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PROCEEDINGS OF THE EATSA CONFERENCE 2020

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Global Tourism:

Connecting Insularities in Asia and Europe

Proceeding of the EATSA Conference

ISBN 978-2-9574541-0-5

https://www.eatsa-researches.org/2020/

Dipartimento di Scienze Umanistiche e Sociali


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Title:

GLOBAL TOURISM: CONNECTING INSULARITIES IN ASIA AND EUROPE

Proceedings of the EATSA Conference 2020

Editor:

Enrico PANAI

Copyright © EATSA

ISBN: 978-2-9574541-0-5

All rights reserved. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism

or review, no part of this book may be reproduced by any process without written

permission from the publisher.

Any enquiries should be directed to eatsaresearches@gmail.com

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Welcome to the EATSA Conference 2019

GLOBAL TOURISM

CONNECTING INSULARITIES IN ASIA AND EUROPE

The 6 th Annual International Conference of EATSA – Euro-Asia Tourism Studies Association, that

has taken place online from the 15 th to the 18 th 2020, is an international forum for researchers,

academic and industry experts to exchange information regarding advances in the state of the

art and application of tourism, hospitality and leisure management in Europe and Asia.

Website: www.eatsa-researches.org

Organized by the

Geoeconomics and Geopolitics

Department of Humanities and Social Science (DUMAS)

University of Sassari

cofounded by the

Partners

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CONTENTS

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CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................... 4

COMMITEES ............................................................................................................................................ 8

Welcome letters ................................................................................................................................. 13

Host of the conference ........................................................................................................................... 13

Chief Editor of EATSJ .............................................................................................................................. 13

Keynote speakers .............................................................................................................................. 14

ABSTRACTS .......................................................................................................................................... 16

Adolescents’ Influence Tactics in Family Travel Decision Making: an East Asian

Perspective ................................................................................................................................................ 17

Che-Jen Su a , Wen-Shen Yen a , Yi-Fang Lan b , Namjae Cho c , Seunghee Oh c ........................................ 17

An Analysis of The Travel Experience of Chinese Tourists in Central Portugal ................ 18

Zélia Breda a , Lucília Cardoso b , Beatriz Mendes b ............................................................................................ 18

Applying Values of Success and Competitiveness Focused on Culture – Based on the

Nation Brand Hexagon of Anholt ....................................................................................................... 19

Marica Mazurek a ................................................................................................................................................................. 19

Contexts of Political (Un)Stability in Asia and the Chinese Instrumentalization of

Outbound Tourism ................................................................................................................................. 20

Zélia Breda a , Jiawei Xing a , Jorge Tavares da Silva a,b ..................................................................................... 20

Creative Tourism as a Destination Experiential Marketing Strategy .................................... 21

Eunice Duarte a , Eunice Lopes b ................................................................................................................................... 21

Determinant Factors of Participate Intention Toward Tourism Development: the Case

of Young Residents in Okinawa Island, Japan ............................................................................... 22

Hirofumi Miyagi a , Shunsaku Hashimoto b , Naohisa Kakutani c ............................................................... 22

Determination of Characteristics of Prestige-Seeking Segments in Lithuanian Tourism

Market ......................................................................................................................................................... 23

Lina Pileliene a ...................................................................................................................................................................... 23

Developing "Maslow's Human Needs Hierarchy Models" in Interfacing between Urban

Design and Tourism Knowledge ........................................................................................................ 24

Mona Erfanian Salim a ....................................................................................................................................................... 24

Empirical Research on Internal Marketing in The Hospitality Organization ..................... 25

Shunsaku Hashimoto a ...................................................................................................................................................... 25

Erasmus Students as Destination Evangelists: A Cross-Cultural Comparison ................... 26

Suzanne Amaro a , Cristina Barroco a , Joaquim Antunes a ............................................................................. 26

Examining the Structural Relationships of Distinct Dimensions of Destination Loyalty

and its Antecedents ................................................................................................................................ 27

Francisco Dias a , Lucília Cardoso a , Fernanda Oliveira a ............................................................................... 27

Experiencing Nature: Beauty and Tension in Poland'S National Parks— Analysis of

Tripadvisor Reviews .............................................................................................................................. 28

Marek Nowacki a .................................................................................................................................................................. 28

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Gender and Sustainability in Cruise Tourism Market ................................................................ 29

Vincenzo Asero a , Evangelia Kasimati b .................................................................................................................. 29

How Do Family Businesses in Tourism Industry Adapt to Technological Challenges? The

Conceptual Framework and Research Design .............................................................................. 30

Marcin Olszewski a , Marlena A. Bednarska a , Alicja Hadryś a , Piotr Zmyslony a ............................. 30

Impact of Tourists’ Willingness & Acceptance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Applications

Employed for Smart Destination Tourism Services in Vietnam ............................................. 31

Subhankar Das a , Subhra Mondal a ............................................................................................................................ 31

Islands of the Silk Road: Trading Stories, Gazes and Imagination ......................................... 32

Desmond Wee a ..................................................................................................................................................................... 32

Religious Sites’ Use of Information and Communication Technologies ............................... 33

Cristina Barroco a , Paula Fonseca a , Suzanne Amaro a ................................................................................... 33

Religious Tourism After Covid-19: an Insight into the Quarantine Stories in the Holy

Qur’An ......................................................................................................................................................... 34

Tariq Elhadary a ................................................................................................................................................................... 34

Religious Tourism as a Factor in the Development of the Territory of Fátima – From the

Island of Sicily to Fátima ....................................................................................................................... 35

João Caldeira Heitor a , Eunice Duarte b ................................................................................................................... 35

Service Through Personal Encounters or Technology; the Preferences and Privacy

Concerns of Generation Z ..................................................................................................................... 36

