Sensory Library Design: Responding to a Pandemic's Impact on Built Environments

As libraries turn their thoughts to planning for a reopening of their buildings, the onslaught of information about how to do so safely can be overwhelming. The opportunity lies in supporting health and well-being, while allaying fears associated with returning to buildings used by many. Considered through the lens of our senses and how we interact with one another, this article offers a helpful way to organize the many issues and options.

As libraries turn their thoughts to planning for a reopening of their buildings, the onslaught of information about how to do so safely can be overwhelming. The opportunity lies in supporting health and well-being, while allaying fears associated with returning to buildings used by many. Considered through the lens of our senses and how we interact with one another, this article offers a helpful way to organize the many issues and options.


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Sensory Library Design

Responding to a Pandemic’s Impact on Built Environments

by Traci Engel Lesneski


As the world works toward establishing the new

normal, we must also turn our attention to the

next normal. Interventions in the built environment—where

we spend over 90% of our day

in the best of times—are necessary to ensure

healthy public and staff spaces in both the

short- and long-term. Using a building engages

the five primary senses—touch, sight, smell and

taste (through breathing the air), and hearing.

Each of these engagements with a building is

impacted by COVID-19.

Library buildings are social equalizers and

critical nodes of community connectivity.

Today’s libraries offer a wide range of resources

and services dedicated to fostering learning,

curiosity, and discovery in all the literacies

required to thrive. Open to all community

members (academic or municipal), library

buildings must support users in a full range of

activities, from solitary, focused work to large

meetings and social gatherings—and everything

between. Prior to the outbreak of COVID-19,

many discussions about library design centered

around human interaction:

▪ Increasing space for community gathering

and collaboration.

▪ Creating spaces that promote exploration

through hands-on learning.

▪ Supporting learning about health and nutrition

through community kitchens.

▪ Housing tools and physical items as an

extension of the sharing economy.

▪ Bringing staff members together in

collaborative, flexible workrooms.

We still need these things to happen. Humans

are inherently social and need one another to

flourish and thrive. The built environment brings

us together to connect with other community

members. Erik Klinenberg writes in his book

Palaces for the People (Klinenberg 2018), “Social

cohesion develops through repeated human

interaction and joint participation in shared

projects.” The world’s complex problems (e.g.,

pandemics, racism, food insecurity, climate

change, and homelessness) require systems

thinking to solve. Shared spaces such as libraries

provide places where people can practice the

bridging skills needed to work across political

lines, cultures, and countries. Talent is distributed

equally, but access and opportunity are not. The

pandemic has magnified inequality. We need

the built environment and especially spaces

that are open to everyone. Libraries are connective

tissue in fractured communities, offering

places where relationships can develop, and

people learn to deal with difference, density, and


Yet the risks associated with gathering in public

places while the pandemic is still ongoing are

real. We have quickly gotten used to meeting

online. In lieu of in-person programming, libraries

have pivoted to online programming and

podcasts. Curbside and remote holds pickup

services have reinstated much-needed access

to resources and entertainment. Even some volunteering

at the library has moved online. These

necessary adaptations and extensions of service

do not, however, replace the real need to be in

proximity to others and feel part of a community,

even if only to be alone together.

As libraries turn their thoughts to planning for

a reopening of their buildings, the onslaught of

information about how to do so safely can be

overwhelming. The opportunity lies in supporting

health and well-being, while allaying fears associated

with returning to buildings used by many.

Considering our senses and how we interact

with one another offers a helpful way to organize

the many issues and options.


What We Touch

Myriad resources offer guidance on how to

deal safely with the lending and processing of

materials. This article will focus only on the built

environment (see the end of this article for links

to resources). Library users and staff may also

be understandably concerned about using

shared tables and chairs. Viral particles settle

and resettle on surfaces through airflow caused

by mechanical systems, natural ventilation, the

movement of people, and even the thermal

plumes from bodies. A person may then touch

or use these contaminated surfaces. If that

person then touches their face (particularly their

mouth, nose, or eyes) before properly washing

their hands to kill any virus that was transferred,

they may contract the virus. We are familiar

with the repeated urging from public health

experts, medical professionals, and the CDC to

avoid touching our faces and wash our hands

frequently and properly. Proper hand washing is

a great defense against virus spread. It is worth

noting that when virus lands on a surface, it

immediately begins to degrade, making likelihood

for this sort of transition relatively low.

