Maintworld 2/2020

To the Bravest Asset Managers – Living and working in the post-corona era ADAPTIVE ALIGNMENT - DATA-DRIVEN SPARE PARTS MANAGEMENT - MANAGING THE CRISIS EFFECTIVELY

To the Bravest Asset Managers – Living and working in the post-corona era


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2/<strong>2020</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

To the Bravest<br />

Asset Managers –<br />

Living and working<br />

in the post-corona era p 12<br />


Your best weapon against poor<br />

reliability is knowledge.<br />

You need knowledge. Your colleagues need knowledge. Techniques,<br />

solutions, strategy, and the business case - it is all critical knowledge.<br />

Whether your focus is condition monitoring or the bigger picture of<br />

reliability improvement, our websites, live events, and worldwide<br />

communities provide easy access to the information you need.<br />

We invite you to be part of MOBIUS CONNECT. With MOBIUS<br />

CONNECT you can...<br />

• Learn and share<br />

• Customize your learning pathway<br />

• Continue your educational journey, live or online<br />

• Engage with industry leaders from around the world<br />


Find<br />

Your<br />

Learning<br />


Break the<br />

Break/Fix Cycle<br />

Stop being reactive. Shift to a truly predictive<br />

maintenance model. Anticipate faults before<br />

they cause costly downtime, and keep your<br />

equipment and facilities running more<br />

efficiently than ever before.<br />

ICONICS’ Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) technology<br />

significantly reduces costs and improves operational<br />

efficiency. It incorporates a standard library of fault rules<br />

that can be customized to predict equipment failures and<br />

advise personnel of preventive actions. It also digitizes the<br />

knowledge of your expert workers so even new technicians<br />

are able to leverage tried-and-true techniques for addressing<br />

the toughest issues. Evolve to a connected field service<br />

operation, where scheduling the right person to be in the<br />

right place at the right time happens without you having<br />

to lift a finger.<br />

Find out more at<br />


Automatically Detect Faults<br />

ROI Typically Within 12 to 18 Months<br />

Library of Preconfigured Fault Rules<br />

Rich Visualization and Reporting<br />

Predict, Reduce and Eliminate Downtime<br />

Improve Maintenance Efficiency


This Summer<br />

will be Different<br />

THIS SUMMER WILL BE DIFFERENT for most of us,<br />

and for maintenance people too. COVID-19 has<br />

brought havoc to industry, markets and societies<br />

around the world. There are winners as well as<br />

losers. We remember well the last global economic<br />

downturn in 2008. We remember manufacturers<br />

cutting their maintenance budgets, and we remember<br />

how these manufacturers struggled to cope<br />

with demand after production volumes got back to<br />

normal levels, or even higher after that economic<br />

episode. Lessons learned? Cutting the maintenance<br />

budget is just borrowing money from the<br />

future. It works fine for now, next month or even a<br />

few years, but after some time, underinvested assets will take their tax: bad OEE, increasing<br />

failure rates, more serious failures and even accidents. Business continuity<br />

is a continuous and never-ending process with several stages:<br />

In this pandemic year, the industrial producers had to go through the phase of<br />

reaction at the beginning of the crisis. To react means to take immediate actions<br />

and measures to avoid harm. It was very important to realize that the thing has<br />

really come, and we must fight – react. Look back and think: when exactly did you<br />

realize that COVID-19 is here? And impacts your business? Was it early or late?<br />

This delay may result in overreacting with panic and hysteria - as we observed.<br />

The immediate response was followed by the fight to survive. For many, this<br />

was solely about cash-flow. Producers were, or still are, struck by quarantine measures<br />

resulting in limited (human) resources and loss of production capacity. The<br />

suppliers were not able to deliver materials for production. And the demand from<br />

end customers for certain products plummeted. This was a deadly cocktail for many<br />

companies.<br />

To survive we must adapt. By this I mean specifically taking advantage of the<br />

situation. The production slowdown, or stoppage, was a unique opportunity to do<br />

what was never done properly: shutdowns and turnarounds in full scope, neglected<br />

preventive maintenance, deferred investments, cleaning, optimizing preventive<br />

and predictive maintenance etc. Obviously, for these you need some money,<br />

reserves to spend in hard times. Companies that have not created enough reserves<br />

during the good times are now losing on this opportunity. There will be no “back<br />

to normal” in this game. Too many things have changed. Therefore, in the recovery<br />

stage, we will have to rethink and reengineer our former processes and strategies,<br />

including business objectives and resulting maintenance strategies.<br />

But the essential phase of the business continuity cycle is the phase of preparation<br />

when we prepare for the next downturn, crisis or disaster. And we can be<br />

sure that bad things will happen again. The preparation stage is the time for risk<br />

management: identification of risks, evaluation of their impacts and probabilities<br />

and mitigating. And creating financial reserves to spend in the next period of hard<br />

times. Take advantage of the opportunity and use the reserves you made previously<br />

to do all shutdown maintenance, revamps, preventive maintenance, asset register<br />

clean-up, process and technologies optimizations as well as optimizations of<br />

predictive maintenance techniques that were heavily implemented in recent years<br />

but their efficiency was never really evaluated. Cutting your maintenance budgets<br />

means introducing new risks into your operations.<br />

6 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong><br />

Tomáš Hladík<br />

Principal Consultant<br />

Logio<br />

Prague<br />

52<br />

The<br />

Coronavirus crisis<br />

requires a cost-centered<br />

asset management<br />

strategy. For many plant<br />

operators, this will be a<br />

shift of their strategy by<br />

180 degrees.

IN THIS ISSUE 2/<strong>2020</strong><br />

20<br />

With<br />

the ongoing digital<br />

transformation of the rail<br />

industry, the increasing<br />

volume and speed at which<br />

data can be collected is<br />

becoming a significant problem<br />

for track maintenance teams.<br />

=<br />

44<br />

External<br />

forces of change can<br />

be more relentless in forcing<br />

change. In some instances,<br />

an organization or business<br />

must change or go out of<br />

business and cease to exist.<br />

8<br />

COVID-19: guidance helps businesses<br />

protect workers and communities<br />

12<br />

To the Bravest Asset Managers – Living<br />

and working in the post-corona era<br />

16<br />

18<br />

20<br />

Norwegian Society of Maintenance<br />

(NFV) and Mainnovation Share<br />

Knowledge with Webinars<br />

Asset and Maintenance Management:<br />

Combined Technologies to Uncover<br />

Untapped Business Value<br />

Consolidating Data Silos for<br />

Track Maintenance<br />

24<br />

26<br />

30<br />

34<br />

38<br />

Revolutionary Profitability with<br />

Intelligent Condition Monitoring and<br />

Remote Services<br />

Adaptive Alignment – Next-Generation<br />

Technology for Solving Every Shaft<br />

Alignment Challenge<br />

Ultrasound and the IIoT:<br />

The Future of Condition Monitoring<br />

Most Common Myths about<br />

Accelerometers and Frequency Range<br />

Asset Care and Reliability in the<br />

Mining Industry using Ultrasound<br />

40<br />

42<br />

44<br />

48<br />

Dynamic measurement –<br />

are you missing a checkbox?<br />

Are you ready?<br />

How the maintenance team can thrive<br />

and grow during a time of disruption<br />

Monetizing Data in Maintenance:<br />

Data-driven Spare Parts Management<br />

50<br />

Maintenance activities and<br />

Industrial Rescue<br />

52<br />

Managing the Crisis Effectively:<br />

How to Develop a Successful Asset<br />

Management Strategy During the<br />

Coronavirus Downturn<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher Omnipress Oy,<br />

Väritehtaankatu 8, 4. kerros, 01300 Vantaa, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas<br />

tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com<br />

Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@<br />

media.fi Printed by Reusner, www.reusner.ee Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 7

