SUSTAINABLE BUS 2020-04

vadoetornoedizioni

Following two years of web activities on www.sustainable-bus.com, Sustainable Bus debuts as a magazine.

In this first issue we address the topics of new trends in public transport from UITP’s perspective, of India bus electrification schemes (results and challenges) and we share the experience of a public transport company in China which manages 4,000 e-buses (and looks at a massive hydrogen bus deployment). An in-depth analysis of the European electric bus market in 2019 couldn’t be missing.

Then, we did a focus on LNG application for intercity services, a new trend that is gaining ground: in the magazine we tell about the Scania Interlink LD LNG, the first LNG bus delivered in Europe, and offer a exclusive preview of the Menarinibus Citymood LNG.
In the spotlight there’s also the short six-meter e-bus from Rampini, which has been massively restyled lately.

In late 2019 we have been in Bonn (Germany) for the only European contest where battery-electric buses are compared head to head. Bozankaya Sileo, Ebusco, Heuliez Bus, MAN, Mercedes, Solaris, VDL attended. A great picture of the state of the art of the sector.

Ah, we nearly forgot! The issue ends with an extensive portfolio of the electric bus models available on the European market.

Sustainable

BUS

VADO E TORNO EDIZIONI

www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI

AUTOBUS SUPPLEMENT

APRIL 2020

E-BUS

PLAYERS

HEAD TO HEAD

MARKET

The great leap

forward of the

electric bus market

CHINA & INDIA

The Chinese way

aims at hydrogen.

Indian outlooks

LONG-DISTANCE

LNG on coaches. Is

this the beginning

of a new era?


Sustainable

BUS

CONTENTS

SUSTAINABLE-BUS.COM APRIL 2020

4

6

POST-IT and TECHNO

Sustainable Bus debuts on paper.

The beginning of a new journey

LNG buses. There’s room in Class II.

A new player on the horizon

20

16

8

10

INTERVIEWS

A worldwide view with UITP.

Public transport for a new era

A trip to Zhengzhou, China.

How to manage 4,000 e-buses?

6

36

12

16

20

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

OUTLOOKS

India, drivers and challenges.

The electrification that will come

E-bus market 2019 in Europe.

A jump ahead. Which are the leaders?

COMPARISON

Ebus Test.

Seven players head to head

Bozankaya Sileo S12.

I am the light!

Ebusco 2.2.

Here comes the new guy

Heuliez GX 337 Elec.

A smart layout

MAN Lion’s City E.

Big battery, no compromises

Mercedes eCitaro.

A rising star ready for the masses

Solaris Urbino 12 Electric.

Paving the way, since 2013

VDL Citea SLE-129 Electric.

The market leader

32

36

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Rampini E60.

Short, clean and new

Scania LNG.

Energy transition out of the city

29

40

PORTFOLIO

All the electric buses

on the European market

3


POST-IT

AFTER TWO YEARS OF WEB ACTIVITIES...

A new magazine is born

THE WEB FOR THE FRESH NEWS, THE MAGAZINE FOR GOING DEEPER

Following two years of web activities, Sustainable Bus has been

considered ready to take a step forward, and now debuts in the magazine

‘shape’. Two paper editions will be published in 2020: the rst, issued

in late April, is the one you are reading. The second will be published in

September. What is important, the paper issues are freely available on

our website via a webreader, a fundamental tool for a magazine developed

for a widely international circulation. The debut on paper (recyclable,

ça va sans dire...) does not, of course, mean an interruption or a drop

of the activities on www.sustainable-bus.com, which, on the contrary,

will continue more intensely than before. The two channels will work

side by side on parallel paths aimed at providing

the industry and public transport stakeholders

with an increasingly valid tool to

read the evolving scenarios of public

transport.

Sustainable Bus Magazine has

been designed in order to be indeed a different tool than

the website. While the latter is focused on the daily news

coming from the market, with an always-updated approach,

Sustainable Bus Magazine is the perfect place for

an in-depth approach, covering technical analysis, reports

on market trends, interviews with major stakeholders

and everything involved in such a stimulating and fastgrowing

sector. Of course it will be physically available at

the main European exhibitions. Launched in spring 2018,

Sustainable Bus web platform was at that date, and still is

today, the only international media fully focused on clean

buses and sustainability in the eld of public transport. t.

It saw the light in a specic historical and sociological framework.

Urbanization and climate change are global challenges

that ask public transport to change attitude. Public

transportation is heading toward a transition that implies a

new paradigma. Telling about sustainability in public transport is our

mission. The magazine will be a perfect tool to widen our approach.

THE WEBSITE’S ID CARD

Over 850 articles. 90 weekly

newsletters. A community of

readers from all over the world.

United States, United Kingdom,

India, Germany and the Netherlands

are at the higher places in

the list of the countries where

most of the ‘clicks’ on www.sustainable-bus.com

come from.

Then we find France, Spain, Italy,

Sweden. And so on. Every week

a newsletter is sent to a mailing

list of over 10,000 contacts,

with an open rate of 35 per cent.

And the website is ‘flanked’ by a

batch of social media channels

which includes Facebook, Twitter,

Linkedin, Instagram.

This is the ID card of www.

sustainable-bus.com, launched

in spring 2018. User volume is

steadily growing. The number of

users registered a +172 per cent

in the Q1 2020 compared to Q1

2019. Number of page views

saw an increase of 168 per

cent in the same period. What

is interesting is also the average

session duration, today set at

1.40 minutes.

FOLLOW US ON:

WWW.sustainable-bus.COM

Sustainable Bus Magazine will be

physically available at the main

European exhibitions of the second

half of the year, as Coronavirus

crisis led to a postponement of the

events scheduled in the rst half of

2020. It is also freely available on our website via a

webreader.

The coronavirus pandemic has been declared a Public Health

Emergency of International Concern on 30 January. In Italy,

where Sustainable Bus’ team is based, the infection has

been spreading since the end of February. Social distancing

measures were introduced since 7 March. COVID-19 was

recognized as a pandemic as of 11 March. Its spread is

dramatically affecting the activities of public transport operators

and authorities as well as the industrial production

processes all over the world.

Editorial works for this rst issue of Sustainable Bus Magazine

were closed in the rst days of March, before the massive

spread of the infection. The market trends and forecasts outlined

in the following pages will be highly inuenced by the evolution

of the pandemic. Which, at the time of going to press, is still

uncertain. Due to this uncertainty, at this stage it would however

be too early to outline alternative scenarios. Scenarios which we

will be able to discuss on the second issue of Sustainable Bus

Magazine, scheduled for September. Riccardo Schiavo

4


TECHNO

MENARINIBUS LAUNCHES THE CITYMOOD LNG

Liquid mood in Class II

A NEW PLAYER, BESIDES SCANIA, IN THE LNG BUS SECTOR

Energy transition mustn’t be

understood as a mere synonymous

with electrication. Gas-powered

applications remain a viable option.

Especially taking into consideration

that there is a huge territory to conquer,

called ‘Class II’.

In suburban areas, the monopolistic

fuel is diesel, even if in recent years

mild hybrids and CNG have started

to gain ground.

But today a new option is entering

the scene. It’s called Liquied Natural

Gas, better known as LNG. A

technology that has put down roots

in the truck sector since 2016 and

that has made its rst appearance in

late 2019 in European public transport

sector. The rst release ever

was that of Scania in Bologna (we’ll

talk about it later in a dedicated report).

Another player, however, is

on the horizon: the Italian brand

Menarinibus, belonging to Industria

Italiana Autobus group, has recently

completed the production of the rst Citymood LNG 12-meter (also available

in 10-meter variant) for the Emilia-Romagna region. 96 units will be supplied.

The bus is based on the same structure as the CNG version.

The Menarinibus Citymood LNG is an absolute novelty. It can be homologated

in Class I and Class II. What is more, comparing it with the LNGpowered

Scania Interlink, is the fact that cryogenic tanks are placed on the

front part of the roof. The bus is available in two versions: with two tanks

(for a total of 576 litres) and with four cylinders for a total of 1,152 litres.

The latter option ensures a range of more than 1,000 kilometres. (I.S.)

The Menarinibus LNG is based

on the same structure as the CNG

version. It can be homologated in

Class I and Class II. What is more,

compared to Scania Interlink, is

that cryogenic tanks (up to 1,152

litres) are not placed in the luggage

compartment but on the roof.

30 projects underway all over Europe, with the bus-related

activities taking the lion’s share. Ekoenergetyka

is a producer of charging infrastructures established

in Poland in 2009. Today it’s in charge

of providing charging stations in Berlin,

Munich, Hamburg, Barcelona, Warsaw,

Paris.

CHARGING TRENDS

vehicles charging at the same time.

A strong trend is also the growing demand for customised,

compact solutions, most often used in dense metropolis.

Our depot stations supplied to RATP use charging cables

lowered from the top on a special reel. In Espoo, Finland,

we installed stations in an underground car park with pantographs

integrated with a canopy of the terminus».

6

Maciej Wojeński, CEO of Ekoenergetyka,

which is the share of the bus-related activities

on Ekoenergetyka’s turnover?

«Around 90%. However, we expect revenues

from products and services related to

e-car and other vehicles industry to grow».

Which trends are you observing?

«Intelligent software is becoming increasingly important

to manage the infrastructure capacity between multiple

Electric bus market is growing steadily in Europe. Do

you have any forecasts for 2020?

«We are preparing to produce at least 150 MW of infrastructure

per year. Electric trucks, utility vehicles and taxi

fleets will develop very dynamically. Optimisation and

improvement of the efficiency of the infrastructure will become

increasingly important. This can be achieved also

through the use of energy storage facilities and of alternative

energy sources. An important trend in 2020 will be

the increase in efficiency of power electronic systems».

With your city, with your vision


INTERVIEW

8

INTERVIEW WITH ARNO KERKHOF AND AIDA ABDULAH, UITP

RE-SHAPING PUBLIC

TRANSPORT AHEAD

The International Association of Public Transport forecasts that half

of the city bus sales in Europe in 2030 will be electric. New project are

underway, new challenges ahead. eBRT, trolleybuses and refurbishment

are expected to play a new role in tomorrow’s public transport

The year was 2013.

ZeEUS project was

gearing up, inaugurating

the very rst

deployment of battery-electric

buses in Europe. Seven

year after, e-buses are not

belonging anymore to some

futuristic perspective, but are

gaining ground in the eets of

the main European cities. In

the meanwhile, the challenges

ahead change shape. We

discussed about trends and

outlooks on e-bus deployment

with Arno Kerkhof, Head of

UITP Bus Division, and Aida

Abdulah, Senior Project Manager,

Knowledge & Innovation

Department at UITP.

As UITP, you managed the

ZeEUS project that set the

first steps on the electric

bus deployment in Europe.

