Getting started with IoT for Social Infrastructure

How to understand buildings using IoT (Internet of Things). Understanding how our social infrastructure (schools, hospitals, public buildings, housing) performs in real-time will provide unprecedented opportunities to increase efficiencies and improve the wellbeing of users while reducing energy and carbon emissions. Secure IoT solutions can provide new capabilities to connect our physical buildings to digital models and analytical tools.

How to understand buildings using IoT (Internet of Things).

Understanding how our social infrastructure (schools, hospitals, public buildings, housing) performs in real-time will provide unprecedented opportunities to increase efficiencies and improve the wellbeing of users while reducing energy and carbon emissions. Secure IoT solutions can provide new capabilities to connect our physical buildings to digital models and analytical tools.


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<strong>Getting</strong> <strong>started</strong> <strong>with</strong><br />

<strong>IoT</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>Social</strong><br />

<strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

How to understand buildings using <strong>IoT</strong> (Internet of Things)<br />


Our social infrastructure supports our communities, public services, wellbeing and<br />

economic growth. It encompasses assets that enable the delivery of public services<br />

including schools, hospitals, public buildings and housing.<br />

Improving how our social infrastructure per<strong>for</strong>ms is a key enabler to achieve a sustainable and inclusive net<br />

zero carbon economy.<br />

Understanding and responding to the way our public buildings per<strong>for</strong>m in real-time will provide<br />

unprecedented opportunities to increase efficiencies and improve the wellbeing of users while reducing<br />

energy and carbon emissions.<br />

We need to understand more clearly how our buildings per<strong>for</strong>m at an individual asset, estate and<br />

city-wide level.<br />

Never be<strong>for</strong>e has technology offered such opportunity, and the growth of <strong>IoT</strong> (Internet of Things) provides<br />

new capabilities to connect our physical buildings to digital models and analytics tools. New <strong>IoT</strong> applications<br />

are appearing at pace that provide unparalleled insight, intelligence and remote interaction <strong>with</strong> our social<br />

infrastructure.<br />

Today, the public sector in Scotland has an opportunity to realise the benefits of <strong>IoT</strong> and be a catalyst <strong>for</strong><br />

change. A key part to realising these benefits is to implement secure <strong>IoT</strong> solutions <strong>with</strong> proportionality and<br />

purpose. Scottish Futures Trust has developed this document in partnership <strong>with</strong> CENSIS to continue this<br />

momentum, share our learning and support this change.<br />

Paul Dodd<br />

Head of <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Technology<br />

Scottish Futures Trust<br />

July 2020<br />

Glossary - Text <strong>with</strong> an explanation in the Glossary on p18 is underlined the first time it is used<br />


<strong>Social</strong> infrastructure and<br />

connected technologies<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> is here and it’s time <strong>for</strong> organisations<br />

across the country to take advantage<br />

of the trans<strong>for</strong>mational benefits of the<br />

technologies and expertise available.<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> is a game-changer, enabling the creation of new<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> products and services or the implementation of<br />

cost and time-saving efficiencies using data and<br />

insights gathered in real time. Environmental, health<br />

and social care <strong>IoT</strong> applications will have positive<br />

impacts on our society.<br />

This brochure will outline what <strong>IoT</strong> and sensor<br />

technologies can achieve and explore how they can<br />

benefit our schools, health facilities and public sector<br />

buildings commonly referred to as social infrastructure.<br />

<strong>Social</strong> infrastructure covers a broad range of building<br />

types and sizes across education, health and public<br />

sector services. The evolution of the enabling<br />

technologies will bring trans<strong>for</strong>mative benefits in<br />

managing building estates, allowing efficient operation<br />

and reduced lifetime per<strong>for</strong>mance costs. Efficient<br />

per<strong>for</strong>mance of these assets will support public services<br />

and ultimately, social and economic growth.<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> technologies enable enhanced insights in how<br />

our social infrastructure per<strong>for</strong>ms, offer opportunities<br />

to improve per<strong>for</strong>mance and provide better data<br />

management insight. New connectivity and emerging<br />

cloud software applications enable social infrastructure<br />

estates to measure, control, and act on in<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

gathered <strong>with</strong>in the buildings. Control systems can be<br />

monitored remotely and instructions sent to modify the<br />

building environment based on data driven decisions<br />

from sensors distributed throughout the estate.<br />

The availability and low price of sensors, coupled <strong>with</strong><br />

major leaps in data storage and computing capabilities,<br />

means that the time is right <strong>for</strong> organisations to embrace<br />

the major improvements, new opportunities and cost<br />

savings that <strong>IoT</strong> offers.<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> has the potential to digitally trans<strong>for</strong>m how many<br />

aspects of how social infrastructure is managed.<br />

Below are some of the benefits:<br />

Public Services<br />

• Support operational per<strong>for</strong>mance of our<br />

public buildings<br />

• Improve building user engagement and<br />

experience of our social infrastructure to<br />

improve educational and health outcomes.<br />

Asset Owners<br />

• Improve utilisation of building assets, reduce<br />

costs and carbon.<br />

<strong>Social</strong> & Economy<br />

• Support digital marketplace and opportunities<br />

<strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> providers.<br />

Contents<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

Value of <strong>IoT</strong> in social infrastructure<br />

a) An introduction to <strong>IoT</strong> 3<br />

b) Benefits of <strong>IoT</strong> <strong>for</strong> business, industry and society 4<br />

c) Example application areas <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> in buildings and facility management 4<br />

d) Industrial <strong>IoT</strong> (I<strong>IoT</strong>) 5<br />

e) <strong>IoT</strong> as an enabler <strong>for</strong> the Digital Twin 5<br />

Considerations <strong>for</strong> implementation of <strong>IoT</strong><br />

a) How an <strong>IoT</strong> system works 6<br />

b) Business models 6<br />

c) Emerging business models 7<br />

d) How the <strong>IoT</strong> system layers apply to social infrastructure building technologies 7<br />

e) Devices/hardware 8<br />

f) Networks <strong>for</strong> Buildings (LPWANS) 10<br />

g) Applications/software 11<br />

Realise the value <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> <strong>with</strong>in social infrastructure<br />

a) Implementing <strong>IoT</strong> in social infrastructure 12<br />

b) Examples of <strong>IoT</strong> applications <strong>with</strong>in social infrastructure 13<br />

c) Examples of building hardware and software data plat<strong>for</strong>ms 16<br />

d) LoRaWAN gateway 16<br />

e) Building management control interfaces 16<br />

f) Direct BMS integration 17<br />

g) Whole life per<strong>for</strong>mance framework and <strong>IoT</strong> 17<br />

h) Benefits of using <strong>IoT</strong> <strong>with</strong>in our social infrastructure 17<br />

