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Chapter 3 Researching Audience Discourses - LSE Theses Online ...

Chapter 3 Researching Audience Discourses - LSE Theses Online ...

Chapter 3 Researching Audience Discourses - LSE Theses Online

The London School of Economics and Political Science Watching the Pain of Others: Audience Discourses of Distant Suffering in Greece Maria Kyriakidou A thesis submitted to the Department of Media and Communications of the London School of Economics for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, London, October 2011.

  • Page 2 and 3: Declaration I certify that the thes
  • Page 4 and 5: Acknowledgments I am eternally inde
  • Page 6 and 7: 3.2.2 Sampling the disasters to tri
  • Page 8 and 9: 7.2.4. Distant suffering and mediat
  • Page 10 and 11: tsunami”? Tsunami was a word hith
  • Page 12 and 13: 1.1. Conceptual assumptions Ultimat
  • Page 14 and 15: inging the distant closer at hand.
  • Page 16 and 17: disasters with regard to the time t
  • Page 18 and 19: however, what is strikingly surpris
  • Page 20 and 21: “Western Media Coverage of Humani
  • Page 22 and 23: television, to establish relations
  • Page 24 and 25: esponsibilities towards distant oth
  • Page 26 and 27: The complexity of communicating dis
  • Page 28 and 29: “identify patterns of understandi
  • Page 30 and 31: focus moves from viewers’ relatio
  • Page 32 and 33: Peters, 2001; Frosh and Pinchevski,
  • Page 34 and 35: the distant other. However, due to
  • Page 36 and 37: as well as cultural and political d
  • Page 38 and 39: Chapter 2 Conceptualising the viewe
  • Page 40 and 41: a conceptual framework for the stud
  • Page 42 and 43: modern media are meaningful because
  • Page 44 and 45: 2.1.2 The media as a global moral s
  • Page 46 and 47: space. Appadurai employed the term
  • Page 48 and 49: (Boltanski, 1999: 51). This takes p
  • Page 50 and 51: agendas of a national or transnatio
  • Page 52 and 53:

    Advocates of nationalism from a nor

  • Page 54 and 55:

    viewer becomes a complex process un

  • Page 56 and 57:

    the suffering. This disengagement h

  • Page 58 and 59:

    unconditional hospitality, unconstr

  • Page 60 and 61:

    that although the media are indeed

  • Page 62 and 63:

    with the media reports. I will now

  • Page 64 and 65:

    Approaching the viewer as an agent

  • Page 66 and 67:

    the self, too, has to be reflexivel

  • Page 68 and 69:

    experience, but it highlights the c

  • Page 70 and 71:

    populism” (Seaman, 1992: 308) or

  • Page 72 and 73:

    As far as the first challenge of th

  • Page 74 and 75:

    Second, following recent approaches

  • Page 76 and 77:

    produce the sounds and images, the

  • Page 78 and 79:

    Such an approach to the audience an

  • Page 80 and 81:

    a necessary basis in audience atten

  • Page 82 and 83:

    specific news of human vulnerabilit

  • Page 84 and 85:

    testimonies of the journalists, the

  • Page 86 and 87:

    practices, which “continually swi

  • Page 88 and 89:

    2.5 Media Remembering Media remembe

  • Page 90 and 91:

    is filtered through the moral and a

  • Page 92 and 93:

    etween media texts and their viewer

  • Page 94 and 95:

    Looking into how people talk about

  • Page 96 and 97:

    The chapter begins with the justifi

  • Page 98 and 99:

    identities, they allow for the expl

  • Page 100 and 101:

    Habermas’s (1989) concept of the

  • Page 102 and 103:

    news talk in everyday contexts is o

  • Page 104 and 105:

    esearcher and participants (Briggs,

  • Page 106 and 107:

    discourse. Although these normative

  • Page 108 and 109:

    group discussions. Most of these ha

  • Page 110 and 111:

    how different national and cultural

  • Page 112 and 113:

    and Szerszynski on the emergence of

  • Page 114 and 115:

    arise at the coffee places they fre

  • Page 116 and 117:

    appropriate Hannerz’s distinction

  • Page 118 and 119:

    of the deadliest natural disasters

  • Page 120 and 121:

    conditional on political, economic

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Although state channels differ from

