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SCIENCE

make every lesson

a good lesson

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NSW


SIMPLER + BETTER + MORE EFFECTIVE

GOOD PRACTICE

Every chapter begins with a critical thinking ‘hub’. Make it work for you: Spend 10 minutes or

spend a whole lesson unpacking the rich critical thinking tasks at the start of every chapter.

Visual literacy tasks provide opportunities

for every student to demonstrate and

practice their critical thinking skills.

LIVING WORLD

LIVING WORLD

2 see–know–wonder

2 see–know–wonder

List three things you can see , three things you know and three

List things three you things wonder you can about see this , three image. things you know and three

things you wonder about this image.

CHAPTER 14: CELLS

CHAPTER 14: CELLS

14Cells

All living things are made of cells, which is why cells are commonly

All living things are made of cells, which is why cells are commonly

known as the ‘building blocks of life’. However, a cell in an animal looks

known as the ‘building blocks of life’. However, a cell in an animal looks

and acts very differently to a cell in a plant.

and acts very differently to a cell in a plant.

There are many different types of cells – even within the human body.

There are many different types of cells – even within the human body.

They all look really different because they have very different jobs to do.

They all look really different because they have very different jobs to do.

Nerve cells send messages around your body from and to your brain, so

Nerve cells send messages around your body from and to your brain, so

they have special features. Blood cells carry oxygen around your body,

they have special features. Blood cells carry oxygen around your body,

so they look different too.

so they look different too.

1

1

learning

learning

links

links

What do you already know about cells?

What do you already know about cells?

Objects

Objects can

can

be

be

sorted

sorted

according

according to

to

whether

whether

they

they


are are living or or non-living.

There are relationships between

plants and animals, including

that plants are able to use light

to to make food, while animals must

eat eat plants or or other animals to

obtain food.



3

3 CriTiCal

CriTiCal

+

+

CreaTive

CreaTive

Thinking

Thinking

Alternatives: List ways

Alternatives: List ways

What

What

if …

if

you

… you

found

found

a way

a way

Prediction:

Prediction:

What

What

could

could

happen

happen that

that

you could

you could

see a

see a

to

to

stop

stop

cells

cells

from

from

ever

ever

if the

if the

nerve

nerve

cells

cells

in your

in your

body

body cell without

cell without

using

using

a

a

dying? dying?

stopped stopped working? working?

light light microscope. microscope.

4 4 The The opposiTe!

The The biggest biggest cell cell in the in the human human body body is the is the female female egg egg cell cell

(ovum). These These cells cells are are about about as wide as wide as the as the thickness thickness of a of a

human hair. hair. The The body's body's smallest cell cell is the is the male male sperm sperm cell. cell.

Females are are born born with with all the all the egg egg cells cells they they will ever will ever have. have.

Males create millions of new of new sperm sperm every every day. day. In females In females

that that may may have have babies, babies, an an egg egg cell cell will will be released be released once once

each each month. month. If sperm If sperm are are around, around, they they will will race race against against each each

other other to to try try to beat to beat them them to the to the egg. egg. The The winning winning sperm sperm will will

dissolve dissolve the the outside outside of the of the egg egg and and wiggle wiggle in to in possibly to possibly start start

a new a new life. life.

Critical thinking

is not about

right and

wrong answers.

Challenge your

students to ‘bend

their minds

sideways’ with

these innovative

critical thinking

tasks.

216 216 MACMILLAN MACMILLAN SCIENCE SCIENCE NSW NSW STAGE STAGE 4

217 217

Begin with what

students already

know! Elicit prior

knowledge and

resolve any

misconceptions

before you

progress further

into the topic.

Science is amazing!

Students will be captivated

by these extraordinary

science stories.

GOOD INVESTIGATION

Investigations are positioned at the end of the book in the Skills and Investigations chapter

allowing a spacious and clear layout with the full scientific method scaffolded for students.

The Stage 4 Science Skills section is designed for quick reference.

All

investigations

have been

reviewed by

a NSW school

lab technician.

The conclusion

is scaffolded to

help students

with this

important skill.

INVESTIGATIONS

InvestIgatIon 1.3

Expanding gases

AIM

To investigate how the volume of a gas changes

when heated

MATERIALS

balloon

conical flask

• 2 beakers (large enough for the conical

flask to fit inside)

ice water

hot water from tap

string

• ruler

METHOD

1 Inflate and deflate the balloon a couple

of times to stretch it out.

2 Blow up the balloon so that it has a diameter

of about 10 cm. Place the balloon over the neck

of the conical flask.

3 Wrap the string around the widest part of the

balloon and mark the string where the two

parts touch. Unwrap and measure the string

with a ruler. Record the circumference of the

balloon at room temperature.