Glossary 18<br />


1<br />

Value<br />

of <strong>IoT</strong> in social infrastructure<br />

a) An introduction to Internet of Things (<strong>IoT</strong>)<br />

Q What exactly does ‘Internet of Things’ mean?<br />

A To simplify the vast amount of chat and hype around <strong>IoT</strong>,<br />

think of it in its broadest sense as: ‘A system of things using<br />

the internet or a private network to connect and<br />

communicate <strong>with</strong> each other.’<br />

Q What kind of ‘data’ is collected?<br />

A Sensors detect and measure changes, e.g., changes in<br />

vibration, impact, heat, light, energy, colour, gases and<br />

temperature. So, you can create a system of sensors, all<br />

working together to measure in<strong>for</strong>mation that is<br />

specifically relevant to your organisation. They measure,<br />

collect data and send it on.<br />

Q What ‘things’?<br />

A We say ‘things’ but really mean ‘devices’ that are<br />

connected via the internet to each other.<br />

Your phone is probably such a device. Some watches<br />

are internet enabled. Often, you’ll hear ‘smart’ added<br />

to the front of something to indicate that it can<br />

connect to the internet and chat to other devices,<br />

e.g., smartphone, smartwatch, smart lighting. In an<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> network, each device has a unique identifier<br />

and can transmit and/or receive data over a<br />

network connection.<br />

Q Send it on where?<br />

A Usually, the sensor will send the data to a data repository<br />

in ‘the cloud’ or local data storage. It is stored, managed<br />

and organised in the cloud then <strong>for</strong>warded wherever you<br />

want it to go. If you want to measure air quality in a city<br />

centre street <strong>for</strong> example, the sensor system could gather<br />

the in<strong>for</strong>mation, send the data to the cloud <strong>for</strong> you to then<br />

view the results on your desktop, smartphone or tablet.<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> devices can also receive data which opens up the<br />

possibility of controlling devices such as switching on a<br />

light or changing a display.<br />

Q But this is nothing new, haven’t devices been<br />

connecting to each other <strong>for</strong> years?<br />

A Yes, they have. But technology has advanced so<br />

much in recent times that we now have the<br />

capability to connect many more low cost, small,<br />

battery-operated devices to the internet. If we<br />

install a sensor on such a device, the sensor can<br />

first gather data, then send the in<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

over the internet. This, combined <strong>with</strong> the rise of<br />

low-cost cloud computing is enabling a vast<br />

amount of new opportunities.<br />

Q But aren’t we all drowning in data already? Will the<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation be meaningful?<br />

A When the system is designed, software is built in to ensure<br />

that the data is converted to meaningful in<strong>for</strong>mation.<br />

The sensor system will also be designed to measure the<br />

quality of data required to give value. What you see is a<br />

‘dashboard’ showing exactly the in<strong>for</strong>mation you want<br />

to measure. You can set parameters to show only<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation that will affect decision making, rather than<br />

showing you every measurement. Data analytics can also<br />

be per<strong>for</strong>med on this data to extract trends, anomalies,<br />

and behaviours.<br />

Q Do <strong>IoT</strong> devices need to connect to the internet?<br />

A No, it’s quite common <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> to operate in a closed<br />

private network, especially in industrial applications<br />

where control over a full system is required, or<br />

where there is no internet connectivity. Everything is<br />

contained <strong>with</strong>in a private network so that no data<br />

leaves the system.<br />

Q Is it private or can other people see the in<strong>for</strong>mation?<br />

A Only you and those you authorise will be able to see it.<br />

When setting up your system, you can specify the level<br />

of privacy and security you require. We strongly advocate<br />

designing <strong>with</strong> privacy and security in mind from the start<br />

to ensure the system meets the needs of the application<br />

<strong>with</strong>out compromising the integrity of the system.<br />


) Benefits <strong>for</strong> business, industry and society<br />

Advances in low power electronics, communications<br />

standards, and increased efficiencies in battery technologies<br />

have heralded a new era <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong>. Power efficient, inexpensive<br />

devices <strong>with</strong> a long range of communication are available off<br />

the shelf, allowing all sizes of businesses and organisations,<br />

in all types of sectors, to design and implement an <strong>IoT</strong> solution.<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> enables organisations to have greater visibility into aspects<br />

of their businesses that may have previously been hidden.<br />

This valuable in<strong>for</strong>mation, often available in real-time, has a<br />

multitude of business benefits.<br />

Efficiency<br />

Better use of time speeds up processes<br />

Productivity<br />

Identify and eliminate process errors<br />

Profitability<br />

Cost savings and increased<br />

productivity leads to<br />

increased profitability<br />

Compliance<br />

New and more effective<br />

ways to monitor and report<br />

compliance requirements<br />

Wellness of buildings<br />

Improve wellbeing of building occupants<br />

and support wider productivity<br />

<strong>Social</strong> infrastructure<br />

Improve per<strong>for</strong>mance and the public<br />

services they provide<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> benefits<br />

<strong>for</strong> social<br />

infrastructure<br />

Safety<br />

People exposed to less<br />

hazardous environments<br />

Society<br />

Monitoring <strong>for</strong> health and<br />

social care<br />

c) Example application areas <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> in buildings<br />

and facility management<br />

Environment<br />

Pollution levels, air quality, flooding<br />

alerts. Reduce carbon footprint in<br />

asset delivery and operation<br />

Innovation<br />

New products and service<br />

opportunities or new markets<br />

Business intelligence<br />

Allowing gathering of data to make better<br />

decisions to benefit the organisation<br />

HVAC/BMS<br />

sensor driven<br />

control<br />

Indoor<br />

environmental<br />

monitoring<br />

Energy<br />

efficient<br />

buildings<br />

Enhanced<br />

building<br />

management<br />

intelligence<br />

Health<br />

and safety<br />

compliance<br />

monitoring<br />

People<br />

flow and<br />

occupancy<br />

counting<br />

Asset<br />

tracking<br />

Indoor<br />

navigation<br />

Water<br />

safety<br />

monitoring<br />

Predictive<br />

maintenance<br />

and condition<br />

monitoring<br />


d) Industrial <strong>IoT</strong> (I<strong>IoT</strong>)<br />

You will also hear Industrial <strong>IoT</strong> referred to as an important<br />

part of Industry 4.0. <strong>IoT</strong> systems can monitor and automate<br />

many complex processes. Manufacturers have begun to<br />

recognise that networks of smart sensors, coupled <strong>with</strong><br />

real-time analytics, can act as drivers of significant<br />

improvements in their processes, trans<strong>for</strong>ming profit margins<br />

and operational efficiencies.<br />

https://censis.org.uk/censis_projects/corrosion-radar/<br />

Other uses <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> in manufacturing<br />