HSE<br />

COVID-19: Guidance helps Businesses<br />

Protect Workers and Communities<br />

COVID-19 continues to<br />

spread rapidly around<br />

the world. The European<br />

Agency for Safety and<br />

Health at Work (EU-OSHA)<br />

urges businesses to<br />

protect workers and show<br />

their commitment to<br />

preventing the spread of<br />

this disease by following<br />

its guidance resources for<br />

the workplace<br />



EU-OSHA<br />

Executive Director<br />

THE COVID-19 situation changes day<br />

by day. But what can workplaces do in<br />

practice to help tackle this pandemic<br />

and protect employees? Knowledge and<br />

awareness are key — everyone must<br />

be well informed about how the virus<br />

spreads, the symptoms of infection and<br />

how to minimise exposure. Under the<br />

tagline, ‘Healthy Workplaces Stop the<br />

Pandemic’ EU-OSHA has started an<br />

initiative to address the occupational<br />

health and safety challenges linked to<br />

the current pandemic, offering a range of<br />

workplace guidance on COVID-19.<br />

Resources include: EU guidance to<br />

limit the spread of the virus and on preventive<br />

measures for a safe and healthy<br />

return to workplaces; information on<br />

how to minimise exposure to biological<br />

agents; awareness-raising videos; practical<br />

guides, tools and visual resources<br />

for a healthy home-based telework and<br />

a range of links to good practice material<br />

from EU and international organisations.<br />

What is COVID-19?<br />

COVID-19 is a new strain of coronavirus,<br />

thought to have an incubation period of<br />

between 2 and 14 days. The main symptoms<br />

are coughing, breathing difficulties<br />

and fever. Older people and those with<br />

chronic health conditions (such as diabetes<br />

or cardiovascular diseases) are more<br />

likely to suffer from severe symptoms.<br />

Coronaviruses are spread by close<br />

person-to-person contact or by touching<br />

8 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>

HSE<br />

an infected surface and then touching<br />

the eyes, nose or mouth. Such viruses are<br />

thought to live on some surfaces for 72<br />

hours, sometimes longer.<br />

How can businesses help minimise<br />

the impact of COVID-19?<br />

Employers have an important role to play<br />

in protecting workers, and in preventing<br />

the spread of COVID-19 in the wider community.<br />

They should:<br />

• revise the workplace risk assessment<br />

to ensure that distancing and<br />

hygienic measures can be taken,<br />

without additional risk to workers<br />

• respect the hierarchy of control<br />

measures and prioritise technical<br />

and organisational over personal<br />

protection measures<br />

• provide adequate PPE where it is<br />

needed in addition to technical and<br />

organisational arrangements<br />

• encourage workers to wash hands<br />

frequently and thoroughly and provide<br />

hand washing facilities or hand<br />

disinfection liquids<br />

• ensure that frequently touched surfaces<br />

are cleaned regularly<br />

• provide disposable wipes, so that<br />

commonly used surfaces can be<br />

wiped before use<br />

• emphasise the importance of employees<br />

staying away from work if<br />

they develop symptoms, even if mild<br />

• enable home working and flexible<br />

working hours where feasible<br />

• follow public health authority advice<br />

if someone with suspected COVID-19<br />

has been in the workplace or travelling<br />

to an affected area.<br />

It is also important that businesses<br />

mitigate the impact of COVID-19 by developing<br />

contingency and business continuity<br />

plans. Plans should address how<br />

the business will keep running if workers<br />

or suppliers become ill or are affected by<br />

travel restrictions. They should also cover<br />

sick leave arrangements and any other<br />

support available for workers. Consulting<br />

these plans with workers and communicating<br />

with all others connected with the<br />

business — highlighting key points and<br />

making sure that everyone knows how the<br />

plan relates to them — is essential.<br />

Back to the workplace -<br />

Adapting workplaces and<br />

protecting workers<br />

Once the physical distancing measures<br />

achieve a sufficient reduction in<br />

COVID-19 transmission rates, national<br />




administrations are authorising a gradual<br />

resumption of work activities. This<br />

is being done stepwise, with work that is<br />

considered essential for health protection<br />

and the economy authorised first<br />

and work that can be done effectively<br />

while working from home last.<br />

However, regardless of how and to<br />

what extent normal work activities<br />

resume, it is highly likely that some<br />

measures will remain in place for some<br />

time to avoid a steep increase in infection<br />

rates. Furthermore, it is also possible that<br />

an increase in infections at some point in<br />

the future will require a reintroduction of<br />

restrictive measures in some cases.<br />

Appropriate preventive measures also<br />

help to achieve a safe and healthy return<br />

to work and contribute to suppressing<br />

transmission of COVID-19. EU-OSHA<br />

has produced occupational safety and<br />

health EU guidance to help in this process.<br />

These non-binding guidelines aim<br />

to help employers and workers to stay<br />

safe and healthy in a working environment<br />

that has changed significantly<br />

because of the COVID-19 pandemic.<br />

They give advice on risk assessment and<br />

10 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>

HSE<br />

appropriate measures such as minimising<br />

exposure, resuming work, coping with<br />

absences and managing workers working<br />

from home. Workers’ involvement and<br />

taking care of those who have been ill is also<br />

included as well as information and further<br />

links for many sectors, occupations<br />

and countries.<br />

COVID-19 is not the only risk<br />

For some workers, exposure to infectious<br />

agents on a regular basis is the norm and,<br />

according to the 2015 European Working<br />

Conditions Survey, is on the rise, especially<br />

in healthcare and veterinary services,<br />

agriculture, sewage management and laboratories.<br />

Our recent review and five discussion<br />

papers explore the risks posed by<br />

biological agents in the workplace. We aim<br />

to raise awareness of exposure to these<br />

hazards at work and provide more information<br />

on the associated health problems,<br />

which include not only infectious diseases<br />

but also cancer and allergies.<br />

Home-based telework<br />

In the current context of confinement due<br />

to the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of<br />

European workers are forced to work from<br />

home full-time to cut down the risk of contracting<br />

the virus. A new reality that can<br />

take its toll on our health. Long periods of<br />

sedentary work, lack of physical exercise,<br />

working in isolation, blurring boundaries<br />

between paid work and private life and<br />

stress are some of the risks associated<br />

with telework that may have an impact on<br />

the musculoskeletal and mental health of<br />

workers.<br />

EU-OSHA’s brand-new MSD database<br />

of practical tools and guidance makes it<br />

easy to assess and manage many MSD<br />

risks, including from telework. It contains<br />

links to resources from all across Europe:<br />

publications, case studies, guidance, practical<br />

tools, audio-visual materials. So far,<br />

more than 550 entries are available and<br />

regular updates will follow during the life<br />

of the current <strong>2020</strong>-22 Healthy Workplaces<br />

Campaign Lighten the Load.<br />

Working together is key<br />

to combatting COVID-19<br />

The current COVID-19 pandemic is one<br />

of the biggest challenges that businesses<br />

— and indeed societies — have ever faced.<br />

Overcoming this challenge will be possible<br />

only if we work together to stop the spread<br />

of this disease — and guaranteeing safe and<br />

healthy working environments is vital to<br />

this.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 11


To the Bravest Asset Managers<br />

Living and Working in the Post-Corona Era<br />


Will corona have a lasting<br />

impact on the maintenance<br />

sector, and by extension<br />

the industry and the whole<br />

world? That seems to be<br />

a rhetorical question. Because<br />

in the post-corona<br />

era, man and machine will<br />

continue to fail.<br />


maintenance which Nowlan and Heap<br />

put forward in their Reliability Centered<br />

Maintenance in the 1960s remain valid,<br />

as do the 6 failure patterns and the<br />

P-F lifecycle. The only thing that will<br />

undoubtedly change is the way we will<br />

deal with this as people and as experts.<br />

Just like healthcare providers such as<br />

doctors and nurses in intensive care,<br />

our industrial healthcare providers such<br />

as operators, maintenance technicians<br />

and reliability engineers will also look<br />

for a new, safer way of working, partly<br />

out of legal obligation, and partly out of<br />

self-protection.<br />

As essential as the industry is for all<br />

our lives, our maintenance sector is vital<br />

for the industry. We are the cardiovascular<br />

specialists who, when feasible,<br />

predictively monitor the veins and the<br />

heart of our industry assets, preventively<br />

or curatively when necessary and thus<br />

help the core of our economical society<br />

to survive. Due to our crucial role within<br />

the industry, we are deeply intertwined<br />

with the whole of society and as a sector<br />

we also play a prevailing role in society<br />

which should not be underestimated.<br />


In "Modern Times" Chaplin workers<br />

were depicted as modern slaves who<br />

lived and worked to the rhythm of the<br />

assembly line. As a consequence to of<br />

12 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong><br />

industrialization in those early days,<br />

everything literally revolved around the<br />

(steam)engine.<br />

Today, the machine comes next to humanity,<br />

such as in production halls where<br />

humans and robots work side by side. Asset<br />

management is also shifting more and<br />

more towards people. Man is the central<br />

axis of our work process, but therefore<br />

also the main source of calamities.<br />

Only 30 percent of all problems are<br />

of a purely technical nature (or special<br />

cause effect), while 70 percent are<br />

caused by some kind of human intervention<br />

(common cause effect). It is therefore<br />

perfectly justified that a great deal of<br />

importance is currently attached to procedures<br />

and rules, standardization and<br />

consistent behaviour to prevent technical<br />

calamities (failure or even standstill)<br />

and accidents (safety).<br />

By working together with technology<br />

and being intensively supported by it,<br />

we can cover our human failures even<br />

further and limit the risks in all areas for<br />

everyone to the absolute minimum.<br />


During the formation of the United<br />

Nations shortly after World War II,<br />

Winston Churchill proclaimed "Never<br />

miss the opportunity of a good crisis."<br />

From the ashes of the most inhumane<br />

war on an industrial scale, a global association<br />

with peace and cooperation as its<br />

main goals emerged.<br />

The corona crisis is forcing employees<br />

to work remotely and children to achieve<br />

learning goals remotely. With digital tools<br />

this works miraculously well and sometimes<br />

even more efficiently than before.<br />

Let this be a valuable lesson for what<br />

maintenance can look like tomorrow.<br />

Wouldn't it be more efficient to have<br />

just one pair of boots on the ground,<br />

supported by a few extra brains and eyes<br />

watching from a distance? This is what<br />

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Augmented<br />

Reality (AR) can help achieve. Not tomorrow<br />

or the day after tomorrow, but today.<br />

Fewer trips, fewer errors, less downtime,<br />

less costs, Higher returns, more<br />

production, more success, more job

P<br />

The foundational elements of maintenance & reliability management<br />

will never change. But the way technology can deliver value to asset<br />

management programs is changing faster than ever.<br />

The Grain combines its expertise in industrial asset management<br />

and data science to enhance the performance and reliability of your<br />

assets by building customized, accessible and scalable AI solutions.<br />

F<br />

It is our mission to facilitate day-to-day work of maintenance<br />

practitioners, reliability engineers and operators.<br />

We embed the power of advanced analytics to accelerate the process<br />

of learning by combining signal data, maintenance logs or any other<br />

operating context information to predict the asset behavior, add<br />

new insights enabling you to prepare the right actions at the right<br />

time. We believe that blending artificial and human intelligence is<br />

key to exponential performance of your assets.<br />

Welcome to the age of prescriptive maintenance.<br />

Want to be part of it?<br />

Find out more on www.thegrain.pro/innovators or call +32 3 376 33 50<br />

Industrial AI applications


satisfaction. Something good can come<br />

from something bad, just like the UN<br />

came from World War II.<br />


But we can do more than just making<br />

things more efficient. Because crises<br />

can, with the necessary courage and<br />

ambition, also lead to completely new<br />

industries and job creation. When in<br />

World War II German U-boats destroyed<br />

many US ships heading for the UK, the<br />

US quickly accelerated the construction<br />

of their Liberty ships from 6 months to<br />

4 days for one ship, due to exponentially<br />

increased efficiency (lean processes).<br />

Ten years later, a storm surge in 1953<br />

flooded entire parts of the Netherlands,<br />

the United Kingdom, Germany and<br />

Belgium. This disaster took the lives of<br />

thousands of people and also meant an<br />

unprecedented catastrophe that destroyed<br />

large parts of the economy and<br />

infrastructure.<br />

But instead of giving up, the severely<br />

affected Dutch dared to take on this<br />

tragedy and developed the Delta plan.<br />

With this modern wonder of the world,<br />

our northern neighbours put themselves<br />

on the global map as specialists in waterworks,<br />

while at the same time creating a<br />

new economic branch.<br />

Every crisis changes our general spectrum<br />

and how we look at processes. Because<br />

in traditions and acquired knowledge<br />

there is also a danger of rigidity and<br />

stagnation, just think of the joke of the<br />

sausage and the pan. Now is a time of<br />

introspection and reflection, but also of<br />

action and change. Or as Martin Luther<br />

King put it: "We must build dikes of courage<br />

against the storm surges of fear."<br />

AI and robotics will drastically and<br />

fundamentally change our jobs and our<br />

sector. Our operators, maintenance<br />

technicians and reliability engineers will<br />

all become F1 racing drivers only concerned<br />

with getting the maximum return<br />

from their car and winning the race, but<br />

during the race they also forward more<br />

than 1,500 data points per second to the<br />

engineers who are on the side about the<br />

operation of their machine. The racer as<br />

a high-tech operator with the technology<br />

of the future.<br />

Sounds like sheer science fiction,<br />

right? Leonardo da Vinci drew in the 15th<br />

century the first airplanes, Jules Verne<br />

wrote about traveling to the moon. What<br />

seemed like nonsense at that time is now<br />

history. At the end of the 19th century,<br />

people who then moved by horse and<br />

cart and communicated mainly by letter,<br />

might have a hard time imagining that a<br />

few generations later their descendants<br />

would be making video calls in self-driving<br />

vehicles. Because neither the car nor<br />

the phone existed back then, but a good<br />

century later they seem indispensable.<br />

Someone who is now 60 saw childhood<br />

James Bond movies with futuristic gadgets<br />

such as car radios, GPS and fingerprint<br />

security. Someone who is 40 today<br />

has experienced the breakthrough of the<br />

PC, the internet, the smartphone, virtual<br />

reality (VR), Bitcoin and AI. We now experience<br />

the kind of accelerations which until<br />

now would have taken us tens or hundreds<br />

of years, in just a few years. What<br />

will someone aged 20 or 0 experience?<br />

One thing seems certain: the acceleration<br />

has only just begun.<br />

Perhaps within a few years we will<br />

remember with nostalgia the period<br />

when people still manually maintained<br />

machines, electrical cabinets and installations<br />

themselves. Question to the bravest<br />

of asset managers: when will we make the<br />

complete transition to AI powered and<br />

robot performed maintenance? Now in<br />

China, there are already advanced and implemented<br />

applications of maintenance in<br />

this way. Do we want to miss this boat and<br />

drown in a Chinese flood?<br />



After the financial crisis, the banking<br />

world changed radically and as a result<br />

the rest of the world changed with it.<br />

Governments demanded compensation<br />

for provided state guarantees, imposed<br />


The fear of the new, like the fear of<br />

death, is inherent in people. The great<br />

unknown is a constant challenge for us<br />

as humans and as humanity. But change<br />

and "progress" are also essential elements<br />

in our personal story and larger<br />

historiography.<br />

And the change is already permeating<br />

many sectors. In the medical sector,<br />

doctors are increasingly performing<br />

complex operations with robots More<br />

and more industries are proving that<br />

human-machine integration works,<br />

just think about Audi Brussels' stateof-the-art<br />

production lines. What is the<br />

difference between a human vein and a<br />

machine cable.<br />




14 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


stricter control rules and mitigated all<br />

risks, with implications for ordinary individuals<br />

and entrepreneurs.<br />

In any case, this crisis will have consequences<br />

and change our general behaviour<br />

and our specific functioning, be<br />

it social distancing or something else. We<br />

will most likely be subject to new, modified<br />

safety rules that will make the work<br />

for our and other industries much more<br />

difficult or at least a lot more complicated.<br />

But on the other hand, this crisis also<br />

offers opportunities to transcend such a<br />

challenge and ourselves as a sector. After<br />

all, technology can reduce or even completely<br />

solve many of the new corona related<br />

problems and challenges within asset<br />

management. It is better to embrace<br />

technology yourself than to be overrun<br />

by a foreign tech tsunami. So, we make<br />

sure that we as a progressive region can<br />

once again be participating in the start of<br />

a new industrial transition as earlier in<br />

the 19th and 20th centuries.<br />

Change is difficult, but inevitable.<br />

Of course, we can opt for security and<br />

“business as usual”, just as Kodak, Nokia<br />

or Bank of America did with all its consequences.<br />

The knowledge, data and<br />

technology to transform our traditional,<br />

reactive, preventive and predictive way<br />

of maintenance into a proactive and<br />

prescriptive way of maintenance are<br />

available today.<br />

If AI and AR are sufficiently accessible,<br />

intuitive and people oriented, we can<br />

thus predict, analyse and execute safety<br />

and maintenance problems better than<br />

ever before. Algorithms can constantly<br />

learn and, thanks to advancing insight,<br />

predict and prevent asset failures better<br />

than us humans, and this through<br />

a smarter mix of forecasting models<br />

based on richer historical, contextual<br />

and current data. AR can support technicians<br />

and operators in a consistent and<br />

standardized manner when performing<br />

tasks and thus reduce the risk of failure.<br />

Moreover, our efficiency could increase<br />

exponentially using new technology.<br />

Why let 10 engineers walk around when<br />

the F1 car can be perfectly monitored<br />

from a distance?<br />

For example, we will evolve from<br />

reactive (What do we see?), through<br />

diagnostic maintenance (Why did it happen?)<br />

to prescriptive, proactive maintenance<br />

(What could happen best?), which<br />

can make our industry grow and diversify<br />

exponentially. And if we choose to become<br />

the bravest among asset managers,<br />

we may be at the cradle of a new, thriving<br />

economy which has no equal worldwide<br />

with an exponential revival of industry<br />

in Europe, Belgium and Flanders.<br />


Every hour, every minute, every nanosecond<br />

changes the world, and asset<br />

management changes. We are evolving<br />

into a world where people become less of<br />

an executive centre, but rather a creative<br />

innovator.<br />

As mentioned, this will require adjustments<br />

from everyone within asset<br />

management. Our role in maintenance<br />

is changing drastically, so we will have<br />

to learn new skills. The classic maintenance<br />

profile will gradually evolve into<br />

an operator context, such as the F1 driver<br />

or the aircraft pilot who not only controls<br />

the aircraft, but also monitors and<br />

adjusts the operation. A maintenance<br />

manager with the right tools and support<br />

can become a change manager and game<br />

changer for the entire company.<br />

Because maintenance has a higher<br />

purpose than just running machines. We<br />

are vital in running our economy and life<br />

itself. From food supplies for our growing<br />

world population to new pandemic<br />

medicines, asset management plays a<br />

vital role for everyone. And we also need<br />

to fulfil that role in the future.<br />

If we want to offer ourselves and the<br />

future generations in Europe and Flanders<br />

a future, we will have to make our<br />

industry better, more efficient and more<br />

innovative. Not only out of pure cost<br />

efficiency but also to provide a powerful<br />

counterweight to the emerging markets.<br />

As a result of the corona crisis, we might<br />

eventually evolve towards a “new form<br />

of globalization”, one of institutional<br />

diversity and heterogeneity, or do we<br />

continue to “sub-optimize” in a globalization<br />

aimed at institutional harmonization<br />

and convergence? Or else: we opt<br />

for an over-globalized world, in which we<br />

depend mainly on imports from the Far<br />

East and other emerging markets. Or do<br />

we choose to invest with all our knowhow<br />

and resources in new high-tech<br />

industries which will conquer the world<br />

themselves? The choice is ours.<br />

Let us make an opportunistic use of<br />

this crisis and achieve something big. Let<br />

us have the courage to go further and to<br />

transcend ourselves like the Netherlands<br />

did after the disaster of 1953. It is time<br />

for asset management 4.0.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 15

NEWS<br />

Value Driven<br />

Maintenance is More<br />

Important than Ever<br />



NFV and Mainnovation offer a special<br />

webinar series: the “VDM XL Deep Dive Sessions”.<br />

In these months, in which we are<br />

dealing with COVID measures, value driven<br />

maintenance/world class maintenance is<br />

more important than ever. Therefore, both<br />

organizations decided to share their knowledge<br />

to support and train maintenance<br />

professionals.<br />

Technical Services Departments are<br />

struggling. We are dealing with COVID measures<br />

and still we must make sure we can depend<br />

on our asset availability and reliability.<br />

Besides this, Western industry is aging, and<br />

installations need to be replaced. And we<br />

need to make sure we keep up with digitalization,<br />

future maintenance and automation.<br />

To stay competitive, constructive maintenance<br />

is essential. The good news is this does<br />

not need to be a cost aspect! With VDM XL ,<br />

a proven methodology from Mainnovation,<br />

the Technical Services Department can<br />

make a difference and create value.<br />

Join forces<br />

The Norwegian Society of Maintenance<br />

(NFV) thinks it’s important to give maintenance<br />

professionals future knowledge<br />

about maintenance and asset management.<br />

Therefore, Per Schjølberg, deputy chairman<br />

at NFV and Mark Haarman, managing<br />

partner from Mainnovation, consultancy<br />

firm on Maintenance & Asset Management,<br />

decided to join forces. Value Driven<br />

16 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong><br />


THE VDM XL Deep Dive Sessions consists<br />

of 16 different webinars. The<br />

webinars can be joined individually<br />

or as a complete package.<br />

You can find a subscription and the<br />

dates of the complete webinar series<br />

on the website of NFV: www.nfv.no.<br />

Everyone who finds these webinars<br />

of interest, is invited to subscribe. The<br />

first webinar will take place August<br />

25 th <strong>2020</strong>.<br />

Maintenance & Asset Management, or<br />

simply VDM XL , explains how to extract<br />

maximum economic value from an existing<br />

plant, fleet or infrastructure using a<br />

professional management approach. With<br />

this methodology capital-intensive companies<br />

can professionalise their Technical<br />

Services Department and transform it<br />

from a cost centre into a business function<br />

that continuously improves business performance.<br />

The work is based on a quantitative<br />

control model, a control panel with<br />

12 KPI’s, sector-specific benchmarks, and<br />

over 50 best practices.<br />

The webinar series is also in line with<br />

World Class Maintenance (WCM). The<br />

modules are going to be included in the<br />

World Class Maintenance – Maintenance<br />

Management course, that is arranged for<br />

Norwegian participant of the NFV with the<br />

start of October <strong>2020</strong>.<br />

Content<br />

The webinar series cover the most relevant<br />

topics in future maintenance. World Class<br />

Maintenance and VDM XL , Value Driven<br />

Maintenance and Asset Management, are<br />

the foundation. The VDM XL Deep Dive<br />

Sessions covers themes and topics, a maintenance<br />

professional can instantly turn into<br />

practice. Subjects vary from a focus on cost<br />

control to creating an ideal staffing of your<br />

Technical Services Department and the status<br />

of Predictive Maintenance. Experts will<br />

answer questions like: How can you increase<br />

the competitive value of your installations?<br />

Which skills are important in the new era<br />

of digitalization and automation? What are<br />

the seven biggest pitfalls in maintenance<br />

change projects? What is good spare part<br />

management? All topics a maintenance professional<br />

would want to know more about.<br />

Earlier this year the webinar series was,<br />

in cooperation with the Dutch maintenance<br />

association NVDO and the Belgian maintenance<br />

association BEMAS, presented to<br />

maintenance professionals in the Netherlands,<br />

Belgium and France. The attendees<br />

were very enthusiastic about the content.<br />

They were impressed with the fact that<br />

within an hour very hands on information<br />

was given about maintenance.