Which lessons have you learnt?

AA: «ZeEUS marks the before

and after in the deployment

of electric buses. It started

completely from scratch, with

a ‘learning by doing’ approach

that led to high degree

of expertise. It brought very

important lessons on vehicle

procurement and system procurement

and how to integrate

them. A follow-up project

as ASSURED is focusing on

how to fast charge large e-

ets with high power, not only

buses but also trucks. The

project is also working on

the provision of standards

and ensuring interoperability,

which is crucial for operators

to be able to decide which

application suits best which

purpose, giving them the e-

xibility of choosing different

brands and different suppliers

of infrastructures».

UITP forecasts a 52% e-bus

share in 2030. If the volumes

will be growing up quickly,

don’t you see a problem of

production capacity?

AK: «We observe that industry

players are numerous and

dynamic. We also acknowledge

that the bus market is very

small compared to trucks or

cars. European market of city

buses is between 10,000 and

15,000 units. There is no fear

that the industry will not be

failing future demand in term

of production capacity».

AA: «It is of course

possible that we

will experience

some restrictions

in the

short term. But

in the next two

to ve years we

will see a major

deployment. One

of the tools to support

this is our new project Clean

Bus Europe Platform. The

industry is integrated in the

platform and this will allow

the industry players to have a

feeling of what is going on».

As a result of the higher

upfront cost of electric buses,

if the money invested

won’t increase, the consequence

could be an increase

in the average age of the eets.

The TCO of an electric

bus is calculated to be the

same as a diesel bus on a lifespan

of 15-20 years. How

do you see this scenario?

Could this affect the appeal

of public transport?

AA: «I tend to think that now

that the legislation (Clean

Vehicle Directive) is clearly

pointing the direction to follow,

funding and nancing

institutions will catch up

quickly and provide suitable

mechanisms to support

the deployment. Anyhow, we

could think of even a longer

vehicle lifespan, similar

to the metro and railways

sector. With the appropriate

refurbishment, integrating

continuously latest technologies

and end users’ needs,

we can revamp vehicles with

the corresponding increased

attractive for the passengers.

But in my view, it is still early

to draft conclusions».

Which trends are you observing

around the world with

regards to energy transition

for buses?

AK: «In China the rst electric

buses were operated in

2008, during the Olympic games

in Beijing. And Shenzhen

bus eet of 16,000 buses completed

fully electri cation. In

Europe the deployment has

started just two years ago. In

India, where we have UITP of-

ces as well, the government

is gearing up within a centralized

deployment framework

for electric buses. In the US,

Los Angeles, who is sitting as

a member on the UITP Bus

Committee, is planning the

transition of the eet to zero

emission vehicles. They are

looking closely what is happening

in Europe. In south

America they are at the initial

stage, except for Chile, where

lot of energy have been put in

electric bus deployment».

Last year we have seen a

sort of comeback of hydrogen

technology. When do

you think this technology

will become commercially

viable?

AA: «I think with fuel cell buses

we are at the same stage

where we were, for batteryelectric

buses, 4-5 years ago.

It is not easy to make forecasts.

Price today is higher compared

to battery-buses, also because

sales volumes are very

different. The JIVE project

«With electric buses, we could think of a lifespan similar to the

metro and railways sector. With the appropriate refurbishment,

integrating continuously latest technologies and end users’ needs,

we can revamp vehicles with the corresponding increased

attractive for the passengers»

is supporting deployment at

scale by joint procurement,

and so stimulating the market

with lower prices. We can

expect a continuation of such

commercialisation efforts at

national and European levels

in the coming years».

Beyond the driveline system,

commercial speed is

a key driver to move users

from private car to public

transport. The issue of infrastructure

comes into

play. BRT systems can be

part of the solution...

AA: «From the powertrain

side, eBRT should be the natural

technology to follow the

deployment of electric buses

in the urban environment, but

for the mind-set of people this

is challenging because at the

policy level it is not popular

to take space from cars».

AK: «At UITP we are about

to start a new project called

BRT 2.0 where we will look at

the three new technology enablers

which could change the

very BRT concept for future

schemes: electri

cation, autonomous

driving,

connectivity».

How do you

imagine to be

our cities in

20 years with

regards to mobility?

AA: «I would be very happy

to see less cars. I don’t

think it’s possible to remove

completely private cars but I

hope to see shared car schemes

instead, complementing

the excellent PT services for

rst/last mile. Integrated universal

ticketing would be de-

nitely a plus. The landscape

should surely be zero emission

and powered via renewable

sources. And mobility

will still be ground-based».

R.S.

9


INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW WITH GUO YANYUAN, ZHENGZHOU PUBLIC TRANSPORT CORPORATION

WHEN THINGS

GET SERIOUS...

«WE ARE READY FOR EUROPE»

Mr. Franco Miniero, Yutong MD Europe and North America and

Vice Director International Business Development, what do

you see as current trends in the European electric bus market?

«There’s no doubt it’s a market that’s growing significantly. Electrical

buses accounted for 8 to 10% of the total number of European

city buses registered in 2019. We expect this share to soon reach

15%».

«It’ll be available to order as of May, when

serial production is scheduled to start.

However, we should not forget that our current

range already includes the E12 for city

transit bus service and the Ice12 for intercity

connections».

When will it be time for the 18m?

4,000 battery-electric buses on the road as a result of

a plan started in 2015. Zhengzhou Public Transport

Corporation expects to have a full electric bus fleet by

2022. But battery-electric technology will be just a

transitional stage. Hydrogen is in the spotlight

There is only one country

in the world where

you might happen to

manage a eet of 4,000

electric buses. China. Where

the (rounded up) number of city

buses registered every year is

about 100,000. 80% of them

are zero emission at the tailpipe.

Zhengzhou has a population of

10 million and it is not even ranked

among the 10 most populated

Chinese cities.

Back in 2015, the local public

transportation company set off on

a headlong rush into electrifying

the existing eet. Five years later,

4,000 electric vehicles are

hitting the roads. And they all

sported one brand: Yutong’s, the

world’s leading bus manufacturer

in terms of sales volume,

headquartered in the same city

of Zhengzhou. Yutong has a 34%

market share in China, said Jiang

Bing, vice brand director of the

group, at Busworld 2019.

Guo Yuanyuan has been holding

«All of our charging stations use a plug-in system.

We have 106 bus depots equipped with 38 strategically located

charging areas, totalling 1,150 charging points. Our energy demand

varies between 600 and 650 MW, meaning 162 kWh a day for

each bus. Average mileage is 200 km/day per bus»

the position of deputy director of

operation of the Zhengzhou Public

Transport Corporation since

2003. Here’s our interview with

him.

Could you tell us about your

experience with electric bus

eets?

«In 2003 we had a eet of 1,600

buses, all running on diesel and

manufactured by over ten different

brands. In 2005 we began a

steady cooperation with Yutong.

We’ve added 2,000 more diesel

units between 2005 and 2011. In

2015, we started buying electric

buses, alongside CNG-fuelled

hybrids. We had the entire eet

fully converted by 2018. Since

Guo Yuanyuan

is deputy director

of operation of

the Zhengzhou

Public Transport

Corporation. «We

plan to have a fully

electric eet by

2022 and we’re

going to invest an

increasingly larger

share on hydrogen

- he says -. Our full

eet will be running

on hydrogen in 10

to 15 years

from now».

What are your major markets in Europe?

«Certainly Northern Europe. We also have a presence in France and

Bulgaria, and we keep expanding. As for Italy, last year we delivered

an ICe12, an electric coach, to a private operator based in Venice».

At Busworld 2019 you presented the U12, a battery-powered

city bus designed specifically for Europe. Is this produced in

series yet?

then, we have no longer had diesel

buses on our streets. We also

started experimenting by adding

125 hydrogen-fuelled units to our

eet. Currently, we have 6,400

buses, some 4,000 of which are

purely electric, while the rest are

mild hybrids with gas engines.

The number of routes have grown

to 311, and we have a further ve

BRT routes served by electric buses.

Every year we carry a total of

937 million passengers».

What about future prospects?

«We plan to have a fully electric

eet by 2022 and we’re going

to invest an increasingly larger

share on hydrogen. I can imagine

that our full eet will be running

on hydrogen in 10 to 15 years

from now. We consider batteryelectric

vehicles to be some sort

of transitional stage from conventional

ICE buses to hydrogenpowered

ones, our true goal».

What benets will eet conversion

to hydrogen bring in your

opinion? Is it just a matter of

mile range?

«An extended mile range is certainly

one of the main pluses.

Then there is cost. Hydrogen has

a lower cost per mile as compared

to electricity. And we also expect

to spend less on maintenance.

We believe hydrogen to be our

future, because it will enable us to

overcome the only current limitation

of battery electric vehicles,

that is battery life. But there’s

also dependency: we must buy

gas and fossil fuels from abroad.

Hydrogen promises to let us gain

greater independence».

But the current price tag for a

hydrogen-fuelled bus is still not

comparable to that of a battery-electric

one...

«Correct. A hydrogen bus currently

costs 2.5 times more than

a battery-electric bus. However,

the Chinese Government is now

shifting subsidies to hydrogen».

What’s your recharging schedule?

«All of our charging stations use

a plug-in system. We charge 80%

of our vehicles overnight and the

remaining 20% during the day.

We have 106 bus depots equipped

with 38 strategically located

charging areas, totalling 1,150

charging points».

Energy demand usually causes

a lot of concerns...

«By the end of the year. It will be an extended

version of Yutong E12, that’s currently

available only in the 12 m version».

2018 saw a relaunch of hydrogen technology.

Is Yutong betting on this segment?

«We are working on it in China. But it is not a technology we are

going to market in Europe for the time being».

«We asked our electricity provider

to set up a dedicated power

supply line just for us. Now we

are working on a back-up plan,

whereby we’ll have a second recharging

line providing back-up

power in the event of a main-line

failure.

Our energy demand varies

between 600 and 650 MW, meaning

162 kWh a day for each bus.

Our 4,000 e-buses travel a total

of 800,000 km/day, an average of

200 km each».

Is maintenance carried

out in-house or is it

provided by Yutong?

«The manufacturer

steps in only

in the event of a

breakdown. We

carry out ordinary

maintenance at our

workshops».

You must had to give your technical

staff specic training...

«Denitely. Today our staff is less

numerous, but with a far higher

expertise. In fact, with internal

combustion engines we needed

15 technicians every 100 buses.

Instead, 100 e-buses can be taken

care of by 7.5 people».

R.S.

10

11


OUTLOOKS

MAJOR TRENDS IN INDIAN ELECTRIC BUS MARKET

ALL BARK AND

...NO BITE!