• Integrating sensors across all machines and equipment,<br />

including:<br />

• Robotics<br />

• Remote management of factory units<br />

• Employee wearables e.g., smart safety glasses or<br />

smart hard hats.<br />

• Monitoring production flow in real-time from start to<br />

packaging and distribution. This highlights quality control<br />

issues and production lags.<br />

• Using smart packaging to manage stock control,<br />

automating the ordering process. This can also provide<br />

insights into how the product behaves during transit, in<br />

various weather conditions and how customers store and<br />

use the product.<br />

• Connecting to suppliers to track products through the<br />

manufacturing cycle in the supply chain<br />

• Using data collected to analyse how customers<br />

use products, feeding innovation <strong>for</strong> new<br />

product development.<br />

e) <strong>IoT</strong> as an enabler <strong>for</strong> the Digital Twin<br />

The concept of the Smart Building or Digital Twin continues<br />

to evolve and grow <strong>with</strong>in the built environment.<br />

The principle of these concepts is that through the better use<br />

of technology and in<strong>for</strong>mation management, we can create<br />

intelligent digital models of our built assets.<br />

The University of Cambridge Centre <strong>for</strong> Digital Built Britain<br />

defines a Digital Twin as:<br />

“A realistic digital representation of<br />

something physical. What distinguishes<br />

a digital twin from any other digital<br />

model is its connection to the<br />

physical twin.”<br />

enabler in the move towards smarter social infrastructure or<br />

creating intelligent digital twins of our schools, hospitals, or<br />

other social infrastructure. The approach to implementation<br />

should be the adoption of complementary and secure <strong>IoT</strong><br />

solutions <strong>with</strong> purpose.<br />

The opportunity exists to connect these digital twins of our<br />

social infrastructure across estates, sectors or geographies<br />

and derive enhanced insight and knowledge and ultimately<br />

the improved benefits this will bring.<br />

https://www.cdbb.cam.ac.uk/<br />

The key aspect is the connection to the physical twin<br />

where real time data capture is required to enable insight,<br />

support decision making and action. <strong>IoT</strong> technology is a key<br />


2<br />

Considerations<br />

<strong>for</strong> implementation of <strong>IoT</strong><br />

a) How an <strong>IoT</strong> system works<br />

Cloud<br />

based<br />

interface<br />

<strong>IoT</strong><br />

Gateway<br />

<strong>IoT</strong><br />

Devices<br />

Cloud based high level architecture <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> data gathering system<br />

<strong>for</strong> building level systems<br />

b) Business models<br />

The evolution of <strong>IoT</strong> has led to the emergence of<br />

new business models. The rise of the data driven economy<br />

is enabling new revenue streams to evolve and <strong>IoT</strong><br />

businesses are well placed to capitalise on these new<br />

trends. As <strong>with</strong> the internet around 25 years ago, the most<br />

significant business opportunities have not yet been<br />

scaled or even identified.<br />

Software as a Service (SaaS)<br />

SaaS is a common business model where a software<br />

provider hosts applications and customers access these<br />

using a web browser or application. Payment is made<br />

through a monthly or annual subscription fee and can be<br />

based on the number of users or number of transactions.<br />

Examples<br />

Cloud based BMS systems. BMS Interface systems<br />

Hardware as a Service (HaaS)<br />

This is one of the most common business models <strong>for</strong><br />

companies selling <strong>IoT</strong> services. It enables companies to<br />

generate recurring revenue <strong>for</strong> their product through a<br />

subscription/leasing based model. The package they pay <strong>for</strong><br />

is often by monthly fee and can include the item (hardware),<br />

all software, updates, maintenance and often a Service<br />

Level Agreement (SLA). Upfront costs are recovered over the<br />

product lifetime. The hardware is often sold at a reduced cost<br />

(or at a loss). The value is in the ongoing capability provided.<br />

An advantage of this model is that it allows the business to<br />

have a closer relationship <strong>with</strong> customers and understand<br />

their usage of the product and potential future needs.<br />

Examples<br />

Water safety compliance where a company supplies and<br />

installs sensors communication infrastructure and operates<br />

cloud-based software as a service. When hardware needs<br />

replaced, this will be conducted as part of the service deal.<br />


c) Emerging business models<br />

Data optimisation<br />

In this model, businesses deploy devices to their customers,<br />

generally at low/no cost to the user, to gather additional<br />

data around another service they provide. The data gathered<br />

is valuable to both the user and the company and can help<br />

companies retain users by understanding how their product<br />

is used. It can also help the company drive more efficiency in<br />

their business.<br />

Examples: Smart meters <strong>with</strong> home readout units <strong>for</strong> the<br />

customers. Customers understand their energy usage and<br />

utility providers benefit from better data about usage patterns<br />

to create efficiencies in supply and customer relations.<br />

(customer value service).<br />

Efficiency of operation<br />

This is based around a company deploying <strong>IoT</strong> applications<br />

that will result in efficiency savings <strong>with</strong>in a customer’s<br />

current business. The company deploying the service will<br />

generally provide it at no cost to the customer but take their<br />

revenue from any reduction in the price of the service.<br />

This benefits the customer as they would generally pay<br />

less than they currently pay and it also generates additional<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation from the <strong>IoT</strong> data.<br />

Examples: There are examples of this type of model in the<br />

smart city and facility management space where a company<br />

will use <strong>IoT</strong> to make a service more efficient and agree to a<br />

<strong>for</strong>m of reduction in current costs, <strong>with</strong> the company keeping<br />

the savings generated.<br />

d) How the <strong>IoT</strong> system layers apply to social<br />

infrastructure building technologies<br />

Devices / Hardware Applications / Software<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

CENSIS 2020<br />

Visualisation and<br />

presentation<br />

Analysis and post<br />

processing<br />

Data repository<br />

Communications,<br />

networking and wireless<br />

technologies<br />

Microcontrollers,<br />

edge and embedded<br />

computing<br />

Sensors<br />

Final step – the dashboard. At this stage, the end data<br />

will be trans<strong>for</strong>med into a visual <strong>for</strong>mat <strong>for</strong> you to easily<br />

interpret the results.<br />

Converting the data. Software companies will create<br />

programmes and applications to convert the measured<br />

data into meaningful in<strong>for</strong>mation. Data Science, Artificial<br />