Kitti Hiezl a , Petra Gyurácz-Németh a ....................................................................................................................... 36

Slum Tourism Motivations Induced by Cinema: a Structural Model ..................................... 37

Arthur de Araújo a ............................................................................................................................................................... 37

The Digital Revolution: Impact on Tourism Education .............................................................. 38

Kevser Çınar a ........................................................................................................................................................................ 38

Smog as a factor affecting urban tourism ....................................................................................... 39

Aleksandra Łapko a , Roma Strulak-Wójcikiewicz a , Aleksander Panasiuk b ..................................... 39

The Importance of Fish Consumption: a Hungarian Perspective ........................................... 40

Zsuzsanna Ivancsóné-Horváth Ivancsóné-Horváth a , Csaba Kőmíves a ............................................... 40

The Influence of Pre-Trip Beliefs, Impressions, and Feelings on the Intention to Visit a

Destination ................................................................................................................................................ 41

Carlos Peixeira Marques a .............................................................................................................................................. 41

The Power of Spillover Effects: Japanese Students Reaction to Poland Tourism

Advertising ................................................................................................................................................ 42

Joanna Kosmaczewska a .................................................................................................................................................. 42

The Role of Big Data in Tourism Destination Management: Some Empirical Evidence .. 43

Vincenzo Asero a , Enrico Panai b ................................................................................................................................. 43

The Role of Expertise in the Wine Experience: How Far Social Representations, 4Es and

Memory are Linked and Explain Behavior? ................................................................................... 44

Roxane Corbel a , Patrick Bouchet a , Anne-Marie Lebrun a ........................................................................... 44

Tourism Ambassadors as a Destination Image Inducers – Savoie Mont-Blanc Case ....... 45

Jean-Claude Morand a , Lucília Cardoso b , Noélia Araújo Vila c , Giovana Goretti Feijó de

Almeida d .................................................................................................................................................................................. 45

Tourism and Sustainability: Possible Communion? Truths and Uncertainties in the

Current Context ....................................................................................................................................... 46

Eunice Duarte a , Sílvia Romero b , João Caldeira Heitor c ............................................................................... 46

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Towards a Happy Island: Developing Tourists’ Needs for Urban Open Public Space in

Kish .............................................................................................................................................................. 47

Ali Afshar a , Mona Erfanian Salim a ............................................................................................................................ 47

TRevPAR as Hotels Performance Evaluation Indicator and Influencing Factors .............. 48

Luís Lima Santos a , Cátia Malheiros a , Conceição Gomes a , Tânia Guerra a ......................................... 48

Way of Saint James. Religion and Tourism ..................................................................................... 49

Noelia Araújo Vila a , Lucília Cardoso b , Jose Antonio Fraiz Brea a , Arthur Filipe de Araújo c ... 49

Web Reputation of Protected Areas as Tourism Destinations: a Case Study ..................... 50

Annalisa Stacchini a ............................................................................................................................................................ 50

What Do the Japanase Think About Portugal? An Analysis of the Tourism Destination

Image ........................................................................................................................................................... 51

Zélia Breda a , Lucília Cardoso a , Cláudia Arakaki a ........................................................................................... 51

How Using an Ethical Approach Facilitates the Organization of an International (Online)

Conference During a Global Crisis ..................................................................................................... 52

Enrico Panai a , Alberto Mario Carta a ....................................................................................................................... 52

PROGRAM ............................................................................................................................................. 54

AWARDS ................................................................................................................................................ 63

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COMMITEES

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Honorary President

Gavino Mariotti, University of Sassari (Italy)

Conference Chairs

Veronica Camerada, University of Sassari (Italy)

Enrico Panai, University of Sassari (Italy)

Che-Jen Su, Fu Jen Catholic University (Taiwan)

Francisco Dias, Leiria Polytechnic (Portugal)

International Organizing Committee

Alberto Mario Carta, University of Sassari (Italy)

Aldo Di Russo, Artifactory (Italy)

Aleksander Panasiuk, Jagiellonian University (Poland)

Aleksandra Łapko, Maritime University of Szczecin/Faculty of Engineering and Transport

Economics (Poland)

Ali Afshar, Eqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education - Tehran - Iran (Iran)

Annalisa Stacchini, University of Bologna (San Marino)

Anne-Marie Lebrun, Université de Bourgogne (France)

Arthur Filipe de Araújo, Universidade Lusófona do Porto (Portugal)

Carlos Peixeira Marques, CETRAD - University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro (Portugal)

Che-Jen Su, Fu Jen Catholic university (Taiwan)

Csaba Kőmíves, Széchenyi István University (Hungary)

Desmond Wee, International Business School (Germany)

Dominique Torre, CNRS (France)

Dorothea Papathanasiou-Zuhrt, University of the Aegean (Greece)

Enrico Panai, University of Sassari (Italy)

Eunice Duarte, IPLUSO - ESCAD (Portugal)

Ewa Hącia, Maritime University of Szczecin (Poland)

Francisco Dias, Polytechnic of Leiria (Portugal)

Giacomo del Chiappa, University of Sassari (Italy)

Gianni Pintus, AGCI SASSARI (Italy)

Hirofumi Miyagi, Osaka University of Commerce (Japan)

Joanna Kosmaczewska, Poznan University of Life Science (Poland)

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João Caldeira Heitor, Instituto Superior de Gestão (Portugal)

Kevser Çinar, Necmettin Erbakan University (Turkey)

Kitti Hiezl, University of Pannonia (Hungary)

Lina Pileliene, Vytautas Magnus University (Lithuania)

Lucilia Cardoso, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal)

Luís Lima Santos, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal)

Madhuri Sawant, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (India)

Malgorzata Ogonowska, Université Paris 8 (France)