Asset and<br />

Maintenance<br />

Management:<br />

Combined Technologies to<br />

Uncover Untapped Business Value<br />

In the technology-pervasive times we live in; whether<br />

called the Information Age, the Digital Age, or Industry 4.0;<br />

new, easier ways to work have emerged.<br />


Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS,<br />

melissa@iconics.com<br />

THERE’S NO DOUBT how fundamentally<br />

technology has affected both individuals<br />

and organizations. Maintenance technicians,<br />

in particular, have seen the nature<br />

of their jobs evolve, in step with the<br />

latest advances in IT and OT. Multiple<br />

combinations of software and hardware<br />

have helped move maintenance priorities<br />

from the legacy break-fix model to<br />

a more proactive, time-reducing, and<br />

cost-saving model.<br />

Some specific technologies have<br />

helped to guide this major change. These<br />

include asset-based monitoring and control,<br />

as well as predictive fault detection<br />

and diagnostics (FDD); concepts that<br />

have been developed and furthered by<br />

ICONICS, a global provider of automation<br />

software (https://iconics.com), into<br />

its AssetWorX and FDDWorX solutions,<br />

respectively.<br />

18 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong><br />



There are multiple benefits to being<br />

able to see an organization’s connected<br />

digital assets in an easy-to-understand,<br />

hierarchical format. It allows managers,<br />

operators, and maintenance personnel a<br />

shared overview as to the equipment involved<br />

in business operations. The asset<br />

“tree” provides a functional hierarchy<br />

for navigation and for data roll-ups. Lower-level<br />

equipment combines to form<br />

higher levels in the structure. Physical<br />

locations and areas of responsibility can<br />

be identified in the hierarchy.<br />

ICONICS AssetWorX helps to organize<br />

enterprise and equipment data into<br />

reusable asset equipment classes (templates),<br />

which allow for reuse and scalability<br />

while also improving ease of configuration.<br />

These configured assets can<br />

represent any equipment or area in an<br />

application (e.g. pumps, heat exchangers,<br />

well heads, gas fields, turbines, chillers,<br />

buildings, building zones, manufacturing<br />

cells, plants, etc.). In addition, the ability<br />

to auto-configure assets for use within a<br />

SCADA system (for monitoring, control,<br />

etc.) helps save on engineering time, increases<br />

ease of use, and ensures scalability<br />

for future application additions.<br />

AssetWorX can identify specific<br />

equipment and all of its associated<br />

properties and KPIs, including real-time<br />






status, alarm data, historical data,<br />

runtime accumulation, or downtime<br />

accumulation by cause. In maintenance<br />

applications, configured asset properties<br />

can include maintenance work order<br />

information with data acquired from<br />

a network-connected enterprise asset<br />

management (EAM) system, fault detection<br />

rules, mechanical drawings accessed<br />

from a networked CAD system, or unit<br />

production data accessed from an enterprise<br />

resource planning (ERP) system.<br />

Assets configured through AssetWorX<br />

can then be monitored and controlled<br />

through runtime, using an Asset Navigator,<br />

where users can perform a variety<br />

of commands, such as accessing reports,<br />

displays, trends, alarms, and other information<br />

about the equipment from the<br />

asset tree by left- or right-clicking on any<br />

node in the tree. Right-clicking pops up<br />

a menu of options that have been previously<br />

defined for runtime users. Runtime<br />

menus can vary from node to node,<br />

and from platform to platform. For example,<br />

a user could create menu options<br />

that are available only from a desktop<br />

monitor or only from a phone app. The<br />

list of highly useful commands accessible<br />

through an asset node in ICONICS AssetWorX<br />

continues to grow.


For more information<br />

on any of ICONICS’<br />

automation software solutions,<br />

visit https://iconics.com.<br />



AssetWorX allows for embedding certain<br />

capabilities into individual connected<br />

assets, such as the ability to monitor<br />

energy use (by equipment, line, product,<br />

building, plant, etc.). For maintenance<br />

operations, it can be especially useful<br />

to set specific assets for predictive<br />

maintenance purposes using artificial<br />

intelligence (AI) and ICONICS FDD<br />

technology.<br />

ICONICS FDDWorX helps users to<br />

analyze all available information to detect<br />

and predict faults in equipment. It<br />

incorporates algorithms that weigh the<br />

probability of faults and advises maintenance<br />

personnel, operators, and managers<br />

of actions to prevent equipment<br />

failures or excessive use of energy. When<br />

equipment failures occur, the connected<br />

assets’ current and historical information<br />

is analyzed along with symptom/<br />

cause relationships that the system has<br />

been taught. The software executes AI<br />

algorithms and provides users guidance<br />

with a list of probable causes sorted by<br />

probability. This immediate guidance reduces<br />

mean time to diagnose and repair,<br />

equipment downtime, and overall maintenance<br />

costs.<br />

Detection is based on definable logic<br />

that aggregates all available past and<br />

present data to detect current or future<br />

faults. Faults can be defined in many<br />

different ways, but are far more specific<br />

than alarm conditions, allowing users to<br />

specify enabling conditions that must<br />

be met and parameters that can help<br />

determine if a fault has occurred, or is<br />

about to occur. Diagnostics is about capturing<br />

knowledge from existing workers<br />

(the experts), work order history, alarm<br />

history, manuals, and device symptoms<br />

into a single place. It allows for the type<br />

of “institutional knowledge” that may<br />

have previously only existed in the heads<br />

of senior technicians to be recorded and<br />

kept digitally and used for analysis. By<br />

aligning conditions with symptoms and<br />

probability-ranked causes, fault diagnostics<br />

can be used to suggest the most likely<br />

cause of a fault as soon as one occurs.<br />



ICONICS provides a combination of<br />

an ISA-95 compliant hierarchical tree<br />

structure that mimics the layout of an<br />

organization’s plant, building, campus,<br />

or enterprise with advanced predictive<br />

maintenance technology. The software<br />

solution is easy to set up and deploy and<br />

integrates with the most popular BAS,<br />

SCADA, and business systems. An extensive<br />

library of standard equipment<br />

diagnostic models is also included to<br />

speed setup and deployment time, while<br />

a rules-based editor helps users easily<br />

customize and add new equipment diagnostic<br />

models.<br />

FDDWorX integrates with AssetWorX<br />

for defining assets, faults, diagnostic<br />

models, relationships between those<br />

assets, security on those assets, and a<br />

powerful commanding infrastructure for<br />

rich visualization in the runtime environment.<br />

ICONICS aims to help organizations’<br />

maintenance operations with logical<br />

asset-based control used in tandem with<br />

state-of-the-art fault analytics. Not only<br />

do these methods help to keep better<br />

track of all connected assets and data,<br />

but also to analyze them to uncover previously<br />

hidden additional value, such as<br />

savings from energy management, proactive<br />

maintenance, and much more.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 19


Consolidating Data Silos<br />

for Track Maintenance<br />

Learn how you can maximize your existing<br />

investments in track maintenance by consolidating data<br />

silos and see how Bentley's AssetWise solutions help<br />

advance transportation organizations by Going Digital.<br />


Rail and Transit<br />

Consultant at<br />

Bentley Systems<br />

WHILE RAIL AND TRANSIT organizations<br />

are great at collecting various forms of<br />

data, they typically struggle to effectively<br />

analyze it in order to inform decision<br />

making. With the ongoing digital transformation<br />

of the rail industry, the increasing<br />

volume and speed at which data<br />

can be collected, and therefore needs to<br />

be consumed, is becoming a significant<br />

problem for track maintenance teams.<br />

Compounding this is the likelihood that<br />

data is coming from multiple hardware<br />

suppliers, each providing their own independent<br />

software solution for its analysis,<br />

resulting in the creation of data silos<br />

across the organization. What is needed<br />

is a solution that is hardware neutral.<br />

A system that provides the ability to<br />

consolidate and manage all third-party<br />

data, thereby providing easy access to<br />

data it can trust as the basis of all types<br />

of analysis, including for example linear<br />

analytics related to track maintenance.<br />

The Data Silo Obstacles for<br />

Rail and Transit<br />

With data coming from multiple sources<br />

and in many formats, the variety of this<br />

information often exceeds the understanding<br />

of a single person. Different<br />

teams will likely use a range of isolated<br />

datasets to perform specific activities<br />

across a network, and different team<br />

members will typically use and understand<br />

the different types of data in a<br />

number of ways, so the system should allow<br />

for the seamless sharing of datasets<br />

between the business units involved. In<br />

a world where so-called ‘Big Data’ is increasingly<br />

the basis for critical decisions<br />

within an organization, any solution they<br />

deploy needs to address four substantial<br />

obstacles of these ‘Linear Data’ silos.<br />

1. Datasets from Different Sources:<br />

The track maintenance reliability<br />

team will receive data from track<br />

recording cars, either autonomous<br />

or human-operated vehicles.<br />

Data can also come from walking<br />

inspectors, identifying defects.<br />

Datasets could also be images<br />

from ground-penetrating radar<br />

(GPR) scans, or video and Point<br />

Cloud surveys, or work records.<br />

2. Storing Datasets: Isolated systems<br />

could be the most significant<br />

obstacle for a rail and transit organization.<br />

Typically, the industry<br />

works in a siloed environment,<br />

and a change in methodology and<br />

culture is often required. Often<br />

datasets are segregated by product,<br />

or region, or business unit, or<br />

another grouping an organization<br />

considers valuable.<br />

3. No Accessibility: Beyond datasets<br />

being isolated from each other, in<br />

many cases, rail and transit organizations<br />

have no unified visibility<br />

across the isolated systems. Maintenance<br />

decisions are made based<br />

on several data streams from a<br />

number of silos, and in most cases,<br />

decisions are made without realiz-<br />

20 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


ing data that could provide insight<br />

is available.<br />

4. Data is an Asset: Data must be<br />

treated as an asset itself and maintenance<br />

across several systems<br />

brings additional obstacles. It may<br />

not be understandable across data<br />

silos, or the information may be<br />

duplicated and/or inconsistent.<br />

Consolidate from<br />

Multiple Sources<br />

The best decisions can only be made by<br />

generating a complete view of the situation.<br />

For example, a rail maintenance<br />

engineer analyzing an asset must see<br />

the current performance, as well as the<br />

historical and future trends, while at the<br />

same time understanding nearby and<br />

related assets, plus the maintenance activities<br />

applied to the entire surrounding<br />

area. Additionally, the data must be represented<br />

in a form that allows complex<br />

conditions to be easily understood. Data<br />

visualization is critical in transforming<br />

vast quantities of complex-linear data into<br />

actionable information that users can<br />

readily access, understand, and utilize.<br />

Consolidation of datasets is the core<br />

concept of AssetWise Digital Twin Services;<br />

the solution doesn’t care who supplied<br />

the hardware, nor does it care what<br />

the data represents. The solution allows<br />

an organization to not only visualize all<br />

the data about the linear assets regardless<br />

of source, and at the same time; the<br />

system can also configure the way it<br />

is visualized, enabling the targeting of<br />

tasks against roles in an organization.<br />

This visualization configuration ensures<br />

that the right team members are able to<br />

see any and all information relating to<br />

their decision-making process.<br />

The Approach for<br />

Consolidating the Data<br />

The concept of consolidating the data<br />

into a single source may seem simple<br />

at a high level. However, one reality is,<br />

there is no international standard for the<br />





format of track related linear data. Each<br />

source and each vendor of hardware<br />

used to generate the data has its independent<br />

standard form. The data, therefore,<br />

needs to be aggregated, cleansed,<br />

and normalized, to provide a coherent,<br />

current, and comprehensive representation<br />

of it. Once imported, this cleansed<br />

and trusted data can be augmented with<br />

management intelligence and then analyzed<br />

allowing this additional insight to<br />

aid more informed decision making. The<br />

methodology of consolidating data silos<br />

for track maintenance to achieve this has<br />

four steps:<br />

1. Collection: This is done through<br />

inspections, by track recording<br />

surveys, maintenance records,<br />

manual walking inspections,<br />

Geographical Information Systems<br />

(GIS), GPR, and ultrasonic<br />

imagery. Various business units<br />

or teams within a rail and transit<br />

organization will typically collect<br />

datasets that are of value to their<br />

business objectives.<br />

2. Dataset Creation: Previously<br />

these datasets were siloed due<br />

to the various business units or<br />

teams collecting and managing<br />

the information in isolation of<br />

others. These datasets need to be<br />

collected in their original format<br />

and the records must never be<br />

modified for auditing purposes.<br />

3. Aggregate: This step requires<br />

cleansing and normalizing the<br />

data into a single system. All<br />

modifications from the original<br />

data are made in isolation, and it is<br />

this cleansed data that is used for<br />

further analysis.<br />

4. Visualize and Analyze: The configuration<br />

of views to suit any preferences<br />

required for individual business<br />

units within an organization.<br />

This ensures that individuals do<br />

not receive information overload<br />

22 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


when analyzing data that has an<br />

impact on their decision-making<br />

process. Advanced statistical<br />

analysis will help determine the<br />

history, the present, and the future<br />

condition of the assets on the<br />

linear network. Trending the data<br />

to predict a functional failure to<br />

ensure an organization can schedule<br />

maintenance before needing<br />

to enforce speed restrictions or<br />

shutting down of the line.<br />

Empowering track<br />

maintenance<br />


The need for rail and transit organizations<br />

to do more with fewer resources is<br />

an everyday reality. Solutions that consolidate<br />

data will be essential for moving<br />

Empowering track maintenance<br />

Intelligent linear analytics<br />

forward. If an organization doesn’t currently<br />

have a culture of continuous improvement,<br />

there will be a culture shock<br />

and this needs to be addressed at the<br />

start of implementation. There will be<br />

bumps and roadblocks moving forward<br />

but working together and having a clear<br />

vision will ensure success in the future.<br />

This consolidation will empower track<br />

maintenance teams to perform analysis<br />

and forecast trends; make betterinformed<br />

decisions about maintenance<br />

and renewals; and improve safety, security,<br />

and reliability of the linear network.<br />

Going Digital with Bentley<br />

Going digital with Bentley ensures digital<br />

context, components, and workflows<br />

become part of your network’s digital<br />

DNA. OpenRail builds on your existing<br />

investments in BIM and enables your organization<br />

to take its next step in advancing<br />

the railways of tomorrow.<br />

• Comprehensive - The depth and<br />

breadth of Bentley’s OpenRail is<br />

unrivalled in the industry. It is<br />

trusted and proven on thousands<br />

of projects around the world over<br />

the past 30 years.<br />

• Open and Flexible - Bentley’s<br />

OpenRail leverages data in the<br />

common data environment to<br />

provide immersive and interactive<br />

modeling of rail and transit corridors<br />

plus related infrastructure<br />

assets.<br />

• Scalable - Bentley’s OpenRail is<br />

scalable and modular, enabling<br />

your solution to grow as your<br />

organization’s digital strategy<br />

evolves.<br />

• Timely - Bentley’s open, connected<br />

data environment enables teams to<br />

access trusted information wherever<br />

and whenever it is needed.<br />

Start Going Digital<br />

Digital technologies are changing the rail industry,<br />

and your organization might already<br />

be going digital. But if you are struggling to<br />

embrace change, or realize the benefits of<br />

digital technologies, Bentley can help.<br />

To assess what stage your organization<br />

has reached we have developed two digital<br />

assessments (advancement frameworks)<br />

– one for owner-operators focused on asset<br />

performance and another targeting<br />

supply chain members working on the delivery<br />

of capital projects. Both cover your<br />

current business practices and use of digital<br />

context, components, and workflows<br />

to help benchmark your organization’s<br />

existing digital practices, identify areas<br />

of opportunity, and highlight where the<br />

greatest value might be gained.<br />

The advancement framework covers<br />

five levels of advancement – aware, engaging,<br />

connecting, automating, and optimizing.<br />

It is often the case that organizations<br />

find variation within the different disciplines,<br />

teams, or phases of the lifecycle in<br />

which they work. Where an organization<br />

might be ‘automating’ in some areas of<br />

the business, it might only be engaging in<br />

others, so Bentley encourages you to use<br />

the assessment across key areas of your<br />

business and in collaboration with different<br />

team members.<br />

To take your digital assessment, visit<br />

https://www.bentley.com/en/goingdigital/<br />

rail/asset-and-network-performance-rail<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 23