Intelligence and Machine Learning can be used at this stage to<br />

provide deeper insights into the data generated.<br />

Where does the data go? Companies in this area have expertise<br />

in how to store, manage and organise data. This is known as<br />

cloud storage.<br />

From device to destination. Companies who specialise<br />

in transporting the data to a designated storage<br />

location.<br />

This is the brain of the sensor. It does all the onboard processing<br />

of the data, carries out the initial configuration then packages<br />

and sends it. This also controls power consumption. Edge<br />

computing is an emerging trend where more in<strong>for</strong>mation is<br />

processed on the device, which enables technologies such as<br />

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to be used at this<br />

stage in the stack.<br />

The starting point. At the very bottom of the stack is where you<br />

will find the companies designing and manufacturing the actual<br />

sensors that can detect and measure change. This can be in<br />

vibration, impacts, heat, light, energy, colour, temperature etc.<br />

There’s a huge range of light, motion, and temperature sensors<br />

etc. already available off the shelf at low cost.<br />

In<strong>for</strong>mation<br />


Raw Data<br />

A company can be a user of <strong>IoT</strong> technology, or a supplier.<br />

An <strong>IoT</strong> system is made up of lots of different technology<br />

layers that collect, send, store, analyse and display data.<br />

In smart building systems each layer works to operate system<br />

to give actionable insights to the end user.<br />

The end user of the technology may only see the<br />

outcomes of the processed data – this is because<br />

many of the technology layers of the stack are i<br />

ntegrated into the end application, and there<strong>for</strong>e are<br />

invisible to the user.<br />


e) Devices/Hardware<br />

Sensors<br />

As the data gatherers, sensors are the starting point of<br />

any <strong>IoT</strong> solution. The sensor must measure an accurate<br />

representation of the conditions, otherwise the data is<br />

unreliable and unusable. The better quality the data gathered<br />

through an <strong>IoT</strong> system the better value and insight that will<br />

result from the analysis. A sensor collects in<strong>for</strong>mation from<br />

a defined source and converts this into a signal that can be<br />

measured. In the smart building space new power efficient<br />

sensors can operate off battery power <strong>for</strong> 5+ years dependent<br />

on the application. These technologies drastically reduce<br />

the deployment cost into buildings. Typical commercial<br />

sensors will range between 30-200 pounds depending on<br />

functionality/complexity.<br />

There’s a vast range of sensors already on the market<br />

that can be integrated into <strong>IoT</strong> systems. Open communication<br />

standards help these operate <strong>with</strong> many software<br />

different systems.<br />

Common sensors readily available <strong>for</strong> building estate:<br />

• Indoor environmental (temperature, humidity, light, noise)<br />

• Room occupancy<br />

• People counting<br />

• Carbon dioxide monitoring<br />

• Boiler monitoring<br />

• Pipe flow controls<br />

• Water temperature/level monitoring<br />

• Radiator valves control<br />

• Window/door opening<br />

• Metering<br />

• Asset tracking<br />

• Fire safety<br />

• Power monitoring<br />

• Parking<br />

Examples of commercial devices<br />

Sensors that can measure indoor<br />

environmental conditions that can<br />

last <strong>for</strong> around 5 years <strong>with</strong> battery<br />

technology<br />

www.elsys.se/en/<br />

An occupancy sensor to detect<br />

space utilisation<br />

www.beringar.co.uk.<br />


Communications, networking and wireless technologies<br />

Connectivity and networking describe the (often) wireless<br />

technology used to transfer in<strong>for</strong>mation from the sensors/<br />

end nodes to the cloud. To connect and talk to each other,<br />

all <strong>IoT</strong> devices need connectivity. There is a wide range of<br />

wireless technologies that enable this connectivity, each<br />

<strong>with</strong> their own strengths and weaknesses. Choosing the right<br />

technology will ensure the <strong>IoT</strong> application runs smoothly, at<br />

the lowest cost, and <strong>with</strong> the best power efficiency. They can<br />

be broadly split into short-and long-range communications.<br />

In buildings, many of the sensor devices will use a mix of<br />

these technologies and the choice of one is based on<br />

what fits the application use case. The choice of radio will<br />

make a difference to how the solution is architected but all<br />

these will allow a <strong>for</strong>m of interoperability at the data layer.<br />

Many different communications methods can be used<br />

to gather data round the building estate. A key enabler of<br />

building level sensor networks is a Low Power Wide Area<br />

Network (LPWAN).<br />

High<br />

Satellite<br />

Range<br />

LoRaWan<br />

Sigfox<br />

LPWAN<br />

NB-<strong>IoT</strong> Cat-M1<br />

Cellular 3/4/5G<br />

RFID<br />

Zigbee<br />

Blue<br />

tooth<br />

Wi-Fi<br />

Low<br />

NFC<br />

Low<br />

Data rate<br />

High<br />

Available technologies<br />

This list is by no means comprehensive but details some of<br />

the most popular wireless standards <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> <strong>with</strong>in building<br />

infrastructure.<br />

Short range wireless - NFC and RFID<br />

These are a class of ultra-low range, low-power, and low<br />

bandwidth technologies. Their function is to exchange very<br />

small amounts of data between two devices in extremely<br />

close proximity to one another. They are most commonly<br />

used in card contactless payment systems and as an asset<br />

tagging technology but are also used in asset tracking<br />

<strong>with</strong> systems commonly used in hospitals. RFID tags can<br />

operate <strong>with</strong> or <strong>with</strong>out a power source, <strong>with</strong> range and cost<br />

increasing <strong>with</strong> powered versions.<br />

Bluetooth low energy (BLE)<br />

BLE is a version of Bluetooth designed <strong>for</strong> lower-powered<br />

devices that use less data. The Bluetooth standard<br />

continuously develops further functionality and is gaining<br />

traction in smart building applications, where it is getting<br />

increasingly integrated into smart lighting systems. It is one<br />

of the cheapest modules out of the wireless standards so<br />

is a popular choice in devices requiring short range, power<br />

efficient communications.<br />

ZigBee and Z-Wave<br />

These are primary used in building automation and control<br />

applications <strong>with</strong> low data rates. For example, wireless<br />

thermostats, lighting systems, appliance control. These are<br />

the dominant devices used in smart home applications and<br />

there are many devices that support these standards that can<br />

be used in building automation.<br />

Wi-Fi<br />

Wi-Fi offers a high data rate throughput but to achieve<br />

this, it has a higher power consumption than other shortrange<br />

standards. It is there<strong>for</strong>e suitable <strong>for</strong> high data rate<br />

applications, e.g., video streaming and less suitable <strong>for</strong> remote<br />

locations or battery-operated devices.<br />


f) Networks <strong>for</strong> buildings (LPWANS)<br />

The rise of <strong>IoT</strong> has driven the development of new wireless<br />

technologies that are designed specifically to meet the needs<br />

of <strong>IoT</strong> applications. Commonly used LPWAN standards are the<br />