Marcin Olszewski, Poznan University of Economics and Business (Poland)

Marek Nowacki, WSB University in Poznan (Poland)

Marica Mazurek, Zilinska University in Zilina (Slovakia)

Marlena Bednarska, Poznan University of Economics and Business (Poland)

Mona Erfanian Salim, Iqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education (Iran)

Natalia Wagner, Maritime University of Szczecin (Poland)

Patrick Bouchet, Université de Bourgogne (France)

Piotr Zmyslony, Poznan University of Economics and Business (Poland)

Roma Strulak-Wójcikiewicz, Maritime University of Szczecin (Poland)

Roxane Corbel, Université de Bourgogne (France)

Shunsaku Hashimoto, University of the Ryukyus (Japan)

Simon Teoh, Murdoch University (Australia)

Subhankar Das, Duy Tan University (Vietnam)

Subhra Mondal, Duy Tan University (Vietnam)

Suzanne Fonseca Amaro, Instituto Politécnico de Viseu (Portugal)

Tamara Ratz, Kodolányi János University of Applied Sciences (Hungary)

Tariq Elhadary, Istanbul Gelisim University (Turkey)

Veronica Camerada, University of Sassari (Italy)

Vincenzo Asero, University of Catania (Italy)

Yanki Hartijasti, Indonesia Universitas (Indonesia )

Zélia Breda, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

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Executive Online Committee

Alberto Mario Carta, University of Sassari (Italy)

Michele Cuccu, University of Sassari (Italy)

Simona Decortis, Writer (Italy)

Alessandra Nieddu, University of Sassari (Italy)

Gianpiero Nughedu, Sardus Italia (Italy)

Enrico Panai, University of Sassari (Italy)

Local Organizing Committee

Veronica Camerada, University of Sassari (Italy)

Silvia Carrus, University of Sassari (Italy)

Alberto Mario Carta, University of Sassari (Italy)

Michele Cuccu, University of Sassari (Italy)

Anna Depalmas, University of Sassari (Italy)

Salvatore Lampreu, University of Sassari (Italy)

Vanni Martinez, University of Sassari (Italy)

Giampietro Mazza University of Sassari (Italy)

Enrico Panai, University of Sassari (Italy)

Gianni Pintus, AGCI (Italy)

Gianluca Scanu, University of Sassari (Italy)

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Welcome letters

Host of the conference

For the first time in the history of EATSA, we had to host an online conference. It was not easy. We have

succeeded in hosting, running an online conference where we had a 3-day program of presentation of

academic and scholarly papers. The presenters and audience managed to have outstanding heads-up

discussions on current issues in tourism. We had to be concise. We had to improve our communicational

skills. However, we met the challenge. And in the end, it has been a great opportunity to listen to and meet

all speakers from 37 renowned universities and research centres in Europe and Asia.

The international crisis has thus turned into an excellent opportunity to reorganise our work. This year we

launched our scientific journal (EATSJ) and the Café Tourism Labs. We are now actively looking for new

ways of collaboration, and we are working intensively to strengthen and expand our association.

EATSA has entered its seventh year and started its third term of presidency. As the new president of EATSA,

I have the honour to work with two brilliant new vice-presidents: Dr Kevser Çınar for Asia and Dr Desmond

Wee for Europe. We appreciate the inspiring work that has been done in the past years by the previous

presidents and by all the members of the association. Now, following in the same footsteps, I strongly

believe that all together we can commit to a new path of excellence.

Enrico Panai

Chief Editor of EATSJ

I would like to express a warm welcome to the 6th Annual Conference of Euro Asia Tourism Studies

Association (EATSA) Proceedings. On behalf of the Editorial Committee of Euro Asia Tourism Studies

Journal, I would also like to sincerely thank to all our EATSA members for their continues commitment to

excellence and academic achievement. This new Journal (EATSJ) provides a wonderful forum for the

publication of original research papers, reviews, case studies presented at the Annual Conference of EATSA.

EATSJ is a peer-reviewed academic journal publishing theoretical, conceptual and empirical research about

tourism and hospitality. The research published in this journal, targets at advancing knowledge and critical

understanding of tourism related issues. The EATSJ encourages research based on a variety of methods,

including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The EATSJ is published online (open-access).

The journal aims to provide and improve the communication and collaboration between academics,

researchers and practitioners working in the tourism industry, so as to create a platform where new ideas

concerning tourism and tourism management are offered. We look forward to your contributions to the

journal and have every expectation that it will become one of the most respected journals in the fields of

Tourism Industry.

Kevser Çınar

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Keynote speakers

15th of June 2020

Prof. Giacomo Del Chiappa

University of Sassari

(Italy)

“How tourist behavior is being changed and transformed by the COVID-19 outbreak?”

16th of June 2020

Prof. Tamara Ratz

Kodolányi János University of Applied Sciences

(Hungary)

“Awareness, respect and responsibility in tourism”

17th of June 2020

Prof. T.C. Chang

National University of Singapore

(Singapore)

“Insularities in Tourism Studies: Between Eurocentrism & Asiacentrism”

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ABSTRACTS

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Adolescents’ Influence Tactics in Family Travel Decision