By 2025, Interact Analysis forecasts that India

will account for more than 10% of the total

annual demand for electric buses globally. But

there are big challenges ahead

Last year, the Modi government in

India introduced the second phase

of the ‘Faster Adoption and Manufacturing

of (Hybrid and) Electric

Vehicles’ (FAME) incentive scheme which

promotes the uptake of electried vehicles

using both supply- and demand-based subsidies.

One of the main aims of the incentive

scheme is the electrication of public

transport given the disproportionately high

amount of oil which is displaced by electric

buses versus passenger vehicles. Based on

our analysis of energy sources used within

India’s power system, we estimate that a

single electric bus can displace more than

1,000 barrels of oil per year (some 159,000

liters) whereas a single electric car can only

displace approximately 25 barrels of oil per

year (slightly less than 4,000 liters).

This policy makes sense as India is home to

some of the most polluted places on earth;

according to Greenpeace, 22 of the 30 most

polluted cities in the world are found in India.

Consequently the government is facing

increasing pressure, both domestically and

internationally, to reduce emissions and pollution.

However, it’s not just environmental concerns

behind the electrication of public

transport. Because of India’s limited oil

reserves, it has become one of the biggest

oil importers in the world. As a result, the

Indian economy is tightly correlated to the

price of oil resulting in a greater current account

decit during periods of high oil prices

which is further exacerbated by India’s

Interact Analysis is a

market research rm with

a specic department for

truck, bus and off-highway

electrication. Here on

Sustainable Bus Magazine

we host a contribution

from the research analyst

Rueben Scriven.

growing demand for the commodity (see

gure). By 2025, Interact Analysis forecasts

that India will account for more than 10%

of the total annual demand for electric buses

globally, which is more than Europe and

North America combined.

Big challenges ahead

However, despite the strategic importance

of reducing oil imports and dissociating itself

from the volatile oil markets, the Indian

12

13


OUTLOOKS

Accounting for a signicant

share of the global

demand for buses, the

question isn’t whether

India’s electric bus market

will grow to be one of the

world’s largest, the question

is when.

As of November 2019, 130

electric buses had been

d eployed in the region of

Pune, and it plans to introduce

a further 520 electric

buses; 150 of which are expected

to be subsidised by

the FAME II scheme.

PMPML’s successful introduction

of e-buses in Pune

should act as a blueprint

which will signicantly

speed up the transition.

government has faced a multitude of challenges

as it tries to promote the uptake of

electric buses.

First of these are the unrealistic tender requirements.

With the cost of the battery pack

accounting for a large share of the cost of

an electric bus, it’s hard to compete against

non-electric buses on price alone. Most Indian

transport authorities operate under an

OPEX model whereby the transport authorities

pay the bus manufacturers on a per-kilometre

basis. For example, the Olectra-BYD

buses which operate in Pune cost Rs74/km

to run, requiring each bus to operate more

than 300,000km (or roughly 4.5 years) before

it can generate a prot. In other parts

of the country, transport authorities have

demanded even lower operating costs which

increases the time in which it takes to generate

a prot and subsequently increases the

risk of the project. Chandigarh, for example,

is oating its third tender because it received

no bids for the previous two.

Secondly, administrative errors have been

made: in the case of Karnataka’s deployment

of 400 electric buses, the submission deadline

for tenders has been extended eight times

due to ‘technical glitches’ in the e-procurement

portal which has signicantly delayed

the process. For the most recent extension,

the Union government had set the 15th November

as the deadline for the local transport

authorities in Karnataka to issue letters

of approval for successful bidders. The lack

of clarity and delay has unsurprisingly led to

frustration from the manufacturing base.

HUNGRY FOR OIL

Percentage of global oil demand

5,8

5,6

5,4

5,2

5,0

4,8

4,6

4,4

4,2

2017

Finally, a lack of clarity from the Department

of Heavy Industry (DHI), the

Union governments and the local and regional

transport authorities have led to signicant

uncertainties in the market which

will have a detrimental impact on research,

innovation and local production of e-mobility

equipment as manufacturers struggle to

forecast future demand.

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

India’s share of the global oil demand

Source: Interact Analysis; IEA

While these issues are common among

many cities across India, the case of Delhi’s

procurement of electric buses, or lack thereof,

provides a good example to illustrate

the problem.

Delhi, a case study

In March 2018, the Delhi government approved

initial plans to procure 1,000 electric

buses which were set to be rolled out by the

end of the 18-19 nancial year (March 2019).

Following the approval, the government hired

consultants from Delhi Integrated Multi-

Modal Transit Systems (DIMTS) to carry

Based on Interact Analysis

researches on energy

sources used within India’s

power system, we estimate

that a single electric bus

can displace more than

1,000 barrels of oil per year

whereas a single electric

car can only displace

approximately 25 barrels of

oil per year.

out a feasibility study, the results of which

were submitted in January 2019.

In March 2019, 12 months after the initial

proposal and the time at which the buses

had initially been planned to be introduced,

the Delhi government nally approved the

motion to oat the tender for 1,000 electric

buses which were then reported to be

introduced towards the end of 2019. As of

February 2020, there’s been no information

about which companies, if any, submitted

bids for the tender and it’s likely that the

electric buses will not enter operation until

2021 at the earliest.

While teething problems are expected during

periods of large-scale transition, many

of the difculties could have been avoided

by proper management of expectations.

A realistic time-frame which takes into

account the feasibility study, infrastructure

deployment and a phased introduction

would provide the manufacturing base the

clarity it desperately needs. Earlier this

month, for example, Olectra-BYD – the

largest manufacturer of electric buses in

India – delayed the opening of its second

electric bus manufacturing facility due to

lower than expected demand.

Unlike many cities across India, Pune’s phased

introduction of electric buses has gone

relatively smoothly, in part, due to the fact

that it wasn’t intended to be an overnight x.

Some cause for optimism

As of November 2019, 130 electric buses

had been d eployed in the region and it plans

to introduce a further 520 electric buses;

150 of which are expected to be subsidised

by the FAME II scheme. The US-based Rocky

Mountain Institute has been working in

collaboration with the city’s transit authority,

Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal

(PMPML), to help manage the project

and bring together all stakeholders.

Accounting for a signicant share of the

global demand for buses, the question isn’t

whether India’s electric bus market will

grow to be one of the world’s largest, the

question is when. PMPML’s successful introduction

of electric buses should act as a

blueprint which, when replicated, will signicantly

speed up the transition towards

electric public transport across India.

Rueben Scriven (Interact Analysis)

14

15


OUTLOOKS

2019. A BOOMING YEAR FOR WESTERN EUROPEAN E-BUS MARKET

THE BIG LEAP FORWARD

16

Last year 12 per cent of the city bus

registration in Western Europe was electric.

The number of e-buses registered tripled as

compared to 2018. Alternative drivetrain gain traction

In Western Europe there were more

electric bus registrations in 2019 than

in the period 2012 – 2018. Last year,

the number of e-buses registered tripled

as compared to 2018. Which, in summary,

means that 12% of city buses registe-

red in 2019 are zero-emission. Sure it’s still

a marginal share, but things appear to start

falling in line with UITP’s forecasts: two

years ago, electric buses were projected to

reach a 20% of the city bus market in 2020,

and to keep growing to over 50% in 2030.

Well, 2018 registration gures – stuck at

5% - did no justice to such forecasts. 2019

data, instead, certainly do.

Data were provided by consulting rm

Chatrou CME Solutions, and they are taken

from the western European region plus

Poland. Their analysis only included the

over-8-ton segment.

2019 has truly been a decisive year. 2018

had closed with 548 units registered. As

of 31st December 2019, the gure skyrocketed

to an amazing 1,678 units. Out of a

total number of 14,392 Class I vehicles on

the market. Doing the math, that’s equal to

11.7%; which, by the way, can’t but recall

another hefty piece of data: the year that

just ended was gifted with record city bus

market volumes.

Record year for city buses

The 14,392 Class I units of 2019 marked a

+ 30% as against the mean value recorded

in the years from 2009 to 2018 over the reference

period.

One last consideration, as mentioned above:

the 1,687 units of 2019 represent 55%

of the total number of electric buses delivered

over the 2012-2019 period (3,025). In

other words, more vehicles were delivered

last year than in the seven preceding years.

If we broaden our perspective to include

all the types of alternative drive buses

analyzed in the report, an overall growth

trend clearly emerges. 39% of city buses registered

in 2019 feature an alternative drive

system. It was 28% in 2018. Hybrid buses

are also soft-spokenly growing: +19%, an

increase to which mild hybrids were a contributor.

The huge rise in CNG buses (+ 73% as

against 2018) is denitely worth noting,

while fuel cell buses still account for a

small number of registrations: only 28 in

2019 (that was anyway a record year for

2019 has truly been a decisive

year. 2018 had closed

It is also worth observing that the current pie

this kind of driveline).

with 548 units registered.

chart of alternative city buses (accounting

As of 31st December 2019,

for almost 40% of the total number of city

the gure skyrocketed to

buses, as said earlier) is divided into 3 almost

identical slices: 35% goes to hybrids,

an amazing 1,678 units.

Out of a total number of

30% to gas-powered, 30% to e-buses, which

14,392 Class I vehicles

on the market. Doing the

math, that’s equal to 11.7% 17


OUTLOOKS

2019, THE ELECTRIC MARKET SHARES

ALL THE E-BUSES FROM 2012 TO 2019

BYD - Alexander Dennis

79 - 4.7%

Iveco - Heuliez

83 - 4.9%

Bluebus 15 - 0.9%

Caetano 16 - 0.9%

Vectia 26 - 1.5%

Optare 31 - 1.8%

Rampini 15 - 0.9%

Others 60 - 3.6%

VDL Bus & Coach

386 - 22.9%

Vectia 26 - 0.9%

Sileo - Bozankaya 45 - 1.5%

Optare 48 - 1.6%

URSUS 61 - 2.0%

Bluebus 90 - 3.0%

Iveco - Heuliez 94 - 3.1%

Ebusco 135 - 4.5%

Others 198 - 6.5%

VDL Bus & Coach

668 - 22.1%

Ebusco

102 - 6.0%

Yutong

105 - 6.2%

BYD

236 - 14.0%

Mercedes

149 - 4.9%

Yutong

172 - 5.7%

BYD

407 - 13.5%

Mercedes

126 - 7.5%

Irizar

127 - 7.5%

NETHERLANDS ON TOP

Netherlands has no competitors. One

electric vehicles in four is found on

the roads of the country of windmills,

where as of 2025 the purchase of

city buses with internal combustion

engines will be banned by virtue of

an agreement signed already back in

2015 between the public transportation

authorities. In 2030, the whole

Dutch fleet will have to go fully electric.

