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Active IQ Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Children) (sample manual)

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Manual

Level 2 Certificate in

Fitness Instructing

(Children)

Version AIQ004715


Contents

Unit One: Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise

Aims and learning outcomes ................................. 6

The skeletal system............................................... 7

The muscular system...........................................19

The nervous system............................................ 30

The life-course of the musculoskeletal system

and its implications for special populations............ 34

The respiratory system........................................ 38

The circulatory system......................................... 42

The energy systems............................................ 50

Reference list..................................................... 56

Unit Two: Know How to Support Clients Who Take

Part in Exercise and Physical Activity

Aims and learning outcomes................................ 60

Forming effective working relationships

with clients........................................................ 61

Supporting clients to adhere to exercise /

physical activity.................................................. 68

Addressing barriers to exercise / physical

activity that clients experience.............................. 78

Providing ongoing customer service...................... 81

Reference list..................................................... 85

Unit Three: Health, Safety and Welfare in a Fitness

Environment

Aims and learning outcomes................................ 88

Health and safety............................................... 89

Physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q)... 95

How to control risks in a fitness environment........102

Emergency procedures in a fitness environment....109

Safeguarding children and vulnerable adults.........114

Reference list....................................................124

Unit Four: Principles of Exercise, Fitness and Health

Aims and learning outcomes...............................128

Components of fitness........................................129

Health benefits of physical activity.......................134

Effects of exercise on the body............................135

Resistance training.............................................139

Warm up and cool down....................................142

Principles and variables of fitness in an

exercise programme...........................................149

Monitoring exercise intensity.............................. 159

Contraindications to exercise and key

safety guidelines for special populations.............. 162

Importance of healthy eating...............................172

Reference list................................................... 180

Copyright © 2010 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing - MANUAL


The skeletal system

The skeletal system consists of bone, cartilage and ligaments.

Bone

Bone is calcified connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton. The skeleton

consists of approximately 206 bones.

The skeletal system

consists of bone,

cartilage and ligaments

Anterior Skeleton (Front)

Posterior Skeleton (Back)

cranium

cranium

clavicle

cervical vertebrae

sternum

humerus

rib

lumbar vertebrae

ulna

radius

pubis

carpals

metacarpals

ischium

femur

scapula

humerus

thoracic vertebrae

ulna

radius

ilium

sacrum

coccyx

phalanges

femur

patella

fibula

tibia

fibula

tibia

metatarsals

phalanges

tarsals

Functions of the skeleton

Functions of skeleton

Framework

Protection

Locomotion

Soft tissue attachment

Production

Storage

Description

To provide a bony framework for the body and to give it shape

To support and protect certain vital internal organs (e.g. the skull giving protection

to the brain)

To act as biomechanical levers on which muscles can pull to produce joint motion

To provide surfaces for the attachment of soft tissues e.g. muscles and ligaments

Certain bones produce red blood cells, granular white blood cells and platelets

from their red bone marrow

To store several minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, to be released when

required. Triglycerides are also stored in the adipocytes of yellow bone marrow

Copyright © 2010 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing - MANUAL

7


Diffusion is the

movement of a gas,

from an area of high

concentration, to an

area of low

concentration

Inhalation

Exhalation

Movement of the diaphragm

Costal breathing is a shallow pattern of breathing through the chest and involves the

contraction of the external intercostal muscles (Tortora and Grabowski, 2003).

Diaphragmatic breathing is a deeper method of breathing, through the outward

distension of the abdomen and involving the contraction and lowering of the

diaphragm (Tortora and Grabowski, 2003). Diaphragmatic breathing is promoted to

aid relaxation in activities like yoga, and is linked with improved health (Yeufang,

1996).

Expansion of the rib cage provides an additional increase in chest cavity size. This

should only be required during times of laboured breathing, such as moderate or

high intensity aerobic exercise.

The exchange of gases

O 2

is pulled down the bronchi and bronchioles into the alveoli, by negative pressure,

as described above, but also because it flows down a concentration gradient.

Diffusion is the movement of a gas, from an area of high concentration, to an area

of low concentration. The concentration of O 2

decreases between the mouth and the

lungs, thus the gas flows in this direction. CO 2

flows in the opposite direction for the

same reason. Once the O 2

gets into the alveoli (the air sacs), it will continue to follow

this concentration gradient and will diffuse into the bloodstream. The alveoli have

minute capillaries running over and around them. Both the alveolar walls and the

capillary walls are so thin that they allow gases to pass through them. O 2

passes into

the blood and at the same time, CO 2

passes back into the lungs to be exhaled.

Capillaries

Alveoli

The O 2

binds to the haemoglobin (Hb - the protein that

carries O 2

, CO 2

and carbon monoxide in the blood) in the

red blood cells (RBCs). At the same time CO 2

dissociates

from the haemoglobin and diffuses from the blood into

the lungs. The red blood cells are then pumped within the

blood, via the pulmonary vein, towards the heart. This

constant flow of blood past the alveoli allows the high

concentration gradient to be maintained.