4 Half fill one of the beakers with ice water and

place the conical flask inside the beaker. Let it

stand for 5 minutes.

5 Use the string to measure the circumference of

the balloon after the air has been cooled by the

water and record the measurement.

6 Transfer the conical flask to the beaker

containing hot water. Let it stand for 5 minutes.

7 Use the string to measure the circumference

of the balloon after the air has been warmed

by the water, and record the measurement.

30 min

Level 2

DISCUSSION

1 What effect did heating have on the

circumference of the balloon?

2 Use the particle model to explain why this

happened.

3 What would you expect to happen to the

circumference of the balloon if the water was

heated further?

CONCLUSION

Copy and complete:

‘The results show that: (respond to the aim)’.

InvestIgatIon 1.4

Exploring melting points

INVESTIGATIONS

294 MACMILLAN SCIENCE NSW STAGE 4

295

AIM

To investigate the melting and boiling points of

different household substances

MATERIALS

• household liquids (e.g. water, vinegar,

dishwashing liquid, vegetable oil, apple juice,

milk, candle wax, soft drink)

• ice-cube tray (to make ice cubes that fit inside

the test tubes)

• test tubes (one for each substance, large

enough to fit ice cubes)

• thermometer

• Bunsen burner

• heatproof mat

• tripod

• gauze mat

• matches

RESULTS

Sample Melting point Boiling point

(no foil)

(foil)

METHOD

TABLE I1.4

1 The day before the investigation, pour each

substance into a separate ice cube mould.

Place the trays in a freezer overnight.

2 Collect your solid, frozen samples.

3 Copy the results table into your notebook,

adding a title and rows as needed.

4 Remove one of the samples from the ice-cube

tray and place it into a test tube. Several

samples can be done together if the beaker

is large enough.

5 Set up the apparatus.

6 Light the Bunsen burner and heat the sample

until it has completely melted. Use the

thermometer to measure the melting point

of the sample and record in your table.

60 min

Level 2

7 If time permits, continue to heat the sample

until it begins to boil. If you are boiling several

samples together, make sure that there is some

space between the test tubes.

8 Use the thermometer to measure the boiling

point of the sample and record in your table.

9 Repeat steps 4–8 for the rest of your samples.

DISCUSSION

1 Which substances had low melting points?

2 Which substances had high melting points?

3 Consider the classroom you are currently in.

Can you identify something that would have a

very high melting point? Justify your answer.

CONCLUSION

Copy and complete:

‘The results show that: (respond to the aim)’.

AN OPEN FLAME IS A HAZARD. TAKE

CAUTION. IF YOU BURN YOURSELF,

TELL YOUR TEACHER IMMEDIATELY

AND PLACE YOUR SKIN UNDER COLD

RUNNING WATER FOR 20 MINUTES.

Discussion

questions are

provided to

help students

analyse their

results.

Results tables

are provided to

model correct

layout.

Illustrations are

provided to help

students with correct

set up.

Safety alerts

are provided

as helpful

reminders.


EARTH AND SPACE

THE RESOURCE YOU HAVE BEEN WAITING FOR

GOOD TEACHING AND LEARNING

Page by page, concept by concept, make every science lesson, a good lesson!

One lesson,

one NSW

science

syllabus

content area

covered.

Help students to

‘come up for

air’ at the end of

every concept

with in-text

questions.

Clear, numbered

headings for

easy navigation

and logical

progression of

learning.

Most spreads link to

an investigation which

you will find in the Skills

and Investigations

section.

Every spread

beings with

a clear

learning

intention.

Remove the

literacy block!

Students can

access glossary

definitions at

the point of

need.

CHEMICAL WORLD

1.1

the

partiCLe

modeL

At the end of this lesson

I will be able to:

• describe the behaviour of

matter in terms of particles

that are continuously moving

and interacting.

keY terms

compress

squash into a smaller space

matter

particles that make up all

physical substances; they have

mass and take up space

particles

a very small amount of matter

particle model

a model used to describe the

properties of solids, liquids and

gases

volume

the space taken up

by something

LiteraCY Link

Create a flowchart that shows

the relationship between solids,

liquids and gases.

nUmeraCY Link

Oxygen fills a room that is 6m

long, 5m wide and 3m high.

What is the volume of the room?

Formula: V = lwh

Figure 1.1 Water is the only

substance that is found naturally

as a solid, liquid and gas on Earth.

The particle model is a way of describing all the matter on

Earth. This model states that all matter is made up of tiny

particles, and that these particles are constantly moving. It

can explain why matter behaves in certain ways. It can predict

how matter will be affected by changing conditions such as

pressure and temperature.

How can this model be used to describe the properties

of solids, liquids and gases?