It’s clear, though, that Netherlands’

absolute supremacy won’t last long:

there are 5,00 public transport buses

in service in the country. Class I and

II market in Germany in 2019 closed

with 4,000 registrations (as against

Netherlands’ 600 units).

At any rate, here’s the current market

breakdown: Holland holds the highest

position, with a triplet of countries a

good way behind: France with 368

electric vehicles , the United Kingdom

with 322, and Germany with 321.

Their small internal markets are detrimental

to Scandinavian countries,

following with 235 e-buses in Sweden,

and 173 in Norway.

Poland makes a surprise entry, with

197 e-bus in service and Solaris as the

undisputed leader.

Volvo

135 - 8.0%

Solaris

145 - 8.6%

Registrations of e-buses with GVW over 8

ton in Western Europe and Poland in 2019.

Excluding trolleybuses

Source: Chatrou - CME Solutions

are clearly making up for the gap.

Discover the leaders

Let’s zoom in on e-buses, then. As for

the leaders of 2019, one name stands out

among all others: VDL. Helped by the domestic

market’s strong push towards electric

drive, the Dutch manufacturer registered

386 Citea Electric units in 2019, 232 of

ALTERNATIVE BUSES HIGHER THAN EVER

6.000

5.000

4.000

3.000

2.000

1.000

1.000

0

1.839

1.647

1.467

1.319

1.429

1.362

1.332

1.145

954

1.030

776

809

693

523

548

640

376 341

358

210

15 15

101

42

259

5 3 9 0 1 4 0

2.030

which in the Netherlands.

China-based group BYD follows suit, with

236 e-bus delivered and a 14% market share

(as against the 23% of VDL). Solaris

ranks third among the top three, totaling

145 vehicles registered, for an 8.6% market

share. Volvo gets fourth place with 135 deliveries,

followed by Irizar (127) and Mercedes

(126 in its debut year in the electric

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2.724

3.340

Total: Total; 5.652 5.652

CNG CNG buses; buses: 1.980 1.980

Hybrid buses; buses: 1.957 1.957

Electric buses; 1.687

Battery-electric buses: 1.647

Volume of electro buses

without trolleybuses!

Fuel cell; cell 28 buses: 28

Registrations of buses with GVW over 8

ton in Western Europe and Poland.

Source: Chatrou - CME Solutions

39% of city buses registered

in 2019 feature an

alternative drive system.

It was 28% in 2018. Hybrid

buses are soft-spokenly

growing: +19%, an increase

to which mild hybrids

were a contributor. The

huge rise in CNG buses

(+ 73% as against 2018) is

worth noting.

Volvo

180 - 6.0%

Irizar

188 - 6.2%

category).

Even when extending the reference period

to include the years between 2012-2019,

VDL stays on top. The 668 zero-emission

units delivered by the Dutch manufacturer

account for 22% of the total of 3,025 buses.

BYD follows tightly with 645 units (inclu-

Solaris

326 - 10.8%

BYD - Alexander Dennis

238 - 7.9%

Registrations of e-buses with GVW over 8 ton in Western

Europe and Poland in 2019. Excluding trolleybuses

Source: Chatrou - CME Solutions

E-BUSES IN OPERATION, COUNTRY BY COUNTRY

Luxembourg 94 - 3.1%

Finland 95 - 3.1%

Italy

122 - 4.0%

Spain

148 - 4.9%

Norway

173 - 5.7%

Poland

197 - 6.5%

Sweden

235 - 7.8%

Belgium 78 - 2.6%

Denmark 81 - 2.6%

Germany

321 - 10.6%

Portugal 32 - 1.1%

Others198 - 6.5%

Netherlands

726 - 24.0%

UK

322 - 10.6%

France

368 - 12.2%

Registrations of e-buses with GVW over 8 ton in Western

Europe and Poland 2012-2019. Excluding trolleybuses

Source: Chatrou - CME Solutions

ding the buses for UK market jointly realized

with Alexander Dennis) and a 21.4%

market share. Solaris is third with a 10.8%

market share, granted by its 326 deliveries.

Mercedes and Iveco stand on the margins,

MAN is virtually non-existent. The market

is waiting for them.

18

19


COMPARISONS

In the picture, the nine

buses gathered in Bonn

in November 2019 for

the Ebus Test organized

by Omnibusspiegel.

Seven models took

part to the test, two are

demo buses.

From left to right:

Bozankaya Sileo

S12, demo bus Higer

with central motor

ZF CeTrax, Ebusco

2.2, Solaris Urbino

12 Electric, Mercedes

eCitaro, Heuliez GX 337

Elec, demo bus Solaris

Urbino equipped with

Voith Electrical Drive

System, VDL Citea SLE-

129 Electric, MAN Lion’s

City E.

SEVEN PLAYERS HEAD TO HEAD AT EBUS TEST 2019

E-LANDSCAPE IN BONN

Seven players representing half of the market. The

Ebus Test 2019 gathered mass-produced vehicles as

well as newly released ones, offering a picture of the

state of the art of the battery-electric bus sector

Seven players making up for a

good half of the European e-

bus market and getting ready to

conquer an even larger portion

of it. The market leader VDL was present;

so were Solaris from Poland (with

almost 500 units’ worth of contracts under

the belt from projects in Milan, Berlin

and Warsaw) and Bozankaya from

Turkey. Ebusco also joined, right out of

the presentation of its new generation

electric model, with great fanfare, at

Busworld 2019.

The trio composed of Mecedes, MAN

and Heuliez (whose e-bus, though, has

already been rebranded as Iveco e-Way)

also “clocked in”. In 2019, the three

manufacturers accounted for a narrow

20

21


COMPARISONS

12.5% of that market that they have now

set out to turn upside down.

Had BYD, Volvo, Irizar and Yutong attended,

too, we would have been offered

a genuine all-round view. But this

doesn’t change the fact that the German

event Ebus Test launched by the

specialized magazine Omnibusspiegel

made a huge quality leap forward last

year, growing at the same pace as the

zero-emission bus market. In the fall of

2018, focus was on articulated battery

buses and there were three contestants:

Sileo, Solaris and VDL. At the last edition

in late 2019, the players involved

have more than doubled. Or tripled, if

we include the two demo-buses tested in

Bonn: a ZF Cetrax central electric drive

vehicle by Higer and a Solaris Urbino

equipped with the Voith Electrical Drive

System. Among the event partners

are the city transport company of Bonn

SWB, the German battery systems supplier

Akasol and ABB and Siemens, in

their quality as providers of charging infrastructures

and drivelines.

Journalists and experts gathered in Bonn

to scrutinize the vehicles’ technical and

construction characteristics by means of

a detailed examination of dirt accumulation

areas, position and availability of

handrail ttings, number of stop request

buttons, and so forth.

The test was carried out at temperatures

that were slightly above zero, so a

considerable amount of the energy consumed

went to heating. An amount that

can be calculated to be approximately 1

12-METER E-BUSES HEAD TO HEAD

to 2 thirds of that required for the driveline.

Moreover, heating was not turned

off while the vehicles were parked in

the 20-minute breaks between on-road

testing sessions. Which quite obviously

impacted energy consumption.

Last but not least, not all vehicles were

charged under the same conditions:

some charging stations were located indoors,

others outdoors.

Adding another bit to an already diversied

mix, buses with a diesel-fuelled

auxiliary heating system consumed

less power than those whose ambient

temperature control is entirely battery-powered.

As is natural, diesel and

power consumption levels are inversely

proportionate to each

other. So, here are the consumption

levels measured

for 100 km, to be read in

the light of the above.

A matter of heating...

Vehicles heated with the

help of an auxiliary fossil

fuel heater consume from

110.5 kWh plus 20 litres of

fuel to 144 kWh plus 6.4

litres. Power consumption

on buses with full-electric

heating, “diluted” over 100

km, stands in the range

between 179 and 235 kWh.

In other words, consumption is reported

to span between 1 and 1.4 kWh/

km on buses with fossil fuelled heating

systems, and up to 2.35 on electrically

heated ones.

Average consumption of the e-buses

in Bonn is reported to span between 1

and 1.4 kWh/km on buses with fossil

fuelled heating systems, and up to

2.35 on electrically heated ones.

The average consumption reported in

the previous Ebus Test edition, focusing

as mentioned on articulated buses,

fell in the range between 1.65 and 1.84

kWh/km.

How much does an e-bus consume?

Manoeuvrability, comfort, vibration and

noise levels were all carefully analysed;

so were the driver’s seat features, seating

comfort, and cockpit control layout.

All of a bus features were assessed, discussed,

and reported on. The event is

not meant to be a contest in the strictest

sense (there won’t be any winners or losers)

but rather a well-argued overview

of the qualities of the vehicles that were

tested side by side, under the same working

conditions.

The most interesting bit of information

emerging from the German three-day testing

session is related to consumption.

Data were painstakingly measured over

a set of tests on a closed track featuring

a good combination of the typical city

service conditions. The test drive was

carried out under real trafc conditions

and included simulated breaks at stops

to re-enact the actual driving situation

with the closest approximation.

So how much does an e-bus consume? A

brief explanatory preamble is required.

Bozankaya Sileo S12 Ebusco 2.2

Length mm 12,220 12,000

Width mm 2,550 2,550

Height mm 3,213 3,375

Wheelbase mm 6,000 5,850

Front overhang mm 2,870 2,750

Rear overhang mm 3,350 3,400

Turning circle mm 19,000 21,050

Tyre size 275/70 R 22.5 275/70 R 22.5

Passenger capacity n. 78 90

Seats n. 28 39

Entrance height mm 340 / 340 320 / 340

Doors width mm - -

Standing height mm 2,100 / 2,290 -

Empty weight kg 12,680 12,850

Front axle ZF RL82EC ZF Rl82Ec

Rear axle ZF AxTrax AVE ZF AV 133

Motor brand / model ZF AxTrax AVE KAM 90C

Motor type In-wheel Central asynchronous

Output peak kW 125 x 2 270

Output continuous kW 60 x 2 124

Torque peak Nm 485 x 2 3,000

Torque continuous Nm - 1,250

Battery supplier / model - -

Battery formula LFP LFP

Cell supplier - -

Battery capacity kWh 246 362

Auxiliary heating Yes No

Heuliez GX 337 Elec MAN Lion’s City E Mercedes eCitaro Solaris Urbino 12 Electric VDL Citea SLE-129 Electric