Text and photos: DISTENCE OY<br />

Revolutionary<br />

Profitability with<br />

Intelligent Condition<br />

Monitoring and<br />

Remote Services<br />

There is a revolution in smart solutions in industrial condition monitoring and remote<br />

services. Technology is cheaper than ever before, and this is improving rates of return<br />

on investment, especially in heavy industry. For more than a decade, Distence in Finland<br />

has been providing cloud and edge computing solutions for large OEM companies.<br />

OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS many cheap<br />

condition monitoring sensors, often<br />

wireless and based on MEMS technology,<br />

have come to market to combat the cost<br />

of engineering heavy high-end online<br />

condition monitoring systems. The needs<br />

that lie in between these extremes have<br />

been met only with portable measurements<br />

performed periodically. That is<br />

changing, and now it is possible to introduce<br />

high accuracy online condition<br />

monitoring to smaller, tier 2 equipment.<br />

Panu Kinnari, COO of Distence Oy,<br />

says that the more cost-effective technology<br />

is made visible in the way companies<br />

can provide remote services to their<br />

customers. Instead of just sensors and<br />

threshold alarms, they can provide analytics<br />

and guidance to maximise the asset<br />

lifetime value.<br />

– The number of devices that are not<br />

measured at all or only rarely monitored<br />

is reduced. In heavy industry, it has<br />

been found that remote monitoring and<br />

the regular measurement of machines<br />

24 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong><br />

and equipment is a smarter and more<br />

cost-effective way of operating, Kinnari<br />

describes the direction of the changes<br />

brought about by the Internet.<br />

According to him, behind this trend<br />

are more intelligent control technologies,<br />

such as web-based methods for cloud and<br />

edge computing. Distence's answer to this<br />

challenge is the Condence platform, which<br />

utilises cloud and edge computing and is<br />

manufactured and developed in Finland.<br />

Condence development is based on<br />

experience accumulated over 15 years.<br />

The terminal collects measurements using<br />

commercial off the shelf sensors and<br />

converts the raw data into an understandable<br />

form using analytics algorithms at the<br />

edge. Significant data is sent to the cloud<br />

where the information is visualised into<br />

metrics describing the condition of the<br />

asset.<br />

– Condence is built from the ground<br />

up for remote management, so it is well<br />

suited for geographically dispersed<br />

monitoring of assets. Wind turbines are<br />

a perfect example. Many wind turbines<br />

are located either in the fells, offshore<br />

or in otherwise hard to reach locations,<br />

which can for example only be reached<br />

during a particular season. Mining, as<br />

well as equipment in the pulp and paper<br />

industry, are additional good use cases<br />

for Condence, Kinnari says.<br />

As said, the Condence system consists<br />

of standard modules, so its deliveries<br />

are swift. Thanks to remote management<br />

functions and complete control<br />

of the software stack, the mechanical<br />

installation can be separated from the<br />

configuration of the system. Separating<br />

mechanical installation from the configuration<br />

allows for optimal allocation<br />

of resources used in the implementation.<br />

Smart measuring devices<br />

have lots of significant users.<br />

Distence specialises in rotating machinery<br />

and equipment by combining<br />

vibration analysis and other methods





15 YEARS.<br />

of continuous condition monitoring.<br />

The company's objective is to produce<br />

complete solutions that enable suppliers<br />

and service providers of industrial<br />

machinery and equipment to agilely and<br />

cost-effectively digitise their product<br />

portfolio to suit their customers.<br />

Typical end-users of Distence's products<br />

are industrial companies with a<br />

large number of medium to large rotating<br />

assets. Vibration analysis, with acceleration<br />

data from IEPE sensors, utilised<br />

by Distence due to its suitability to a<br />

large variety of situations can deduce the<br />

source and severity of the failure from<br />

the collected vibration sample, allowing<br />

for accurate allocation of maintenance<br />

resources.<br />

The Distence customer list is undeniably<br />

an exciting read. There you will find<br />

great partners from Algol Technics, Danfoss,<br />

DavidBrown Santasalo to Moventas<br />

Gears. Not all of the customers can be<br />

named though.<br />

– The large end-users are the customers<br />

of our partners, i.e. condition monitoring<br />

service providers. So our relationship<br />

with reputable companies is a bit<br />

like a doctor's relationship with patients,<br />

he explains.<br />

Kinnari mentions one industry that<br />

has so far excelled in its absence from<br />

Distence's partnership lists. The forest<br />

industry, and paper companies in particular,<br />

apparently want to keep condition<br />

monitoring under their control;<br />

expensive paper machines are not often<br />

given to outsiders to monitor.<br />

Change takes time<br />

According to Panu Kinnari, there is still a<br />

misconception among the industry that<br />

the continuous measurements of condition<br />

monitoring are just simple analytics<br />

and more sophisticated analytics is not<br />

possible with continuous monitoring.<br />

– This perception is most likely due<br />

to the way condition monitoring has<br />

evolved from machine protection systems.<br />

Protection systems are developed<br />

for the rapid shutdown of machines and<br />

equipment in the event of sudden problems.<br />

Such a system needs to respond<br />

quickly to changes, so analyses must be<br />

able to be rapidly generated. Condition<br />

monitoring monitors more slowly developing<br />

phenomena, which means that<br />

analyses can be more complex and that<br />

there is more time to analyse changes,<br />

Kinnari explains.<br />

One reason for lack of measurements<br />

is the business-as-usual approach – if<br />

one can live with the status quo, why try<br />

to change things?<br />

– In a way, people tend to protect<br />

themselves as well. In many cases, the introduction<br />

of measurements also reveals<br />

past omissions. No one wants to be the<br />

scapegoat for poor system performance,<br />

Kinnari ponders.<br />

Manual measurements and the analyses<br />

based on them still have such a legacy<br />

that the right interpretations always require<br />

human experience. Panu Kinnari<br />

believes that machine learning will become<br />

more common in the field of measurement<br />

as well, but there is still also a<br />

lot to achieve with rule-based systems.<br />

– Even in the field of condition monitoring,<br />

expert people retire every year<br />

and not enough new young experts<br />

replace them. In Finland, for example,<br />

it is no longer possible to specialise in<br />

the field of condition monitoring, as was<br />

possible before. So education should be<br />

changed in a more attractive direction<br />

for young people, he contemplates.<br />

Condence can produce measurement<br />

accuracy rivalling the most expensive<br />

systems in the market while still maintaining<br />

the measurement point cost in<br />

line with low-cost wireless alternatives.<br />

Broad adoption of continuous monitoring<br />

allows companies more flexibility in<br />

resource allocation and better accuracy<br />

in maintenance planning.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 25



Next-Generation Technology<br />

for Solving every<br />

Shaft Alignment Challenge<br />


Senior Director Marketing,<br />


The invention of laser shaft alignment revolutionized the industry by delivering<br />

measurements more precise by orders of magnitude than traditional methods.<br />

Because laser systems have moved from being “state-of-the-art” years ago<br />

to “state-of-the-business” today, one might be tempted to think that all laser<br />

measurement systems are the same, and that there is nothing left to innovate in<br />

this important technology. But that view is mistaken. It is true that some systems<br />

have remained the same, but others have continued to evolve.<br />

THIS ARTICLE introduces the latest<br />

advance: adaptive alignment. It is a combination<br />

of software and hardware innovations,<br />

enabling maintenance teams<br />

to address any type of shaft alignment<br />

task, from the standard, daily and simple<br />

alignment jobs through to the more<br />

complex and challenging tasks such as<br />

the alignment of cardan shafts, vertical<br />

flanged machines with right-angle gearboxes,<br />

or extensive machine trains with<br />

gearboxes.<br />

Adaptive alignment eliminates human<br />

error while delivering new levels of<br />

accuracy and speed. This next generation<br />

in laser shaft alignment is made possible<br />

by two must-have underlying innovations:<br />

Single-Laser Technology and<br />

Active Situational Intelligence.<br />

Systems outfitted with these technologies<br />

deliver new levels of flexibility<br />

in three key areas:<br />

• Adapting to the Asset<br />

• Adapting to the Situation<br />

• Adapting to the Maintenance<br />

Team<br />

In this article we will introduce the<br />

first two key areas. Part 2 of the article<br />

will be published in <strong>Maintworld</strong><br />

3/<strong>2020</strong>.<br />

Single-Laser Technology<br />

With a single-laser system, users have<br />

just one sensor and one laser to set up.<br />

Not only is this faster, it eliminates the<br />

many frustrations and risk of inaccuracies<br />

that happen when working with two<br />

lasers firing in opposite directions.<br />

Dual laser systems are challenging to<br />

coordinate through the entire measurement<br />

process. In particular, they suffer<br />

from a “divergence” phenomenon that<br />

happens when line-over-length between<br />

the laser and sensor is out of range …<br />

and contact between the laser and detectors<br />

is lost.<br />

26 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>

Figure 1: Dual<br />

laser technology<br />

over long distance:<br />

line-overlength<br />

divergence<br />

Figure 2: Singlelaser<br />

dual detector<br />

technology solves<br />

the line-overlength<br />

divergence<br />

problem<br />

Dual laser systems struggle with angular<br />

alignment in particular. Technicians cannot<br />

easily maintain the line to the detector<br />

– a fundamental problem that is magnified<br />

as the measurement distance increases,<br />

such as measuring across a spacer shaft.<br />

Technicians have to restart measurements,<br />

which means stopping, loosening<br />

the feet, moving the machine, retightening<br />

the feet, and then hoping the detectors are<br />

now within range. This process may need<br />

to be repeated multiple times. Every one<br />

of these episodes adds significant time to<br />

the process and increases the potential for<br />

errors.<br />

Basic laser alignment systems<br />

can’t adapt. They recommend doing a<br />

“pre-alignment” before taking the first<br />

measurement. But this involves moving<br />

the machine from its as-found state – thus<br />

being unable to document it – and is really<br />

nothing more than a visual educated<br />

guess. In addition, only horizontal parallel<br />

movement is practically performed, overlooking<br />

the very real possibility of angular<br />

misalignment.<br />

For critical assets<br />

that have rollers,<br />

In-Situ Cardan Shaft<br />

Alignment is an<br />

innovation that saves<br />

tremendous amounts<br />

of time and money –<br />

while delivering a highprecision<br />

result.<br />

Single-Laser alignment systems eliminate<br />

all of these problems. Leveraging<br />

two optical detector planes in a single<br />

sensor, technicians never need to stop,<br />

loosen and retighten feet, or take multiple<br />

sets of measurements. Used in conjunction<br />

with Freeze Frame Measurement<br />

(explained below), long distances<br />

can be measured without any chance of<br />

the laser losing the target sensor.<br />

Single-Laser Technology delivers rapid<br />

completion of alignment tasks while<br />

improving precision at the same time.<br />

Systems outfitted with this technology<br />

include a “Live Move” capability that<br />

enables technicians to literally see corrections<br />

in real time. They see updated<br />

results in vertical and horizontal planes<br />

simultaneously across the full range<br />

of the sensor detection surfaces. This<br />

overcomes the limitations inherent to<br />

non-adaptive, dual-laser systems that<br />

have the line-over-length divergence<br />

problem.<br />

Active Situational Intelligence<br />

Active Situational Intelligence (ASI)<br />

is software that provides real time, “in<br />

the moment” feedback and guidance.<br />

For instance, quality of measurement is<br />

tracked and displayed to the technician<br />

during a continuous sweep. Certain factors<br />

that can compromise measurement<br />

quality in non-adaptive systems, such as<br />

errors induced by coupling backlash or<br />

environmental vibration, are automatically<br />

detected and filtered out on the fly,<br />

enabling highly precise measurements<br />

even in challenging circumstances.<br />

ASI is real time, actionable intelligence.<br />

It is situationally aware and delivered<br />

as work is being done. It dynami-<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 27