unlicensed LoRaWAN and Sigfox and the emerging cellular<br />

standards NB-<strong>IoT</strong> and CAT-M. The decision on what standard<br />

to use will depend on the number of sensors, availability of<br />

connectivity, hardware availability and cost.<br />

They all have three main<br />

technological attributes:<br />

Long range:<br />

The operating range of LPWAN technology varies from<br />

a few kilometres in urban areas, to over 10km in rural<br />

settings. The low frequency enables good building<br />

penetration of the radio signal which helps enable full<br />

building or estate coverage.<br />

Low power:<br />

The communication protocol is optimised <strong>for</strong><br />

power consumption, meaning LPWAN transceivers have<br />

the potential to run on batteries <strong>for</strong> 5+ years.<br />

Low bandwidth:<br />

Typical data rates are very low. The only real constraint <strong>for</strong><br />

developers <strong>with</strong> LPWANs is the low bandwidth, although<br />

this trade-off allows battery operated devices a long-life,<br />

while maintaining long range communication.<br />

The choice of these will depend on the application in buildings<br />

and number of devices required. LoRaWAN is gaining lots<br />

of traction in the smart building market as it is an open<br />

standard in unregulated spectrum which mean anyone can<br />

buy a low-cost gateway device and have a building level<br />

network able to collect data from thousands of sensors in an<br />

estate. LoRaWAN is designed <strong>with</strong> the aim of achieving long<br />

battery life whilst being capable of communicating over long<br />

distances. The gateways can be configured to send data from<br />

sensors directly into building managed systems. There are<br />

also network operators deploying LoRa networks where the<br />

deployment is managed by the operator and users charged<br />

on a monthly basis <strong>for</strong> connection.<br />

Of the cellular standards, NB-<strong>IoT</strong> is targeted at smart<br />

building connectivity. Being a lighter protocol to CAT-M1,<br />

they currently operate through 4G cellular infrastructure<br />

and longer term will run through 5G. Coverage <strong>for</strong> these is<br />

currently being rolled out <strong>with</strong> good UK coverage expected<br />

by the end of 2020. One of the advantages of using existing<br />

networks is that less communications infrastructure would<br />

be required in building, however, ensure that the buildings<br />

have network coverage. With cellular data, each device would<br />

have a monthly cost <strong>for</strong> connection, typically sub pound<br />

level. If monitoring a few devices per building then using a<br />

managed network would be the most cost effective method<br />

<strong>for</strong> connectivity.<br />


g) Applications/Software<br />

Data repository<br />

The <strong>IoT</strong> sensor and control nodes of a network are limited in<br />

storage size and processing constraints. In an <strong>IoT</strong> application,<br />

you may have hundreds, thousands, or even millions of<br />

nodes collecting data. The solution is to move this data on<br />

to a database storage either locally (privately) hosted or on<br />

a cloud storage plat<strong>for</strong>m where it can be processed from a<br />

centralised location. Traditionally, most <strong>IoT</strong> devices will push<br />

all data up to the data repository, but <strong>with</strong> the emergence<br />

of edge computing, only data of interest may be sent. This<br />

data repository allows different data streams to be combined<br />

and gives a level of interoperability <strong>for</strong> collecting data from<br />

different sources.<br />

The cloud<br />

‘The cloud’ is a term used to describe a global network of<br />

powerful servers which are designed to store and manage<br />

data, run applications and deliver content or a service.<br />

The largest providers of these cloud services are Amazon,<br />

Microsoft, IBM and Google. The cloud has replaced the need<br />

<strong>for</strong> companies to run expensive physical servers on-site and<br />

offers server-like services, <strong>with</strong> users paying when the services<br />

are used. Large amounts of data can be stored inexpensively<br />

in the cloud. Many building management software providers<br />

are providing cloud hosted applications that can allow<br />

different input data sources such as sensors.<br />

Analysis and post processing<br />

Analysis of the data is where real value is unlocked, and many<br />

applications build their value proposition around this. For<br />

example, a business manufactures and sells hardware <strong>for</strong><br />

sensing the movement of people or traffic through an area.<br />

Analytics are per<strong>for</strong>med on the captured data. These analytics<br />

can be used to detect trends or anomalies in the movement<br />

of people or traffic, which becomes a “service” they can sell to<br />

improve the efficiency of other systems.<br />

When data arrives at the cloud, a typical task would be<br />

<strong>for</strong> a software application to<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> devices normally send data to the cloud <strong>for</strong> processing.<br />

Its huge processing power enables the execution of complex<br />

algorithms, machine learning and artificial intelligence to<br />

extract maximum value from the data. This is where the<br />

values of smart buildings and digital twins will be unlocked.<br />

Benefits of cloud processing<br />

• Huge processing power can per<strong>for</strong>m complex tasks<br />

• Data analytics can be per<strong>for</strong>med on incoming data to<br />

detect trends or abnormalities<br />

Visualisation and presentation<br />

The last stage of the process is to present the in<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

in a meaningful way. Depending on the requirements of<br />

the project, this could be as simple an action as ringing a<br />

buzzer or alerting a user by text that there is an abnormality.<br />

More frequently, it is a web page, or dashboard, <strong>with</strong> a series<br />

of graphs showing real-time in<strong>for</strong>mation from the network.<br />

Many cloud plat<strong>for</strong>ms now include tools to visualise data.<br />

Instead of creating a separate traditional web page to display<br />

the data, applications <strong>with</strong>in the cloud ecosystem plot data<br />

using different software tools. This may also include twoway<br />

communication - the user may wish to input into the<br />

system to control the sensors or “an actuator” based on the<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation they have received.<br />

Common software in building management that could<br />

integrate data from <strong>IoT</strong> sensors includes:<br />

• Building management systems<br />

• Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems<br />

• Energy per<strong>for</strong>mance systems<br />

• Computer-aided facility management (CAFM)<br />

• Building in<strong>for</strong>mation modelling (BIM)<br />

• Unpack the data<br />

• Extract the values of each sensor (<strong>for</strong> example,<br />

temperature, humidity) and<br />

• Check that these values are <strong>with</strong>in acceptable ranges.<br />


3<br />

Realise<br />

the value <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> <strong>with</strong>in <strong>Social</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