12,060 12,200 12,135 12,000 12,900

2,550 2,550 2,550 2,550 2,550

3,350 3,320 3,400 3,300 3,430

6,120 6,005 5,900 5,900 6,900

2,715 2,775 2,805 2,700 2,600

3,225 3,405 3,430 3,400 3,400

- - 21,214 21,000 23,550

275/70 R 22.5 275/70 R 22.5 275/70 R 22.5 275/70 R 22.5 275/70 R 22.5

86 88 70 70 60

29 28 29 35 40

320 / 320 - 320 / 320 320 / 320 330 / 330 / 330

1,200 950 / 950 1,250 / 1,250 / 1,250 1,358 880 / 1,350 / 880

2,262 2,427 2,313 / 2,021 2,280 2,550

- - 14,100 13,900 14,500

Iveco RL75U MAN VOS-08-B-01 ZF RL82EC ZF RL82EC ZF RL82EC

ZF AV 133 MAN HU-1330-B-00 ZF AxTrax AVE ZF AxTrax AVE ZF A 132

BAE Systems Traton ZF AxTrax AVE ZF AxTrax AVE Siemens 1DB2016

Central permanent magnet Central permanent magnet In-wheel In-wheel Central permanent magnet

195 270 125 x 2 125 x 2 160

120 160 60 x 2 60 x 2 116

2,100 2,100 485 x 2 485 x 2 2,500

1,000 1,300 - - 973

Forsee Power Zen4 Volkswagen Group Akasol Akasystem OEM 37 PRC Solaris High Energy VDL High Capacity

NMC NMC NMC NMC -

LG LG Samsung SDI - -

350 480 292 240 288

Yes Yes No Yes No

22

23


COMPARISONS

BOZANKAYA SILEO S12

FULL OF LIGHT

Brightness and internal livability are the main

features of Sileo S12. Batteries are placed

entirely on the roof, plug-in charging is the only

option. Big progresses have been done

The Sileo range from Turkey-based

Bozankaya includes four lengths:

10, 12, 18 and 25-meter. The Turkish

brand enjoys a special connection

with Bonn, host city of the Ebus Test:

the local transport company SWB received

a batch of 6 units belonging to the previous

generation. A few denite step forwards

have been made since then.

The Sileo range is produced at the Karsan

plant of Bursa. Batteries and power electronics

equipment are developed in-house.

Maximum capacity is 246 kWh, reaching

346 kWh on the 18-meter, all found on the

roof. Recharging is available only in plugin

mode, a choice that’s likely to make this

vehicle less attractive as nowadays almost

all 12 m e-buses with no pantograph can

easily count on capacities nearing the 350

kWh. Not to mention MAN, whose massive

capacity will be mentioned further on.

Sileo’s cells are based on LFP chemistry, a

shared feature of Sileo and another Bonn

contender, Ebusco, as well as the prevalent

choice of all Chinese brands, rst and foremost

BYD and Yutong.

Nothing new to report on the driveline side,

The Sileo S12

took the Ebus

Test with Michelin

X InCity tyres

on. The bus

is optionally

equipped with

two charging

connectors

placed on both

sides of the

vehicle’s front

section.

where the ZF AxTrax with in-wheel electric

motors still rules unchallenged.

A top rear window

Air conditioning is entrusted to a Valeo

Citysphere system with an 11.5 kW cooling

capacity; the Valeo Thermo H230 dieselburning

heater takes charge of heating. The

bus is entirely lit by LED xtures.

What strikes as the most likeable characteristic

of the Sileo is the presence of wide

glass surfaces, reaching the top with the ample

rear windows. A luscious feature made

possible by the whole battery pack being all

roof-mounted. The passenger compartment

denitely gets an A grade.

The driver’s seat earns praise for visibility.

So what about the minus factors? A few too

many vibrations and a rather stiff structure.

On the other hand, the bus shows a noteworthy

brisk acceleration at start-up.

EBUSCO 2.2

NO FRILLS

Brilliant performances, but the structure is not

entirely convincing. Driver’s seat? So-and-so.

However, it is one of the few battery-electric

buses today deployed on intercity services

Ebusco, a young Dutch company

with headquarters in Europe and

manufacturing facilities in China,

is gaining ground in the Dutch

electric vehicles market, the most dynamic in

the whole continent.

At Busworld 2019, the company acclaimedly

launched the third generation of its

electric bus, boasting construction materials

that were originally researched into for aeronautical

applications.

At any rate, the bus showcased in Bonn and

in the process of being delivered belongs to

the 2.2 range, whose body is manufactured

by Australian bus builder BCI (2.1 was bodied

by Chinese Golden Dragon). It is available

in 12 and 18 m versions. The 12 m is

available in two congurations: low entry/

two doors or low oor/ three doors. The bus

tested in Bonn belongs to the rst category,

and sports an ad-hoc layout designed for in-

tercity lines. It’s already been deployed in the

German island of Borkum.

ZF axles and Chinese motor

The bus is equipped with a central asynchronous

motor with a 270kW peak power and

The bus tested

in Bonn has

a 362 kWh

battery capacity,

subdivided into

twelve modules

equally distributed

between roof and

rear section. The

most demanding

customers can

opt for a 475 kWh

version.

torque reaching 3,000 Nm (the Ebusco 3.0

will be tted with a classic ZF AxTrax ).

A quick glance at the interiors is enough to

realize that Ebusco is all about a substantial,

no-frills design. As unmistakingly reported

by the team of journalists and bus pros charged

with assessing the vehicles, there are,

indeed, a bit too many minuses on that front.

On the other hand, though, passenger capacity

is quite high. The 12 m can accommodate

for up to 90 people, 39 seated. Credit goes

to the vehicle’s excellent empty weight of

12,850 kg.

A look at the driver’s seat reveals a roomy

design, even despite a rather low seat and

a few sharp angles on the left side. The dashboard

layout also gets positive marks,

including with regard to the position of controls.

Manoeuvrability gets good ratings, too.

The vehicle’s feisty acceleration deserves

special praise.

24

25


COMPARISONS

HEULIEZ GX 337 ELEC

TOUCH OF CLASS

The bus is ready to hit Paris’ streets, where

deliveries will begin this year. In the meantime,

the range is being expanded to include short

variants. Interiors get excellent feedbacks

Is it Heuliez GX 337 Elec or Iveco E-

WAY? Good question. At Busworld

2019, the range of electric vehicles

manufactured in the Heuliez Bus plant

of Rorthais was showcased under the Iveco

E-WAY brand. As it doesn’t match with

changes in the vehicle’s manufacturing

specs, the new name is probably an attempt

to clear up at least some of the marketing

confusion that arose in export markets.

To hit the Bonn test track was an Heuliezbranded

GX 337 Elec in a dazzling BRT

conguration called Linium, whose new

front-face is becoming the standard as of

the spring of 2020.The Heuliez team took

the opportunity to announce that soon the

bus will also be available with a Siemens

motor, in addition to the BAE Systems driveline.

As of this year, Heuliez’s electric

bus family will include four lengths: the 12

and 18 m versions are soon to be joined by

Heuliez has

secured two large

orders for Paris:

the rst is worth

20 million, the

second 133 million.

For 2020 a record

production volume

of 500 units is

expected. One

third of them will

be zero emissions

vehicles.

the 9.5 and 10.7 m (2.33 m wide).

As for batteries, on the 12-meter there are

two options: Forsee Power model Zen4

(NMC) for vehicles equipped for depot

charging systems, with capacity up to

350kWh; and Pulse 15 by the same manufacturer

for buses with pantograph (with

capacity up to 88kWh and LTO chemistry).

The bus tested in Bonn featured the rst option,

with six roof-mounted battery modules

and two on the rear section. Passenger

capacity reaches 86 persons, 29 seated.

Driving performance on top

The bus is entirely LED-lit. The quality

of seats and the spacious, ample interiors,

especially with regards to compartment

height, got excellent reviews. But let’s

move to the driver’s compartment. The

driver’s seat is worthy of praise. The dashboard

controls layout and digital lighting

control panel are top-notch. What really

got top marks is the driving performance:

the steering wheel’s sensitivity is just right,

and the same can be said of the brake pedal;

manoeuvrability is excellent, suspensions

ensure great comfort.

MAN LION’S CITY E

THE BRAVE ONE

Finally ready for mass production, MAN electric

bus features no quick charging. But batteries

are huge. The Lion’s City E doesn’t make any

compromise. Comfort? Excellent

Slowly and relaxedly, like only top

groups can do, MAN is getting ready

to release its rst battery-operated

electric model.

It denitely took them some time, and in the

meantime it’s been like the German electric

vehicle market was driving with the handbrake

on. MAN announced that mass production

will begin in the second half of 2020 at

the Polish plant of Starachowice.

The Lion’s City E derives from a project aimed

to achieve a 200 km range on a single

charge, throughout the entire lifespan of the

battery. A goal derived from a survey carried

out with operators from all over Europe.

What about pantograph? No, thanks. Hence

the extra kWh capacity (and the concept’s

scarce modularity): 480 kWh for the 12 m (a

good 30% more than in the largest competitors’

battery packs), 680 for the articulated

model, to be released in a year from now.

Full stop.

What about the supplier? “Volkswagen

Group”. Which means Northvolt, a Swedish

battery manufacturer into which Volkswagen

will pour 900 million EUR worth of investments.

The electric motor

stems from inhouse

R&D efforts;

to date, an almost

unique case, other

than Irizar, in the

e-bus industry.

Both Iveco and

Mercedes are (at

least for the time

being) getting their

driveline from third

party suppliers.

A distinctive feature of the bus, that borrowed

its frame from the new Lion’s City

range launched in 2018, is the fact that highvoltage

components are to be found on the

roof (where battery pack is housed) and under

the oor. Thanks to this, the 5-seat back

row getting light from a wide window adds

the nal touch to a passenger compartment

featuring soberly designed seats and a wellorganized

space.

A pleasant transit experience

But stashing that huge amount of batteries on

the top of a bus does have a few side effects.

To ensure the roof could carry over 4.5 tons

of kWh, the frame had to be reinforced with

steel inserts on the rear pillars and wheel arches.

The transit experience strikes as very

pleasant, free from any noise or vibrations.

All the more so, considering this is still a preseries

vehicle.

26

27


COMPARISONS

MERCEDES ECITARO

RISING STAR

Driver’s seat, cockpit, manoeuvrability:

everything on the eCitaro looks fine. Soon it will

be joined by a 18-meter variant, the pantograph

will come and battery capacity will grow...

The driver’s area manoeuvrability and

comfort are all top-notch. Not hard

to believe, it’s a Mercedes! Clichés

aside, the eCitaro deployed in Bonn

earned virtually unanimous praise. On the

Ebus Test track, we saw a three-door version

of the 12-meter manufactured in Mannheim.

The Stuttgart-based group did not simply

design and launch the rst battery-powered

bus in their history, they made it a part of a

detailed roadmap.

Fast-charging by means of a roof-mounted

pantograph is supposed to be soon available

(it was initially scheduled for 2019). In the

meantime, the capacity of Akasol batteries

is going to be increased, with the next generation

of battery modules (Akasystem OEM

50 PRC) capable to store up to 396 kWh

without taking up further space. Then, from

2021, solid-state batteries and fuel cell range

extender will also play a role.