cally reacts to everything involved in the<br />

alignment process. ASI also has predictive<br />

intelligence, enabling technicians to<br />

evaluate different possible courses of action<br />

before embarking on the time-consuming<br />

task of moving a machine.<br />

With these two breakthroughs, advanced<br />

systems can deliver on the promise<br />

of adaptive alignment in all three critical<br />

areas common to every alignment<br />

task – the asset, the situation, and the<br />

maintenance team.<br />

Adapting to the Asset<br />

Basic laser alignment systems are not<br />

engineered to support a broad range of<br />

critical rotating asset types. They are<br />

very difficult to use with certain asset<br />

types. This becomes a costly and timeconsuming<br />

problem for plants<br />

that rely on those assets or on certain<br />

specialized but common asset configurations.<br />

Capabilities for adapting to the<br />

asset include:<br />

Figure 5: Automatic<br />

Multi-Factor Quality<br />

Enhancement Provides<br />

Immediate Feedback<br />

Figure 6: PRUFTECHNIK’s<br />

Alignment Reliability<br />

Center® 4.0 is an example<br />

of collaborative<br />

communication<br />



Adaptive alignment quickly and easily<br />

handles machine trains, measuring<br />

multiple machine couplings simultaneouslyvia<br />

a unique multi-coupling measurement<br />

capability. Machine trains are<br />

common with gearboxes, and are among<br />

the most challenging of all alignment<br />

scenarios. As soon as you get to 3 machines<br />

the combinations of angles and<br />

offsets become almost exponential, and<br />

far beyond the capabilities of dual laser<br />

systems without ASI.<br />

With basic systems, a lot of trial-and-error<br />

happens with machine<br />

trains, and they often resort to mathematical<br />

projections in place of actual<br />

measurements. Because they use only<br />

one set of heads in this scenario, they<br />

only physically measure and monitor the<br />

live adjustment of one coupling at a time.<br />

But the movement of the gearbox affects<br />

simultaneously both couplings and all<br />

shaft positions. Only if both couplings<br />

are monitored in real-time can actual,<br />

not theoretical, changes be tracked.<br />

As work progresses sequentially on<br />

the train using a basic system, wrong<br />

moves can easily be made early in the<br />

process but not discovered until later.<br />

Assets can become bolt-bound or<br />

base-bound, and technicians cannot<br />

move them any further in the desired<br />

direction. When this happens, they must<br />

change the fixing point and start over.<br />



With no situational intelligence,<br />

rework becomes the order of the<br />

day. Adaptive alignment systems<br />

can measure a machine train in one<br />

go. Unique ‘under-constrained’ and<br />

‘over-constrained’ asset support enables<br />

the system to operate accurately<br />

with no fixed feet, one fixed foot, or<br />

two or more fixed feet – so technicians<br />

can get the optimum alignment<br />

incorporating real-world machine<br />

constraints.<br />

Used in conjunction with the<br />

Virtual Move Simulator (described<br />

below), Simultaneous Machine Train<br />

Alignment enables technicians to test<br />

a range of tolerances and proposed<br />

movements on the complete machine<br />

train, eliminating the trial-and-error<br />

and consequent rework common to basic<br />

laser alignment systems.<br />


In operating condition, most assets<br />

change their relative position due to increased<br />

temperatures and therefore need<br />

special presets during alignment. Since<br />

alignment can only be done when the<br />

machine is stopped, it’s essential to fully<br />

anticipate and account for real operating<br />

temperatures.<br />

Basic systems only measure the coupling<br />

changes. Unfortunately, this is<br />

only half of the thermal picture, ignoring<br />

28 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>

machine feet measurement changes. By<br />

not calculating and displaying the feet,<br />

maintenance technicians using these systems<br />

do not have complete information,<br />

and thermal impact becomes a matter of<br />

guesswork.<br />

Some systems attempt to compensate<br />

by enabling entry of one set of presets<br />

and attempt to derive the others. But this<br />

does not give technicians the full range of<br />

adaptability and control they want.<br />

Adaptive alignment systems deliver<br />

total thermal coverage that includes dynamic<br />

changes at both the coupling and<br />

the feet. This enables the maintenance<br />

team to enter thermal presets at both the<br />

coupling and/or machine feet.<br />


Not every industry has cardan shafts, but<br />

those that do face extreme alignment<br />

challenges. Standard practice for these assets<br />

is to take the cardan shaft out in order<br />

to accomplish alignment. This means dismantling<br />

and removing the cardan shaft,<br />

which may require a hoist or crane just<br />

to undertake an alignment measurement<br />

check.<br />

Adaptive alignment includes breakthrough<br />

technology that enables measurement<br />

with the cardan shaft in place – so no<br />

removal is needed. For critical assets that<br />

have rollers, In-Situ Cardan Shaft Alignment<br />

is an innovation that saves tremendous<br />

amounts of time and money – while<br />

delivering a high-precision result.<br />

When laser alignment supports the<br />

widest range of assets and configurations,<br />

it is a more complete solution that<br />

eliminates the manual workarounds and<br />

accuracy problems common to basic laser<br />

alignment systems.<br />

Situational Adaptability<br />

Although alignment seems to be a simple<br />

process – measure ? move ? remeasure,<br />

maintenance technicians know it is deceptively<br />

simple. They have to deal with<br />

many variables that come into play: asset<br />

type, asset location, installation or maintenance<br />

project, measurement setup,<br />

movement options, etc.<br />

Perhaps the strongest attribute of<br />

adaptive alignment is Active Situational<br />

Intelligence – its ability to adjust to these<br />

many different variables while delivering<br />

a smooth, rapid, and accurate alignment<br />

experience. The concept of adaptive<br />

alignment applies throughout the process<br />

and is driven by ASI. Here are a few<br />

of the innovations that come into play:<br />


When installing machines, the alignment<br />

should commence with uncoupled<br />

shafts, to remove any residual forces in<br />

the machine train. But basic systems<br />

don’t have optimized measurement<br />

procedures for uncoupled shafts. Technicians<br />

have to manually hold shafts to<br />

make sure both are at the same relative<br />

angle, then manually take the point, then<br />

manually move them. This greatly increases<br />

the risk of errors.<br />

With adaptive alignment, uncoupled<br />

shafts can be in any position; the laser<br />

just needs to hit the detector. During the<br />

measurement, shafts can be freely moving<br />

while the adaptive system works out<br />

the angles and obtains the measurement.<br />

This capability delivers high ROI<br />

when teams are installing an asset,<br />

because accurate results and required<br />

machine movements are obtained in the<br />

fastest possible time.<br />


Laser alignment systems, when confronted<br />

with a big initial misalignment,<br />

will come to the end of the detector<br />

range before completing the shaft rotation.<br />

The alignment cone is so big that<br />

the laser exceeds the measurement<br />

range, and a complete measurement is<br />

not possible.<br />

In cases like this, and because they<br />

lack adaptability, the standard advice for<br />

basic systems is to do a “pre-alignment”<br />

or “rough align” so that subsequently<br />

the laser and detector can operate<br />

within their limited range. Of course,<br />

this pre-alignment is done without any<br />

measurement help – technicians don’t<br />

know how much shimming or horizontal<br />

movement to do. They are estimating<br />

without knowing what the underlying<br />

problem is. Plus, in a practical sense<br />

these systems only show visual indications<br />

of horizontal position. Although<br />

some acknowledgement of the need for<br />

vertical positioning is made, no practical<br />

process for obtaining vertical position,<br />

such as shim correction amounts, are<br />

given – so technicians operate in the<br />

dark.<br />

Adaptive alignment solves the problem<br />

with Freeze-Frame Measurement.<br />

It handles any misalignment, no matter<br />

how big, over any practical distance.<br />

Technicians are automatically alerted<br />

when getting towards the detector edge<br />

during a continuous sweep measurement,<br />

and can freeze the measurement,<br />

reposition the laser, and continue with<br />

the continuous sweep. Built-in algorithms<br />

connect the sectors when the<br />

measurement is<br />

finished, “stitching” them together.<br />

The result is complete knowledge and<br />

documentation of the misalignment:<br />

where the problem actually is, and therefore<br />

what to do about it, without resorting<br />

to guesswork.<br />



An advanced innovation built into Active<br />

Situational Intelligence is the ability to<br />

detect and compensate for many factors<br />

that might negatively influence a<br />

measurement. ASI applies these quality<br />

enhancement factors in real time, during<br />

the continuous sweep. Technicians get<br />

immediate feedback, and in cases where<br />

automated corrections are not enough to<br />

produce a highly precise result, the technician<br />

is told exactly what to pay attention<br />

to when doing a new continuous sweep.<br />

This means that even less experienced<br />

technicians can take high-quality<br />

measurements by just following the<br />

steps and tips displayed on the screen.<br />

ASI evaluates many quality factors<br />

simultaneously in real time, such as<br />

rotation angle, speed, and evenness, providing<br />

instantaneous feedback. Included<br />

among those factors are these common<br />

issues:<br />

• Instant Coupling Backlash Filtering<br />

Basic laser alignment systems advise<br />

and/or warn users to “eliminate coupling<br />

backlash to obtain accurate measurement.”<br />

That’s easy for the vendor to say<br />

but not so easy for the technician to do.<br />

In contrast, ASI assumes that coupling<br />

backlash is going to happen. Builtin<br />

intelligence automatically detects<br />

backlash during the continuous sweep<br />

and filters it out. By recognizing coupling<br />

backlash and eliminating the appropriate<br />

measurement data, ASI delivers a<br />

clean measurement even when coupling<br />

backlash is present.<br />

• Environmental vibration<br />

Another automatic adjustment happening<br />

in the background during the<br />

measurement is the filtering out of<br />

the low-quality measurement points<br />

induced by environmental vibration –<br />

which commonly happens when a nearby<br />

machine is operating and producing<br />

such vibrations.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 29


Ultrasound and the IIoT:<br />

The Future of<br />

Condition Monitoring<br />

When a powerful and versatile technology such as<br />

Ultrasound meets the Internet of Things, new solutions<br />

arise that will take condition monitoring of assets to a<br />

whole new level. The development of ultrasonic sensors<br />

and their integration with data collection points promise<br />

to be a game changer when it comes to continuous and<br />

remote monitoring of industrial assets.<br />




SOUND has certainly become a major<br />

player in condition monitoring. Once<br />

considered just a leak detector, more<br />

maintenance & reliability professionals<br />

are beginning to realize all of the benefits<br />

associated with using ultrasound for<br />

condition monitoring applications.<br />

The P-F Curve with which we have all<br />

become familiar with reflects that trend:<br />

ultrasound is considered one of the<br />

first lines of defence against unplanned<br />

downtime, being able to spot bearing<br />

failures at a very early stage.<br />

Besides, ultrasound is well known for<br />

its versatility: the technology can be applied<br />

to different domains such as leak<br />

detection, bearings condition monitoring<br />

& lubrication, steam traps & valves<br />

inspections and electrical inspections.<br />

Traditionally, and still nowadays<br />

more commonly, ultrasound technology<br />

is used in maintenance and condition<br />

monitoring practices via handheld<br />

devices. These have been going through<br />

their own enhancements and many<br />

of them are sophisticated inspection<br />

devices and data collectors which can<br />

greatly improve any reliability program.<br />

30 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>




Leak Detection<br />

Bearing Condition Monitoring<br />

Bearing Lubrication<br />

Steam Traps & Valves<br />

Electrical Inspection<br />


CAT & CAT II Ultrasound Training<br />

Onsite Implementation Training<br />

Application Specific Training<br />


Free support & license-free software<br />

Online Courses<br />

Free access to our Learning Center<br />

(webinars, articles, tutorials)<br />


www.uesystems.com<br />

info@uesystems.com<br />




The Surge of Ultrasonic<br />

Sensors<br />

The ultrasonic handheld devices certainly<br />

still play an important role, but<br />

when we couple the technology with<br />

the capabilities that the internet brings<br />

us, we can create powerful monitoring<br />

solutions by using ultrasonic sensors<br />

connected to network-enabled devices.<br />

The sensors are always listening, as if<br />

an inspector was always there inspecting<br />

the asset, continuously, 24/7. They<br />

collect data from assets in the form of<br />

dB readings and send them to central<br />

devices who will process the data. This<br />

brings, of course, a huge potential for improvements<br />

on maintenance & reliability<br />

programs. We can now setup alarms,<br />

notifications, trend the condition of assets…<br />

all automatic, seamless and taking<br />

advantage of the well-known benefits of<br />

ultrasound technology.<br />

Sensors for mechanical assets<br />

Imagine you have an asset at your facility,<br />

let’s say a bearing. This is a critical asset<br />

that simply can’t fail. An ultrasound<br />

sensor can be permanently mounted<br />

on the bearing, continuously collecting<br />

dB readings and sending them to a<br />

data processing box. Is the dB reading<br />

abnormal? You get notified by email<br />

or SMS. You are always on top of your<br />

assets condition. Alarms can be setup<br />

according to your needs: want to know<br />

when a bearing needs lubrication? When<br />

there’s a damage on it? Want to have a<br />

sound recording of the bearing when an<br />

alarm is reached? Everything is possible<br />

since maintenance managers will be<br />

able to setup their own alarm thresholds<br />

and notifications. And make unplanned<br />

downtime a thing of the past.<br />

Sensors for electrical assets<br />

The same applies to ultrasound applications<br />

requiring airborne sensors, such as<br />

electrical inspections. Place the airborne<br />

sensors next to your critical equipment,<br />

and they will be constantly listening to<br />

these assets. As soon as something abnormal<br />

is picked up by the sensors, data<br />

in the form of dB readings & sound recordings<br />

will be sent to a central processing<br />

box, which will again trigger the setup<br />

alarms and notifications. Ultrasound<br />

has proven to be an excellent technology<br />

when it comes to finding electrical faults<br />

such as corona, tracking, arcing or mechanical<br />

looseness. Coupled with online<br />

sensors, improvements in safety and inspection<br />

methods could be huge.<br />

New Ultrasound based<br />

IIoT Solutions<br />

There are already easy to implement<br />

solutions on the market that couple ultrasound<br />

technology with sensors and<br />

network-connected devices, allowing<br />

for truly continuous and remote monitoring.<br />

For bearings and other mechanical<br />

assets, there is for example the On-<br />

Trak, a remote IIoT bearing monitoring<br />

system using UE Systems’ Ultra-Trak<br />

750 sensors. The system is composed of<br />

16 sensors and a central processing box<br />

that can be connected to the network<br />

via wifi, ethernet or cellular data. Data<br />

from the sensors can be easily viewed<br />

on any laptop, tablet or phone. Real time<br />

insights and notifications can be used to<br />

constantly monitor lubrication & condition<br />

insights. Additionally, data can<br />

be integrated to cloud platforms such as<br />

Azure, AWS, Google, IBM Watson, PTC,<br />

Thingworkx, etc.<br />

Another solution for bearing monitoring<br />

is the 4Cast, working with the<br />

RAS (Remote Access Sensors) from UE<br />

Systems. Up to 4 sensors can be connected<br />

to a 4Cast box, which then connects<br />

to the network via Ethernet to provide<br />

data insights from the bearings. Data is<br />

then sent to UE Systems DMS 6 software<br />

for trending an analysis. The great advantage<br />

of the 4Cast is its ability to also<br />

record and store sound samples from<br />

the monitored bearings – this feature,<br />

together with the ability to create instant<br />

alarms, makes the 4Cast a great solution<br />

for critical and slow speed bearings.<br />

For electrical safety there is a solution<br />

such as the 4Site available. Similar to the<br />

4Cast, it can record & store dB readings<br />

and sound samples from up to 4 sensors.<br />

In this case, and since we are talking<br />

about electrical inspections, these sensors<br />

are airborne. Online continuous ultrasound<br />

inspection can be performed at<br />

all voltage levels (low, medium and high)<br />

and is used to detect corona, partial discharge<br />

or tracking, arcing and mechanical<br />

vibrations (transformers).<br />





32 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>



FROM HANDHELD DEVICES to connected<br />

sensors – this is the natural<br />

progression of ultrasound technology<br />

when used in industrial environments<br />

for maintenance, condition monitoring<br />

and reliability. Such as other technologies,<br />

integration in the IoT world<br />

will become a fact, and though the<br />

current solutions are already bringing<br />

exciting advancements, there is still<br />

much to discover and explore. What<br />

we know for sure, is that with the<br />

currently available solutions, maintenance<br />

departments have very effective<br />

weapons to fight against issues<br />

such as unplanned downtime and<br />

electrical equipment failures.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 33