Within Scotland, the opportunity exists to realise the value of <strong>IoT</strong> <strong>with</strong>in our educational or health<br />

estate. This section considers the architecture and approach.<br />

a) Implementing <strong>IoT</strong> in social infrastructure<br />

The most successful solutions begin by focusing on the<br />

problem to be solved rather than on the technology.<br />

Look <strong>for</strong> areas in an organisation where an <strong>IoT</strong> solution<br />

will have a benefit over an existing process.<br />

Perhaps manual monitoring could be automated?<br />

If maintenance needs could be predicted, costly down<br />

time could be prevented.<br />

Could more in<strong>for</strong>mation in a specific area of a business<br />

improve a process or service? With the right in<strong>for</strong>mation,<br />

processes can often be improved, efficiencies<br />

implemented, and business decisions made easier.<br />

Defining the purpose and value of:<br />

• What in<strong>for</strong>mation would be useful to measure?<br />

• Is there a business case <strong>for</strong> the application?<br />

• Are there existing systems to integrate <strong>with</strong>?<br />

• Who does it solve a problem <strong>for</strong>?<br />

• Is data already being measured in this application?<br />

• What would make an effective proof of concept trial?<br />

• Is senior and cross functional organisational<br />

support available?<br />

There are three parts to developing an <strong>IoT</strong> system.<br />

The more bespoke a system is, the more complex and<br />

expensive the development.<br />

1. Hardware<br />

Off the shelf hardware - dedicated solutions. Buy it, install it<br />

Development boards - this is a half-way house. Kit <strong>for</strong>m<br />

solutions <strong>with</strong> multiple interfaces<br />

Custom design - tailored solutions requiring engineering<br />

development<br />

2. Networks<br />

Use existing networks - Wi-Fi, Cellular, LPWAN, Hardwired<br />

(ethernet)<br />

Setup own network - manage network server and network<br />

hardware<br />

3. Software<br />

Database storage - can be as simple as viewing data collected<br />

in a spreadsheet<br />

Dashboard in<strong>for</strong>mation - web app to display data. This could<br />

be existing building management system or software like<br />

building management control interfaces.<br />

Custom dashboard development – customised web<br />

application or software interface to gather in<strong>for</strong>mation from<br />

multiple buildings into one centralised location.<br />


) Examples of <strong>IoT</strong> applications <strong>with</strong>in social<br />

infrastructure<br />

Indoor environmental monitoring<br />

Challenge<br />

To maintain healthy indoor building conditions and com<strong>for</strong>t<br />

levels. High carbon dioxide levels in buildings have been<br />

shown to affect concentration levels and productivity.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

An <strong>IoT</strong> system could gather room level environmental data<br />

to determine indoor air quality.<br />

Method<br />

Sensors that can operate <strong>for</strong> 5+ years from batteries<br />

can measure air particulate matter, carbon dioxide level,<br />

temperatures, humidity etc.<br />

Result<br />

Building owners/managers can understand real time<br />

conditions and quality of the environment <strong>with</strong>in a building.<br />

Room conditions may be adjusted automatically to reduce<br />

CO 2<br />

levels <strong>for</strong> the com<strong>for</strong>t of staff.<br />

https://censis.org.uk/censis_projects/gss_gcu/<br />

HVAC/BMS control<br />

Challenge<br />

Heating systems are often not optimally set, heating rooms<br />

above the required level or heating empty spaces.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

An <strong>IoT</strong> system could ensure temperature and occupancy<br />

data can be collected.<br />

Method<br />

Inexpensive battery-operated sensors <strong>with</strong> 5+ year battery<br />

life can be distributed around a estate enabling live data<br />

collection to be fed back into the HVAC or BMS system.<br />

Result<br />

From the cloud-based dashboard, the building manager (who<br />

may be based remotely) can see the building per<strong>for</strong>mance<br />

and modify heating programs to provide optimum energy<br />

usage and com<strong>for</strong>t in the building.<br />

“The worldwide smart HVAC control market is expected to<br />

grow to $28.3 billion by 2025 as compared to $8.3 billion<br />

in 2018 (Zion Market Research). The combination of <strong>IoT</strong><br />

<strong>with</strong> HVAC control leads to better per<strong>for</strong>mance and can<br />

enable the remote control and programming of heating<br />

systems remotely. Over time, per<strong>for</strong>mance characteristics of<br />

building per<strong>for</strong>mance could lead to predictive control and<br />

optimisation of the learning estate buildings.” 1<br />

Energy efficient buildings enhance building management intelligence<br />

Challenge<br />

Estate managers, building owners and building occupants<br />

often have little control over the heating, lighting and<br />

occupancy of large buildings.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

An <strong>IoT</strong> system could help them better manage their buildings.<br />

Method<br />

Sensors placed in rooms assess when rooms are empty or in<br />

use. At the same time, they monitor temperature conditions,<br />

humidity and carbon dioxide, noise and light levels.<br />

Result<br />

Building managers adjust room com<strong>for</strong>t levels, save on<br />

energy used <strong>for</strong> lights and heating and make better use of<br />

their facilities. In social housing, this could identify potential<br />

health issues <strong>for</strong> residents from damp.<br />

13<br />

1<br />


Cold chain monitoring<br />

Challenge<br />

A cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain. Within<br />

large estates, compliance reporting needs to be conducted<br />

on cold chain management.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> systems can help to automatically record compliance<br />

measurements by measuring real time data.<br />

Method<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> sensors to monitor temperatures.<br />

Result<br />

The connected sensor systems can alert estate management<br />

and maintenance teams to problems as soon as they happen,<br />

potentially reducing wastage from equipment breakdown and<br />

ensuring compliance of stored items.<br />

People flow and occupancy counting<br />

Challenge<br />

To count and understand the flow of people through<br />

transport networks and building infrastructure.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

Low cost distributed sensors could be deployed across a<br />

building estate.<br />

Method<br />

There are multiple sensor methods to choose from to count<br />

people and flow through a facility.<br />

Result<br />

An understanding of demand/capacity around a building.<br />

Making better use of building space.<br />

https://censis.org.uk/censis_projects/beringar/<br />

Indoor navigation<br />

Challenge<br />

Indoor location sensors could track visitor behaviour around<br />

social infrastructure facilities.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

Indoor location tracking could guide people round tourist<br />

attractions and cities and give relevant in<strong>for</strong>mation at places<br />

of interest.<br />

Method<br />

Small beacon sensors can be placed around attractions to<br />

give people relevant in<strong>for</strong>mation at set locations through<br />

smartphones or other devices.<br />

Result<br />

Better visitor experience and understanding of people<br />

flow throughout attractions.<br />


Water monitoring in an estate<br />

Challenge<br />

Bacteria in a building’s water system could cause harm to<br />

the occupants.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

An <strong>IoT</strong> system could measure levels of harmful bacteria and<br />

assess risk.<br />

Result<br />

Water temperatures are recorded around the building<br />

enabling the building owner to reduce risk and report health<br />

and safety compliance.<br />

https://censis.org.uk/censis_projects/<strong>IoT</strong>-centre-sensorworks/<br />

https://censis.org.uk/2019/08/27/m2m-cloud-ridesneptunes-wave-to-growth/<br />

Method<br />

Sensors are deployed throughout the water system reporting<br />

at regular intervals or on adverse events.<br />

Predictive maintenance and condition monitoring<br />

Challenge<br />

Downtime isn’t only expensive, it can also be a health and<br />

safety risk in some industries. For example, how do you<br />

ensure that equipment is running optimally and how to<br />

predict when equipment needs maintenance work?<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