Today the eCitaro can carry up to 292 kWh.

What about the range? No sign of grandsounding

optimism from Stuttgart: the average

range with 292 kWh is declared to be

170 km.

The model tested in Bonn is tted with a ZF

As of 2039,

Daimler will

only be selling

battery- powered

or hydrogenfuelled

buses and

trucks in Europe,

North America

and Japan. The

eCitaro won the

Sustainable Bus

Award 2020 in the

Urban category.

axle featuring (optionally) enhanced weight

capacity (8 ton) matched with 315/60 tyres.

Passenger capacity still remains, though,

pretty low (max 70 passengers). The vehicle

features a zero-emission heating system: the

CO2 heat pump Konvekta Ultra Light.

No jokes on active safety

The bus tested in Germany boasts a number

of pluses including active safety devices like

the Predictive brake assist and Sideguard assist.

Interiors stand out for roominess, widely

distributed handrail and comfort of the (City

Star Eco model) seats. The overall comfort

of the bus ride gets good marks, too: no

pitching, nely tuned dampers, no vibrations.

The driver area features a top-notch Grammer

MSG 90.6 seat and the same cockpit layout

as on the Citaro diesel, with the exception

of the so-called digital ‘powermeter’ in

lieu of the rev-counter.

SOLARIS URBINO 12 ELECTRIC

WELL KNOWN

The Polish-made vehicle leverages on the ZF

drive axle and a well-established layout.

The new batteries unveiled at Busworld will

allow a big leap in range

I

n terms of tenders won, 2019 has been

a truly glorious year for Solaris, winning

contracts for 250 e-vehicles in

Milan, 130 in Warsaw and 90 in Berlin.

The share of hybrid and electric buses

produced by the Polish busmaker was 36%

in 2018, it reached 47% in 2019.

The bus hitting the German track belongs

to the batch of three 12 m buses purchased

by Munich-based private operator Josef

Ettenhuber.

The 12 m is tted with a 240 kWh Solaris

High Energy battery pack, the type designed

for overnight charging. But Solaris’

product list includes LTO-based High

Power modules, too, for fast charging via

pantograph. By the way, those are no longer

the only two options available in the

catalogue of the Bolenchowo busmaker.

Indeed, a great novelty was launched at

Busworld under the name

Solaris High Energy +. Based on NMC as

well, they are developed by Polish battery

manufacturer BMZ especially for Solaris.

On the articulated versions, this technology

enables to store up to 553 kWh spread

across seven modules (79 kWh for each

According to the

gures provided

by the Polish

manufacturer,

Solaris was

awarded the

supply of one

in four e-buses

tendered for in

Europe in 2019.

47 % of the

production was

hybrid or electric.

module as against the current 50. A 60%

increase). High Energy + batteries will also

be available for the 12 and 8.9 m. models,

with ve modules totalling 395 kWh, and

three modules totalling 237, respectively.

Driveline is a matter of choice

For the launch of the electric Urbino, the

technical staff at Solaris worked hard to reduce

bus weight, enhance the comfort and

liveability of interiors, and to increase accessibility

of equipment subject to maintenance.

Batteries are placed both in the rear

of the bus and on the roof’s front section.

As a sidenote, customers can opt for the

central electric drive by either Medcom or

TSA. Suspensions ensure good comfort,

noise levels are within normal limits.

The three-unit batch purchased by Ettenhuber

is also tted with the Mobileye 630

driver assistance system.

28

29


COMPARISONS

RAMPINI

MOVES TOWARDS

THE FUTURE

30

VDL CITEA SLE-129 ELECTRIC

MARKET KING

Construction quality and travel comfort are top

notch. After all, it’s the European market leader.

Charging options? Plug-in, roof pantograph,

inverted pantograph

VDL is the European leader in

the electric segment. At Bonn,

it deployed a 12.9m low-entry

model that stands out for an almost

obsessive attention to details in the

passenger compartment. The model has a

distinctive Scandinavian equipment (with

heated oors and double-glazed windows)

as it will be deployed in Helsinki. Despite

being designed for application at northern

European latitudes, it features no diesel heater

(obviously available as an option).

As for batteries, customers can pick either

216 or 288 kWh, of the High Capacity

type. The latter is the case of the bus here

described: 12 modules, half on the roof and

half on the rear section, which does not affect

the last 5-seat row too badly.

A Thermoking system with a 36 kW cooling

capacity and a 47 kW heating capacity

is in charge of temperature regulation, hel-

ped by an electric heat pump for a further

nice 70 kW. Among the technologies available

as an option is the mirrorless system.

A solution that’s getting increasingly widespread,

with London and the Netherlands

paving the way. Of course, this is also

The vehicle’s

compartment

has forty Ligero

1000HF seats by

Kiel (in addition

to room for 20

passengers

standing) and

a three-door

conguration. The

cockpit is fully

digital. There’s no

diesel heater.

available as an option, supplied to VDL by

Stoneridge Orlaco.

Siemens driveline, no exceptions

Following in the tradition of VDL, the driveline

is by Siemens. The bus is equipped

with the 1DB2016 permanent magnet

motor with a 160 kW peak power. Maybe

not the most aggressive of all, but it’s more

than enough to ensure smooth operation on

non-especially rugged routes. The cockpit

is fully digital with info on consumption

trends, battery charge levels and residual

range always handily displayed.

Quality of the driver area is superb. Manoeuvrability

and driving comfort are excellent,

and so is the behaviour of suspensions.

The quality of the transit experience

is probably the main strength of this VDL

e-bus, alongside its high-level manufacturing

standards. Vibrations? None at all.

Our e-fleet

Fast charging

with pantograph

Via dell’Industria 11

06065 Passignano sul Trasimeno

Perugia

Italy

tel. +39 075 829 891

fax +39 075 8298998

www.rampini.it

rampini@rampini.it


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

RAMPINI E60

SHORT BUT

STRONG

Building a six-meter

electric bus is a

challenge. Rampini

redesigned the E60.

An external makeover

and a reshape of the

interiors went along with

a revolution in terms of

driveline. That allows the

bus to perform well in

any environment

In the picture, the

6-meter electric bus

Rampini E60.

A batch of 18 units will

be delivered to EMT

Madrid following a

major order the Italian

manufacturer was

awarded in 2018.

Electric mobility is a concept that the industry

is bound to tackle from a variety

of perspectives. Indeed, even though

they dominate city centres, 12-meter

buses are not the only electric option. As is well

known, public transport companies have to deal

with a faceted transportation landscape, encompassing

mass transportation systems as well as

small buses tting more easily into small city

centres or serving less crowded locations.

It may sound like a paradox, but designing a

small-sized electric bus is more complicated than

putting together a standard-sized one. It’s always

hard to strike a balance between passenger capacity

and battery size, but it’s all the more so

when it comes to small vehicles.

6-meter e-buses, three options

In the 6 to 8-meter range, the e-bus market mostly

offers derivatives, which public transport

companies don’t seem to nd much attractive.

This is not just because derivatives are mostly

non-industrial products, but also because only a

section of their oor is lowered – sometimes a

very narrow one – which is a minus.

In particular, talking about electric mini buses in

the 6 m range, there are basically three options:

the E60 by Rampini, the Jest Electric by Karsan

32

33


COMPARISONS

and the Bolloré Bluebus.

Karsan has recently received the rst

orders for its minibus whose motor and

batteries are built on BMW technology.

A batch of 18 Rampini E60 already delivered

to EMT Madrid following a major

order the Italian manufacturer was

awarded in 2018, thus being propelled

back onto the international stage. Earlier

this year, Rampini started delivering

three vehicles to the French town

of Niort and secured an order for 13

units from Keolis France for Aix-en-

Provence.

THE ID CARD

Length/width/height mm 6,110/2,100/2,980

Wheelbase mm 3,700

Overhang front/rear mm 1,190/1,220

Turning circle mm 14,000

Axles load front/rear kg 4,600/4,250

Seats n 10

Standing n 17/24

Passenger capacity n 29/35

GVW kg 8,850

Electric motor

Siemens 1PV5138

Output kW 122

Battery

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 143/170

Range km 120-150

Max speed km/h 63

A massive restyling

Over the past few years, Rampini’s

shortest bus has been massively restyled.

Upon termination of the agreement

with Spanish CarBus – its longtime

body-maker – Rampini gave the

vehicle an external makeover, reshaped

its interiors, revolutionized its driveline

and increased its total length by 100

mm. A good ten cm more, then, from

6,010 to 6,110 mm, entirely to the benet

of the last row and of passengers

seating at the back, a bit squeezed in the

previous Italian-Spanish conguration.

But rst things rst: the driving force

of the electric minibus by Rampini is a

Siemens 122 kW engine (as against the

100 kW of the old version) the same as

on the 7.7 m Rampini E80. To the outside

viewer this motor’s power may look

overabundant for a bus this size, but it is,

in fact, what makes it capable to tackle

even the most challenging elevation pro-

les with the due safety margin.

The new battery unit, still based on

Lithium-iron-phosphate formula, has a

higher power density, bringing the installed

power up to 170 kWh as against

the 100 of the old version, for the same

weight - which is no small thing. The

whole inverter-DMS combo instead,

The driving force of the electric

minibus by Rampini is a

Siemens 122 kW engine (as

against the 100 kW of the old

version) the same as on the

7.7 m Rampini E80. To the

outside viewer this motor’s

power may look overabundant

for a bus this size, but

it is, in fact, what makes it

capable to tackle even the

most challenging elevation

proles.

Rampini’s shortest bus has

been massively restyled.

Upon termination of the

agreement with Spanish

CarBus, its longtime

body-maker, Rampini gave

the vehicle an external

makeover, reshaped its

interiors, revolutionized its

driveline and increased its

total length by 100 mm.

well-suited to this type of electrical systems,

stays the same.

The vehicle’s overall architecture - featuring

a large central door including

the wheelchair ramp - is convincing.

The interiors can accommodate up to 35

passengers, 29 if the wheelchair space

is being used; in such a case, the seating

capacity remains 10, while it’s obviously

the standing passenger capacity that

gets reduced - from 24 to 17. The interiors

come across as highly liveable, it

actually does not feel like traveling on

a bus that’s as short as 6-meter. Credit

goes to high-visibility windows and

to the internal layout designed to offer

maximum comfort.

The air management system is nicely

done, too, featuring a heat pump and air

conditioning system by Autoclima.

Rear axle? In house

As for the rest of the E60, Rampini

replicates the entire ‘underbelly’

of the version it inaugurated in 2015,

equipped with a front axle by ZF and a

FROM SIX TO TWELVE

Rampini and CaetanoBus, two families

of electric buses become… one

(in the domestic markets). The Italian

company Rampini incorporates

the CaetanoBus e.City Gold (10.7

and 12-meter version); CaetanoBus

includes in its portfolio the short

electric buses Rampini E60 and E80.