In this article I will talk<br />

about the frequency range<br />

of accelerometers and<br />

about common mistakes<br />

in understanding them.<br />


Managing Director,<br />

ADASH LTD.<br />

Most Common Myths<br />

about Accelerometers<br />

and Frequency Range<br />

The most common accelerometer<br />

has 100 mV/g sensitivity. The frequency<br />

range declared by its producer is:<br />

0.5 Hz - 15 kHz, with plus minus 3 dB bias.<br />

Many people think that +/- 3 dB is not<br />

too much, that it is something around<br />

+/- 3 percent. But this is not true.<br />

The +/- 3 dB is much, much more. Minus<br />

3 dB is minus 30 percent, plus 3 dB is<br />

plus 40 percent. But the frequency range<br />

is not the primary subject of this topic.<br />

Let's suppose that the response function<br />

is flat. Most of the users want a very<br />

low frequency limit. They say: “I have<br />

to measure a slow speed machine, my<br />

machine speed is only 30 rpm, I need to<br />

measure 0.5 Hertz.”<br />

If I ask them why, they do not answer,<br />

because they do not understand the<br />

question. Let me give you an example:<br />

If I want to measure the acceleration on<br />

low frequency, what acceleration level<br />

can I expect? Would it be for example 1g?<br />

Most of the people are not able to<br />

imagine the vibration acceleration and<br />

velocity. Everybody can imagine the displacement.<br />

When you say that a<br />

34 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


machine vibrates +/- 3 mm, then everybody<br />

understands.<br />

So, we can use this formula for conversion<br />

of acceleration to displacement<br />

and displacement to acceleration:<br />

acc [m/s2] = disp [m] * (2 × π × speed<br />

[Hz])2<br />

Using this simple math, we can convert<br />

1 g to meters. If the speed is 30 rpm<br />

it means 0.5 Hz. (Do not forget to convert<br />

g to m/s2 firstly.) The corresponding<br />

displacement level is 1 m. Not one millimetre,<br />

but one meter. No machine could<br />

work with such a vibration level. The<br />

corresponding velocity level is<br />

3,200 mm/s, it is 125 ips, impossible...<br />

Now I suppose the displacement level is<br />

1 mm. The corresponding acceleration<br />

level is 0.01 m/s2. It is 0.001 g.<br />

If the sensor sensitivity is 100 mV/g,<br />

then the voltage for 0.001 g is 0.1 mV.<br />

It is not too much. Can you measure such<br />

a voltage level?<br />

The answer is NO, because the usual<br />

sensor noise level in the field is from<br />

0.2 to 0.4 mV. With such noise it is very<br />

difficult to measure the 0.1 mV because it<br />

is lower than the noise level. But let's go<br />

back to the basic question. Why measure<br />

the amplitude on 0.5 Hz?<br />

Another answer is: “I would need it<br />

when I would want to balance the machine<br />

or investigate the looseness or<br />

misalignment.”<br />

Yes, in these cases I need to measure<br />

the level on speed frequency, but I do not<br />

know who really wants to do it. When the<br />

speed is so low, then you should have the<br />

unbalanced mass tens of kilograms to<br />

increase the vibrational level. The centrifugal<br />

force depends on the square of<br />

the speed. At 30 rpm it will be very low.<br />

But the users say: “No! I do not want<br />

to balance, I want to measure the condition<br />

of the roller bearing.”<br />

And this is the key point.<br />

For such measurement I do not need the<br />

low frequency.<br />

When the bearing balls are passing<br />

scratches or it goes through bearing pitting<br />

if you wish, on inner and outer races,<br />

then the shocks appear in time signal.<br />

The natural frequencies of shocks<br />

are very high. Typically, between 500 Hz<br />

and 25 kHz. We do not need to measure<br />

low frequencies; we need to measure<br />

these very high frequencies. And this<br />

is not easy for low speed bearings (machines).<br />

We need high resolution of the<br />

signal (high sampling frequency) and<br />

at the same time we need a long-time<br />

signal, because the time interval between<br />

shocks is very wide. So, the whole<br />

measurement is extremely demanding<br />

on data processing and data storage.<br />

ADASH has therefore developed and put<br />

into use the ACMT measuring method<br />

for low speed bearing analysis, which<br />

through smart compression solves the<br />

mentioned problems and keep most of<br />

the information in the signal.<br />

The next most common misunderstandings<br />

are bearing fault frequencies.<br />

They can be very low for slow speed<br />

machines and users again use the wrong<br />

rule. They say that the accelerometer<br />

has to be able to measure the frequencies.<br />

This is wrong. The fault frequency<br />

is the repeating frequency of shocks, it is<br />

not pure sine frequency which should be<br />

captured by a sensor.<br />

We need to measure the natural frequencies<br />

of shocks. And they are again<br />

higher than 500 Hertz.<br />




AND 25 KHZ.<br />

Figure 1<br />

In Figure 1 you can see the<br />

spectrum and time signal (measured<br />

on a low speed bearing). The<br />

range is 25 kHz. All higher amplitude<br />

lines are in a range of 2 kHz<br />

and more.<br />

Please notice those very low g amplitudes<br />

in spectrum. The spectrum<br />

displays the energy of the signal. We see<br />

only shocks without significant energy<br />

in this signal. That is why the spectrum<br />

displays very low values.<br />

36 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>





OF SHOCKS.<br />

Figure 2<br />

Figure 3<br />

In Figure 2 we measured the spectrum<br />

in a 25 Hz range only. The repeating<br />

frequency of shocks for this bearing<br />

is around 1 Hz. You see nothing around<br />

1 Hz.<br />

If I want to see the repeating frequencies<br />

in spectrum, then I must apply the<br />

demodulation. It means, I must add the<br />

energy. Demodulated spectrum can display<br />

something visible. The demodulation<br />

spectrum uses the time signal which<br />

is enveloped. We want to measure only in<br />

the band from 500 Hz to 25 kHz. We are<br />

not interested in low frequencies.<br />

You can imagine the enveloping like<br />

simple electrical circuit: the shock comes<br />

and charges the capacitor and then the<br />

capacitor is discharged through the resistor.<br />

Discharging is much longer than<br />

the length of the original shock.<br />

This is the additional energy which<br />

helps us in spectrum. And it really<br />

helped.<br />

In the third picture you can see the<br />

repeating frequency 0.85 Hz and its harmonics.<br />

The harmonics always occur because<br />

the enveloped signal is distorted. It<br />

is not pure sine-wave which can display<br />

only one line in spectrum.<br />

I hope you will remember this article<br />

when you face measurement on low<br />

speed machines and hope you will now<br />

be able to check these machines more<br />

efficiently.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 37


Asset Care and Reliability in the<br />

Mining Industry using Ultrasound<br />


C.Eng., SDT<br />

Ultrasound Solutions<br />

Ultrasound applications<br />

are diverse, and yet many<br />

of the people that use<br />

them “know” about them<br />

for only one or two of<br />

their applications.<br />



THIS WITH IT” is therefore a common reaction<br />

when I refer to 8 pillars introducing<br />

the use of Ultrasound.<br />

There are many industries where all<br />

of these applications are important, and<br />

mining is an example to explore.<br />

COMPRESSED air is used in so<br />

1| many applications. Compressed<br />

air leaks become huge energy losses –<br />

in some mines there are megawatts of<br />

power used to produce compressed air.<br />

Air leaks in pneumatics and control systems<br />

however, can become show stoppers<br />

bringing production to a stop.<br />

Using Ultrasound for listening to internal<br />

air leaks or cracks on the boom of<br />

a dragline.<br />

STEAM is of major importance in<br />

2| certain mining processes – consider<br />

the steam injection systems used in<br />

a SAG-D (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage)<br />

plant for instance. Steam is injected<br />

underground to warm up and soften bitumen<br />

and heavier oils to make them easier<br />

to extract from the earth. The production<br />

of steam is thereby clearly linked to the<br />

production of oil in this application.<br />

Airborne ultrasound is used to safely<br />

identify steam leaks from a distance,<br />

which is clearly a major safety hazard in<br />

any steam process. The steam temperature<br />

may be almost 300°C corresponding<br />

to a pressure of roughly 8,000kPa, which<br />

means leaks can easily become the cause<br />

of serious injuries, or worse still, fatal accidents.<br />

There are sites around the world<br />

where the only safe, approved, method to<br />

inspect for steam leaks is ultrasound.<br />

Contact ultrasound is used to maintain<br />

the good operating condition of the<br />

steam traps in the system by identifying<br />

those failing steam traps that are not<br />

removing air, CO2 and condensate from<br />

the steam system.<br />

VALVES are used in so many applications<br />

and are virtually omni-<br />

3|<br />

present in the mining industry – consider<br />

how a hydraulic, or water system, is<br />

going to operate properly without the<br />

proper operation of the valves involved.<br />

Process failures tracked back to<br />

incorrect valve operation can create a<br />

large amount of unwanted downtime<br />

– one particular story in a coal mine<br />

comes to mind where an internal leak on<br />

a valve and also on the refurbished spare<br />

in the maintenance stores resulted in 12<br />

hours of downtime. Ultrasound is now<br />

used to provide a predictive maintenance<br />

service to identify such defects at<br />

a much earlier stage and schedule work<br />

on the valve at a convenient time.<br />

Everyone will understand the need<br />

to test valves to ensure that they are not<br />

passing or blocked, but there are other<br />

important failure modes on valves:<br />

valves can cavitate for example, which<br />

will result not only in premature failure<br />

of the valve but can also cause premature<br />

failure downstream – especially<br />

if the particular valve is on the suction<br />

side of a pump.<br />

HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS are used for<br />

4| motion and for power and there<br />

are many valve applications involved<br />

here too. Failure of hydraulic systems is<br />

not an option and yet too few businesses<br />

consider any maintenance practice<br />

other than breakdown, with the corresponding<br />

huge expense of downtime.<br />

Ultrasound can be used on shovels for<br />

example to listen to internal bypassing<br />

on boom, stick and bucket cylinders.<br />

The inspection method for cylinders<br />

is quite simple: merely place a sensor on<br />

the cylinder and allow it to operate in its<br />

normal fashion.<br />

Failure modes in hydraulics systems include external leakage, internal leakage,<br />

by-passing, and blockages. They are detected with ultrasound because they produce<br />