  • Page 124 and 125:

    and cultural groups within the coun

  • Page 126 and 127:

    the East for centuries, on the one

  • Page 128 and 129:

    alienation from political instituti

  • Page 130 and 131:

    At the same time, it can be viewed

  • Page 132 and 133:

    country, the Church’s narrowly pe

  • Page 134 and 135:

    was assembled from young women that

  • Page 136 and 137:

    characteristic of the disaster phot

  • Page 138 and 139:

    methodology and discourse analysis

  • Page 140 and 141:

    the hearers in the discourse” (Re

  • Page 142 and 143:

    3.5. Issues of evaluation and refle

  • Page 144 and 145:

    The above issues were the guiding l

  • Page 146 and 147:

    The second aspect of the researcher

  • Page 148 and 149:

    The research design both in terms o

  • Page 150 and 151:

    distinguishing between victims wort

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Linguistically, this was achieved t

  • Page 154 and 155:

    indicative of this attempt. Empathy

  • Page 156 and 157:

    details. I don’t know if this is

  • Page 158 and 159:

    otherness” (Silverstone, 2007: 47

  • Page 160 and 161:

    about the sufferers as a whole woul

  • Page 162 and 163:

    However, when she was asked along w

  • Page 164 and 165:

    actors, however, in the respondent

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Overall, these two dimensions were

  • Page 168 and 169:

    and then you wouldn’t see them an

  • Page 170 and 171:

    witnessing highlights is the constr

  • Page 172 and 173:

    served them right for going over th

  • Page 174 and 175:

    In this annihilation of the technol

  • Page 176 and 177:

    attack; when discussions would move

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Kokkalis, or Microsoft or the peopl

  • Page 180 and 181:

    see the people jumping or later, le

  • Page 182 and 183:

    It is evident in the above how disc

  • Page 184 and 185:

    witnessing adheres to the principle

  • Page 186 and 187:

    Pavlos: Let’s assume that you are

  • Page 188 and 189:

    misrepresented in the mainstream me

  • Page 190 and 191:

    they went further in, and then the

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Narrating distant suffering in inde

  • Page 194 and 195:

    on the screen was conditioned in si

  • Page 196 and 197:

    Taxildaris! 17 That they were sayin

  • Page 198 and 199:

    C: But you know why it was the Tsun

  • Page 200 and 201:

    Nana: He didn’t…the water. So i

  • Page 202 and 203:

    stories and images of individual su

  • Page 204 and 205:

    perspective of the distant other (B

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Chapter 5 Media Remembering Media r

  • Page 208 and 209:

    unoriginal and ultimately banal. Th

  • Page 210 and 211:

    to disasters occurring within the U

  • Page 212 and 213:

    were partly responsible for their m

  • Page 214 and 215:

    these discourses are employed to

  • Page 216 and 217:

    The participant here feels the need

  • Page 218 and 219:

    Giota: I remember people wandering

  • Page 220 and 221:

    Mary: Wasn’t it in Greece? Vicky:

  • Page 222 and 223:

    stories of specific sufferers are r

  • Page 224 and 225:

    ultimately, banal. Cohen describes

  • Page 226 and 227:

    the events they contextualise by co

  • Page 228 and 229:

    It is argued here that these events

  • Page 230 and 231:

    “ordinary” disasters, such as e

  • Page 232 and 233:

    Pakistan or Turkey, has faded. And

  • Page 234 and 235:

    they first heard about it. This is

  • Page 236 and 237:

    efore”, viewers try to make sense

  • Page 238 and 239:

    Interestingly, and despite its much

  • Page 240 and 241:

    Unlike the disasters previously dis

  • Page 242 and 243:

    Olga: I just wanna say about the is

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Arguments about the media’s capac

  • Page 246 and 247:

    contemporary events, such as the wa

  • Page 248 and 249:

    entire submarine was lost then in R

  • Page 250 and 251:

