Active IQ Level 2 Certificate in Gym Instructing (sample manual)

activeiqresources

Manual

Level 2 Certificate

in Gym Instructing

Version AIQ005803


The skeletal system

Section 1

Section 1: The skeletal system

Without the skeleton, we would be a heap of tissues all over the floor. It makes up almost one fifth of body weight to

give us a flexible framework with which to move, protect and support internal and external systems.

Structure of the skeleton

The skeletal system can be classified as two main structures:

Bone

Calcified connective tissue that forms most of the adult

skeleton. There are around 206 bones in the body and they

are connected via a series of different types of joint.

Cartilage Bone

Dense, durable, tough fibrous connective tissue that is able

to withstand compression forces. There are three types of

cartilage found in the body, each fulfilling a separate function.

Types of cartilage

The three types of cartilage found in the human body are:

• Hyaline cartilage: This is the tissue that forms the temporary skeleton of the foetus, which is eventually

replaced by bone when calcium is deposited. It is found at the end of the long bones that meet to form the

synovial joints.

• Elastic cartilage: This is similar to hyaline cartilage, except that it has more fibres and most of these are

made up of elastin as opposed to collagen. Elastic cartilage has the ability to regain and return to its original

shape. It is found in the ear, the walls of the Eustachian tube and the epiglottis, which are all places that

require a specific shape to be maintained.

• Fibrocartilage: This cartilage is thicker and stronger than the other types and has limited distribution within

the body. It forms various shapes depending on its role and acts like a shock absorber in cartilaginous joints.

The skeleton

The skeleton is split into two main sections:

cranium

cranium

Principles of anatomy, physiology and fitness

Axial skeleton

Bones that form the

main frame or axis:

The spine, ribs and

skull.

Appendicular skeleton

Bones that attach

to the main frame

(the appendages):

The upper and lower

limbs, the pelvic and

shoulder girdles.

clavicle

sternum

humerus

rib

lumbar vertebrae

ulna

radius

pubis

carpals

metacarpals

ischium

femur

patella

tibia

tarsals

metatarsals

phalanges

cervical

vertebrae

scapula

humerus

thoracic

vertebrae

ilium

sacrum

coccyx

phalanges

femur

fibula

tibia

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The neuromuscular system

Section 2

Section 2: The neuromuscular

system

All of the internal and external muscles in the body and the nerves serving them make up the neuromuscular

system. Every movement your body makes requires communication between the brain and muscles, some of which

you don’t even have to think about, such as your digestive muscles breaking down ingested food.

The muscular system

There are over 600 muscles in the body, making up around 40% of a person’s total weight.

The bones and joints create the framework of levers (bones) and pivots (joints) which give the body the potential to

move, but this framework cannot move on its own. It is the contraction and relaxation of muscles that bring about

movement.

The muscular system produces a continuous and wide-ranging number of actions, such as bodily movements

(e.g. walking and jumping) and the powering of internal processes (e.g. contraction of the heart muscle and focussing

of the eye).

KEY

POINT

Types of muscle tissue

There are three types of muscle tissue and each one has a different

function. The three types are:

• Cardiac muscle (myocardium), e.g. the heart.

• Smooth muscle, e.g. the walls of the small intestine.

• Skeletal muscle (striated), e.g. the hamstrings or triceps.

Contraction of the heart

is controlled by the

sinoatrial node (SAN).

The set rhythm of the

heart (on average,

72bpm at rest) is called

autorhythmicity.

Principles of anatomy, physiology and fitness

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The neuromuscular system

Section 2

To summarise:

• Whole muscle is wrapped in epimysium.

• Bundles of fibres, or fasciculi, are wrapped in perimysium.

• Single muscle fibres are wrapped in endomysium.

• Myofibrils are located inside single fibres.

• Myofilaments – myosin and actin ‒ are located inside sarcomeres.

Sliding filament theory

The sliding filament theory was proposed by

Huxley in 1954 to explain the contraction of

skeletal muscle. The theory states that the

myofilaments, actin (a thin protein strand)

and myosin (a thick protein strand) slide

over each other, creating a shortening of

the sarcomere (the contractile units in the

muscle where myosin and actin are found),

which causes the shortening or lengthening

of the entire muscle. The myofilaments do

not decrease in length themselves.

This proposed action is accomplished by

the unique structure of the protein, myosin.

The myosin filaments are shaped like golf

clubs and form cross bridges with the actin

filaments. Each myosin molecule (there

are many) has two projecting heads. These

heads attach to the actin filaments and

pull them in closer.

Actin filament

Myosin filament

Muscle fibre

Myofibril

Principles of anatomy, physiology and fitness

Stimulus from the nervous system and the

release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

– the high-energy molecule stored on the

myosin head – provide the impetus for the

head to ‘nod’ in what is termed the ‘power

stroke’. It is this nodding action which

‘slides’ the thin actin filaments over the

thick myosin filaments. The myosin head

then binds with another ATP molecule,

causing it to detach from the actin-binding

site, which is known as the ‘recovery

stroke’. It is then able to attach to the next

binding site and perform the same routine.

SARCOMERE IS RELAXED

SARCOMERE IS CONTRACTED

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Section 3

Cardiovascular and respiratory systems

Heart valves

There are a number of different valves around the heart, which all perform slightly different tasks.

The atrioventricular (AV) valves separate the atria and ventricles and prevent the flow of blood back into the atria

during ventricular contraction.