An <strong>IoT</strong> system can measure operating conditions such as<br />

temperature and vibration around equipment and detect<br />

when the equipment deviates from its prescribed parameters<br />

– detecting failure be<strong>for</strong>e it happens.<br />

Method<br />

Small battery sensors can be fitted to machinery sending back<br />

regular data to report real-time condition of equipment.<br />

Result<br />

With real time views of conditions across the factory floor,<br />

maintenance can be scheduled at convenient times.<br />

Asset tracking<br />

Challenge<br />

Managing the location and maintenance schedule of physical<br />

assets can be expensive and time consuming.<br />

Could an <strong>IoT</strong> system solve this?<br />

An <strong>IoT</strong> system can track assets in real time.<br />

Result<br />

Asset locations can be identified, and maintenance scheduled<br />

efficiently. This reduces administrative costs and ensures<br />

accountability and accuracy. Some industries require asset<br />

tracking <strong>for</strong> regulatory compliance.<br />

https://censis.org.uk/censis_projects/beringar-2/<br />

Method<br />

Low cost battery operated sensor tags can be attached to<br />

equipment to report location at regular intervals.<br />


c) Examples of building hardware and<br />

software data plat<strong>for</strong>ms<br />

Internet<br />

Cloud<br />

based<br />

system<br />

Building<br />

management<br />

control<br />

interface<br />

<strong>IoT</strong><br />

Gateway<br />

<strong>IoT</strong><br />

Devices<br />

Cloud based<br />

Building<br />

control<br />

systems<br />

HVAC etc<br />

high level <strong>IoT</strong><br />

architecture<br />

system <strong>for</strong><br />

building level<br />

control<br />

d) LPWAN gateway<br />

A small LPWAN gateway can provide LPWAN coverage<br />

throughout a building. The device doesn’t need to be<br />

connected to the building network as it can send the data to<br />

the cloud through a cellular connection. Where this device<br />

has an advantage is that it can operate a network server on<br />

the gateway.<br />

This means that the system can be operated <strong>with</strong>out an<br />

internet connection. It can interface into BMS and integration<br />

plat<strong>for</strong>ms building management control interfaces allowing<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> data to be supported in these software systems. These<br />

gateways can gather data from thousands of sensors so various<br />

applications can be built upon this communications plat<strong>for</strong>m.<br />

e) Building management control interfaces<br />

Building management interface plat<strong>for</strong>ms enables a direct<br />

interface into building control systems. It is designed to allow<br />

additional sensors or systems to be mapped and controlled<br />

through a building management system. The hardware<br />

controller acts as a physical interface between the different<br />

systems. They have many compatible drivers and applications<br />

that can be used to control various building systems. They<br />

have open interface and allow customisation depending on<br />

the building type the technology is being deployed in.<br />

It can allow multiple different sensors to be connected and<br />

controlled remotely through a cloud-based application.<br />

These systems allow easier BMS integration and control<br />

allowing scalable applications across multiple buildings.<br />

It can also be used to pull data from existing BMS systems and<br />

push them to cloud <strong>for</strong> further analysis or control. A typical<br />

architecture is shown above.<br />


f) Direct BMS integration<br />

Many buildings are fitted <strong>with</strong> management systems,<br />

sometimes running state-of-the-art technologies alongside<br />

legacy equipment that may be outdated or no longer in<br />

production. One of the major challenges of building automation<br />

is to integrate these different systems to ensure they can<br />

communication <strong>with</strong> each other. BMS systems are increasingly<br />

starting to open-up application programming interfaces (API)<br />

which allows developers and estate managers to connect<br />

various systems. Data from an <strong>IoT</strong> gateway can be integrated<br />

directly to a BMS through a data transfer protocol - or data may<br />

be able to be integrated through software integration. There has<br />

also been an evolution of the BMS communication standards<br />

such as such as BACnet that now includes new web standards<br />

to interface into systems and increase interoperability.<br />

g) Whole life per<strong>for</strong>mance framework and <strong>IoT</strong><br />

Improving how our social infrastructure per<strong>for</strong>ms across<br />

the asset lifecycle is a key enabler to support Scottish<br />

Government achieving its ambition of a sustainable and<br />

inclusive net zero carbon economy. This ambition is relevant<br />

to both our new and existing infrastructure as highlighted<br />

by the <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Commission <strong>for</strong> Scotland in its<br />

30-year infrastructure strategy report, ‘Key Findings Report -<br />

A blueprint <strong>for</strong> Scotland’ published in January 2020:<br />

“Most of the underlying infrastructure that will be used in<br />

30-years’ time already exists today. It is there<strong>for</strong>e essential<br />

that these assets are most effectively and efficiently utilised,<br />

maintained and enhanced to net zero carbon readiness.”<br />

How we measure the per<strong>for</strong>mance of our assets across the<br />

lifecycle is a complex and sometimes siloed approach where<br />

data and methodologies differ across regions, sectors and<br />

disciplines. Scottish Futures Trust has led in the development<br />

of research to look at best practice across industry in how<br />

the per<strong>for</strong>mance of social infrastructure is measured across<br />

areas such as commercial per<strong>for</strong>mance, design per<strong>for</strong>mance,<br />

environmental, social & economic per<strong>for</strong>mance.<br />

The ability to measure per<strong>for</strong>mance in a consistent way where<br />

real time data is generated and analysed offers significant<br />

potential. <strong>IoT</strong> technology will help realise the potential sooner<br />

and in a more consistent and in<strong>for</strong>med way.<br />

Areas where <strong>IoT</strong> and cloud-based control systems could<br />

have an impact on whole life per<strong>for</strong>mance:<br />

• Energy efficiency – HVAC, temperature control,<br />

energy automation<br />

• Asset management and optimisation<br />

• Predictive maintenance<br />

• Indoor air quality<br />

• Green buildings standards<br />

• Measurement and verification of per<strong>for</strong>mance<br />

• Real time data<br />

• Compliance<br />

h) Benefits of using <strong>IoT</strong> <strong>with</strong>in our social infrastructure<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> has the potential to digitally trans<strong>for</strong>m how many<br />

aspects of how social building estates are managed.<br />

Benefits are:<br />

Public Services<br />

• Support operational per<strong>for</strong>mance of our public buildings<br />

• Improve building user engagement and experience of<br />

our social infrastructure.<br />

• Improve educational and health outcomes.<br />

Asset Owners<br />

• Improve utilisation of building assets<br />

• Reduce costs in how we manage our assets.<br />

• Improve resilience<br />

• Support operational decision making <strong>with</strong> improved<br />

data analytics<br />

• Support carbon per<strong>for</strong>mance and support Scottish<br />

Government net-zero carbon ambition.<br />

<strong>Social</strong> & Economy<br />

• Create marketplace and opportunities <strong>for</strong> <strong>IoT</strong> providers.<br />