    Dimitris: I mean that everyone unit

  • Page 252 and 253:

    examples of such proximate disaster

  • Page 254 and 255:

    Giota: It’s only earthquakes that

  • Page 256 and 257:

    communities of belonging, such as t

  • Page 258 and 259:

    discussions as points of comparison

  • Page 260 and 261:

    Chapter 6 Audience Agency and Actio

  • Page 262 and 263:

    participants’ discourses. Viewers

  • Page 264 and 265:

    e the media and their forms of addr

  • Page 266 and 267:

    national community, as evident in t

  • Page 268 and 269:

    Stathis: To all of them, yes. OK, i

  • Page 270 and 271:

    On the other hand, the use of celeb

  • Page 272 and 273:

    distant disasters. Aware that this

  • Page 274 and 275:

    Kiki: But even this little help I d

  • Page 276 and 277:

    Mina: I don’t know! Because of bo

  • Page 278 and 279:

    audience discussions will be discus

  • Page 280 and 281:

    The above argument is underlined by

  • Page 282 and 283:

    In the extract below, the criticism

  • Page 284 and 285:

    There is an implicit criticism of t

  • Page 286 and 287:

    A number of argumentative strategie

  • Page 288 and 289:

    Simos: Because the money didn’t g

  • Page 290 and 291:

    on the one hand, they stage appeals

  • Page 292 and 293:

    argumentation, “personal helpless

  • Page 294 and 295:

    employment of such argumentative st

  • Page 296 and 297:

    function as role models for the vie

  • Page 298 and 299:

    these are the people that televisio

  • Page 300 and 301:

    esponses ranging from conceptualisa

  • Page 302 and 303:

    (female, 23, working class, FG7) Th

  • Page 304 and 305:

    audiences through national citizens

  • Page 306 and 307:

    ole as good-doers, which undermined

  • Page 308 and 309:

    understood alongside viewers’ sen

  • Page 310 and 311:

    hierarchies of suffering adopted by

  • Page 312 and 313:

    go beyond the dichotomy of compassi

  • Page 314 and 315:

    proximity, as has often been assume

  • Page 316 and 317:

    making sense of the events (as in t

  • Page 318 and 319:

    The focus group discussions also in

  • Page 320 and 321:

    the findings of the present study.

  • Page 322 and 323:

    The lack of significant differences

  • Page 324 and 325:

    Chapter 6, participants’ recollec

  • Page 326 and 327:

    The disassociation of mediated acti

  • Page 328 and 329:

    The case of politicised witnessing

  • Page 330 and 331:

    unevenness of the mediapolis as a s

  • Page 332 and 333:

    not guarantee a reflexive cosmopoli

  • Page 334 and 335:

    thematic analysis, might have allow

  • Page 336 and 337:

    invited by the choices of represent

  • Page 338 and 339:

    oth the construction of the spectac

  • Page 340 and 341:

    extraordinary event, worthy of acad

  • Page 342 and 343:

    References Abercrombie, N. and Long

  • Page 344 and 345:

    Beck, U. (2004). “The Truth of Ot

  • Page 346 and 347:

    Butler, J. (2004). Precarious Life:

  • Page 348 and 349:

    Couldry, N. (2006). Listening Beyon

  • Page 350 and 351:

    Emirbayer, M. and Mische, A. (1998)

  • Page 352 and 353:

    Gillmor, D. (2006). We the Media: G

  • Page 354 and 355:

    Jørgensen, M., W. and Phillips, L.

  • Page 356 and 357:

    Lipovac, T. (1994). “The Double G

  • Page 358 and 359:

    Moeller, S. D. (1999). Compassion F

  • Page 360 and 361:

    Philo, G. (1993a). ‘Getting the M

  • Page 362 and 363:

    Seu, I.B. (2003). “Your Stomach M

  • Page 364 and 365:

    Sutton, D. (2003). “Poked by the

  • Page 366 and 367:

    Zelizer, B. (1992). Covering the Bo

  • Page 368 and 369:

    Appendix B. Profile of participants

  • Page 370 and 371:

    Appendix C. Topic guide A. Memory/k

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