1 The particles in a solid are packed

close together

Solids are materials such as metal or plastic. The particles in solids are

packed closely together like bricks in a wall. The particles aren’t still, they

are constantly vibrating.

A solid has a fixed shape and a fixed volume. Because the particles

in a solid are very strongly attracted to each other, the solid keeps

its shape and doesn’t spread out or flow. A solid cannot be easily

compressed, because there’s no room between particles for them

to squeeze closer together.

Why isn’t a solid able

to spread out?

Figure 1.2 The particles in a solid

are packed closely together, like

bricks in a wall. They vibrate in

their positions.

2 The particles in a liquid can move past

each other

The particles in liquids aren’t as close together as they are in solids.

The particles are still strongly attracted to each other, but there’s room

for them to move past each other.

A liquid will take on the shape of its container, because the attraction

between the particles isn’t strong enough to stop them from spreading

out. A liquid can’t be compressed very much, because there isn’t much

space between particles for them to squeeze closer together. A liquid

has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape.

Why does a liquid take on the shape of its container?

Figure 1.3 The

particles in a

liquid can move

past each

other. They will

take on the

shape of their

container.

3 The particles in a gas have large gaps

between them

The particles in a gas are very weakly attracted to each other, and so

they can move around a lot. The particles have large gaps between

them, and they are constantly moving in all directions. Some common

gases are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Air is a mixture of gases including

oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

Gases will spread out to fill up the

container they are placed in. A gas

can be compressed because there

is space between the particles.

In a smaller space the gas

particles just have less room to

move around. A gas has neither

a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.

Why can a gas be compressed?

Figure 1.4 The particles in a gas are

weakly attracted to each other. They

can be squashed into a smaller space.

CHAPTER 1: STATES OF MATTER

investigation 1.1

Compressing liquids

and gases

CheCkpoint 1.1

1 List three solids, three liquids

and three gases you have

come into contact with today.

2 a My particles are constantly

moving all over the place

and have a weak attraction

to each other. People always

tell me that I will go far in life.

I do not have a fixed shape or

a fixed volume. Who am I?

b My particles are constantly

moving and have a very

strong attraction to each

other. I have a fixed shape

and a fixed volume. As hard

as you try, you can’t give me

the squeeze! Who am I?

c My particles are constantly

moving (usually over, under

and on top of each other!)

and have a strong attraction

to each other. I tend to go

with the flow and do not have

a fixed shape (although I do

have a fixed volume). Who

am I?

3 a How can a brick wall be

used to explain the particles

in a solid?

b How can a jar of marbles be

used to explain the particles

in a liquid?

c How can a pool table and

balls be used to explain the

particles in a gas?

ChaLLenge

4 Plasma is sometimes called

the fourth state of matter.

Use the internet to research

plasma, and how it differs

from the other three states

of matter.

skiLLs CheCk

I can state the three main

states of matter.

I can describe the behaviour

of particles in each state.

4 GOOD SCIENCE NSW STAGE 4

5

Check-in

on student

progress with

questions on

every spread.

Every spread

concludes with

learning criteria

so students can

check that they

have achieved

the learning

intention.

You can’t do good science without

good literacy and numeracy skills.

Literacy and numeracy activities are

built into every lesson.

GOOD PROGRESS

Every chapter concludes with two pages of summary and revision material.

Every chapter

concludes

with a visual

summary.

chapter summary

What mineral is that?

Physical weathering

Rock breaks down but

does not change its

chemical make-up

Check the Check a Scratch the Check the Check the

Chemical weathering

hardness of mineral’s mineral to structure colour,

Rock breaks down

a mineral lustre – is check the of its but this is

through chemical

and score it it dull or colour of crystals. not very

reactions that

using Moh’s shiny? the streak.

reliable.

change the minerals

scale.

in the rocks.

Fossils

Crust

form when

0–100 km thick

a dead

organism

Geologist

is quickly

Analyses ore and

covered by

suggests where to mine.

Mantle

sediment. Many

layers are added, compact

and then cement into

Outer core

sedimentary rock.

Metallurgical engineer

Works to take metal

out of ore

The layers of sedimentary

rock give us clues to the

Inner core

history of the area. Did it

used to be underwater?

Did ancient animals live

Environmental

here? Was it part of a vast

scientist

mountain range? We can

Ensures the natural

study the type of and size

environment is

of the rocks to answer

protected and restored.

many of these questions.

Final challenge

CHAPTER 5: EARTH AND THE ROCK CYCLE

1 Describe each of Earth’s three main layers.

LeveL 1

2 Which type of rock forms when molten rock cools and solidifies?

3 Explain why fossils are so rare.

50xp

4 This list shows scientists involved in the mining process in Australia.

Draw an arrow between their title and the description of what they do.