The semilunar valves prevent the flow of blood back into the right (pulmonary valve) and left ventricles (aortic valve)

during ventricular relaxation.

Heart rate

The heart is stimulated to contract by a complex series of integrated systems. The heart’s pacemaker – the sinoatrial

node (SAN) – initiates cardiac muscle contraction. The SAN is located in the wall of the right atrium. The myocardium

(heart muscle) is stimulated to contract about 72 times per minute by the SAN as part of the autonomic nervous

system.

28

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Cardiovascular and respiratory systems

Section 3

Nose and mouth

Nose

Larynx

Trachea

Pharynx (throat) and

larynx (voice box)

Lungs

Trachea

Bronchi

Bronchioles

Diaphragm

Bronchi / bronchus

The mechanics of breathing

The two main mechanisms that trigger the human body to breathe are:

• Rising levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

• Stretch receptors in the respiratory muscles (intercostal muscles) becoming stretched.

The main muscles involved in the action of breathing are the diaphragm and the internal and external intercostal

muscles.

The main phases of the breathing cycle are:

• Inspiration/inhalation – drawing air

into the lungs.

• Expiration/exhalation – expelling air

from the lungs.

Right lung

Trachea

Bronchioles

Alveoli

Left lung

Principles of anatomy, physiology and fitness

There is also a short pause before both

inspiration and expiration.

During inspiration, the diaphragm muscle

contracts, causing the normal ‘dome shape’

to flatten. The external intercostal muscles

also contract, raising the ribcage. These

actions increase the chest cavity volume.

This increase in volume creates a negative

pressure between the air in the lungs and

air in the atmosphere. This is very much

like a vacuum effect in which the negative

pressure sucks air into the lungs until the

two pressures are balanced.

Right

bronchus

Left

bronchus

Bronchiole

Terminal

bronchiole

Alveoli

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The digestive system

Section 5

Section 5: The digestive

system

The digestive system is responsible for the intake, breakdown, use and removal of food and drink. An efficient

digestive system tells us when we are hungry, full and thirsty by sending messages to and from the brain via the

nervous system. It extracts important nutrients for storage and immediate use and removes any waste.

The digestive system has four stages:

Ingestion

Digestion

Absorption

Elimination

Food entering

the body

through

the mouth

and being

chewed.

Breaking

down of

food through

mechanical

(smooth

muscle

action) and

chemical

(release of

enzymes)

processes.

The passing

of food

into the

bloodstream

to be used

by the body’s

tissues.

The removal

of waste.

Journey through the alimentary canal (also known as

the digestive tract/gastrointestinal tract/gut)

Food’s journey through the alimentary canal can take up to 24 hours and covers a distance of around 9m (30 feet)

from ingestion through the mouth to excretion through the anus.

Mouth

This is the entry point of food and where it begins to be broken down

through the process of mastication (chewing) into a ball, or bolus.

Principles of anatomy, physiology and fitness

Oesophagus (gullet)

This is a thick-walled, muscular tube that carries broken down food

from the mouth to the stomach.

Stomach

The stomach is a muscular bag located on the left side of the upper

abdomen. It breaks down food further by releasing enzymes, and also

kills bacteria.

Small intestine

The small intestine is a small, tightly folded tube that receives

food from the stomach. It is the major site of digestion within the

alimentary canal. Its role is to absorb important nutrients into the

bloodstream to be passed to the body’s tissues and used for energy.

The small intestine is divided into three sections: the duodenum,

jejunum and ileum.

The small intestine is about as large

as an adult’s middle finger but, when

stretched out, it is about 22 feet

(6.7m) long.

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The importance of a healthy lifestyle

Section 3

Section 3: The importance of a

healthy lifestyle

Current prevalence of obesity in the UK

27% of adults in England are obese and a further 36% are overweight. A summary of the most recent findings can

be found below:

Obesity is normally

defined as having a

BMI of 30+

18.5

25

30

Underweight

Normal Weight

Overweight

Obese

Men are more likely to be

overweight, but obesity

rates are the same for

both genders

Obese

Overweight

Female

Male

Female

Male

9% of children in

England are obese by

the age of 4-5

9%

27% of adults in England

are obese. A further 36%

are overweight

27%

Those aged 55-64 are

most likely to be obese;

16-24s are least likely

Least

deprived

Most

deprived

16%

36%

16-24 55-64

10-11 year olds in the

most deprived areas

are much more likely

to be obese

15%

26%

Rates of excess weight

are highest in the North

East and lowest in

London

NE

Yorks

E Mids

W Mids

NW

East

SW

SE

London

69%

59%

Obesity rates have

grown slightly in the

last decade

52.9%

61.8%

62.9%

1993 2004 2015

In England, rates

of obesity drug

prescriptions are highest

in Stoke North

Stoke-on-Trent N

Leigh

Camborne & Rrth

Knowsley

Barnsley E

22 per 1,000

Conducting client consultations to support positive behaviour change

Prescribing rates for

obesity drugs have

fallen in all UK countries

since 2008

The number of bariatric

surgeries on obese

patients fell in the last

three years

UK obesity rates are

below those of USA and

Australia but above those

of France & Germany

ENG

SCO

WAL

NI

2008

2014

1,951

2006/07

8,794

6,032

2014/15

USA

AUS

UK

GER

FRA

JAP 3.9

38.2

27.9

25.6

23.6

16.9

House of Commons briefing paper – Obesity statistics, 2017

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