• Support digital marketplace, innovation and<br />

trans<strong>for</strong>mation.<br />

• Support international competitiveness of SMEs developing<br />

<strong>IoT</strong> devices.<br />

• Identify <strong>IoT</strong> solutions to challenges <strong>with</strong>in social<br />

infrastructure supporting business competitiveness.<br />


Glossary<br />

TERM<br />


Actuator<br />

API<br />

Application/App<br />

BACnet<br />

BIM<br />

BMS<br />

Built environment<br />

CAFM<br />

Cloud / Cloud computing / Cloud storage<br />

Communications network<br />

Cyber security<br />

Dashboard<br />

Data analytics<br />

Data / Big data<br />

Data repository/Data storage<br />

Development plat<strong>for</strong>m/Storage<br />

Digital twin<br />

Edge computing<br />

Edge node / End node<br />

End device, node, mote<br />

Gateway<br />

HVAC<br />

<strong>IoT</strong><br />

I<strong>IoT</strong> / Industry 4.0 / Digital manufacturing<br />

LPWAN<br />

Network/Network server<br />

NFC<br />

Processor/Microprocessor<br />

RFID<br />

Sensor<br />

Smart building<br />

<strong>Social</strong> infrastructure<br />

Visualisation<br />

Wireless technologies<br />

A component of a machine responsible <strong>for</strong> moving or controlling a mechanism or system.<br />

Application Programming Interface. Software to allow applications to talk to each other.<br />

A piece of software running on a server or on a device such as a tablet.<br />

This is a data communication protocol <strong>for</strong> BAC (Building Automation and Control) networks.<br />

Building In<strong>for</strong>mation Modelling. A virtual representation of a built structure to simulate the effects of<br />

real-life events and conditions.<br />

Building Management System. A control system to manage the electrical, mechanical services in a facility.<br />

The physical make up of structures and the spaces between them where we live and work. Eg homes, offices,<br />

hospitals, parks, streets, etc.<br />

Computer-Aided Facility Management. Enables planning, monitoring and execution of planned and<br />

reactive maintenance.<br />

A network of remote servers hosted online that can store, manage and process data and that can host applications.<br />

Enables devices connected to the network to communicate <strong>with</strong> each other. For example, to transfer in<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

from sensors to the cloud.<br />

Protecting hardware, software and data from unauthorised access or attack.<br />

Also known as a User Interface or UI, this allows a person to interact <strong>with</strong> the computer system,<br />

e.g., a computer screen, tablet, mobile phone.<br />

Analysis of captured data to detect trends or anomalies. Once patterns have been detected, this can allow<br />

better decisions to be made.<br />

Large amounts of data that are gathered through many <strong>IoT</strong> devices. By applying analytical techniques to<br />

this data, it is possible to determine trends and make decisions.<br />

Individual <strong>IoT</strong> sensor nodes usually have limited storage space, so the data they collect is moved to remote<br />

database storage where it can be processed from a centralised location.<br />

Standard commercial electronic boards that allow engineers to build prototypes of systems be<strong>for</strong>e they go on to<br />

design custom hardware. Development plat<strong>for</strong>ms often include various sensors integrated directly on to the board.<br />

A realistic digital representation of something physical.<br />

Edge computing refers to computing services located at the logical edge of a network.<br />

The sensor which resides at the edge of an <strong>IoT</strong> system is often referred to as an edge node or end node.<br />

An object <strong>with</strong> an embedded low-power communication chipset.<br />

A device which connects end devices to the internet. It provides a connection point from one network (or protocol)<br />

to another. For example, some gateways receive LoRaWAN transmissions from sensors and <strong>for</strong>ward these over<br />

the Internet to be processed in the cloud.<br />

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems.<br />

Internet of Things. A system of devices using a network to connect and communicate <strong>with</strong> each other.<br />

Industrial Internet of Things. Manufacturers use sensor networks and real-time analytics to monitor and automate<br />

complex processes in an industrial environment.<br />

Low Powered Wide Area Network. A key enabler of <strong>IoT</strong> allowing data transfer from sensors.<br />

Servers that route messages from end devices to the correct application, and back.<br />

Near Field Communication. Enabling short-range communication between devices.<br />

The brain of the <strong>IoT</strong> device – can read and <strong>for</strong>ward sensor data or can per<strong>for</strong>m processing tasks.<br />

Radio Frequency Identification. The use of radio frequency waves to transfer data.<br />

A device which detects or measures a physical property.<br />

A building that uses integrated technology to automatically control all its systems from lighting to heating,<br />

security to ventilation.<br />

Covering a broad range of building types and sizes across education, health and public sector services.<br />

Presenting the data gathered in a meaningful way.<br />

Any <strong>for</strong>m of communications between devices that doesn’t require a wired connection. Some wireless<br />

technologies existed pre-<strong>IoT</strong>, some have been designed specifically <strong>for</strong> it.<br />


CENSIS is the centre of excellence <strong>for</strong> sensor and imaging<br />

systems (SIS) and Internet of Things (<strong>IoT</strong>) technologies.<br />

We help organisations of all sizes explore innovation<br />

and overcome technology barriers to achieve business<br />

trans<strong>for</strong>mation.<br />

As one of Scotland’s Innovation Centres, our focus is not<br />

only creating sustainable economic value in the Scottish<br />

economy, but also generating social benefit. Our industryexperienced<br />

engineering and project management teams<br />

work <strong>with</strong> companies or in collaborative teams <strong>with</strong> university<br />

research experts.<br />

We act as independent trusted advisers, allowing organisations<br />

to implement quality, efficiency and per<strong>for</strong>mance<br />

improvements and fast-track the development of new<br />

products and services <strong>for</strong> global markets.<br />

Scotland is<br />

riding the<br />

wave of opportunity<br />

presented by this next<br />

’industrial revolution’.<br />

Contact details:<br />

CENSIS<br />

The Inovo Building<br />

121 George Street<br />

Glasgow<br />

G1 1RD<br />

Contact details:<br />

Tel: 0141 330 3876<br />

Email: info@censis.org.uk<br />

CENSIS<br />

The Inovo Building<br />

121 George Street<br />

Glasgow<br />

G1 1RD<br />

Tel: 0141 330 3876<br />

Email: info @censis.org.uk<br />

Twitter: @CENSIS121<br />

Join the CENSIS mailing list at www.censis.org.uk<br />

20.7.v1.SI<br />

Follow us on Twitter<br />

@CENSIS121<br />

Join the CENSIS mailing list at:<br />

www.censis.org.uk<br />

Scottish Futures Trust<br />

11-15 Thistle Street<br />

Edinburgh<br />

EH2 1DF<br />

Tel: 0131 510 0800<br />

Email: mailbox@scottishfuturestrust.org.uk<br />

Web: scottishfuturestrust.org.uk<br />

Twitter: @SFT_Scotland

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