Friction, Impacts, and Turbulence.<br />

38 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>



5| SYSTEMS involved in the mining<br />

industry from DC to HV. In many cases<br />

dust is a major contributor to failure.<br />

One of the key problems associated with<br />

the build-up of dirt, dust and moisture<br />

on the surface of components is tracking.<br />

The ceramic insulator pictured here<br />

failed because it was covered in dust<br />

which was causing the tracking. Oncondition<br />

cleaning using ultrasound to<br />

identify the presence of the tracking is<br />

used to eliminate failures by optimising<br />

cleaning procedures.<br />

The mining community in South Africa<br />

are also leading the way in the adoption<br />

of ultrasound as a safety screening<br />

tool to protect electricians working in<br />

substations. A small ultrasound kit is<br />

located at the entrance to the substation<br />

and there is a series of assessment<br />

measurements to be performed in order<br />

to provide approved safe access to the<br />

building and proximity to the panels<br />

inside. This approach is undoubtedly<br />

saving lives by providing a higher level of<br />

safety in the work environment than can<br />

be provided by flameproof or arc-flash<br />

clothing alone.<br />

TIGHTNESS testing of the air intake<br />

systems of the large diesel<br />

6|<br />

engines in haul trucks using ultrasound<br />

has saved one mining company alone<br />

over €14M in three years for an investment<br />

of less than €28,000. Additional<br />

operational savings have been seen by<br />

minimising the time spent ensuring<br />

that the drivers’ cab environments are<br />

dust-free.<br />

MINING MACHINERY is diverse<br />

7| – sometimes simple like a conveyor,<br />

other times more complex as in<br />

the case of a reclaimer. The condition<br />

monitoring requirements in the mining<br />

world are, therefore, quite diverse<br />

and frequently not simple.<br />

Airborne ultrasound, sometimes<br />

using a parabolic dish pointing out of<br />

the window of a pickup is a very quick<br />

and reliable means of inspecting the<br />

condition of a conveyor – especially if it<br />

is 12km long.<br />

There is more than the usual amount<br />

of slow-speed equipment in mining<br />

which is often in critical operational<br />

roles. Ultrasound is perfectly capable<br />

of listening to bearings rotating at even<br />

less than 1rpm and still providing valuable<br />

diagnostic information.<br />

Finally, there is the need to consider<br />

the condition of machinery, which is<br />

itself moving – like shovels or is moving<br />

violently – like vibrating screens.<br />

This critical bearing rotating at<br />

24rpm was found to have failed during<br />

an ultrasound inspection. The bearing<br />

had recently been replaced, so it was<br />

relatively new. Unfortunately, the<br />

replacement bearing was not quite the<br />

correct one and was undersized for<br />

the load requirement. Very quickly,<br />

the new bearing disintegrated.<br />

OVER-LUBRICATION is quite<br />

8| an established tradition in the<br />

mining world – “grease that bearing<br />

until I can see the grease coming out<br />

of the sides”.<br />

So, there you have it. One technology,<br />

Ultrasound, used in either airborne<br />

or contact mode to identify problems<br />

in 8 major problem areas in mining.<br />

Conservatively, in the last decade the<br />

savings that customers have achieved<br />

must be well beyond €23.5M. Time<br />

for you to start?<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 39


Dynamic measurement –<br />

are you missing a checkbox?<br />



Reliability Engineer<br />

at EASY-LASER AB<br />

I want to start by making<br />

you think about car<br />

manufacturing. You can<br />

pick any car manufacturer<br />

you want. The way they<br />

build cars is based on<br />

their procedures which<br />

comply with international<br />

standards. Once the<br />

vehicle is built it goes for<br />

quality inspection.<br />

THERE THE INDIVIDUAL systems are<br />

checked making sure they are working as<br />

intended. Is then the car ready for delivery?<br />

No, of course it is not. The individual<br />

vehicles are going for testing and the<br />

car runs on the test bench for a certain<br />

amount of time. That means the quality<br />

inspection will assure that the whole system<br />

works perfectly together and is fully<br />

integrated.<br />

How about rotating<br />

machinery?<br />

So, what do we do when it comes to the<br />

maintenance and installation of rotating<br />

equipment? Do we test the machines<br />

before they come into the operation?<br />

We know some of the manufacturers of<br />

rotating equipment are individually testing<br />

and certifying their machines before<br />

they leave the facilities. But that does not<br />

necessarily mean that whole systems will<br />

be integrated together and work properly.<br />

In that scenario, it is like you buy<br />

your new car without it being tested. Get<br />

it, drive it, and find out for yourself if it<br />

works. Sounds safe and reliable?<br />

What are dynamic forces?<br />

In the assembly and installation phase,<br />

the rotating equipment is being installed.<br />

Only that. Then it is handed over<br />

to pre-commissioning and commissioning<br />

teams where the equipment is going<br />

to be tested. The commissioners will run<br />

the process and check vibration, temperature,<br />

and pressure. Here is where<br />

dynamic measurement comes in place.<br />

Dynamic measurement is on-site laser<br />

measurement which is performed to<br />

measure and show movements of the<br />

machinery when in operation. Thermal<br />

growth, pipe strain, nozzle load or any<br />

other dynamic forces which affect our<br />

40 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


equipment. For example, how does pipe strain affect our<br />

asset? Pipe strain is the misalignment between the suction<br />

flange of the asset and corresponding pipe flange connection.<br />

This misalignment makes deformation of the body of<br />

the asset and as consequence stress the bearings which leads<br />

into an increase of vibration. The similar thing happens with<br />

thermal growth, the machine condition where the increased<br />

temperature of the asset will change its physical condition<br />

making it grow in vertical and horizontal direction compared<br />

to its shaft centreline.<br />

This will lead to misalignment which produce shaft deflections.<br />

And again, this will stress the bearings and produce<br />

vibration. When the shafts are deflected, the bearings get to<br />

carry different loads than for what they were designed. We<br />

expect our equipment to be stable and solid. In the case there<br />

is unexpected movement, dynamic measurement will show<br />

us how much and in which direction the movement occur.<br />

This is a final test prior to enter into full operation and certify<br />

proper installation.<br />

How does it work?<br />

When the machinery is installed in place and final laser alignment<br />

has been done, the lasers will be mounted on the machinery<br />

using special dynamic measurement brackets. Now you<br />

will have two choices, to start measure offline to running or<br />

running to offline. That means you will start measuring from<br />

the ambient temperature and run your asset until it reaches<br />

full operating conditions, or vice versa you will start measuring<br />

at full operating capacity and let the machine run to stop and<br />

cool down to ambient temperature. That will provide you with<br />

full picture of how your equipment behaves under the load.<br />

Then you have your data so you can have a plan for necessary<br />

corrections. This is one very important part of reliable machinery<br />

installation.<br />

You are welcome to find out more on how to perform the<br />

measurement on easylaser.com.<br />

Reveal Your Potential<br />

Get a Reliability and Maintenance Assessment<br />

Call us +1 919-847-8764


Are you ready?<br />


Reliability and<br />

Maintenance<br />

Management Guru,<br />

Founder IDCON INC<br />

“We need to implement<br />

Maintenance 4.0! I just<br />

came back from a conference<br />

and it seems like<br />

everybody is doing it,”<br />

exclaimed John, a<br />

reliability engineer.<br />




higher priorities for you to work on.<br />

We had three major break downs this<br />

month that caused eight hours of lost<br />

production and expensive repairs. The<br />

daily schedule compliance is only at<br />

58 percent, and most of the jobs in the<br />

schedule aren’t planned” said Brian, the<br />

maintenance manager.<br />

“Yes” John replied, “But if we implement<br />

more machine learning and online<br />

sensors, we can increase data collection<br />

and fix this”.<br />

“John, do you remember when we<br />

put in about 100 sensors on process line<br />

two? Your cell phone was jammed up<br />

with alarms. And even though you spent<br />

a lot of time filtering them and requesting<br />

only the most urgent repairs, our<br />

backlog went way up. Your requests had<br />

to compete with all other urgent work in<br />

backlog. Several of the failures you had<br />

reported went to break down. It took<br />

us almost a year to get backlog back to<br />

what we considered normal. The same<br />

will happen, on a larger scale if we jump<br />

into more technology that we are not<br />

ready for.”<br />

“John, in the long run I agree that we<br />

should implement new technologies.<br />

I want you to keep learning about all<br />

the new technologies we can use and<br />

implement at the right time. Right now,<br />

you have to help me get the very basics<br />

implemented.”<br />

“So, what do you want me to focus on<br />

before we can implement Maintenance<br />

4.0?” asked John.<br />

“To start with the planners are only<br />

using 30 percent of their time actually<br />

planning work. The Bill of Materials is<br />

incomplete, so they can’t find the parts<br />

42 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


or materials needed for the work they<br />

need to plan. That means they are wasting<br />

time searching for or even buying<br />

parts. And don’t get me started on the<br />

fact that most of the work requests are<br />

given a much higher priority than they<br />

should be because they aren’t truly important<br />

but emotional.”<br />

I’ve heard discussions like these many<br />

times over the years, only the names of<br />

the technologies are different.<br />

I am all for new technology. In the late<br />

1970s I introduced and taught technologies<br />

such as SPM and Acoustic Emission,<br />

Wear Particle Analyses with Ferrography,<br />

Thermovision and many more, in<br />

Europe, China, India and many other<br />

countries. I was also instrumental in<br />

developing the first Computerized Maintenance<br />

Management System in 1968. A<br />

much-updated version that is still on the<br />

market, The Idhammar System.<br />

Today, new technologies are being<br />

introduced and adopted rapidly such as<br />

Internet of Things (IOT), cloud-based<br />

applications, better sensors and capabilities<br />

to accumulate huge amount of data.<br />

This is good and I am certainly all for it<br />

– when it is applied at the right time for<br />

the organization. I like this quote from<br />

Bill Gates:<br />

“The first rule of technology used<br />

in a business is that automation [new<br />

technology] applied to an efficient operation<br />

will magnify the efficiency.<br />

The second is that automation<br />

[new technology] applied to an inefficient<br />

operation will magnify the inefficiency”<br />

– Bill Gates<br />

I fully agree with this statement<br />

because I have seen so many examples<br />

where this is true. I visited a plant<br />

that had installed on-line condition<br />

monitoring systems that overwhelmed<br />

the Reliability Engineers and others<br />

with alarms on possible early failures.<br />

They were overwhelmed because<br />

their very basic reliability and maintenance<br />

management processes were<br />

not well-developed and at best only<br />

partially executed. Backlogs were increasing<br />

and failure reports from their<br />

Vibration and Oil Analyses were not<br />

be acted upon.<br />

This new technology for the plant<br />

would have been good if they had been<br />

in a position to Plan then Schedule the<br />

correction of these failures before they<br />

develop into a breakdown.<br />

Even though I have been preaching<br />

this for 50 years, I cannot stress<br />

enough how important it is, when implementing<br />

new technologies, that the<br />

very basics of maintenance prevention,<br />

inspections, plan, schedule and<br />

execute must be working well.<br />

This includes that most reliability<br />

related maintenance work is generated<br />

as a result of condition monitoring<br />

and basic inspections, right priorities<br />

in notifications and work requests,<br />

less than 10% changes in daily schedules<br />

that were frozen 20 hours in advance<br />

of execution, etc.<br />

Most of us who have been in this<br />

business a long time knows this. But<br />

the next generation will learn a lot of<br />

new technology at colleges and conferences,<br />

which is important, necessary<br />

and very good. However, they will also<br />

have to understand that people and<br />

good execution of the basic RM processes<br />

is still necessary for successful<br />

implementation of new technologies.<br />

John, the Reliability Engineer in this<br />

article, should focus on implementing<br />

the basics to be ready for financially<br />

viable use of upgraded technologies.<br />

When maintenance prevention including<br />

lubrication, justified fixed time<br />

maintenance, precision alignment,<br />

balancing and Root Cause Problem<br />

Elimination (RCPE), etc. are executed<br />

at a good level, and the chain (Inspect,<br />

Plan, Schedule, Execute), is not broken,<br />

you will enable great results using the<br />

technology you are ready for.<br />

You might think this is antiquated<br />

and that there must be a better way to<br />

manage maintenance. You are right, the<br />

same processes have been around for<br />

almost 2000 years, perhaps longer than<br />

that. The only thing that has changed,<br />

and will continue to change is technology,<br />

which in the last 60 years has<br />

become much better and much more<br />

affordable.<br />

The first known book on Maintenance<br />

Management that I have found<br />

is De Aquaeductu Urbis Romae written<br />

by Sextius Julius Frontinus AD 97.<br />



He was appointed by the emperor of<br />

Rome to maintain the aqueducts. Rome<br />

had a shortage of water and the alternative<br />

was to build a new aqueduct.<br />

Instead Sextius Julius improved maintenance<br />

of the aqueducts. The results<br />

included surplus of water in Rome<br />

without building a new aqueduct.<br />

What he did can be summarized like<br />

this:<br />

• Site visits<br />

• Documentation<br />

• Inspections<br />

• Daily meetings<br />

• Work preparation (Planning)<br />

• Preventive Maintenance<br />

We can call maintenance management<br />

by many new acronyms, but the<br />

basics are the same.<br />

I like to end with something I have<br />

said many times over the years:<br />

“New Technologies are important but<br />

use only the Technologies your organization<br />

is ready for”.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 43


Forces of<br />

Change<br />






CMRP<br />

Strategic Advisor<br />


The world has seen much change in <strong>2020</strong>. The COVID-19 pandemic has<br />

brought many countries of the world to their knees as we are experiencing<br />

one of the most disruptive events in memory.<br />

AT THE TIME of this writing, the terrible toll of the coronavirus<br />

pandemic on the US economy has continued unabated bringing<br />

the total of unemployed to more than 36 million. Fortunately,<br />

the latest figures from the labor department show the<br />

rate of unemployment claims are slowing, meanwhile many<br />

states and municipalities around the US are reopening their<br />

businesses.<br />

As a result of the pandemic, the US Government and the<br />

CDC have recommended that citizens adopt new ways of interacting<br />

and working going forward. Recommendations include<br />

things like social distancing, wearing personal protection<br />

equipment (PPE), and frequent hand washing, to name a few.<br />

These changes are becoming a way of life.<br />

This disruption caused by the COVID 19 virus is forcing<br />

change in all areas of society including organizations and<br />

businesses around the world. Organizations adjust to small<br />

changes all the time, possibly looking to improve productivity,<br />

responding to a new regulation, hiring a new employee, or<br />

something similar. The disruption caused by the COVID-19 is<br />

causing change on a massive scale.<br />

Some call this a driving force of change. Forces of change<br />

manifest themselves two ways, internally and externally. The<br />

COVID-19 virus is considered an external force of change.<br />

External forces of change can be more relentless in forcing<br />

change. In some instances, an organization or business must<br />

change or go out of business and cease to exist.<br />

So how do “forces of change” work? In Kurt Lewin's model<br />

there are forces driving change and forces restraining it. Where<br />

there is equilibrium between the two sets of forces there will<br />

be no change. In order for change to occur, the driving force<br />

must exceed the restraining force. See Lewin’s model below.<br />

The COVID 19 disruption has presented many companies<br />

with a grim reality: adapt, improvise, and implement new ways<br />

of working or cease to exist.<br />

Although COVID-19 has brought tremendous sorrow and<br />

loss of lives and livelihoods, some suggest that the driving<br />

force of change such as the disruptive COVID-19 virus can be<br />

harnessed and turned into something positive or constructive.<br />

With that in mind, it might be possible to capitalize on this current<br />

force of change and make some good things happen from it.<br />

Below I am going to list 5 things that many maintenance<br />

teams can begin doing now to add value while preparing them<br />

for the future.<br />

44 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>

1. Master the Virtual Meeting: virtual meetings are becoming<br />

an indispensable way of doing business in this current business<br />

climate. Stay at home workers are becoming the norm as<br />

a result of social distancing requirements brought on by the<br />

pandemic.<br />

Organizations reluctant to adopt virtual meetings will now<br />

be forced to do so. Going forward, working from home will not<br />

only be acceptable but encouraged. To be successful, the maintenance<br />

team should do the following:<br />

• Standardize virtual meeting software and learn how to<br />

use it.<br />

• Ensure it’s compatible with smart phones as well as PCs.<br />

• Make attendance and participation as easy as possible to<br />

ensure maximum participation.<br />

• Use the camera! It’s important to see faces in the meeting<br />

as this helps understand and monitor engagement.<br />

• Respect the time - start on time and finish on time.<br />

• Engage and communicate with team members. This will<br />

be the way of connecting and communicating going forward.<br />

2. Communicate with Internal and External Suppliers and<br />

Customers: Primarily, we will be concerned with our internal<br />

suppliers and customers (or partners as we often call them) e.g.<br />

the production team, the storeroom, engineering, vendors, and<br />

contractors. As our businesses are disrupted by the repercussions<br />

of the virus it’s important to communicate. We will have<br />

less face time with our partners at the plant and within the organization.


Kurt Lewin´s Force Field Analysis<br />




OR<br />


STATE<br />

The maintenance team must keep their suppliers and customers<br />

up to date on what’s changed and what’s not changed.<br />

Information that needs to be communicated:<br />

• Equipment repair updates<br />

• Maintenance schedule changes and updates<br />

• Shutdown and outage timing<br />

• Equipment problems<br />

• Employee changes or absences<br />

• Business priority changes<br />

• Production line changes<br />

All of the maintenance process partners, vendors and suppliers<br />

will be affected by the disruptions. Continuous communication<br />

will be absolutely essential to keep them informed.<br />

Consider a weekly e-newsletter sent out to key partners and<br />

external suppliers as well as phone calls and virtual meetings.<br />

3. Empower your team - I’ve heard people talk about this<br />

for years and yet they only give it a half-hearted effort. Now is<br />

the time to make it happen and the reason is obvious – business<br />

survival. Empowerment is the process of enabling or<br />

authorizing an individual to think, behave, and take action, and<br />

control work and decision-making about their job in autonomous,<br />

independent, self-directed ways.<br />

Current conditions have made this essential. Here are some<br />

things you can do to empower your team:<br />

• State what you need – be clear with team members about<br />

the new responsibilities, what’s required and expected.<br />

State it in measurable terms and be prepared to follow up<br />

and adjust.<br />

• Release control - remove barriers that limit the ability of<br />

staff to act in empowered ways.<br />

• Measure – Establish metrics that measure the team’s output.<br />

Review them with the team and let the metrics speak<br />

for themselves.<br />

4. Employ game-changing maintenance strategies - For<br />

years you had several initiatives that you’ve needed to implement.<br />

All of these were designed to improve efficiency and<br />

effectiveness of the organization. A lot of things have held you<br />

back including a strong enough business case that would involve<br />

management support. Here some ideas to move forward:<br />

• Identify time-based PM tasks that can easily be transferred<br />

to condition monitoring. This should be based on<br />

ease and cost of implementation. Consider using a vendor<br />

or outside resource. Allow them to manage the program<br />

while providing metrics, updates and action plans.<br />






• Engage the operators! You’ve discussed it for years, now<br />

is the time. Studies have shown that a well-trained operator<br />

can prevent up to 75 percent of all impending failures.<br />

Benchmarking studies have confirmed at least 25 percent<br />

of plant operators' time can be utilized for carrying out<br />

certain types of maintenance work. Four operators doing<br />

frontline maintenance equate to one fulltime equivalent<br />

maintenance technician. This allows maintenance to<br />

employ the maintenance techs in more technical and value-added<br />

activities.<br />

• Outsource some of the projects that can be done remotely<br />

such as procedure review and updating, PM reviews and<br />

updates, CMMS master data updates and builds, BOM<br />

development, and business process documentation, mapping<br />

and updating to name a few.<br />

5. Invest in people - At this time, your people will be worried<br />

about their jobs and their futures. Leadership will need to<br />

communicate clearly and regularly what steps they are taking<br />

to secure their employees and keep them safe.<br />

Some organizations are experiencing a shortage of workers.<br />

It’s therefore possible the maintenance team may not have<br />

the required skills to support it. This would be a good time to<br />

accelerate upskilling to cover these gaps in the team that are<br />

critical or will be when the crisis subsides, and the plant begins<br />

expanding. Some things to consider:<br />

• Virtual training<br />

• Online computer-based training<br />

• Virtual coaching and mentoring<br />

• On the job training led by staff or senior technicians<br />

Many say change is inevitable and that may be true. Unfortunately,<br />

most are never ready or prepared for it. Change can<br />

be disruptive and at times brings with it fear, pain, and suffering.<br />

Today’s challenge is to face it and resolve to make something<br />

positive out of it.<br />

46 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>



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Life may be remote, but you’re still in control. Our 5 new<br />

remote based services provide maintenance and reliability<br />

leaders the ability to meet goals and sustain gains. The<br />

remote services include: Maintenance Effectiveness<br />

Assessments, Hourly Coaching, Process Guide Library,<br />

SAP Training, and a Maintenance Management e-Series.


Monetizing Data in Maintenance:<br />

Data-driven Spare Parts Management<br />

Author: TOMÁŠ HLADÍK, Principal Consultant, Logio s.r.o.<br />

ORGANIZATIONS TODAY maintain huge amounts of data,<br />

structured or unstructured. However, from research of renowned<br />

organizations like Gartner, we know that industrial<br />

firms today are not able to use 70—90 percent of data that<br />

are collected and stored. This paradox is described in this<br />

article, and various generic models of big data monetization<br />

are proposed. Some of these models are presented as examples<br />

from spare parts management..<br />

Spare parts inventory can lock in significant amounts of<br />

workingcapital. This article summarizes recommendations for<br />

effectivespare parts inventory management and spare parts<br />

optimizationusing various sets of data and statistical analytical<br />

methods. In <strong>Maintworld</strong> 3/<strong>2020</strong> -magazine we will continue<br />