Making: an East Asian Perspective

Che-Jen Su a , Wen-Shen Yen a , Yi-Fang Lan b , Namjae Cho c , Seunghee Oh c

a Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan

b Wakayama University, Japan

c Hanyang University, South Korea

Abstract

We aim to present a cross-societal comparison of the influence tactics that adolescents use with their

parents in family travel decisions by investigating 1,302 usable responses of senior high school students

across four East Asian societies (China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan). Through multi-group confirmatory

factor analysis (MG-CFA), adolescent influence behavior emerges in a refined and validated model of four

subscales reflecting bargaining, persuasion, emotional, and request strategies. These subscales indicate the

measurement invariance of adolescent influence behavior across societies. On the basis of the subscales

identified, we performed a one-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The four societies

were our predictor variable. The four strategies of influence behavior were the dependent variables. The

five demographic variables were entered as covariates. Next, if the MANCOVA was significant, univariate

analyses for the dependent measure dimensions were conducted. The univariate analyses were ANCOVAs,

using as covariates only the demographics identified in the MANCOVA as making a significant contribution

to the model. If no covariate was significant, the analyses were run as ANOVAs. Finally, for the univariate

analyses found to be significant, Duncan multiple comparison tests were conducted to identify group

differences among the adolescents from the various societies. Our findings show significant betweensociety

differences for all four dimensions of adolescents’ influence tactics with their parents. Furthermore,

respondents from all four societies have similar priorities of choosing their influence tactics, as reported in

recent studies on family purchase decisions. We also found that respondents from the Greater-China cluster

(GCC) are more likely to apply various influence tactics except request tactic than their counterparts from

the Northeast-Asia cluster (NAC). We conclude with a discussion of these differences and why they may

have occurred.

Research focus: family travel decisions

Keyword: adolescent Influence tactics, East Asia, family travel decisions, measurement equivalence

Corresponding author:

Che-Jen Su

Fu Jen Catholic University

510, Chung Cheng Rd., Hsinchuang

24205 New Taipei City

Taiwan

040084@mail.fju.edu.tw

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An Analysis of The Travel Experience of Chinese Tourists in

Central Portugal

Zélia Breda a , Lucília Cardoso b , Beatriz Mendes b

a GOVCOPP, University of Aveiro, Portugal

b University of Aveiro, Portugal

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to analyze the travel experience of Chinese tourists in Central Portugal. For

this purpose, on the one hand, the characteristics of the region and how it is promoted in the Chinese market

are analyzed, and, on the other hand, what is the opinion of this market on this region. To this end, the study

was based on an analysis of the comments collected on Chinese travel websites, as well as interviews with

entities responsible for the tourism development in the region. The results allowed us to conclude that the

Center of Portugal region has been developing over time in terms of tourism infrastructures, enabling it to

be more prepared to meet the requirements of the Chinese market. In addition, it has a number of features

valued by the chinese tourists, which together with the strategies developed by the destination

management organizations, will contribute to the attraction of more chinese tourists.

Research focus: Tourism is an important economic sector, contributing to the development of several

countries. In Portugal, it is equally relevant, both economically and strategically, due to its ability to create

wealth and jobs. There are, however regional asymmetries, with destinations where the level of

development is below their tourism potential. In order to tackle these asymmetries it is necessary to invest

on these regions and develop strategies to promote them and attract visitors. This need, coupled with the

rapid growth of chinese outbound tourism, motivated the development of this work, which contributes to

identify the potential of the Center of Portugal region to attract the chinese market.

Keyword: Destination attractiveness, chinese outbound tourism, Center of Portugal

Corresponding author:

Zélia Breda

GOVCOPP, University of Aveiro

DEGEIT, Campus Universitário de Santiago

3810-193 Aveiro

Portugal

zelia@ua.pt

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Applying Values of Success and Competitiveness Focused on

Culture – Based on the Nation Brand Hexagon of Anholt

Marica Mazurek a

a Žilinská univerzita v Žiline, Slovakia

Abstract

Competitiveness and success are closely interrelated, where competitiveness could be understood as a

mean to achieve success. The implementation of tools of competitiveness becomes one of major

preconditions of successful performance. In territorial or regional context, successful destinations are

places, which are able to use more effectively their means of comparative advantage. Especially in the time

of economic crises such regions or places are able to benefit from the positive influence of so called soft and

more sustainable values created by the improvement of image, reputation and the quality of destination

services, using of local cultural resources and heritage. Simon Anholt (2007) explained main components

of competitive identity by defining factors, which can influence the image of a country. These factors, which

have an enormous impact on image and reputation, are not only marketing and branding strategies, but

also policy, investment, culture, people, and tourism. Slovakia and Canada are countries, which were able

to achieve success and improve their potential as tourist destinations with a rich cultural and heritage

content. Several examples and case studies will be used to demonstrate this statement. Our study will be

focused at the segment of culture interwoven especially into the wine tourism routes in both countries and

their comparison how both countries were able to combine wine tourism and cultural heritage. The

qualitative research has been prepared, especially focused on product development and the innovative

promotion strategies. These two countries were chosen due to a personal experience, former research and

interest in this topic.

Research focus: Competitiveness and success are closely interrelated, where competitiveness could be

understood as a mean to achieve success. The implementation of tools of competitiveness becomes one of

major preconditions of successful performance. Our study will be focused at the segment of culture

interwoven especially into the wine tourism routes in both countries and their comparison how both

countries were able to combine wine tourism and cultural heritage. The qualitative research has been

prepared, especially focused on product development and the innovative promotion strategies. These two

countries were chosen due to a personal experience, former research and interest in this topic.

Keyword: Competitiveness, Success, Innovative approach to Marketing of Places, Image, Reputation,

Quality

Corresponding author:

Marica Mazurek

Žilinská univerzita v Žiline

Univerzitná 8215/1

010 26 Žilina

Slovakia

marica0011@yahoo.ca

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Contexts of Political (Un)Stability in Asia and the Chinese

Instrumentalization of Outbound Tourism

Zélia Breda a , Jiawei Xing a , Jorge Tavares da Silva a,b

a GOVCOPP, University of Aveiro, Portugal

b University of Coimbra, Portugal

Abstract

Tourist flows between countries are very much dependent on their political relations, being conflicts and

insecurity a major cause of their drastic reduction. This work aims to study how some regional political

conflicts are reflected in the development of Chinese outbound tourism. China is involved in conflicts with

some neighboring countries, namely Japan and the Philippines. There is an immediate correspondence

between the contexts of political instability and the number of Chinese tourists. Each situation corresponds

to a substantial reduction in tourist flows, being a result of not only conjunctural factors but also of the

actions of the Chinese government itself, in many ways, following geopolitical guidelines to pressure these

countries. Although the Chinese government has used tourism frequently for this purpose, the relative

effects of these measures might tend to devalue this type of action. On a more positive note, the Chinese

government seeks to intensify bilateral relations with some countries, with tourism functioning as a soft

power tool. This 'administered' tourism, with Chinese characteristics, becomes unique in the context of

international tourism.