In fact, according to an American Society for

Microbiology study (Dietz, Horve, Coil, Fretz, Eisen,

and Van Den Wymelenberg 2020), no documented

cases of a COVID-19 infection originating

from a fomite (e.g., inanimate objects such

as tables, chairs, textiles, paper, plastics, metal,

and tile) have been reported. Still, frequent

cleaning of shared surfaces is advised. For large

libraries, placing placards stating that a seat or

table was recently used and awaits cleaning

may help manage time spent cleaning.


In recent decades, chemical additives and

finishes to upholstery textiles (purported to

boost performance and cleanability and protect

human health) have saturated the market.

Particularly, the past decade has seen a marked

rise in the use of antimicrobial building products,

such as paints, carpets, door hardware, and

counter tops. These substances are often

marketed as protecting humans from infections

caused by microbes (e.g., bacteria, fungi, and

viruses). However, no evidence exists that antimicrobial

technologies currently used for building

surfaces protect human health or prevent the

spread of viruses such as the coronavirus. Worse,

the chemicals used may be carcinogenic and

can actually cause harm to human reproductive,

endocrine, and respiratory health, of particular

concern in our current pandemic (Healthy

Building Network and Perkins + Will 2020).

Use materials that provide ease of cleaning

and are free of harmful substances. Recent

entries into the furnishings market include

silicone textiles that resist scuffing, scratching,

and abrasive cleaners; contain no adhesives,

solvents, topcoats, or chemical additives; and

are pleasing to the touch. The best defense

is to clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces

regularly (and remind people to wash their

hands frequently and properly). Making cleaning

visible reassures building users.


Implement Right Now

▪ Add touchless trash bins at entries and

throughout public spaces.

▪ Replace high-touch fixtures (e.g., hand soap

dispensers, faucets, and trash bins) with

touchless versions.

▪ Avoid incorporating materials and products

billed as anti-microbial.

▪ Add toe-pulls for toilet room doors.

▪ Remove doors from cabinets (in staff

workrooms and areas with public access to


▪ Add signage that reminds people to cover

their mouths and noses when coughing and

sneezing and to wash their hands frequently

(directing them to the nearest place to do so).

▪ Make hand sanitizer available throughout your

building, especially near entries, for use before/

after touching doors (if doors require touching

to use).

▪ Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces

regularly throughout the day (at least every two


▪ Add sanitizing wipes to all meeting spaces and

encourage use before/after use of tables, dry

erase markers, technology, and other tools.

▪ Use placards to alert customers and staff to

which tables/chairs were recently used and

await cleaning.

▪ Use signage to indicate when rooms were/will

be cleaned (e.g., study rooms, toilet rooms, and

meeting rooms).

Implement Over Time

▪ Replace building entry doors with touchless


▪ Replace toilet room doors with touchless entries

(e.g., “airport” or “s” style).

▪ Replace manual flush valves with sensoroperated,

hands-free fixtures.

▪ Provide additional hand-washing stations (for

large buildings). If existing drinking fountain

quantity exceeds code requirements, handwashing

stations with bottle fillers could replace

drinking fountains.

▪ Reupholster soft seating with wipeable textiles

on seats and backs.