Alveoli

40

Copyright © 2010 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing - MANUAL


General FITT guidelines

Training goal Strength Hypertrophy Endurance Health Cardiovascular

Frequency 1-2

Intensity

Time

reps /

duration

Recovery

between

sets

Sets per

exercise

x per

week

per muscle

group

High

>85% 1RM

1-2

x per

week

per muscle

group

Moderate

67-85%

1RM

2-3

x per

week

per muscle

group

Low


Principles of a progressive training programme

Progression and periodisation

To avoid any plateaus or decreases in performance, the principles of progression and

periodisation should be applied. Progression means that when an overload is applied

it should be gradual and sufficient enough to elicit an adaptation, but it should not

be excessive. Excessive stimulus is counterproductive since it will lead to overreaching

and maybe overtraining. Excessive post-training muscular soreness, lasting up to

7-11 days after resistance training, is a prime example of excessive stimulus being

applied.

To avoid any plateaus or

decreases in

performance, the

principles of progression

and periodisation should

be applied

Periodisation is the planned progression and manipulation of the training variables

over a prolonged period of time. Varying the intensities and types of training in

phases or cycles can cause greater improvements in performance and decrease the

risks of overtraining and injury.

The human body is a master adapter, and given the right conditions it will adapt at

a reasonable pace to any new stimulus. Once the client’s physiology has adapted to

the workout stimulus, the onus is on the instructor to make appropriate programme

modifications. If appropriate modifications are not made, the client’s progress is

likely to plateau. In the medium to long term, progress stagnation is likely to cause

dissatisfaction. Modifications to an exercise programme should be progressive and

designed to build on the foundations set by previous sessions.

Genetic Potential

Progress Rates Over Time

Plateau = time for a new stimulus!

FITNESS LEVEL

Beginner Level

TIME

Each individual has a genetic potential that defines how far their fitness could

progress if training, nutrition and recovery were optimised. The de-conditioned

novice has a large adaptation potential because they are starting from a point far

below their genetic limits. Fleck and Kraemer (1997), in fact, contend that almost

any programme will work for an untrained individual, as they have a great adaptation

potential and are unfamiliar with any exercise stimulus. It is as a result of this

adaptation potential that beginners tend to make rapid progress initially once exposed

to the exercise stimulus.

154

Copyright © 2010 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing - MANUAL


Nutrient groups

Nutrients are substances found in our food, which the body is able to use for building

material and fuel. There are five nutrient groups:

• carbohydrate (CHO)

• protein

• fat

• vitamins

• minerals

Carbohydrate

This nutrient is divided into three categories.

Category

Sugars – simple structures,

the most common of which

is glucose

Starches – complex

structures made mostly from

long chains of saccharides

joined together

Fibre – the indigestible parts

of starch which help to keep

the digestive system healthy

fruit

fruit juice

dried fruit

table sugar

bread

pasta

rice

cereals, grains and beans

fruit

vegetables

whole grains and cereals

beans

Food examples

honey

jams

confectionery

potatoes

sweet potatoes

vegetables

Dietary carbohydrates

Functions of carbohydrate

The primary role of carbohydrate is to provide the body with energy. The brain is especially

dependent on glucose as a source of fuel, along with the working muscles during

more intensive exercise. For this reason, the body is able to store small amounts of

carbohydrate within both the liver and the muscles.

Dietary fibre is a tough substance, which is found in unrefined

starchy foods and cannot be broken down by the body to provide

fuel. This indigestible material stays within the digestive system

where it helps to provide bulk, which in turn enables the

smooth passage of food and waste products along the

digestive tract.

Copyright © 2010 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing - MANUAL

173


Protein

Proteins are made from building blocks called

amino acids. There are 20 of these amino acids,

which the body uses to make the many proteins

that it requires. There are two categories of foods

which can provide these important building blocks.

Examples can be found in the table below:

Category

Animal sources - an excellent source of protein containing

plenty of amino acids in favourable amounts

Plant sources – a poorer source of protein containing fewer

amino acids and in smaller amounts

Food examples

meat

poultry

fish

dairy produce

eggs

grains

cereals

nuts

beans

Dietary protein

Functions of protein

The amino acids gained from the diet, alongside those which the body is able to

make for itself, are finally used to build many different proteins. These proteins in

turn fulfil many functions, ranging from helping to transport important substances

in the blood, to allowing growth and repair of human tissue. Protein is particularly

important to aid recovery after heavy and intensive training.

Fat

Dietary fats occur in three basic categories, each of which are important to the

body in order to maintain health and performance. Examples are given in the table

below:

Category

Saturated fat – mostly found in animal

sources but also present in select plant

sources, important for the body’s cells and

the nervous system

Monounsaturated fat – found in animal and

plant sources, helps to protect from heart

disease

Polyunsaturated fat – found in fish and plant

sources, important for cells and proper brain

function

meat

eggs

dairy produce

meat

olive oil

oily fish

sunflower seeds

Food examples

poultry skin

coconut oil

palm oil

peanut oil

avocados

sunflower oil

flax seed

Dietary fats

174

Copyright © 2010 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing - MANUAL

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