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Active IQ Level 3 Award in First Aid at Work (sample manual)

For more information, please visit http://www.activeiq.co.uk/qualifications/level-3/active-iq-level-3-award-in-first-aid-at-work

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Manual

Level 3 Award in First

Aid at Work

Version AIQ005246


Emergency first aid in

the workplace

Introduction

First aid is the initial emergency assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness before

the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or other qualified personnel.

This unit covers the knowledge, understanding and skills that you will need to be able to apply emergency first aid

that meets Health and Safety Executive (HSE) requirements.

Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you will:

Understand the roles and responsibilities of an emergency first aider.

Be able to assess an incident.

Be able to manage an unresponsive casualty who is breathing normally.

Be able to manage an unresponsive casualty who is not breathing normally.

Be able to recognise and assist a casualty who is choking.

Be able to manage a casualty with external bleeding.

Be able to manage a casualty who is in shock.

Be able to manage a casualty with a minor injury.

Copyright © 2017 Active IQ Ltd. Not for resale 1


Section 2

Assessing an incident

Response - primary survey

The purpose of a primary survey is to identify life-threatening injuries. The first step is to assess whether the casualty

Airway

With an obstructed airway, the casualty will not survive. Therefore, ensuring a

clear airway is a priority. The airway can be opened using a head tilt ‒ chin lift

(as shown in the picture) or jaw thrust (by moving the lower jaw forwards with

minimal movement of the neck, if cervical trauma is suspected). If the airway is

blocked (e.g. by blood or vomit) this must be cleared.

Breathing

Best practices for checking this include observing for a rise and fall of the

patient’s chest or abdomen, looking for chest movement, listening for sounds

of breathing and feeling for breath on your cheek. Check for ten seconds and

multiply the total by six. Normal range is 12-20 breaths per minute.

Circulation

This is checking for a pulse and can be done on the wrist or the side of the

neck. As with breathing checks, measure for ten seconds and multiply the total

number by six. Normal range is 60-100 beats per minute (bpm).

Unresponsive

If there is no response, the first aider should immediately ask for someone to

call for an ambulance or, if they are alone, use the speaker function on their

phone and call 112. The first aider should be prepared to start cardiopulmonary

resuscitation (CPR) while waiting for help to arrive.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

The main purpose of CPR is to restore partial flow of oxygenated

blood to the brain and heart to hopefully delay tissue death and

extend the brief window of opportunity for a successful resuscitation

without permanent brain damage. It is extremely unlikely to restart

the heart, therefore CPR should only be commenced once the

emergency services have been alerted.

If breathing is absent, the first aider should follow the procedure for

CPR (explained on the next page), either with or without assistance.

If the first aider has assistance, they should instruct their helper to

notify the emergency services and give full details. If no assistance

is available, the first aider should make the call themselves even if it

entails leaving the casualty unattended.

Without oxygen, the brain cells will start to die within a few minutes.

By using a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths,

CPR artificially breathes and pumps oxygen around the body.

When this pressure is released, the heart returns to its normal shape

and blood is drawn in, ready to be expelled by the next compression .

8

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Section 2

Assessing an incident

Adult basic life support algorithm

Unresponsive?

Ask someone to call for

an ambulance

Not breathing normally?

Call 999/112

30 chect compressions

2 rescue breaths

Use of an AED - chain of survival

An unresponsive casualty stands a greater chance of survival if a series of events can happen quickly and without

delay.

This series of events is known as the ‘chain of survival’:

• Early help by calling the emergency services.

• Early CPR.

• Early defibrillation.

• Early after care when the emergency services take over.

If these elements are delayed or missing, the casualty’s chance of survival declines.

10

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Section 3

Common medical emergencies

Types of external bleeding

External bleeding describes any type of cut or scrape where blood is coming from an open wound.

There are three types of external bleeding: capillary, venous and arterial bleeding.

Capillary bleeding is the most common type of external bleeding; it occurs when blood oozes from capillaries. It is

usually not serious and is easy to control.

Venous bleeding occurs when a vein has been severed. Arterial bleeding can lead to a large amount of blood loss,

as the blood pumps from the wound with the heartbeat, meaning it flows at a faster rate and is less likely to clot. A

quick response and administration of proper first aid before medical assistance arrives will help to prevent the injury

from becoming fatal.

Severe bleeding

If left untreated, severe blood loss will rapidly lead to shock, therefore

it should be stemmed as soon as possible (after ensuring that the

casualty is breathing). When treating severe bleeding, you must:

1. Put on disposable gloves.

2. Apply direct pressure over the wound with your hand, using a

clean dressing. If you don’t have a dressing, ask the casualty

to apply pressure themselves.

3. Take particular care if you suspect a bone has been broken. Wearing disposable gloves to dress a wound

4. Maintain direct pressure on the wound to control bleeding.

5. If direct pressure is unsuccessful, use a tourniquet to stem the

bleeding.

6. If needed, help them to lie down.

7. Raise and support the injured limb above the level of their

heart to reduce blood loss.

8. Raise their legs to ease shock.

9. Call 999/112 and monitor them while waiting for help to arrive.

KEY

POINT

Applying a bandage

Remember:

• To protect yourself from infection by wearing disposable gloves and covering any wounds on your

hands.

• Not to remove the dressing if blood comes through it – instead, bandage another over the original.

• To remove both dressings if blood seeps through more than one layer and replace them with a

fresh dressing, applying pressure over the site of bleeding.