▪ Implement automated materials return to

ensure returns are updated in users’ accounts

immediately while waiting for materials to be



What We See

As treasure troves of resources, libraries have a

lot of things present in their buildings. The library

and information services industry has quickly

gotten in front of how to loan materials safely for

customers and staff. These policies are posted

on websites and in buildings to bring peace of

mind. The visual presentation of these materials

also needs consideration. Visually chaotic surroundings

not only intimidate many library users,

but in times of a pandemic may create a perception

of germ-harboring. Practice vigilance

in keeping materials tidy and being intentional

about display. Keep display of materials limited

to fixtures, not along tops of shelving, to facilitate

ease of cleaning tops of shelves and reduce

surfaces for virus to land on. Limit the number

of signs and placards at service desks. Just as

good collection management practice includes

both acquisition and weeding, management of

a healthy interior environment requires editing.

A perception of cleanliness is important as well.

Choosing building materials that look clean

when they are clean will be especially key at

this time. While many of our clients balk at the

idea of light-colored tables or counter tops, it’s

easy to know when they are clean. This factor will

prompt frequent cleaning—key to keeping the

virus at bay—and help users feel more peace of

mind, especially when combined with a visible,

frequent, cleaning regimen. Of course, the virus

isn’t visible on surfaces, so keeping up with

cleaning and sanitizing, and handwashing, still


Access to nature can increase well-being and

lower anxiety. Boosting social cohesion safely,

natural environments have proven benefits, such

as lowered blood pressure, increased mental

focus and health, improved creativity, and stress

reduction. For community members lacking

access to safe outdoor spaces, libraries can be

a lifeline. Libraries with outdoor space can offer

physically-distanced programming, ranging

from story times and physical activity to outdoor

concerts and movies. Community gardens in

raised garden beds can be temporarily installed

in areas without green space (e.g., in parking lots

that may not be as full as they once were).

Even a visual connection to nature has positive

impacts on our health and well-being. Libraries

without open space large enough to offer

outdoor programming can position seating near

windows with views to the outdoors, or place live

plants throughout the building.

Implement Right Now

▪ Reduce clutter and keep spaces tidy. Edit out all

but the essential to help with cleaning and with

the perception of cleanliness.

▪ Move seating near windows with views to the

outdoors (spaced at least 6 feet, or 2 meters,


▪ Leverage outdoor spaces for programming.

▪ Add live plants to the building interior.

▪ Resist the urge to add signs about every service

or rule for using the building, and instead ask

yourself why it isn’t intuitively apparent what to

do in the first place. Then address the core issue.

▪ Make cleaning visible and clean high-touch

surfaces at least every two hours.

Implement Over Time

▪ Install or replace building materials that are

difficult to clean with those that are easily



What We Breathe

Public health experts have underscored that

COVID-19 is mostly spread by respiratory

droplets released when people breathe, talk,

cough, sneeze, and sing (which is why it’s so

important to stay physically distant from one

another). Being with people from other households

in interior spaces is always a risk in an

ongoing pandemic, but this risk can be reduced

by breaking the transmission pathways of aerosolized

virus. ASHRAE, a global society with the

mission to, “serve humanity by advancing the

arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, air conditioning,

refrigeration, and their allied fields” has

published position papers about safe engineering

practice for the built environment. In ASHRAE

Position Document on Infectious Aerosols,

ASHRAE states, “Ventilation and filtration provided

by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning

systems can reduce the airborne concentration

of SARS-CoV-2 and thus the risk of transmission

through the air” (ASHRAE 2020).

Mechanisms to increase the health of indoor air

fall into five basic categories:

1. Dilution. Dilute the air’s potential viral load

by introducing more outside air, improving

the effectiveness of air distribution

systems, and reducing the mixing of air in

occupied spaces (e.g., through the use of

displacement air systems such as under

floor air distribution). Evaluate your energy

recovery system’s installation and operation

to ensure there is no cross-contamination

between air being exhausted and outside air

coming into the building.

2. Relative Pressurization. Control/adjust

relative pressurization between building

spaces to avoid cross-contamination

between zones.

3. Improved Filtration. Use highly-efficient

particle filtration (enhanced beyond

code minimums). This strategy can be

incorporated into central air handling

systems as a filter replacement or upgrade.

Another option is to use unitary air scrubbers

with HEPA filters, which can be located within

an occupied space.

