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The Routing of Interplanetary Internet

The Routing of Interplanetary Internet

The Routing of Interplanetary

The Routing of Interplanetary Internet Feature Articles: Deep Space Communications Min Sheng, Ge Xu, Xia Fang The State Key Lab. of ISN & Information Science Institute, Xidian University Email: msheng@mail.xidian.edu.cn ABSTRACT The Interplanetary Internet is a next-generation space network architecture proposed by NASA which aims to establish a communication infrastructure in deep space and connect planets and satellites etc. The unique characteristics in deep space environments such as long delay and intermittent connectivity make the end-toend communication difficult to be implemented. There have been many routing algorithms attempting to address these problems; most of these algorithms have gained some achievements. The basic concepts of the Interplanetary Internet routing are presented in this paper. In addition, we give a detailed investigation on two typical Interplanetary Internet routing algorithms MARVIN and SBR, which treat the Interplanetary Internet routing problems in different aspects. Key words: interplanetary, routing, deep space communications. I. INTRODUCTION Interplanetary (IPN) Internet, outlined by NASA as the next-generation space network architecture, is proposed to provide communication and navigation services for satellites in future deep space missions, and to connect the network that can be established on and around other planets. IPN Internet is an often discon- nected and store-and-forward ‘network of Internet’ based on a wireless backbone with huge delays and error prone links. The first application of IPN Internet may be the “Mars network” [1] which is now being developed to facilitate the exploration of Mars. IPN Internet, as shown in Figure 1 (a), consists of three major types of networks: interplanetary backbone network, interplanetary external network, and planetary network [4] . The interplanetary backbone network provides a common infrastructure for communications among the Earth, outer-space planets, moon, satellites, and relay stations placed at gravitation ally stable Lagrangian points of planets. The interplanetary external network consists of groups of satellites flying in deep space between planets, clusters of sensor nodes, and groups of space stations, etc. The planetary network, which is composed of planetary satellite network and planetary surface network, as shown in Figure 1 (b), connects satellites orbiting a planet and ground stations, rovers, and mission elements on the planet surface. This architecture can be implemented at any outerspace planet. Planetary satellite network composed of satellites which lie in multiple layers provides relay services between the Earth and the outer-space planets as well as communication and navigation services to the surface elements. Plan- China Communications December 2006 63

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