Therefore, as a result, both manufacturers

will be able to deliver battery-electric

buses from 6 to 12 meter

in their respective markets.

Rampini and CaetanoBus have announced

the extension of their product

portfolio thanks to a commercial

agreement. This deal, the companies

point out in a jointly-released statement,

«represents a new significant

step forward in the Companies’ commercial

repositioning strategy, as a

confirmation of the intention to aim

for the offer extension».

As a result of the deal, Rampini incorporates

CaetanoBus’ e.City Gold

10.7m and 12m (to be in operation

in London) in its product portofolio

for the Italian

market.

They’ll

be named

Rampini

E100 and

E120. In

2018 the

Italian

company

has won a

tender for

18 ebuses

in Madrid.

On the other hand, CaetanoBus incorporates

Rampini’s E60 and E80 in

its product portfolio as e.City Gold 6

and e.City Gold 8 for the Portuguese

market.

rear axle manufactured right in Rampini’s

own plant located in Passignano

sul Trasimeno, central Italy. For the

time being the bus can be only charged

overnight; however, given Rampini’s

well-known mastery of quick-charging

via roof-mounted pantograph, we have

good reason to believe we will see some

news in the next future. But we’re just

speculating.

34

35


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

SCANIA INTERLINK LD LNG

LNG IS

THE NEW

DIESEL

In the picture, the

Scania Interlink LD

LNG. 15 units will be

delivered in Bologna

(Italy). The rst ones

have been supplied

in December 2019.

They’ll be used on the

suburban routes.

The first delivery of LNGpowered

intercity buses in

Europe is taking place in

Bologna. 1,000 liters of

LNG in two tanks

to ensure a range of

over 1,000 km

Liquied natural gas hops on buses, heralding a

new era in Europe. At least potentially.

It remains to be seen whether the way cleared

in Bologna, Italy, for LNG-fueled buses gets

them any further. The right conditions are all there; the

call for bids for 15 bus units launched by the public

transport company TPER and won by Scania last year

was the rst in Europe for intercity buses running on

LNG.

Therefore, a technology that is already well established

on trucks is landing for the rst time on passenger

transport vehicles, by means of two huge cryogenic

tanks tted on the already well-known Interlink

LD architecture. Deliveries started in early December,

for a total of 15 buses: a mini eet ready to hit the suburban

routes, relying condently on a fuel range that

commands respect: according to the manufacturer, the

bus’ thousand liter LNG tank (1,008, for the sake of

pedantry) will take it as far as 1,000 km and beyond.

Even with a pretty serious amount of LNG stashed in

its belly, this is rst and foremost a Scania Interlink;

a model available in a LD (that of the TPER eet),

an MD, and a HD version. The Medium Decker, too,

made its LNG debut at IAA 2018.

In short, with LNG coaches the Södertälje-based

company has added another string to its bow, even

though the large-sized tank placed in the baggage

compartment may prove to be a minus point in this

vehicle class. What’s for sure is that in the spring of

2019, LNG Class III vehicle applications were endorsed

by IRU (the World Road Transport Organization

36

37


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

In its ‘Coach of the

future’ report exploring

scenarios for the coming

15 years, IRU identi es

LNG as the most reliable,

mature, economically and

environmentally viable fuel

alternative for long-distance

coaches, should the bans

on diesel be extended to

this category of vehicle.

representing the operators of road mobility

of people and goods). In its ‘Coach of the

future’ report exploring scenarios for the

coming 15 years, IRU identies LNG as

the most reliable, mature, economically and

environmentally viable fuel alternative for

long-distance coaches, should the bans on

diesel be extended to this category of vehicle.

Over 70 people on board

The coach delivered in Bologna can accommodate

over 70 passengers, 55 seated and

16 standing at full capacity. It features two

single-panel doors with a 95 cm internal

width. Upon entering the rear and front doors,

passengers are led onboard by a streamlined,

comfortable handrail and ad hoc door

lights, including on the steps. Cabin lighting

is entirely provided by LED lights, for a

total of ten strips – ve on each side – placed

at the junction between the roof and the

overhead luggage compartment. Lighting

can be set to two brightness levels. Safety is

ensured by EBS, TC and ESP systems.

The left-side luggage compartment door

opens onto a huge tank – almost like a torpedo

- capable to store 556 liters of LNG.

Another 452 liters are placed in the rightside

tank. A glance at the tank reveals frostcovered

valves. Alright, the city of Trento

(headquarters to Italscania, the Italian

branch of the grifn-branded manufacturer

granting us this preview) is located right

at the foot of the Alps, but that’s sure not

enough to give the valves their icy appearance.

Which is actually due to the LNG

‘handling’ temperature of – 120°C.

So our journey into the mechanics of the

Scania Interlink LD LNG specially made

for TPER will begin right from this halfobscure

object known as cryogenic tank.

1,000 l of LNG in the tanks

Two valves stand out from it: one is painted

in grey and it opens up the connection line

between the two tanks (the coach can be refueled

on either side); the other is red and it

cuts off gas ow from the tank to the engine.

Fueling station operators must put on special

personal protection equipment – rst

and foremost gloves – before attaching to

the vehicle an earthing clamp and a two-way

coupling to mate with a two-plug receptacle

FACTS AND FIGURES

Length/width/height mm 12,200/2,550/3,3100

Wheelbase mm 6,000

Seats / standing n 55 / 16

Internal length mm 10,750

Average internal height mm 2,200

Distance corridor - ground mm 930

Width front / rear door mm 950 / 950

Width seats mm 420

Width driver seat / seatback mm 460 / 520

Average distance betw. seats mm 310

Overhead rack right l/h/w mm 6,700/260/470

Overhead rack left l/h/w mm 8,400/260/470

Capacity LNG tanks

556 l + 452 l

with a gas recovery and a fuel supply line.

Refueling is mostly done with an automated

system. The recovery line will extract the liquied

natural gas that’s evaporated into gaseous

phase (sounds redundant, but it’s not)

between the bottom LNG layer and the tank

roof. Once that’s done, refueling will start

automatically. At a new generation station,

lling the tank up will take about 5 minutes.

It is worth mentioning that LNG can be stored

at lower pressures as compared to CNG:

The Interlink’s powertrain

hinges on Scania 9.3-litres,

5 cylinder gas engine with

separate spark plugs and

ignition coils. The Otto cycle

engine is complemented

by a turbocharger plus

intercooler and can deliver

320 HP, with a max torque

of 1,500 Nm between 1,100

and 1,400 rpm.

the latter is stored in cylinders at a 220 bar,

while LNG’s service pressure is 10 bar, peaking

to 16.

The Interlink’s powertrain hinges on the

9.3-litres, 5 cylinder gas engine – obviously

by Scania - with separate spark plugs and

ignition coils. The Otto cycle engine is complemented

by a turbocharger plus intercooler

and can deliver 320 HP, with a max torque

of 1,500 Nm between 1,100 and 1,400

rpm.

ZF Ecolife – the most popular choice for this

mission prole – takes charge of transmission.

The 8-speed Scania Opticruise is also

available on the price list.

Onboard safety systems include automatic

engine turn off when the lateral compartment

door to the tank gets opened.

Plus, the coach features an onboard luggage

compartment monitoring system by TEQ,

with a sensor measuring the concentration

of gas in the compartment air. A rst alarm

is sent off to the driver if concentration reaches

20% of the threshold corresponding to

the Lower Explosion Level. A second alarm

is triggered when 50% of the threshold is

reached.

38

39


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

ADL

ALSTOM

Blueblus 12

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 109

Motor type / kW Central / 160

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 272

Charging technology plug-in

BOZANKAYA

Enviro400 (mild hybrid)

Aptis

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 87

Passenger capacity n. 95

Electric motor / output kW ADL/14

Motor / output kW Alstom / 180

Battery type

supercap

Battery type Forsee Power / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Diesel engine

CumminsB6.7

Charging technology

plug-in/SRS

kW 187

Enviro400H (full hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

ultracap

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Diesel engine

CumminsB4.5

BOLLORÉ

Sileo S10/S12

Length mm 10,000 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 230

Charging technology plug-in

kW 157

Sileo S18/S25

Blueblus 6

Length mm 5,460

Passenger seats n. 22

Motor type / kW Central / 50-90

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 111

Length mm 18,000 / 25,000

Passenger capacity n. 136 / 210

Motor / kW 2 x ZF AxTrax / 500

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 346/452

Charging technology plug-in

Enviro400HR

(plug-in hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 32

Charging technology

plug-in

BYD

22>24

OCTOBER 2020

RIMINI EXPO

CENTRE

Diesel engine

CumminsB4.5

kW 157

40


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

Midibus 8.7

Length mm 8,700

Passenger seats n. 22

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in

12-18 eBus

Length mm 12,200 / 18,250

Passenger seats n. -

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in

C9 (coach)

Length mm 12,900

Passenger seats n. -

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Average range km 90

Charging technology plug-in

BYD ADL

Enviro200EV

Length m 9.6 / 10.2 / 10.9 / 11.6

Passenger capacity n. 80

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 330

Charging technology plug-in

Enviro400EV

Length mm 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 85

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 392

Charging technology plug-in

CAETANOBUS

e.City Gold 10/12

Length mm 10,700 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 64 / 87

Motor / output kW Siemens / 180

Battery type

NMC / LTO

Battery capacity max kWh 385

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

H2 City Gold 10/12 (hydrogen)

Length mm 10,700 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 64 / 87

Motor / kW Siemens / 180

Battery type

LTO

Fuel cell system

Toyota

Estimate range km 400

DELTABUS

Mark E

Length mm 12,290

Passenger capacity n. 87

Motor / kW -

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 200

Estimate range km 300

EBUSCO

Ebusco 2.2 - 12m LE/LF

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW

Ebusco/240

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 363/423

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Ebusco 2.2 - 12,9m LE

Length mm 12,900

Passenger capacity n. 75

Motor / kW

Ebusco/240

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 363/423

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Ebusco 2.2 - 18m LF

Length mm 18,900

Passenger capacity n. 130

Motor / kW

ZF/250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 363/525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Ebusco 3.0

Length mm 12,000

Passenger n. 90

Motor / kW Ebusco / 200

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 363/525

Estimate range km 500

HESS

lighTram 19/25 DC

Length mm 18,750 / 24,750

Passenger capacity n. 155 / 224

Motor / kW TSA / -

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh 45

Charging technology pantograph

HEULIEZ

GX 137C Elec

Length mm 9,510

Passenger capacity n. 69

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160

Battery type Forsee Power NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 245