4. Mechanical Disinfection. Utilize ultraviolet

(UVC) lighting systems above head height

along room perimeters, within air handling

unit casings and/or ductwork, or bipolar

ionization in occupied spaces or within

ducted systems.

5. Optimized Relative Humidity. Make

provisions to control relative humidity to

stay within a range of 40%-60%. This tactic

typically involves adding humidification to

central systems or spaces.

Libraries should also have an emergency

response plan to maximize outdoor air ventilation

and improve central air and HVAC filtration

(using MERV 13 filters at a minimum, with MERV

15 filters preferred). Consideration should be

given to running systems 24/7 if possible and to

maintaining a range of temperature and relative

humidity that reduces the lifespan of bacteria

and viruses. Recent best practices also suggest

a full building flush using the central air handling

systems before and after occupied hours when

outside air conditions are acceptable. Because

many of these measures will have an appreciable

impact on energy use, we recommend

consulting a mechanical engineer to ensure that

the building’s heating, ventilating, and air conditioning

systems are engineered, operated, and

maintained to optimize safety without sacrificing

personal comfort—during the pandemic and,


with adjustments, after the period of risk has

passed. Adding humidification within buildings

to maintain relative humidity levels in the winter

months in cold climate areas will require an

analysis of the building envelope.

Toilet room and toilet fixture design also plays

a role. Toilet plume is the phenomenon of

droplets being explosively released into the air

when someone flushes a toilet. According to

an American Journal of Infection Control study

(Johnson, Mead, Lynch, and Hirst 2013), these

droplets can contain high concentrations of

pathogens, may stay in the air over 60 minutes,

and can be inhaled deep into the lungs. Lidless

toilets increase the risk considerably. Aside from

being a highly unpleasant thought, this phenomenon

has health implications, particularly

in an ongoing viral pandemic. COVID-19 virus is

confirmed to shed in feces and vomit. Limiting

occupancy of toilet rooms to one occupant (or

to individuals from the same household) may

help prevent possible transmission of the virus.

Carpet-free interior environments are another

consideration. Limiting the use of carpet

enhances the ability to clean the floor (where

much of the virus shed will land). Carpet holds

dust, dirt, pollen, mold spores, and other materials

brought in on peoples’ shoes. If not frequently

cleaned and properly maintained, carpet can

release these particles into the air during the

course of regular activity. The acoustic benefits

of carpeting are minor since most commercial-grade

carpet installations aren’t thick

enough to provide much acoustic value. The

acoustic benefit is primarily softening of footfall

noise. However, this benefit is outweighed by the

ability to fully clean and disinfect floor surfaces.

Implement Right Now

▪ Increase air exchange and turnover.

▪ Install lids on toilets if designed for them.

▪ Use operable windows where possible (and

safe) to increase fresh air.

▪ Limit building occupancy and duration of visits

(use an app so users can track when space is


▪ Use an entry token that must be returned when

leaving to track number of users in the building.

▪ Limit duration of visits to allow more people

access throughout the day.

▪ Provide outdoor services as much as practical.

▪ Implement dedicated hours for high-risk


▪ Implement a policy that toilet rooms are single

use (even those with larger capacity).

Implement Over Time

▪ Install toilets with lids (ideally sensor-activated)

and foot-pedal flushing mechanisms.

▪ Replace toilet rooms with single-occupant, selfcontained

roomlets (to contain the plume to

one area).

▪ Replace carpet with easier-to-clean flooring


▪ Upgrade mechanical systems to enable

increased fresh air, better control of relative

pressurization, improved filtration (either in

central systems or unitary air scrubbers), and

better control of relative humidity.

▪ Install mechanical disinfection systems (UVC

or bipolar ionization) in central air handling

systems or within occupied spaces.


What We Hear

Acoustics are a key consideration for library

buildings. Each user has a different expectation

for what is “proper” for a library, ranging along a

spectrum from place for solitary quiet study and

reflection to collaborative work and hands-on

learning, to listening to a great speaker or

musician. All have different acoustic requirements.