Research focus: Tourism is one of the most vulnerable sectors in the face of economic, political,

environmental and social changes. The study regarding the relationship between political phenomena and

the dynamics of international relations and tourism is still at an infancy stage. This study intends to

contribute to this debate, by focusing on the Chinese case.

Keyword: Tourism, Politics, International relations, Conflict, Asia, China

Corresponding author:

Zélia Breda

GOVCOPP, University of Aveiro

DEGEIT, Campus Universitário de Santiago

3810-193 Aveiro

Portugal

zelia@ua.pt

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Creative Tourism as a Destination Experiential Marketing

Strategy

Eunice Duarte a , Eunice Lopes b

a ESCAD, Portugal

b IPT, Portugal

Abstract

This article deals with the relationship between creative tourism and experiential marketing strategy.

Creative tourism has been experiencing an increase in demand, as a consequence of current tourists looking

for interactive and co-production cultural experiences that involve the culture of the receiving country. In

this sense, it is necessary to understand the experiential marketing strategies used in this type of tourism.

Experiential marketing has been indicated as a differentiating constituent for tourist destinations in the

process of creating value and retaining tourists. In addition, the development of creative tourism has

presented singularities that pose challenges in the connection between supply and demand leading to the

process of co-creating significant experiences. Tourist destinations have promoted an offer based on

cultural reproduction, sponsoring creative tourism. This is a paradigm justified by the process of building

narratives resulting from co-creation experiences integrated in creative tourism. This article aims to

understand the extent to which creative tourism is important for the sustainability of tourist activity in

tourist destinations and how experiential marketing strategies have contributed to its development,

differentiation and tourist attractiveness. The creative tourist offers of Nova Zealandia and Barcelona will

be the cases presented in this study as starting points for reflection on this reality.

Research focus: Marketing Strategy

Keyword: Creative Tourism, Cultural Tourism, Tourist, Experiential Marketing

Corresponding author:

Eunice Duarte

ESCAD

Rua Ocidental do Mercado Nº33, 2ºesq

2900-516 Setúbal

Portugal

eunice.duarte29@gmail.com

21


Determinant Factors of Participate Intention Toward

Tourism Development: the Case of Young Residents in

Okinawa Island, Japan

Hirofumi Miyagi a , Shunsaku Hashimoto b , Naohisa Kakutani c

a Osaka University of Commerce, Japan

b University of the Ryukyus, Japan

c Meio University, Japan

Abstract

The understanding of residents’ perceptions for tourism development has been an important theme among

managers for destinations, because the success and sustainability of tourism destination depends upon the

goodwill of local residents. The purpose of this study is to examine how the perceived tourism impacts for

the young residents determine residents’ attitude and participation and collaboration toward tourism

development in the island destination. One of the originalities of this research is its integrated nature, since

it includes variables related to tourism policies, economic / non-economic variable, perception of tourism

impacts, attitude and participation / collaboration toward tourism development in the island destination.

The study shows that the influence of variables concerning “Perception for tourism impacts,” “Community

attachment” and “Residents’ attitude” is confirmed. On the other hand, unlikely to the previous studies,

there are no significant relationship between “Personal economic benefit from tourism” and “Residents’

attitude.” We can show as practical implications that an understanding of how residents build their

intention of participation and collaboration toward tourism development and sustainability will allow

destination managers to develop marketing and management strategies. The limitation of this research is

related to the difficulty in obtaining an adequate sample dealing with island. Also the study has not been

covered by “State of local economy.”

Research focus: The study is carried out by the modified model based on “Social Exchange Theory (SET),”

using variables that measure “Community attachment” “Tourism policies” “Personal economic benefit from

tourism” “Perception for tourism impacts” “Residents’ attitude” and “Participation and collaboration

toward tourism development.” As analysis method, SmartPLS (version 3.2.9; Ringle et al., 2015) is used to

perform the PLS-SEM analysis to assess the research model listed above. The research is conducted to young

residents in Okinawa Island, Japan, which is young international destination although it remains mature

destination for domestic tourists.

Keyword: Perception of young residents, Tourism impact, Community attachment, Okinawa Island

Corresponding author:

Hirofumi Miyagi

Osaka University of Commerce

4-1-10 Mikuriyasakae-machi

5778505 Higashiosaka, Osaka

Japan

miyagi@daishodai.ac.jp

22


Determination of Characteristics of Prestige-Seeking

Segments in Lithuanian Tourism Market

Lina Pileliene a

a Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania

Abstract

Considering tourism sector as having potential to provide luxury product to a market, marketing

communication in this sector has to be precise and adapted to the specific customer needs. The research

contributes to the existing scientific discussion in the field of tourism marketing by answering the

questions: what are prestige-seeking segments in Lithuanian tourism market and what are the core

characteristics of latter segments to be addressed by marketing communication. The purpose of the

research is to identify the characteristics of different prestige-seeking segments in Lithuania tourism

market. Questionnaire survey was provided in order to reach the aim of the research. After generalizing the

research results, five different prestige-seeking segments are determined and their characteristics are

described. Based on the obtained results, guidelines for marketing communication with these segments are

provided.