Geologist

Uses equipment to identify the types of rocks under the surface

Geophysicist

Specialises in extracting metal from ore

Geotechnical engineer Analyses the chemical make-up of samples from the mining site LeveL 2

Geochemist

Analyses the ore that is being mined

Metallurgical engineer Identifies ways to protect and restore the natural environment

Environmental scientist Gathers information on the site and helps plan to

make the mine safe

100xp

5 Explain how you would classify an unknown rock based on observable properties.

6 If you were asked to grow a very large crystal, how would you go about doing this?

Give evidence to support your answer.

7 Streak is a better way to identify minerals than colour – suggest why.

LeveL 3

8 Explain how the sedimentary layers within a cliff face can be used to learn about

geological history.

150xp

LeveL

uP!

End of chapter

Final Challenge

questions give

students the

opportunity

to check their

understanding

and show their

progress.

Deposition

The natural process of

depositing sediments.

Erosion

Movement of sediment by

wind, ice, water or gravity.

Igneous rocks

Form when molten rocks cool

and solidify. Most contain

interlocking crystals; the

slower the cooling, the larger

the crystals.

Sedimentary rocks

Form when sediment such

as clay, sand and shells

are buried and eventually

compacted, joining together.

Can be classic, organic or

chemical.

Metamorphic rocks

Form from other rocks that

have been changed by heat

and/or pressure. Can be

regional or contact. Crystals

may be in layers.

The relationship between

igneous, sedimentary and

metamorphic rocks:

Erosion and

settling

Melting

Igneous

Sedimentary

rocks

rocks

Change

Change

Melting

Erosion

Metamorphic and

rocks

settling

9 You are presented with two samples of different white minerals. Outline what you

would do to tell the difference between the two.

10 Explain how sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks are related using an

annotated flow chart.

11 Metamorphism can be likened to baking a cake – suggest why.

12 Using your understanding of the processes of deposition, compaction and cementation,

explain the steps required for a skeleton to become a fossil.

13 Create a Venn diagram to identify the similarities and differences between

the three rock types – igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

LeveL 4

200xp

LeveL 5

300xp

94 MACMILLAN SCIENCE NSW STAGE 4

95


CONTENTS

GOOD SCIENCE Stage 4

CHEMICAL WORLD

1. States of matter

2. The structure and properties of

matter

3. Mixtures

4. Chemical change

EARTH AND SPACE

5. Earth and the rock cycle

6. Earth, Sun and Moon

7. Resources

8. Water as a resource

PHYSICAL WORLD

9. Forces

10. Fields

11. Energy

12. Energy as a resource

LIVING WORLD

13. Classification

14. Cells

15. Body systems

16. Biotechnology

17. Ecosystems

SKILLS AND INVESTIGATIONS

18. Skills and Investigations

GOOD SCIENCE Stage 5

PHYSICAL WORLD

1. Waves and particles

2. Motion

3. Electricity

4. Energy

EARTH AND SPACE

5. The universe

6. Plate tectonics

7. Global systems

LIVING WORLD

8. Energy and matter

in ecosystems

9. Genetics

10. Evolution

CHEMICAL WORLD

11. Inside atoms

12. The periodic table

13. Chemical reactions

GOOD DIGITAL SUPPORT

14. Rates of reaction

SKILLS AND INVESTIGATIONS

15. Investigations

TEACHER eBOOK

• Comprehensive teaching program

• Victorian Curriculum and Australian

Curriculum mapping

• Answers to every question in the text

• End of chapter tests with marking scheme

• Printable student worksheet for every lesson

with answers

STUDENT eBOOK

• Auto-marking quiz for every lesson

• Auto-marking end of chapter quiz

• Student worksheets

• Audio HITS: teacher implementation audio file for

every lesson

• Indigenous Science implementation support:

Audio HITS, teacher support, student activity

sheets and fieldwork suggestions

• STEM connections

• Curated weblinks including access to Google Earth

education voyages, interactive modules

and videos

Title ISBN Price

Good Science NSW Stage 4 Student Book + Digital 9781420246124 $79.95

Good Science NSW Stage 4 Student Book Digital Access Code 9781420246148 $49.95

Good Science NSW Stage 4 Teacher Digital Access 9781420246131 $199.95

Good Science NSW Stage 5 Student Book + Digital 9781420246155 $79.95

Good Science NSW Stage 5 Student Book Digital Access Code 9781420246179 $49.95

Good Science NSW Stage 5 Teacher Digital Access 9781420246162 $199.95

Pricing and product information is subject to change without notice.

Access to Student digital product lasts for 27 months. Access to Teacher digital product lasts for 5 years.

For all enquiries and orders please contact Customer Support on 1300 277 235 or email

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04/20

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