Sightsee the<br />

peninsula in absolute style.<br />

Obviously, we couldn’t go to the<br />

Mornington Peninsula and not<br />

explore the wineries and Autumn is<br />

the perfect time to do so.<br />

We don’t know about you, but we<br />

love wineries and at the top of our list<br />

is Rare Hare. Delicious food, spunky<br />

and tasty wines, not to mention the<br />

vista at Willow Creek all combines<br />

to make a fantastic visit…if you can<br />

remember it, that is.<br />

Rare Hare is, of course, not the<br />

only winery around, there are<br />

plenty of winery tours you can<br />

take advantage of to enjoy a full<br />

day of drinking, eating and making<br />

merry with whomever you choose.<br />

For an excellent winery tour<br />

recommendation, we’d go with<br />

Mornington Peninsula Designated<br />

Wine Tours. They’ll take you where<br />

you want to go and keep you safe<br />

while doing so.<br />

If touring is off the agenda and<br />

you’re wishing to explore in your own<br />

time you’ll have plenty to keep you<br />

occupied when you visit.<br />

The Peninsula Hot Springs is one of<br />

the top places to visit in the area.<br />

With a spa menu to dive right on<br />

into and wellness packages to suit<br />

everyone, you can relax and unwind<br />

in one of the most unique parts of<br />

Australia.<br />

The Peninsula Hot Springs have<br />

created a space where you can<br />

reconnect within or as a couple.<br />

Experience the bliss of thermal,<br />

natural underwater springs that<br />

run from underground and are<br />

harnessed into pools and private<br />

baths. You can enjoy the springs<br />

in the bath house, which is family<br />

friendly so you can bring the kids, and<br />

starts from $35 per adult.<br />

Or indulge in the Spa Dreaming<br />

Centre, this is adults only and starts<br />

from $110 per person. Finally<br />

there are the private baths starting<br />

from $175 per person, a space to<br />

experience on your own or with a<br />

loved one. Peninsula Hot Springs<br />

also offers spa treatments that start<br />

from $215 for the Unwind package.<br />

This gives you all access to the<br />

springs as well as your choice of a 60<br />

minute treatment.<br />

After your immersive hot springs<br />

experience, the Peninsula Hot<br />

Springs also have divine dining<br />

on offer that can be served in the<br />

Bath House Cafe or Spa Dreaming<br />

Centre Cafe. Grazing platter menus<br />

start from $60 per person. If you’re<br />

looking for a relaxing getaway or to<br />

reconnect as a couple, the Peninsula<br />

Hot Springs is the place to go.<br />

If exploring is right up your alley, get<br />

lost in Australia’s oldest hedge maze<br />

at the Ashcombe Maze and Lavender<br />

gardens. The stunning gardens and<br />

maze are a destination that you wont<br />

want to miss, and neither will the<br />

kids.<br />

Standing at over 3 metres high and<br />

2 metres thick, you can explore the<br />

maze and try to find the four mosaic<br />

flags hidden within. Once you’ve<br />

conquered the maze, check out the<br />

lavender labyrinth and find yourself<br />

gazing out over the stunning hues<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 40