on the topic.<br />

Management of spare parts and other materials needed for<br />

realization of maintenance processes is one of the key functions<br />

in physical asset management. Especially in power generation,<br />

oil and gas and heavy chemical industries, spare parts<br />

inventories can easily add up to tens of thousands of various<br />

items, in a value of hundreds of millions of euros.<br />

It is obvious that efficient spare parts inventory management<br />

can have significant impact on the financial performance<br />

of the company. Better spare parts management can lead to<br />

improvement of financial performance of the company. In<br />

previous research we discussed several recommendations for<br />

spare parts inventory management. Using these recommendations,<br />

companies can achieve better financial performance<br />

in different parts of the spare parts lifecycle. In some of these<br />

Figure 1: ABC analysis<br />

of spare parts inventory<br />

based on available stock<br />

value [CZK].<br />

Figure 2: ABC analysis<br />

of spare parts<br />

inventory based on<br />

consumed quantity<br />

[pcs]. Dominance of<br />

categories C and D (i.e.<br />

items with very low or<br />

zero consumption) is<br />

characteristic for spare<br />

parts.<br />

48 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


Figure 3: Spare parts inventory segmentation in<br />

value according to the consumption frequency<br />

in the last 12 months. Segment 0 represents the<br />

value of items with no consumption over the last<br />

12 months; segment 1 represents the value of<br />

items with consumption recorded in 1 out of 12<br />

months of the analysed year, etc.<br />






recommended practices, various data can be employed and<br />

analysed – especially in areas like portfolio segmentation, criticality<br />

assessment, forecasting, improving spare parts naming<br />

and identification, or cleaning and rectifying master data.<br />

Eight Rules of Good Spare Parts Management<br />

In our previous research, we refined the following eight rules –<br />

best practices – for good spare parts management:<br />

• Focus on preventative maintenance – for preventative<br />

maintenance no inventories of spare parts need to be held.<br />

• Solve problems in spare parts processes.<br />

• Segment your spare parts portfolio.<br />

• Evaluate spare parts criticality.<br />

• Use suitable forecasting methods and verify their accuracy<br />

and reliability.<br />

• Use special methods for intermittent demand items.<br />

• Consider the whole lifecycle of your assets while making<br />

decisions related to spare parts.<br />

• Implement a good information system for spare parts<br />

management so all above stated rules are supported<br />

and/or automated.<br />

Some of these rules are described in detail in the following<br />

chapters.<br />

Each Item is Different:<br />

Segment your Spare Parts Portfolio<br />

In almost any inventory, different groups or segments of items<br />

can be identified. The primary objective of segmentation is to<br />

effectively divide an extensive portfolio of items on stock into<br />

separate groups requiring a different inventory management<br />

system, approach in planning, or specific optimization methodology.<br />

A good spare parts management information system<br />

allows for carrying out such analyses and portfolio segmentation<br />

quickly and easily, including visualization of outputs.<br />

For inventory segmentation, several methods and criteria<br />

can be applied:<br />

• ABC analysis of inventory based on quantity and value<br />

available on stock (Fig. 1) and other criteria<br />

• ABC analysis according to item consumption (Fig. 2)<br />

• Segmentation based on frequency of consumption<br />

(identification of slow-moving inventory) in quantity or<br />

value (Fig. 3)<br />

• ABC analysis according to item criticality<br />

• Categorization based on item accessibility (common,<br />

special, made-to-order)<br />

• Identification of intermittent items (special test of intermittent<br />

demand)<br />

• Segmentation based on suppliers’ lead-times<br />

For ABC analyses, in case of spare parts, the prevalence of categories<br />

C and D (items with low or zero consumption in longterm<br />

history) is very typical.<br />

Using segmentation based on consumption frequency,<br />

slow-moving inventory (SMI, items with minimum turnover,<br />

including “dead stock”) items can be promptly identified (Fig.<br />

3). For spare parts, the 0 segment is usually the most important.<br />

This segment covers items with no consumption record in<br />

the past 12 months. Segment 0 is generally the most significant<br />

both in quantity and in value. It includes items of strategically<br />

important and critical spare parts – items with the highest<br />

value in the portfolio. Other segments with low frequency of<br />

demand are also significant (segments 1, 2, etc.). Segments with<br />

frequent consumption (segments 10, 11, 12) contain items of<br />

fasteners with relatively low value (Fig. 3).<br />

The segmentation may also include specification of links<br />

between spare parts and appropriate production equipment<br />

(technical site). Bills of material, obtained in this way, make it<br />

possible to closely trace spare parts consumption for individual<br />

parts of production equipment, measure costs in each stage of<br />

the production equipment lifecycle, and identify critical spare<br />

parts in relation to the criticality of production equipment.<br />

For each identified inventory segment (or for each individual<br />

item, if possible), the required level of availability (service<br />

level) needs to be specified. The desired logistic service level<br />

is closely related to the spare part’s criticality: for highly critical<br />

items a service level of, for instance, 99.7 percent will be<br />

required. Obviously, there is a trade-off involved: the higher<br />

service level that is required, the higher minimum level of inventory<br />

is needed.<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 49


Maintenance<br />

Activities and<br />


RESCUE<br />

Maintenance services<br />

everywhere, are called<br />

to guarantee the smooth<br />

and efficient working of<br />

the industrial plants and<br />

maintenance management<br />

helps in improving the<br />

productivity keeping the<br />

machines/equipment in<br />

their optimum operating<br />

conditions.<br />



President I.E.RE.SP.<br />

www.ieresp.eu<br />

ing, chemical industry, water and sewer,<br />

agriculture, shipyard, motor, freight<br />

transportation, steel manufacture, corrosion<br />

removal, tank inspection and repair,<br />

and a number of other industries in<br />

which work involving Confined Spaces<br />

is carried out . Every day, we have a lot<br />

of people that enter Confined Spaces<br />

to perform their work functions for:<br />

construction, routine (or non-routine)<br />

maintenance, repair, modification, rehabilitation<br />

and inspections. Overall, the<br />

first goal must be to check if it is possible<br />





MAINTENANCE IN GENERAL is an important<br />

and inevitable service function of<br />

an efficient production system. In many<br />

maintenance activities, the work to be<br />

performed is planned in Confined Spaces.<br />

Around the World and, obviously also<br />

in Europe, we can find a large number of<br />

places that have Confined Spaces. There<br />

are many industry sectors that carry out<br />

work involving Confined Spaces and<br />

most industrial facilities have Confined<br />

Spaces. Oil and gas refineries, electrical<br />

and power utilities, food processing,<br />

pulp and paper, airlines, waste processto<br />

avoid entering a Confined Space. Since<br />

this is the best policy, any time is suitable<br />

to check if entering is inevitable, or<br />

if a Confined Space could be modified so<br />

that entry becomes unnecessary and/or<br />

work should done from outside. Working<br />

in a Confined Space holds many hazards,<br />

for example:<br />

• limited means of entry and exit<br />

• poor oxygen<br />

• presence of toxic fumes and vapours<br />

• electrical risks<br />

• … and many others<br />

that pose serious risks to workers and<br />

fatalities could happen unexpectedly.<br />

Fatalities in Confined Spaces<br />

happen in no time, during seemingly<br />

innocuous situations: inhaling an<br />

atmosphere that contains no oxygen<br />

causes loss of consciousness in a matter<br />

of seconds. Often the hazard is not<br />

present at the time of entry, which<br />

reinforces the need for continuous<br />

monitoring and supervision of work in<br />

Confined Spaces and half or more of<br />

all workplace Confined Space fatalities<br />

involve workers trying to rescue their<br />

colleagues.<br />

50 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>


If entering a Confined Space is performed,<br />

risk assessment results must be<br />

used to identify the precautions needed<br />

to avoid, or reduce to a minimum, the<br />

risk of injury and the Employer has to<br />

make sure that the safe system of work,<br />

including the precautions identified, is<br />

developed and put into practice. Everyone<br />

involved will need to be properly<br />

trained and instructed to make sure they<br />

know what to do and how to do it safely.<br />

Furthermore, adequate emergency arrangements<br />

must be put in place before<br />

the work starts.<br />

Emergency management, whatever<br />

its origin, is a particularly important aspect<br />

that requires a specific commitment<br />

by HSE managers. The Employer must<br />

put an emergency response plan in place<br />

to ensure the safety and health of Employees<br />

during critical emergency operations.<br />

To do this, it is necessary to equip<br />

the organization with rescue and emergency<br />

service that must be speciaised<br />

for the specific emergencies predictable<br />

depending on the business activities.<br />

The responders must be qualified on<br />

site Rescue/Standby teams and to be<br />

able to perform:<br />

• High angle rescue/<br />

above ground activities<br />

• Confined Spaces rescue<br />

• Trench rescue<br />

• Fall protection rescue<br />

• Remote locations and difficult<br />

work locations rescue<br />

All workers involved as First Responders,<br />

must receive specific training<br />

through specific courses. In case of fire<br />

prevention, training courses must be<br />

related to the type of activity and the<br />

workplace level of fire risk (low risk, medium<br />

risk or high risk). In case of a health<br />

origin emergency, it is necessary to highlight<br />

the specific limits of the planned intervention<br />

by a certified responder that,<br />

in the workplace, is normally in line with<br />

the concept of proper first-aid services<br />

according to the Community Directives.<br />

First aid, in fact, is the immediate application<br />

of first line treatment following an<br />

injury or sudden illness, using facilities<br />

and materials available at the time. Outside<br />

the EU, we can also find a specific<br />

sanitary responder called Industrial Paramedic,<br />

that is a clinical practitioner in<br />

paramedicine, with an expanded scope<br />

of practice, that uses his skills and expertise<br />

to provide emergency response,<br />

medical assessment, primary health<br />

care, chronic disease management,<br />

injury prevention, health promotion,<br />

medical referral and coordinate emergency<br />

medical evacuations as needed for<br />

Workers. Normally, Industrial Rescuers<br />

are not paramedics and their designation<br />

must take into account their capabilities<br />

and conditions in relation to their health<br />

and safety as well as the dimensions and<br />

specific risks of the company or production<br />

unit.<br />

That said, it remains to define what<br />

is the minimum level of preparation for<br />

emergency management (Preparedness)<br />

and reaction capacity (Response) required<br />

to ensure the effectiveness of the<br />

intervention in particular areas, such as<br />

Confined Spaces.<br />



[ARP] Training & Certification<br />

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safer, have fewer environmental incidents, provide for job satisfaction, and support financial reward for owners<br />

and shareholders.<br />

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knowledge, qualifications, and growth path to enable a program to be run successfully.<br />

[ARP-A]<br />

ARP-Advocate:<br />

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ARP-Engineer:<br />

Educates on technical<br />

aspects of a reliability<br />

maintenance program.<br />

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Managing the Crisis Effectively:<br />

How to Develop a Successful<br />

Asset Management Strategy<br />

During the Coronavirus Downturn<br />


Chairman and<br />

Co-Founder<br />

at T.A. Cook Consultants.<br />

COVID-19 is disrupting<br />

all sectors including the<br />

process industry – plants<br />

around the world are<br />

operating in emergency<br />

mode or are shut down<br />

completely.<br />

52 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong><br />

There is no hint about how long the<br />

situation will last nor can anyone realistically<br />

predict the scope of the economic<br />

impact it will have. Therefore, it is crucial<br />

to minimize costs while not compromising<br />

the effectiveness of the plants.<br />

The "bull market" has collapsed.<br />

For eleven years, stock market prices<br />

knew only one direction: up. COVID-19<br />

suddenly put an end to the seemingly<br />

eternal upward trend. A global recession<br />

seems inevitable. The only question<br />

that no one can seriously answer now is:<br />

Which development will the recession<br />

take? Economists distinguish between<br />

so-called "V", "L" or "U" movements depending<br />

on the curve shape. Within a few<br />

days, companies had to drastically limit<br />

their supply capacities. Airlines, travel<br />

agencies, hotels, car manufacturers,<br />

suppliers – all sectors are increasingly<br />

affected.<br />

But what does the dramatic situation<br />

mean for asset management in the<br />

process industry? Currently, the maintenance<br />

community is no longer concerned<br />

with optimizing availability. Instead,<br />

those involved are fighting to cut<br />

costs without jeopardizing the reliability<br />

and safety of the assets. In order to make<br />

this balancing act – and thus the crisis<br />

– as successful as possible, clear and unambiguous<br />

leadership is required. But<br />

what does good crisis management look


like during these times when COVID-19<br />

is dictating all aspects of human activity?<br />

We present six recommendations to help<br />

you optimize your asset management<br />

decisions during this unprecedented<br />

time and to emerge from the COVID-19<br />

slowdown unscathed and ready when<br />

business returns.<br />

1. Advance planned plant<br />

shutdowns (turnarounds,<br />

cleaning, etc.)<br />

Prepare your organization for earlier, legally<br />

or technically required plant shutdowns<br />

that were originally scheduled<br />

for late <strong>2020</strong> or 2021. Above all, check<br />

whether the necessary requirements are<br />

met. In other words, enough staff must<br />

be available both at your ser-vice providers<br />

and in your own company as soon as<br />

the current lockdown ends. If we have<br />

learned one thing from the 2008/2009<br />

financial crisis, it is that the global economy<br />

will need around two years to fully<br />

recover from a shock of this magnitude.<br />

Conversely, demand and product prices<br />

will drop significantly over the next few<br />

months. The advantage: This also applies<br />

to almost all service and material costs.<br />

Use this “window of opportunity” wisely.<br />

2. Avoid random budget cuts<br />

We all know that maintenance must help<br />

reduce costs in times of tight budgets.<br />

How-ever, if you reduce your maintenance<br />

costs across the board, you will<br />

feel the effects more clearly in a year<br />

or two – exactly in the period when the<br />

economy – presumably – is slowly picking<br />

up speed again. For you, this would<br />

mean that if the demand on the market<br />

picked up again, you would not be able<br />





to deliver the required plant availability<br />

that is in demand. So, check very carefully<br />

and systematically where you can<br />

reduce your costs with the least possible<br />

risk so as not to accidentally cause longterm<br />

competitive disadvantages.<br />

3. Reduce plant downtime<br />

(TA Scope) to a maximum<br />

Turnaround (TA) work packages related<br />

to expansive capital investments should<br />

be challenged immediately. However, all<br />

work packages that serve cost-effective<br />

production should remain in the TA-<br />

Scope. Investments that don’t reduce<br />

cost in the near-term should be delayed<br />

until the economic forecasts look brighter.<br />

The same analysis should be applied<br />

to work packages that exceed the legally<br />

required examinations. So, minimize<br />

your TA-Scope as much as possible. Due<br />

to probable resource bottlenecks, it may<br />

be more cost-effective to run two small<br />

Turnarounds, rather than one big, complex<br />

one.<br />

4. Maximize precision in<br />

maintenance and inspection<br />

work<br />

Nothing increases Mean Time Between<br />

Failures more than the consistent monitoring<br />

of wear and tear, the main cause<br />

of most system failures. If assets are<br />

bucking, make noises, become hot or<br />

dirty, they will not last as long as their<br />

quiet, cool and clean counterparts. Let<br />

your plant operators know the optimal<br />

reference conditions for fasteners, lubrication,<br />

alignment and balance, and<br />

improve communication between production<br />

and maintenance.<br />

5. PdM optimization and<br />

system troubleshooting<br />

Almost every company that we have<br />

worked for in the past 25 years routinely<br />

performs PdM (Predictive Maintenance)<br />

work that is inefficient. Optimize all<br />

maintenance and inspection plans that<br />

have a high proportion of corrective<br />

2/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 53


costs despite defined PdM measures.<br />

Because the expected level of production<br />

is likely to be relatively low in the next<br />

few months, you should take the opportunity<br />

to carry out a root cause analysis<br />

of your major system failures ('bad actors').<br />

Bad actors all too often fly under<br />

the radar but are responsible for a high<br />

proportion of unplanned maintenance<br />

and excessive maintenance cost. These<br />

are malfunctions which, although they<br />

do not have a great impact on the availability<br />

of the system, can (as a whole)<br />

cause high costs. Your operators and<br />

engineers can also easily carry out a bad<br />

actor analysis and the associated PdM<br />

optimization from the home office. Use<br />

the current situation and available time<br />

capacities to significantly reduce disruption<br />

costs in the future.<br />

6. Adjust maintenance<br />

measures to market demand<br />

The lower market demand will lead to<br />

a decrease in production volume. For<br />

maintenance, this means switching<br />

from an availability-driven<br />

strategy to a cost-oriented strategy.<br />

Therefore, evaluate all maintenance<br />

measures regarding their contribution<br />

to availability and the associated<br />

maintenance effort. Check all static<br />

maintenance strategies according to<br />

the new availability conditions and<br />

delete, stretch or postpone as many<br />

measures as possible without unnecessarily<br />

increasing the risk of failure<br />

beyond the desired availability level<br />

or violating legal provisions. Convert<br />

your maintenance to a 'demand driven<br />

maintenance model'. However,<br />

remember that maintenance and reliability<br />

function “out of phase.” If an<br />

investment today produces improved<br />

reliability two years from now. A<br />

cutback today results in reduced reliability<br />

during the same time period.<br />

Make sure that your reliability investments<br />

synchronize with the timing of<br />

market demand.<br />



cost-centered asset management strategy.<br />

For many plant operators, this will be<br />

a shift of their strategy by 180 degrees.<br />

To ensure that this process is as successful<br />

as possible, we have shown you the<br />

crucial areas of action.<br />


under point 2, since it directly<br />

affects all other aspects. It is essential<br />

to avoid reflex (panic) reactions to<br />

arbitrary cost cuts. Otherwise, careless<br />

short-circuiting operations jeopardize<br />

the ability to reliably run your systems<br />

at full load again when demand returns,<br />

which it invariably will. Be stringent and,<br />

above all, very methodical to utilize the<br />

time your employees spend in the home<br />

office to complete or optimize your asset<br />

management strategies. This is how you<br />

can turn the crisis into an opportunity.<br />

54 maintworld 2/<strong>2020</strong>





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