Research focus: What are the prestige-seeking segments in Lithuanian tourism market? What are the

characteristics of the determined segments? What marketing communication has to be provided to attract

each segment?

Keyword: Market Segmentation, Prestige-Seeking, Tourism Market

Corresponding author:

Lina Pileliene

Vytautas Magnus University

K. Donelaičio g. 58

44248 Kaunas

Lithuania

lina.pileliene@vdu.lt

23


Developing "Maslow's Human Needs Hierarchy Models" in

Interfacing between Urban Design and Tourism Knowledge

Mona Erfanian Salim a

a Iqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education , Iran

Abstract

Today, urban open spaces make a key role for meeting tourists' need while urban tourism is one of the most

important types of tourism in the world. In a sustainable order, for meeting tourists' need in an urban open

space, there is an essential to describe tourist needs theories in detail based on the empirical data analysis

for different context. This paper attempts to develop "Maslow's Human Needs Hierarchy Models" in

interfacing between urban design and tourism knowledge. From a literature survey, the study focuses on

two bodies of knowledge in parallel. Pearce and his colleagues found “Travel Career Ladder” (TCL) in

Mallow's theory, whereas Lang interprets the theory so as to design urban space. Subsequently, in order to

establish a conceptual framework, the study applies a comparative analysis to show an intersection

between both approaches. The conceptual framework in relation to the tourists’ needs is also developed

based on the three major contexts: theoretical, traditional, and current. It takes Kish Island in south of Iran

as the case where it is assumed to enhance the public zones due to its current plans of development.

Eventually, this paper indicates some linkages between sustainable urban development and sustainable

tourism in a tourism destination. It also illustrates the importance of effective collaboration between

different professionals and disciplines for integrating knowledge across a sector. Therefore, the output of

the research can help to apply urban design as a multi-discipline vehicle for the objectives of sustainable

tourism.

Research focus: This paper indicates some linkages between sustainable urban development and

sustainable tourism in a tourism destination. It also illustrates the importance of effective collaboration

between different professionals and disciplines for integrating knowledge across a sector.

Keyword: Human needs hierarchy models, urban design, urban tourism

Corresponding author:

Mona Erfanian Salim

Iqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education , Iran

9 Sarafrazan st, Sarafrazan Blvd , Mashhad , Iran

9177113113 Tehran

Iran

monaerfanian@gmail.com

24


Empirical Research on Internal Marketing in The Hospitality

Organization

Shunsaku Hashimoto a

a Faculty of Global and Regional Studies, University of the Ryukyus, Japan

Abstract

Internal marketing is known as the concept of organizational activation. In particular, it has been born and

developed for hospitality organizations. However, the concrete method has not been presented so far.

Meanwhile, organization development is also known as the concept of organizational activation, but this

has been developing, not targeting specific industries. Both of these have different names, but their objects

are the same, which is exactly the activation of the organization. In this paper, we are trying to explore the

concrete method of internal marketing after clarifying the commonality of both. Research methods are

literature research and empirical research on real organizations. Empirical research focused on the

Japanese hotel company, which is thought to be rapidly growing by allowing the concept of internal

marketing to penetrate the organization, and made an interview with the staff. From the result of that

consideration, the paper attempts to verify whether the concept of internal marketing has penetrated the

organization.

Research focus: This paper focuses on how an internal marketing is represented in the hospitality

organization by analyzing interviews of staff. Internal marketing is not such a new concept. The first scene

of internal marketing was shown by Berry, Hensel and Burke in 1976. Berry and Parasuraman (1991) said

“Internal marketing is attracting, developing, motivating, and retaining qualified employees through jobproducts

that satisfy their needs.” According to this concept, internal marketing does not mean creating the

market, it means activating the organization by motivating working people. In this paper, the focusing is on

this concept, how the hospitality organization represent this concept in the organization.

Keyword: Internal Marketing, Hospitality Organization, Activating Organization, Dialogue, Respect for

diversity

Corresponding author:

Shunsaku Hashimoto

Faculty of Global and Regional Studies, University of the Ryukyus

1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Nakagami-gun

903-0213 Okinawa

Japan

shunh@tm.u-ryukyu.ac.jp

25


Erasmus Students as Destination Evangelists: A Cross-

Cultural Comparison

Suzanne Amaro a , Cristina Barroco a , Joaquim Antunes a

a Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Portugal

Abstract

The aim of this study is to apply the concept of brand evangelism to a destination (a country) and examine

which destinations are more prone to have brand evangelists and which nationalities are more likely to be

destination evangelists. For the purpose of this study destination evangelism is defined as the intensive

communication and support of a destination, both offline and online. It is measured by 5 dimensions: Wordof-Mouth

(WOM), e-WOM, WOM intensity, revisiting intentions and recommendation. An online survey with

the measures of the above-mentioned variables was applied to Erasmus students. Since they live for short

periods of time (from 5 to 10 months) in a country, they can be the ideal destination evangelists since they

get to know the host country better than tourists. Responses from the following nationalities were used to

conduct the analyses: French (N=430), German (N=921), Italian (N=761), Polish (N=258), Portuguese

(N=555) and Spanish (N=420). The ANOVA tests evidence that the German are significantly less evangelists

than all other nationalities. The Spanish are the most evangelists, but the difference is only significant

regarding the German and the French. Regarding countries, a different sample of students was used.

Students from several nationalities who had done Erasmus in France (N=361), German (N=500), Italy

(N=397), Poland (N=386), Portugal (N=555) and Spain (N=782). The results clearly show that Portugal is

the destination that has significantly higher values regarding evangelism, while Germany and Poland have

less. The results are important for all Erasmus stakeholders, such as potential students, higher education

institutions, governments and destination management organizations.

