30.06.2020 Views

Active IQ Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga (sample manual)

For more information, please visit http://www.activeiq.co.uk/qualifications/level-3/active-iq-level-3-diploma-in-teaching-yoga

For more information, please visit http://www.activeiq.co.uk/qualifications/level-3/active-iq-level-3-diploma-in-teaching-yoga

SHOW MORE
SHOW LESS
  • No tags were found...

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

Manual

Level 3 Diploma in

Teaching Yoga

Version AIQ004342


Chakras and Kundalini

As the Kundalini moves upwards during the phase of Kundalini rising, it encounters and fills each of the

lower chakras, one after the other.

The chakras function within the following three general groups (known as the Gunas or attributes of life):

1. Tamas - the first two chakras relate to the primal activities that operate according to the physical world,

including the drives for self-preservation and procreation, effectively obscuring higher experience.

2. Rajas - the third and fourth chakras, the navel and the heart centres, involve a subtler relationship

with the world, working with one’s individuality rather than just engaging the physical world.

3. Sattva - the fifth and sixth chakras, the throat and the eyebrow centres, begin movement away from the

outer towards the inner world of purity, intuition, creativity, and wisdom, from which the outer arises.

(Swami J, 2011).

Granthis (the three knots)

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika states “When the dormant Kundalini gets aroused by the grace of the guru, then

all the chakras and the granthis (knots) get pierced”.

Granthis are psychic knots in the physical body, distinguishable from chakras in that these knots have to

be ‘pierced’ and dissolved to enable the free passage of prana. The granthis are said to be pierced by the

Kundalini force and so arousal of Kundalini needs to take place before the granthis are dissolved. Along

the Sushumna channel there are three knots (granthis) of energy that will be broken or untied along the

upward journey of Kundalini rising, allowing the flow to go into and through the various chakras above that

point. The granthis individual names are: Brahma Granthi, Rudra Granthi and Vishnu Granthi.

Granthi Also known as Chakras Relation

Brahma First knot Perineal

knot

Vishnu

Second

knot

Navel knot

Rudra Third knot Forehead

knot

Muladhara

Svadhisthana

Manipura

Anahata

Vishuddi

Ajna

Sahasrara

Related to bondage to desires.

Ties the awareness to sensual

perception and the physical world.

Related to bondage of actions.

Causes the desire for emotional security,

expression and fulfilment.

Related to bondage of related to

thoughts (compared to pure knowing).

Associated with attachment to siddhis,

psychic phenomena and experiences.

It is most common for the awakened Kundalini to rise only to one of the lower chakras, rather than to

awaken and arise through all of the chakras, all the way to the crown. Having the Kundalini awaken and

even partial Kundalini rising is an encouraging and inspiring experience. It is also an experience to observe

with humility, as the ego can claim ownership of the experience and delay further advancement. The many

practices with body, breath, and mind, each have their effect on these various centres, and pave the way

for the Kundalini rising to further upward over time and with practice.

42

Copyright © 2016 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual


The skeletal system

The skeletal system consists of bone, cartilage and ligaments.

Bone

Bone is calcified connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton. The skeleton consists of

approximately 206 bones.

Anterior Skeleton (Front)

Posterior Skeleton (Back)

cranium

cranium

clavicle

cervical vertebrae

sternum

humerus

rib

lumbar vertebrae

ulna

radius

pubis

carpals

metacarpals

ischium

femur

scapula

humerus

thoracic vertebrae

ulna

radius

ilium

sacrum

coccyx

phalanges

femur

patella

fibula

tibia

fibula

tibia

metatarsals

phalanges

tarsals

Functions of the skeleton

Functions of skeleton

Framework

Protection

Locomotion

Soft tissue attachment

Production

Storage

Description

To provide a bony framework for the body and to give it shape

To support and protect certain vital internal organs (e.g. the skull giving protection

to the brain)

To act as biomechanical levers on which muscles can pull to produce joint motion

To provide surfaces for the attachment of soft tissues e.g. muscles and ligaments

Certain bones produce red blood cells, granular white blood cells and platelets

from their red bone marrow

To store several minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, to be released when

required. Triglycerides are also stored in the adipocytes of yellow bone marrow

53

Copyright © 2012 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual

Copyright © 2016 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual

53


Anterior muscles of the human body

Posterior muscles of the human body

Upper

Trapezius

Pectoralis

Major

Obliques

Deltoids

Biceps

Brachii

Lower

Trapezius

Latissimus

Dorsi

Upper

Trapezius

Triceps

Brachii

Rectus

Abdominis

Gluteus

Maximus

Hip

Abductors

Quadriceps

Hip

Adductors

Hamstrings

Gastrocnemius

Tibialis

Anterior

Soleus

Muscle properties

The four main properties of muscle tissue (Tortora et al, 2003) are:

• elasticity

• contractility

• electrical excitability

• extensibility

Muscle is described as being elastic, which means that it can stretch and then recoil to its original length.

It can be compared with an elastic band in this respect, but like an elastic band, if the muscle is pulled

too far it can tear. Muscles can also contract, pulling the muscle ends closer together. These muscle ends

pull on the tendons and bones to which they are attached, allowing locomotion and other body movements.

The contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle are in response to certain stimuli such as neurotransmitters,

hormones or even changes in pH (Tortora et al, 2003). The ability to apply a large force in a short time, or a

sustained force over a long duration, is possible because of the muscle’s capacity to vary energy expenditure

according to demand. During this production of energy, there is a large amount of heat generated. This must

be distributed throughout the body and the excellent supply of blood within skeletal muscles allows this to

occur. Muscles are therefore, described as being vascular, indicating a good blood supply.