Charging technology plug-in

GX 137L Elec

Length mm 10,700

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160

Battery type Forsee Power NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in

GX 337 Elec

Length mm 11,860

Passenger capacity n. 100

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 190

Battery Forsee Power LTO / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 88 / 350

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

GX 437 Elec

Length mm 17,970

Passenger seats n. 17

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 200

Battery Forsee Power LTO/NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

IVECO BUS

E-WAY Full Electric 9.5

Length mm 9,510

Passenger seats n. 16

Motor / kW BAE Systems /160

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 210

Charging technology plug-in

E-WAY Full Electric 12

Length mm 12,060

Passenger seats n. 24/26

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190

Battery type

LTO/NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 385/88

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

E-WAY Full Electric 18

Length mm 17,970

Passenger seats n. 42

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190

Battery type

LTO

Battery capacity max kWh 250

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

42

43


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

ie bus 10,8/12

Length mm 10,850 / 12,160

Citivolt 12

Length mm 12,000

KING LONG

Lion’s City E 12/18

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060

Passenger capacity n. 76 / 95

Motor / output kW Irizar / 180

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Passenger seats n. 90

Motor / kW Siemens / 230

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 351

Charging technology plug-in

Passenger capacity n. 85 / 120

Motor / kW Traton / 270 - 540

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 480/640

Charging technology plug-in

Crealis In-Motion-Charging

Length mm 18,559

Passenger seats n. 35

Motor / kW - / 250

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology IMC

ie bus 15/18

Length mm 14,980 / 18,730

Passenger capacity n. 105 / 155

Motor / kW Irizar / 235

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

KARSAN

Pev 10/12

Length mm 10,500/11,980

Passenger n. -/-

Motor / kW -/-

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 326/350

Charging technology plug-in

Lion’s City 12*/18* hybrid

Citaro Hybrid 12*/18*

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060

Passenger n. 101 / 140

Electric motor type -

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Diesel engine type/kW OM 936/300

*available with CNG engine

OTOKAR

Jest Electric

Length mm 5,845

Passenger capacity n. 25

Length mm 12,185/18,060

Passenger capacity n. 101/140

Electric motor / kW MAN/12

Battery type -

Motor / kW BMW / 125

Battery capacity max kWh -

Battery type

BMW / Lithium-ion

Diesel engine/kW MAN D15/243-265

Battery capacity max kWh 88

*available with CNG engine

Urbanway Hybrid 12/18

Length mm 12,000 / 17,910

Passenger seats n. 36/49

Motor / kW BAE / 140 - 200

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 32

ie tram 12/18

Length mm 12,165 / 18,730

Passenger capacity n. 99 / 155

Motor / kW Irizar / 190-235

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 350/525

Charging technology

plug-in

E10/12 Hybrid

Length mm 10,500/12,200

Passenger capacity n. 66/83

Electric motor Green Control System

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

MERCEDES

e-Kent C

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 95

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type

Webasto / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 280

Diesel engine

Tector 7 235 kW

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Diesel engine/kW Cummins / 290

Charging technology

plug-in

IRIZAR E-MOBILITY

ISUZU

MAN

RAFAKO

Atak Electric

eCitaro 12/18

Length mm 8,315

Passenger capacity n. 52

Motor / kW TM4 / 230

Battery type BMW / Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 220

Charging technology plug-in

Length mm 12,135 / 18,125

Passenger capacity n. 80* / 136*

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type Akasol / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 292 / 292

Charging technology plug-in

*with max battery capacity

44

45


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

E-bus

Length mm 8,400

Passenger capacity n. 65

Motor / kW PM / 140

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 61 / 144

Charging technology plug-in

RAMPINI

E60/E80

Length mm 6,110 / 7,790

Passenger capacity n. 65/46

Motor / kW

Siemens/122

Battery type Rampini / -

Battery capacity max kWh 170/200

Charging technology plug-in

SAFRA

Businova Fuel Cell

Length mm 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 65 to 96

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Fuel cell module / kW Symbio / 30

Battery Safra / LFP / 132 kWh

Businova Hybrid

Length mm 9,530 / 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger seats n. 60 to 106

Electric motor / kW TM4 / 250

Diesel engine 80 kW / 3,5l

Battery type

Safra / LFP

Battery capacity kWh 132

SCANIA

Citywide BEV

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 80

Motor / kW PM / 300

Battery type

Lithium ion

Battery capacity max kWh 250

Charging tech. plug-in / pant.

Diesel eng./hp Scania DC09/280-320

Battery type -

Battery capacity kWh -

SOLARIS

Urbino electric 8.9/12

Length mm 8,900 / 12,000

Passenger seats max n. 24/38

Motor ZF AxTrax-TSA / 250-160

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery cap. kWh 150 - 203 / 300 - 395

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Urbino electric 18/24

Length mm 18,000 / 24,700

Passenger seats max n. 48 / 69

Motor

ZF AxTrax / TSA

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 203/350/553

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Urbino hybrid 12/18

Length mm 12,000 / 18,000

Seated max n. 37 / 49

Electric motor / kW central/120-200

Diesel engine / hp Cummins / 120

Battery type

Supercap

Battery capacity kWh 0.82

Trollino

Length mm 12,000/18,000/24,000

Passenger seats max n. 39/53/69

Motor / kW TSA-Skoda / 160-250

Battery type

Solaris LTO

Battery capacity kWh 30-90

Avenue Electron

Length mm 12,095

Passenger n. -

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 150

Charging technology plug-in

MD9 electriCITY

Length mm 9,496

Passenger seats n. 26

Motor / kW

TM4/250

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 200

Charging technology plug-in

VAN HOOL

Fuel Cell 8W

Length mm 13,155

Passenger seats n. 41

Motor / kW Siemens PEM2022/210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85 - 100

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1.600 / 38.5

Exqui.City 18 Fuel Cell

Length mm 18,230

Passenger capacity n. 125

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 100

Battery capacity max kWh 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600 / 38.5

A309 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 9,990

Passenger seats n. 21

Electric motor Siemens 1DB2016B06

Battery supplier

Actia

Charging technologies Pant. / IMC

Battery capacity max kWh 24

Businova Electric

Length mm 9,530 / 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 60 to 106

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Battery type

Safra / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 132

Charging technology 80 to 350 kWh

Citywide Hybrid

Length mm 12,005 / 14,900

Passenger seats max n. 37 / 49

Electric motor output kW 150

Urbino 12 hydrogen

Length mm 12,000

Passenger seats max n. 37

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Fuel cell module

Ballard

Fuel cell module power kW 70

Battery High Power / 30 kWh

Hydrogen capacity kg 5 x 37,5

TEMSA

A330 Fuel Cell 6W

Length mm 11,995

Passenger capacity n. 78

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600/ 38.5

Diesel engine/kW Cummins ISB 4,5/157

Exqui.City18 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 18,610

Passenger capacity n. 42

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209

46

47


PORTFOLIO

Exqui.City24 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 23,820

VDL

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

Citea SLFA-180/181/187 Elec.

Length mm 18,000 / 18,150 / 18,750

6-9

OCTOBER

2020

MADRID / SPAIN

Passenger capacity n. 61

Passenger capacity n. 130/130/125

Electric motor / kW Siemens PEM/ 2x160

Motor/kW

Siemens 1DB2022/240

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh 2x24/36

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209

Charging technology

plug-in/pant.

Exqui.City24 CNG-hybrid

Length mm 23,820

Passenger capacity n. 60

Electric motor/kW Siemens PEM/2x160

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 36

Engine / kW FPT CNG / 221

Citea SLF-120 Electric

Length mm 12,456

Passenger capacity n. 55

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

VOLVO

Exqui.City18 Trolley

Length mm 18,610

Passenger seats n. 41

Motor type/kW 2x Kiepe TSA TMF/160

Battery type

Kiepe

Battery capacity max kWh 2x15

Pantograph

Kiepe

Citea SLE-120/129 Electric

Length mm 12,000 / 12,900

Passenger capacity n. 80 / 75

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Citea LLE-99/115 Electric

Length mm 9,950 / 11,500

Passenger capacity n. 62 / 65

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

7900 Electric

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 98

Motor / kW Volvo / 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity kWh 150/200/250

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

A NEW

MOBILITY

CONCEPT

ECO-FRIENDLY• SAFE • CONNECTED

Exqui.City24 Trolley

Length mm 23,820

Passenger seats n. 51

Motor type/kW 2xKiepe TSA TMF/160

Battery type

Kiepe

Battery capacity max kWh 2x20

Pantograph

Kiepe

7900 Electric Articulated

Length mm 18,000/ 18,700

Passenger capacity n. 150

Motor / kW Volvo / 2 x 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity kWh 250/300

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

OFFICIAL

SPONSOR OF

48

ifema.es/fiaa


PORTFOLIO

SUPPLEMENT

7900 Hybrid Articulated

Length mm 18,000 / 18,700

Passenger capacity n. 100 / 154

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 130

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 8/9

Mobility, smart city

Culture, technology and market of

low and zero emission buses

Established 1991

Editor in chief

Roberto Sommariva

Managing editor

Riccardo Schiavo

Editorial staff

Stefano Agnellini, Ornella Cavalli,

Fabrizio Dalle Nogare, Cristina Scuteri,

Alberto Gimmelli

7900 Electric Hybrid

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 98

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 19

Charging Oppcharge / CCS

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

YUTONG

Layout & graphics

Marco Zanusso (manager)

Editorial management

Fabio Zammaretti

Printing

Industrie Grache RGM srl,

Rozzano (Mi)

Milano City Court Authorization

n. 860 – December 18th 1987 National

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004

46) Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI

Charging technology Oppcharge

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

VADO E TORNO

EDIZIONI

MANAGEMENT

ADMINISTRATION

via Brembo 27 - 20139 Milano.

Tel. 02/55230950

E12

Length mm 12,170

Passenger capacity n. 73

Motor/kW Yutong YTM280-CV9-H/350

Battery supplier

CATL

Battery capacity max kWh 422

Website

www.sustainable-bus.com

ADVERTISING

Management

via Brembo 27

20139 Milano

tel. 02 55230950

e-mail: pubblicita@vadoetornoedizioni.it

Head of Sales

Luca Brusegani

50

7900 Hybrid

Length mm 10,600/12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 110

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 9

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

Charging technology plug-in

Yutong ICe12 (coach)

Length mm 12,465

Passenger capacity n. 49/59

Motor/kW Yutong TZ368XSYTB38/350

Battery type

CATL

Battery capacity max kWh 422

Charging technology plug-in

Sales agents

Roberto Menchinelli (Roma)

Maurizio Candia

Angelo De Luca

Emanuele Tramaglino

Autobus Annual subscription

Italy 37 euro, International 57 euro

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