Research focus: Brand evangelism is an intense and active form of brand support behavior (Becerra and

Badrinarayanan, 2013) that all brands aspire. While there are many studies applying this concept to

products and services (e.g. Badrinarayanan and Laverie, 2013; Becerra and Badrinarayanan, 2013), to the

best of knowledge, it has never been applied to a destination. However, just as company and brand

managers are interested in creating brand evangelists, destination management organizations also aspire

that visitors will actively promote their destination.

Keyword: Destination Evangelism, Cross Cultural, Erasmus

Corresponding author:

Suzanne Amaro

Polytechnic Institute of Viseu

Campus Politécnico de Repeses

3505-514 Viseu(Portugal)

Portugal

samaro@dgest.estv.ipv.pt

26


Examining the Structural Relationships of Distinct

Dimensions of Destination Loyalty and its Antecedents

Francisco Dias a , Lucília Cardoso a , Fernanda Oliveira a

a Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation (CiTUR) – Polytechnic of Leiria,

Portugal

Abstract

The level of tourist loyalty to a destination is considered an important indicator when analyzing its

efficiency and competitiveness. Moreover, there is a consensus among experts that loyalty is preceded by

tourist satisfaction on previous visits. However, studies over the past decades have shown that there is not

always a strong relationship between visitors’ satisfaction levels and repeated visits. In order to overcome

this contradiction, many researchers decompose the construct of loyalty into two main dimensions: attitude

and behavior. Attitudinal loyalty includes three important dimensions: cognitive (advocating the

destination), affective (identification with the destination) and conative loyalty (intention to repeat the

visit). Thus, it is important to assess and compare the different dimensions of loyalty and then study the

factors that sometimes prevent the translation of conative loyalty into behavioral loyalty. In order to

explore the relationships between the various components of the concept of destination loyalty, an online

survey was conducted with a sample of 6104 Portuguese. This specific study is restricted to the analysis of

data from the sub-sample of respondents who identify domestic destinations as their main favorite

destinations (sub-sample of 2189 respondents). The effects of the main subjective factors influencing the

behavioral loyalty (motivation, destination image, perceived quality and conative loyalty) are thus assessed,

as well as the subjective hierarchy of regional and local destination brands for each of the seven Portuguese

Tourism Regions (Oporto and North, Centre, Lisbon, Alentejo, Algarve, Madeira and Azores).

Research focus: This study is part of a larger research programme that aims to go deep in the

undertsnading of a set of factores interacting in the destination choice process. This specific study discusses

the distinct types of tourist loyalty to tourism destinations, and explores their relationships.

Keyword: Destination loyalty,, conative loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, tourist motivation, brand hierarchy,

customer-based brand equity

Corresponding author:

Francisco Dias

Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation (CiTUR) – Polytechnic of Leiria

Rua General Norton de Matos, Apartado 4133

2411-901 Leiria

Portugal

francisco.dias@ipleiria.pt

27


Experiencing Nature: Beauty and Tension in Poland'S

National Parks— Analysis of Tripadvisor Reviews

Marek Nowacki a

a WSB University in Poznan, Poland

Abstract

The article aims to analyse and compare experiences gained by tourists visiting three of the most interesting

protected areas in Poland – Tatra National Park, Bialowieza National Park and Wolin National Park. The

author focuses on the following question: do the natural assets of the national parks affect visitors' unique

experiences or is an environmentally valuable area not important for their experiences? The article uses

mixed quantitative (Text Mining, co-occurrence network analysis) and qualitative (narratives research)

methods. Data for analysis – reviews posted by users – were downloaded from TripAdvisor.co.uk. Reviews

on TripAdvisor indicate that the most important for tourists in Tatras and the Bialowieza National Park

were the experiences of physical activity. This confirms the trend to maintain health and the desire to

regenerate physical strength. The group of reviews related to the connection to nature experiences is

extremely small, which indicates that tourists probably did not come to national parks as a result of

experience preferences related to ecological awareness. Some tourists feel tension, which indicates that the

carrying capacity is exceeded. There is a doubt whether tourists who want to engage in a physical activity

must necessarily visit the area with the highest degree of nature protection.

Research focus: Research focus of this article is to to analyse and compare experiences gained by tourists

visiting two of the most interesting protected areas in Poland – the Tatra National Park (TNP) and the

Bialowieza National Park. Author focused on the following question: does the natural heritage of the

national park affect visitors' unique experiences or is environmentally valuable area not important for their

experiences?

Keyword: experiences, national parks, tripadvisor, text-mining

Corresponding author:

Marek Nowacki

WSB University in Poznan

ul. Powstańców Wielkopolskich 5

61-895 Poznan

Poland

marek.nowacki@wsb.poznan.pl

28


Gender and Sustainability in Cruise Tourism Market

Vincenzo Asero a , Evangelia Kasimati b

a University of Catania, Department of Political & Social Sciences, Italy

b Bank of Greece, Economic Analysis & Research Department, Greece

Abstract

Cruise tourism can be defined as a form of travelling, involving an all-inclusive holiday on a cruise ship, with

a specific itinerary. During recent decades, the cruise market has seen an enormous growth in passenger

numbers, while an increasing number of new cruise destinations around the world are emerging. The

diversification of the cruise product has been accompanied by variation in the composition of the clientele

relating to gender, generation group, ethnicity and income. Due to the constant increase in numbers of

cruise tourists, ports and destinations play a crucial role in itineraries’ development, which are designed on

the basis of market and operational considerations. In their efforts to achieve the highest level of

passengers’ experience and gender preferences, cruise companies introduce itineraries including attractive

destinations. For instance, with the number of female travelers growing, female centered cruises create a

female empowerment community at sea through female-centered itineraries, while allowing travelers to

experience the world around them, as well as famous feminist landmarks. This study examines the cruise

market and its potential, with a particular emphasis on the clientele gender. To this extent, the study focuses

on the various reasons behind a cruise vacation by gender and whether the length of cruise vacation differs

according to the gender. In addition, the study highlights that despite the economic benefits enjoyed by the

cruise host destinations, much remains to be done to balance the rapidly growing demand for cruising with

its impacts and environmental values.