There are over 700 skeletal muscles (Tortora et al, 2003) which allow for a multitude of body movements

through contraction and relaxation of voluntary, striated muscle fibres. They make up more than 40% of

the male body weight, though less in the body of a female.

60

Copyright © 2016 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual


Elastic cartilage:

• similar to hyaline cartilage in its structure

• more fibres than hyaline

• most of the fibres are made up of elastin as opposed to collagen

• it’s the properties of elastin that give it the ability to spring back into shape immediately

• found in the ear, walls of the Eustachian tube and the epiglottis, all places that require maintenance

of a specific shape

Fibrocartilage:

• thicker and stronger than the other two

• limited distribution within the body

• forms various shapes according to its role

• acts like a shock absorber in cartilaginous joints

Dense

Tough

Fibrous

Withstands compression

Can be worn or torn

Skeletal muscle anatomy

Characteristics of cartilage

Very durable

Does not have a blood supply

Has a limited ability to repair itself

Is dependent on regular activity for health

Characteristics of cartilage

Bone

Tendon

Epimysium

Fasciculi

Myofibril

Perimysium

Endomysium

Muscle fibre

62

Copyright © 2016 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual


Types of Joint Movement

Shoulder movements

Flexion Extension

Medial rotation Lateral rotation

Adduction Abduction

Horizontal extension Horizontal flexion

Spinal movements

Flexion Extension

Lateral flexion Rotation

Shoulder girdle movements

Elevation Depression

Protraction Retraction

70

Copyright © 2016 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual


The heart

The heart is in essence a muscular pump, which pushes the

oxygen and nutrients around the body to the tissues. It is about

the size of a man’s clenched fist and lies behind the sternum,

just left of centre.

The heart is made up of thick muscular walls (or myocardium),

and is divided into separate left and right halves. The right half

pumps blood to the lungs, while the left side pumps blood to

the rest of the body. Each side of the heart is hollow and is

further broken down into two smaller connected chambers.

There are four chambers in total, two upper chambers (or atria)

and two lower chambers (or ventricles). Atrium (pleural atria)

is the Latin for ‘hall’, or ‘entranceway’ and is the chamber

which blood flows into first, when entering either side of the

Location of the heart

heart. The atria receive blood via the veins from different parts

of the body, and pump the blood down into the ventricles. The atria are smaller than the ventricles and do

not really have to contract particularly hard. Even if the atria fail to contract properly, most of the blood in

the atria will flow into the ventricles passively.

The ventricles supply the force to push the blood to its various destinations. In a cardiogram, it would be

easily seen that the left ventricle has larger muscular walls than the right ventricle. This is because the left

side pumps its contents to the furthest parts of the body, whereas the right side only has to pump its

contents to the adjacent lungs.

Heart valves

There are a number of different valves around the heart, all performing slightly different tasks. There are a

set of atrioventricular (AV) valves that separate the atria and ventricles, and prevent the flow of blood back

into the atria during ventricular contraction. The semilunar valves prevent the flow of blood back into the

right (pulmonary valve) and left ventricles (aortic valve) during ventricular relaxation. Ventricular contraction

is called systole and ventricular relaxation is called diastole.

Open and closed valves

Heart valves

76

Copyright © 2016 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual


10. Virabhadrasana 1 - Warrior 1

Body position/posture type - Standing

Technique – Spread the feet wide; turn the right foot out, left foot at an

angle. Breathe in and lift the chest, and bring arms to shoulder level.

Exhale, and rotate the chest around to the right. Breathing in, lift the

arms up. Exhaling, bend the right knee so the lower leg is upright.

Maintain stable posture and even breathing.

Benefits – Helps deep breathing; relieves stiff shoulders and back;

strengthens the legs, spine, arms and shoulders; stretches quads and

hip flexors; removes lethargy

Prohibition/precaution – knee problems; lower back pain

Adaptations – modify for beginners by dropping the hands on to the hips and varying the stance width

11. Virabhadrasana 2 - Warrior 2

Body position/posture type - Standing

Technique – Spread the feet wide, turn out the right foot, left foot at an

angle, and lift the chest. Breathing in, lift the arms to shoulder height.

Exhale and bend the right leg and drop the base of the body down. Turn the

head to look along the right arm. Stable posture, even breath throughout.

Benefits – As for Virabhadrasana 1.

Prohibition/precaution – knee problems.

Adaptations – As for Virabhadrasana 1.

12. Virabhadrasana 3 - Warrior 3

Body position/posture type - Standing

Technique - From Tadasana lean the upper body forward while

raising one leg back and up. Beginners should take the hands

out sideways instead of straight in front as shown, especially

if balancing is difficult. Align the hips horizontally. The raised

leg has to be rotated inward to achieve a horizontal alignment.

Benefits – Increased leg strength; the hamstrings are

stretched in the supporting leg and strengthened in the

raised leg; the gluteal muscles are stretched on one leg and

strengthened on the other; shoulders are stretched and the

arms are strengthened.

Prohibition/precaution – Knee problems, inability to balance

Adaptations – Use a chair for balance

Copyright © 2016 Active IQ Ltd. Manual not for resale

Level 3 Diploma in Teaching Yoga - Manual

137

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!