The pandemic may exacerbate these

expectations around acoustics. Those on the

front lines and looking for respite at the library

between shifts may be even more sensitive to

noise and activity. Conversely, those who have

grown tired of a solitary existence sheltered in

place for weeks on end may be pining for (safe)

proximity to others.

Many libraries will have temperature checks and

questionnaires to screen visitors and prevent

someone who is obviously ill from entering the

premises. However, even the healthy occasionally

cough or sneeze, and these sounds will

cause anxiety to many customers (and staff).

Spacing furnishings to allow physical distancing

is necessary and will provide a measure

of comfort and safety. Privacy dividers around

study and lounge seating, or the use of movable

fixtures such as markerboards, can offer privacy,

separation, and protection from direct contact

with others (and their coughs). Surfaces should

be cleaned frequently. White noise can help

mask some noises. Even more effective than

mechanical white noise, natural sounds have

a restorative effect on our psyche. According

to a Scientific Reports study (Gould van Praag,

Garfinkel, Sparasci, Mees, Philippides, Ware,

Ottaviani, and Critchley 2017), sounds from

nature physically alter the connections in our

brains, reducing our body’s natural fight-orflight

instinct. The individuals in the study with

the highest recorded stress levels registered a

lowered heart rate while listening.

Implement Right Now

▪ Install privacy dividers between staff and

customer workspaces, which can double as

sneeze guards.

▪ Implement a touchless screening system at

entry (e.g., touchless temperature scans and


▪ Make cleaning visible and clean high-touch

surfaces at least every two hours.

Implement Over Time

▪ Add a white noise/sound masking system to

staff workrooms and public seating areas.

▪ Add sound absorptive surfaces in trouble zones.

The removal of soft furniture for distancing

and bias for cleanable surfaces may produce

adverse effects on acoustics.


How We Interact:

Behavior Changes

Public health experts state that COVID-19 is

mostly spread by respiratory droplets released

when people talk, cough, or sneeze. The importance

of maintaining distance between individuals

while the pandemic is ongoing has been

underscored time and again by public health

experts. New behaviors will be required to keep

the public safe as we reactivate public spaces.

Temperature scanning to detect fever before

admission to a building, implementing one-way

entry and exit doors, and limiting building

occupancy will be common tools to protect

public health.

Maintaining distance between individuals

requires reduced density in public spaces. This

measure may require physically removing furnishings

to storage or other areas of the building.

If space permits, rearranging tables, seating, and

desks to decrease density and avoid face-toface

contact between users is a viable alternative

to removing furnishings. Flexibility has been a

hallmark of library design for decades. The ability

for users to adapt furnishing layouts to suit the

size of their group while maintaining proper

distance from others will be key. Light-weight

furnishings with low-friction glides (or furniture

on casters) will aid in this ability. At the policy

level, building occupancy levels may need to be

limited, and stay-time limits instituted to provide

equitable access.

As we get used to the idea of physical distancing

(keeping 6 feet, or 2 meters, from one another),

people will need visual cues to ingrain these

behavioral changes. Floor markers can be used

to space people in a queue at 6-foot distances,

or to mark seating zones. Movable privacy

screens, markerboards, panels, drapery, storage

units, plants, and other items can be used break

down large spaces into safe increments. Interior

Hennepin County Library–Eden Prairie

Teens’ Area and Hands-On Learning Lab

this page: existing plan | following page left to right:

distancing impacts plan and physical distancing plan



traffic patterns must also be considered, to

avoid conflicts that bring people closer than

the recommended 6 feet apart. Arrows on floor

to show traffic direction and spacing will serve

as reminders and guidance. If the use of stacks

is permitted, floor markers indicating traffic

direction is advised as aisles between stacks are

generally too narrow for safe passing. Provide

visual cues for distancing at check-out stations

and toilet rooms. Some floor finish manufacturers

are already starting to offer patterned

flooring to assist with these visual cues (Crook


Sometimes we need to work together, pandemic

or not, to collaborate in pursuit of innovation or

problem solving. These activities are most safely

done virtually, but, if done in person, a standing

meeting in an open area is a great alternative to

sitting at a table in an enclosed room. Standing

allows people to naturally distance themselves

from others, and moving (as one is more likely

to do while standing) has been shown to boost

creativity by 60% (Steelcase 2019: 70-84). In all

cases, groups should be limited to 10 people

or less and able to maintain 6 feet (2 meters)

between people from separate households.