of blues and purples that cover a variety of different<br />

lavender types.<br />

If you’re looking for something with a little more<br />

adrenaline, head over to the Enchanted Adventure<br />

Garden for a tree surfing adventure or to fly through<br />

the air on their zip line. With mazes, tube slides, canopy<br />

walks and enchanted sculptures there’s something for<br />

everyone to do at the Enchanted Adventure Garden.<br />

The Big Zip is our recommendation, flying on 2 different<br />

zip lines over 300 metres of gardens and the Enchanted<br />

Lake! Sure to get your blood pumping after relaxing in<br />

the hot springs all day.<br />

Peninsula Hot Springs<br />

Finally, we can’t take you on an adventure to the<br />

Mornington Peninsula and not recommend you head<br />

to the beach. Sorrento Beach, St Andrews Beach and<br />

Fingal are but a few of the gorgeous and clear waters<br />

of the Mornington Peninsula to take a dive into (at least<br />

if you’re not travelling in the Victorian winter). Bring<br />

your paddle board or hire one from Peninsula Stand<br />

Up Paddle and get amongst it. Or, if you prefer a more<br />

gentle break, set up your beach umbrella and sit back<br />

while enjoying a good book.<br />

Places to stay:<br />

As is our want, we’re giving you a range of places to stay,<br />

from budget to luxury and we wouldn’t have it any other<br />

way. Whether you’re looking for a family friendly place<br />

or a cosy romantic space for two, you’ve got plenty of<br />

options around the area.<br />

For a romantic and rustic feel with all the modern and<br />

luxurious amenities you expect, the Woodman Estate<br />

is perfect for couples looking to escape for a few<br />

nights to unwind and connect. With a wide range of<br />

accommodation options for your budget, you can have<br />

your pick. Garden view rooms start from $299 per night<br />

and Spa Suites are available from $699 per night.<br />

Dining room at The Rare Hare WInery<br />

If your budget allows, we recommend splurging for the<br />

Lakeside Chalet, penthouse style accommodation that<br />

includes a private deck over the water’s edge, a spa bath<br />

and an open fire, perfect for curling up with a glass of<br />

wine and your special person. The Lakeside Chalet’s<br />

start from $950 per night. The hotel offers free wifi and<br />

Gibb Group is a dynamic Australian<br />

property developer and asset<br />

manager, specialising in industrial<br />

logistics property, suburban office<br />

and business park space.<br />

Asset Management Development Investment<br />

Level 3, 162 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC 3000<br />

admin@gibbgroup.com.au<br />

0402 825 825<br />

www.gibbgroup.com.au<br />

41<br />


has an onsite restaurant that offers delicious dining in a<br />

beautiful setting. There are also a number of activities on<br />

offer from the hotel ranging from walking tours to water<br />

sport facilities, or for an extra cost, take a Woodman<br />

Estate cooking class and enjoy your fare with a glass of<br />

wine!<br />

If you’re travelling as a family and looking for a more<br />

budget friendly, but no less exciting, place to stay<br />

the Kanasta Caravan Park is exceptional. With clean,<br />

spacious and inviting, fully self-contained cabins, starting<br />

from $150 per night, this is the perfect place for families<br />

to holiday in the area together, without getting under<br />

each other’s feet.<br />

In addition to the cabins, Kanasta also offers a point of<br />

difference with their Retro Glamping Caravans. These<br />

Caravans are permanent fixtures of the park and are<br />

all beautifully maintained and affectionately named. If<br />

you’re travelling on a budget but still want to get bang<br />

for your buck, we highly recommend these caravans.<br />

Starting from $120 per night, you don’t lose out in price,<br />

and you can still stay in retro luxury. Activities wise,<br />

Kanasta offers a brilliant children’s playground, table<br />

tennis and a games room with arcade games. The park<br />

is a short walk down to Rye Beach and the foreshore,<br />

that offers a variety of dining options and activities.<br />

Lakeside Chalets at Woodman Estate<br />

A visit to the Mornington Peninsula is definitely one for<br />

the bucket list. An array of options for whatever style of<br />

holiday suits you; quiet and immersive or action packed,<br />

this place has it all. Autumn is the perfect time to visit as<br />

the seasons change. The weather cools, the leaves fall<br />

and there are plenty of local events that kick off as the<br />

grape harvest time begins.<br />

Enjoy your break!<br />

Editor’s note: Even though we can’t travel at the<br />

moment, there will be a time that we can. When that<br />

time comes it will be important to get out there and<br />

support our domestic tourist destinations. Now is the<br />

time to dream and plan your next holiday!<br />

Retro Glamping at Kanasta Caravan Park<br />

Rare and Beautiful, Gemstones<br />

and Crystals, Exhibition and Sales<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

www.ausemergencyservices.com.au 42

In an emergency, call Triple Zero (000)<br />

To contact the police, fire or ambulance in an emergency, call<br />

Triple Zero (000) from any telephone in Australia. Calls are free.<br />

When to call Triple Zero (000)<br />

You should only call Triple Zero (000) in life<br />

threatening or time critical situations when<br />

an urgent response is required from police,<br />

fire or ambulance.<br />

What will happen when I call<br />

Triple Zero (000)?<br />

The operator will ask you which emergency<br />

service you require—police, fire or ambulance<br />

—and will connect you. The operator may also<br />

ask where you are calling from.<br />

What if I have difficulty speaking English?<br />

If you have difficulty speaking English, you<br />

can ask for an interpreter once you have been<br />

transferred to the emergency service you<br />

requested. You will not have to pay for the<br />

interpreter.<br />

When you call Triple Zero (000), stay calm,<br />

stay on the line and clearly answer the<br />

operator’s questions.<br />


Simple steps to help<br />

stop the spread.<br />

Cough or sneeze<br />

into your arm<br />

Use a tissue<br />

Bin the tissue<br />

Wash your hands<br />

Together we can help stop<br />

the spread and stay healthy.<br />

For more information about Coronavirus<br />

(COVID-19) visit health.gov.au<br />

Authorised by the Australian Government, Canberra

ARE THEY<br />

TRIPLE OK?<br />

We’re always there to help.<br />

Let’s make sure we help each other and ask R U OK?<br />


Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!