Showcase Jewellers Guide: World of Diamonds

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The 4C’s

Your Guide to Diamond

Quality and Value

The 4C’s are a combination of factors that

determine the value of your Diamond.


It is very rare for a diamond to be flawless. Almost all of them

contain tiny marks, called ‘inclusions’ which are minute traces

of non-crystallised carbon. Most can’t be seen by the naked

eye but do show up under magnification. However the fewer

‘inclusions’ found within a diamond the higher it will be rated in

terms of ‘clarity’, and the more valuable it will be.








I1 I2 I3


Unlike the other 3C’s, which are the work of nature, cut is directly

influenced by man. The cut of a diamond will dramatically influence its

fire and sparkle, as it is the cutter’s skill that releases its beauty.

When a diamond is cut to good proportions, light is reflected from one

facet to another (usually 58 in all) and then dispersed through the top

of the stone. The better the cut the more sparkle a diamond will display,

and again the more valuable it will be.

Heavy Deep Cut Ideal Cut Light Shallow Cut

Carat Weight

Diamonds are measured by weight not size. Traditionally diamonds

were weighed against the seeds of a carob tree, which is where the word

‘carat’ originated. Nowadays the system for weighing diamonds is based

on one carat equalling 0.2grams. And one carat can be further divided

into 100 ‘points’ so that a diamond of 25 points is described as quarter

of a carat or 0.25 carats. All other factors remaining constant, the higher

the carat weight, the more valuable the diamond is.

2 cts.


1.75 cts.


1.5 cts.


1.25 cts.


1 cts.


0.75 cts.


0.50 cts.


0.25 cts.



Diamonds come in all the colours of the rainbow. But the majority of

them have a barely perceptible yellow or brownish tint. The whiter they

are the more valuable they are unless they are ‘Fancies’. Fancies are

very rare diamonds that have quite strong colours and can come in pink,

yellow, red, green and blue.

D - E - F


G - H - I - J

Near Colourless

K - L - M

Faint Yellow

N - O - P - R

Very Light Yellow

S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Light Yellow

THE 5 th C

Confidence in your

Showcase Jeweller.


Showcase Jeweller Stores are owner operated so their very livelihood

relies on having a reputation for total integrity and honesty.

They are your diamond experts who can explain the 4C’s to you

and demonstrate why one diamond costs more than another.

Unfortunately with diamonds, there are no bargains. If you find a

diamond at a price that seems too good to be true, it probably is. Your

Showcase Jeweller will strive to find the best value diamond that suits

your taste and budget.

And how much should you spend on a diamond? That is very much up

to you. Some people consider one or two months salary a good guide

for an engagement ring. The important thing to remember is that

unlike a wedding dress, a diamond is worn everyday of your life so you

would be wise to choose something that will continue to give pleasure

year after year, because a diamond really is forever.

Diamond Shapes

Diamonds can be cut in many different shapes, we have pictured the

more popular styles below. Which shape you choose is purely a matter

of personal taste. However it is the precision and delicacy of the cut that

will determine how a diamond catches and reflects the light to create

its unique fire and beauty.











Diamonds are one

of Nature’s Miracles

To understand something of their uniqueness and rarity it is best

to start right at the beginning and ask, what are diamonds?

Ancient legend would have you believe that diamonds were splinters

from stars, or the tears of Gods. But in reality, the origin of diamonds is

something of a mystery even to scientists and geologists.

Diamonds are made from a very common material, carbon, just like

the graphite you find in a lead pencil. However the transformation

of carbon into the hardest of all gemstones known to man began

millions of years ago in the depths of the earth.

Carbon was crystallised by tremendous heat and the pressure of

movement within the earth. Over time the diamonds were then brought

to the surface by volcanic eruptions. And when the volcanic activity

subsided and cooled the diamonds remained trapped in the solidified

magma from where they are mined today.

The History

of Diamonds

The word ‘diamond’ comes

from the Greek word ‘adamas’

meaning unconquerable and

since the very beginning

diamonds have always

been associated with

romance and legend.

Even the reason a woman

wears a diamond ring on the

third finger of her left hand can

be traced back to an early Egyptian belief that the vena amoris (vein

of love) ran directly from the heart to the top of third finger, left hand.

Why are they so Precious?

Because diamonds are so rare is one major reason why they are

considered precious. To give you some idea how rare they are,

consider this: Even though diamond mining has been around for

thousands of years, and production has increased with modern mining

methods, it is estimated that only about 350 tonnes of diamonds have

ever been extracted from the ground. Of the diamonds mined today

only a small percent are judged to be of gem quality. And even fewer are

large enough to be cut into diamonds that are bigger than the head of a

match. Then there is the expense of extraction. To produce a one carat

polished diamond of gem quality about 250 tonnes of ore must be mined

and processed.

From Rough Diamond

to Sparkling Jewel

To the untrained eye there is very little that distinguishes a rough

diamond from a pebble you would find on a beach.

To unlock the beauty that lies within that diamond is a real art. And only a

skilled diamond cutter has the eye and skill to perform such a risky task.

For one mistake could destroy the value of the diamond and anywhere

from several hours to several months of work.

Cutting and polishing a diamond is labour intensive and highly skilled

work. During the process each stone will lose on average 50% of its

original weight.

The beauty of a diamond depends very much on the way it reflects light

and the cutter must shape the stone so that the light comes in through

the top of the stone, bounces around inside it and then comes back

out of the top again. This way the maximum amount of light is reflected

giving the diamond its unique brilliance and sparkle.

How to care for

your Diamonds

Diamonds do need to be looked after to remain at their brilliant best.

A clean diamond not only reflects light better, but actually looks bigger than

one that has been ‘dulled’ by skin oils, soap and everyday use.

To keep their fire blazing, diamonds should be cleaned every month.

THE DETERGENT BATH - Add any mild liquid detergent to a bowl of warm

water so that it is good and soapy. Dip the piece into the suds and brush

gently but thoroughly with a toothbrush. Transfer to a wire strainer and rinse

under warm running water. Pat dry with a soft, lintless cloth.

THE COLD WATER SOAK - Make a half-and-half solution of cold water and

household ammonia in a cup. Soak the diamond for 30 minutes. Lift out and

brush gently around the back and front of the mounting with a small brush.

Swish in the solution once more, rinse and drain on paper.

THE QUICK DIP METHOD - Use one of the ready made liquid jewellery

cleaners available from your Showcase Jeweller. Just ensure you follow the

instructions carefully.

GENERAL TIPS - Don’t wear your diamond ring when using household

chlorine bleach. It won’t harm the diamond but could pit or discolour the

mounting. Don’t just throw your diamond pieces into a drawer or jewellery

case because diamonds can scratch each other and also scratch other



your Showcase Jeweller for a ‘check-up’ at least once a year. They can

professionally clean your diamond jewellery

with the greatest of care, making it

look like new and at the same time

they can check the setting to ensure

your diamond is secure.


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