Where possible, outdoor programming presents

an opportunity to connect with each other and

potentially nature in the safest way possible. Let’s

Move in Libraries (University of North Carolina

at Greensboro School of Education 2020) offers

many ideas for how libraries can foster health

and activity on one’s own or with community

members outdoors, safely.


Implement Right Now

▪ Reduce number of occupants in all enclosed

spaces (e.g., study rooms, offices, and

workrooms) to ensure distancing is possible.

▪ Designate one-directional entry/exit pathways

(and ensure that they are accessible).

▪ Designate lanes and directions for moving

throughout the building (including staff and

public spaces).

▪ Use temporary, movable partitions to subdivide

larger spaces.

▪ Space furniture (or remove) to adhere to

guidelines for 6-foot (2-meter) spacing

between people.

▪ Provide mobile power devices to facilitate

distancing and provide more control and

choice in how to distance.

▪ Designate elevators (lifts) as single occupancy

(or single household) per trip.

▪ Implement queuing protocols and visual cues.

If space is at a premium, consider using an app

such as QueuePad.

▪ Establish building capacity limits to ensure

distancing is possible.

▪ Make masks the norm by requiring them for

entry to be worn throughout the building.

▪ Require appointments for consultation to

eliminate potential bottlenecks.

▪ Consider requiring appointments to use study

and lounge seating.

▪ Continue drive-up, pick-up, and curbside


▪ Continue offering online and outdoor


▪ Designate public toilets as single occupancy.

Implement Over Time

▪ Replace furniture with lightweight, easily

movable products to allow expansion/

contraction of physical distancing.

▪ Consider gender inclusive toilet rooms, which

reduce the likelihood of long lines during highuse


▪ Provide a weather covering to protect people

while queuing outdoors.

▪ Continue a mix of online and in-person

programming (consider that online

programming may be more inclusive in the long




According to climate scientists, such as those at

the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health’s

Center for Climate Health and the Global

Environment (C-CHANGE), pandemics could

become a regular occurrence. According to

C-Change, “Many of the root causes of climate

change also increase the risk of pandemics”

(Bernstein 2020). For example, deforestation

is a major contributor to habitat loss, which

forces animals to migrate outside their normal

habitat—and come into contact with other

animals (including humans) they normally

wouldn’t. Humans’ historic partnership with

plants and animals is currently out of balance,

negatively impacting human health. As United

Nations (UN) Secretary-General António Guterres

states in his 2020 International Mother Earth

Day message, “We need to turn the [pandemic]

recovery into a real opportunity to do things

right for the future” (Guterres 2020). Policies

and social norms have been disrupted, which

presents a real opportunity for change. The

International Federation of Library Associations

and Institutions (IFLA) recognizes the deep tie

between the UN Sustainable Development Goals

(SDGs) and libraries (IFLA 2017). The library field

is uniquely positioned to show leadership and

advocacy in achieving these goals to create a

socially just and resilient world.

We have an opportunity to reevaluate and

reimagine what public places can be and how

they support and strengthen communities so all

can thrive. Libraries are the heart of public space

for most communities. At minimum, libraries will

need to address the very real requirement for

buildings to nimbly accommodate expansion and

contraction of occupancy (i.e., normal use model

vs. physical distancing model) and still be attractive

and welcoming to people. As Kim Tingley

states in her recent article “How Architecture

Could Help Us Adapt to the Pandemic” in The

New York Times Magazine, “When we don’t notice

the built environment, it’s silently affirming our

right to be there, our value to society. When we

do, too often it is because it’s telling us we don’t

belong” (Tingley 2020).