16

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Conducting a secondary survey

Section 1

Finishing a secondary survey

Once the head-to-toe survey has been completed, there are two positions into which you can place your casualty:

the recovery position or the half-sitting (sometimes known as the ‘W’) position.

The recovery position (explained below) is most suitable when there are no major injuries and you need to maintain

the airway.

Kneel beside the casualty and make sure both of their

legs are straight.

Place the arm nearest to you out at a right angle to

their body, with the elbow bent and the hand palmup.

Do not force the arm; let it fall naturally into this

position.

Bring the far arm across the chest and hold the back of the hand against their cheek nearest to you.

Recognition and management of illness and injury in the workplace

With the other hand, grasp the far leg just above the

knee and pull it up, keeping the foot on the ground.

Keeping their hand pressed against their cheek, pull on

the far leg to roll them towards you and onto their side,

with their head supported all the way.

Figure 1.4 Steps to placing a casualty in the recovery position

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Section 3

Administering first aid for head and spinal injuries

Spinal injuries

There are two main types of injury to the spine:

• Damage to the bones that make up the spine (the vertebrae).

• Damage to the nervous tissue which runs down the centre of the

spine (the spinal cord).

The first aider (as well as the casualty) should bear in mind that if

vertebrae are broken and impinging on the spinal cord, this would give

symptoms of paralysis; it can be rectified through correct management

and further treatment (Bailes, 2007).

A spinal injury should be suspected in the event of:

• Repeated blunt force blows to the head.

• Fall from a height of more than 1 metre.

• Car crash (high-impact).

• Presence of CSF* flowing from the ears or nose.

• Pain in the spine.

• Loss of feeling in areas of the body.

*CSF lines the brain and the spinal cord in a series of layers called maters. If CSF is visible from the outside

environment, this strongly indicates serious head and/or spinal trauma and requires maximum immobilisation

techniques.

Treatment of head and spinal injuries

Concussion

• Place the casualty into the recovery position.

• Watch closely for any drop in responsiveness or deterioration of the condition. If the casualty remains

unresponsive for longer than three minutes, dial 999/112

Cerebral compression

• Seek medical attention urgently – call 999/112.

• If responsive, lay the casualty at rest with their head and shoulders elevated. Monitor vital signs.

• If unresponsive, minimise movement and maintain the airway using jaw thrust technique. Be prepared to

resuscitate.

Skull fractures

• Lie the casualty down with their head and shoulders raised.

• Maintain the airway.

• Cover their ears with a sterile dressing.

• If unresponsive, conduct a primary survey and maintain the airway using jaw thrust.

Treatment of spinal injuries

The overriding point for treating a casualty with a spinal injury is to keep

them still. The less the casualty moves the better. Other measures and

considerations to take when treating spinal injuries are:

• The casualty should be left in the position in which they are found.

• The spine must be immobilised as effectively as possible.

• The head should be held in line with the body in a neutral position.

• Any necessary movement of the casualty should ideally be done under

the guidance of a healthcare professional using their equipment.

• If movement is required before medical personnel have arrived,

maximum precautions need to be taken (see log roll).

Figure 3.2 Management of the

cervical spine

10

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Administering first aid to burns and scalds

Section 5

Section 5: Administering first

aid to burns and scalds

Recognising burns and scalds

There are five main types of burns that a first aider is likely to come across, and needs to have sufficient knowledge

to treat:

• Dry heat*, which is caused by direct contact with a hot object ‒ usually hotter than 65°C. Causes of dry heat

include placing a hand in fire and touching an iron.

• Wet heat*, which is commonly known as a scald and caused by contact between steam and the skin or

tissues. Causes of wet heat include drinking a hot cup of tea and placing an arm over the spout of a boiling

kettle.

• Chemical – some chemicals have the potential to be very reactive with the skin, including those with a high

acid or base content. Most of these burns are caused by ingestion, e.g. bleach, however contact between the

skin and a strong acid, such as sulphuric acid, can result in equally bad burns.

• Electrical, which occurs when the body is struck with a high-voltage current and results in burning of the skin.

Electric shocks have the potential to cause deep burns and secondary problems, such as heart conditions

and musculoskeletal injuries. Causes of electrical burns include being struck by lightning.

*Sometimes referred to as ‘thermal burns’.

Classification of burns

Burns are classified according to severity; there are three different levels, as described in the table:

Class of burn Structures affected Signs and symptoms Healing time

Superficial (first Top layers of the skin Dry, red and hot; quite painful 2-7 days.

degree)

(epidermis).

but no blisters.

Partial thickness

(second degree)

Full thickness

(third degree)

Top and middle layers of the

skin (all of the epidermis and

some of the dermis).

All of the skin (epidermis and

dermis) and extending down

the underlying structures ‒

muscle, fat, etc.

Moist texture, red (possibly

slightly yellow) and hot but with

clear blisters. Will blanch with

pressure. Very painful.

Leathery, dry texture. Tissue

will be stiff and white or

yellowish-brown in colour.

Potentially painless.

Depending on severity,

for minor partial

thickness:1-2 weeks;

for severe-partial

thickness: 4-8 weeks.

Months in duration ‒ skin

graft probably required.

Chance of incomplete

healing. Dead tissue

needs to be removed.

Recognition and management of illness and injury in the workplace

Superficial

(first degree)

Partial thickness

(second degree)

Full thickness

(third degree)

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