If not carefully considered, implementing the

safety measures required to protect library

users from contracting the virus could result

in safe spaces that nobody wants to use. For

this reason, hospitals and clinics have recently

begun drawing on residential design. Design

matters. Human health, comfort, and well-being

must be the drivers—and part of well-being is

feeling welcome and taking pleasure in one’s



About the Author

Additional Resources

Urban Libraries Council (ULC)

International Federation of Library Associations



Public Library Association (PLA)


Traci Engel Lesneski

cid, iida, leed ap, associate aia

CEO and principal of MSR Design, Traci focuses

on design for libraries and learning. She

promotes an integrated design approach—

equally valuing human well-being, building

performance, aesthetics, and delight. Recent

building projects Traci has led include the

award-winning VCAM building—a 24/7 visual

culture, arts, and media creative hub for

Haverford College in Pennsylvania—and

Missoula’s new library and culture house

(opening in summer 2020 in Montana). Traci

regularly contributes articles to library publications

and lectures nationally and internationally

about the built environment’s role in fostering

well-being, promoting learning, and creating

inclusive and cohesive communities. Traci is

chair of the American Library Association’s

Architecture for Public Libraries Committee

and a member of IFLA’s Library Buildings and

Equipment Section Standing Committee.

To request a PDF of this article, please contact Traci:







Healthy Building Network (HBN)


American Institute of Architects (AIA)





Additional Contribution

Technical input for the “What We Breathe”

section of this article was provided by Michaud

Cooley Erickson (MCE).



ASHRAE. 2020. ASHRAE Position Document on

Infectious Aerosols. April 14, 2020. Atlanta: ASHRAE



Bernstein, Aaron. 2020. “Coronavirus, Climate

Change, and the Environment: A Conversation

on COVID-19 with Dr. Aaron Bernstein, Director

of Harvard C-CHANGE.” C-CHANGE website.



Crook, Lizzie. 2020. “Milliken’s Latest Flooring

Collections Include Carpet Tiles to Aid Social

Distancing.” Dezeen (May 26). https://www.


Dietz, Leslie, Patrick F. Horve, David A. Coil, Mark

Fretz, Jonathan A. Eisen, and Kevin Van Den

Wymelenberg. 2020. “2019 Novel Coronavirus

(COVID-19) Pandemic: Built Environment

Considerations to Reduce Transmission.” Edited

by Jack A. Gilbert. mSystems, 5:e00245-20.


Gould van Praag, Cassandra D., Sarah N.

Garfinkel, Oliver Sparasci, Alex Mees, Andrew O.

Philippides, Mark Ware, Cristina Ottaviani, and

Hugo D. Critchley. 2017. “Mind-Wandering and

Alterations to Default Mode Network Connectivity

when Listening to Naturalistic Versus Artificial

Sounds.” Scientific Reports 7, article number:

45273 (March 27). https://www.nature.com/


Healthy Building Network and Perkins + Will. 2020.

“Do Antimicrobial Building Products Protect

Against COVID-19?” Healthy Building Network

Newsletter (May). https://healthybuilding.net/


International Federation of Library Associations

and Institutions (IFLA). 2017. “How Do Libraries

Further Development?” IFLA website.


Johnson, David L., Kenneth R. Mead, Robert A.

Lynch, and Deborah V.L. Hirst. 2013. “Lifting the

Lid on Toilet Plume Aerosol: A Literature Review

with Suggestions for Future Research.” American

Journal of Infection Control 41, no. 3 (March):

254–258. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/


Klinenberg, Erik. 2018. Palaces for the People: How

Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality,

Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life. New

York: Penguin Random House.

Steelcase. 2019. “The Science of Collaboration:

How the Body Activates the Brain and Makes

Ideas Better.” 360 Magazine Issue 75: 70-84.



Tingley, Kim. 2020. “How Architecture Could Help

Us Adapt to the Pandemic.” The New York Times

Magazine (June 09). https://www.nytimes.com/


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