Research focus: Cruise tourism, gender and sustainability

Keyword: Cruise industry, cruise tourism, gender, sustainability

Corresponding author:

Vincenzo Asero

University of Catania, Department of Political & Social Sciences

8, Via Vittorio Emanuele II

95128 Catania

Italy

vasero@unict.it

29


How Do Family Businesses in Tourism Industry Adapt to

Technological Challenges? The Conceptual Framework and

Research Design

Marcin Olszewski a , Marlena A. Bednarska a , Alicja Hadryś a , Piotr Zmyslony a

a Poznan University of Economics and Business, Poland

Abstract

The fourth industrial revolution, often referred to as a concise term Industry 4.0 and the corporate realm

(Justin et al., 2019), has challenged the tactics and strategies of all actors in the contemporary economy. The

ability to adapt is the most crucial determinant of business success also for micro-businesses performing in

the tourism industry. Moreover, as the impacts of Industry 4.0 are felt by both businesses and humans, the

family-run businesses are especially exposed to these consequences. As they are strongly dependent on the

current development path and tend to inherit proven and conservative ways of behavior (Thomas et al.,

2011), their adaptation of the dynamically developed Industry 4.0 is the real challenge and the crucial

subject of research. Thus, the conference paper aims to identify the transformational role of technological

changes specific to the Industry 4.0 by exploring the nature, strength, and scope of their impact on the

functioning of tourist family businesses. The theoretical framework of the research is based on evolutionary

economics (Nelson and Winter, 1982). To identify attitudes towards technologies referring to Industry 4.0

as well as the benefits and challenges of their implementation, we propose extended technology acceptance

framework (Davies, 1989) including seven beliefs towards Industry 4.0 technologies: perceived usefulness,

ease of use, perceived risks, costs of technology, social influence, affective response, and the experience with

the technology (Ayeh, 2015). The study adopts a qualitative research design based on semi-structured

interviews with entrepreneurs and managers representing family firms functioning in the tourism industry

in Poland. The project financed within the Regional Initiative for Excellence programme of the Minister of

Science and Higher Education of Poland, years 2019-2022, grant no. 004/RID/2018/19, financing

3,000,000 PLN

Research focus: The theoretical framework of the research is based on evolutionary economics (Nelson

and Winter, 1982). According to the theory, service businesses are consistently forced to modify and update

their activities (operational and strategic) to meet the changing needs of the environment (Corning, 1995).

The research also draws upon the concept of dynamic capabilities, which refer to the firm’s abilities to

integrate, build, and reconfigure internal and external competences to address requirements of rapidly

changing environment (Teece et al., 1997). The main premise of their ideas is the firm’s ability to modify

the resource base that allows for adaption to change.

Keyword: Industry 4.0, technology acceptance model, service industry, family business

Corresponding author:

Marcin Olszewski

Poznan University of Economics and Business

Al. Niepodległosci 10

61-875 Poznan

Poland

marcin.olszewski@ue.poznan.pl

30


Impact of Tourists’ Willingness & Acceptance of Artificial

Intelligence (AI) Applications Employed for Smart

Destination Tourism Services in Vietnam

Subhankar Das a , Subhra Mondal a

a Duy Tan University, Vietnam

Abstract

The study is conducted on Vietnam’s major tourist destination city, Da Nang to know the willingness of

travellers in adopting Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabled service applications employed in hotels, spas,

airports & city centres. The study shows that AI enabled applications for various services explain significant

effect in enhancing service quality for tourist satisfaction & loyalty towards such establishments. Use of

such social interactive gadgets in various tourism services from hospitality to wellness & information needs

futuristic commitment of organisations that aims to generate value and to enrich the quality of whole

service expectations. In this research, we have employed structural equation modelling for evaluating both

structurally & empirically the willingness of tourists to avail these AI enabled service enhancing

applications for smart destination tourism. Data were collected from tourists who have experience of using

these devices. We observed that their willingness to use these AI enabled chatbots from effect of technology

acceptance factors, service quality leading to expected value addition, human chatbot interaction (HCI) &

information sharing. Analysis of these dimensions gives a deeper understanding for the novel opportunities

which various tourism administrative agencies may take benefit of to position chatbot delivered services in

smart destination tourism strategies.

Research focus: With the evolution of web technologies & development in artificial intelligence (AI)

enabled applications, commercial services for tourism are going a top notch higher for smart destination

tourism sectors. These applications have become pervasive for sectorial growth all around the world. The

empirical know how of tourists’ intention for such services will drive the sector to adopt better & grow

more. Such service applications are the new social interactive innovations for giving sustainable service &

sophisticated experience to all tourists.

Keyword: Artificial intelligence, Service Quality, Chatbot, Willingness to use chatbots, Human chatbot

interaction, smart destination tourism agencies Vietnam

Corresponding author:

Subhankar Das

Duy Tan University

Subhankar Das, Ph.D., Researcher, The Honors Programme Fifth Floor, 254 Nguyễn Văn Linh, Đà Nẵng-

550000, Duy Tan University, Vietnam

550000 DA NANG

Vietnam

subhankardas@duytan.edu.vn

31


Islands of the Silk Road: Trading Stories, Gazes and

Imagination

Desmond Wee a

a CBS (Cologne Business School), Germany

Abstract

Not everyone may have traversed the Silk Road, but most know of its existence through legendary myths

and centuries of historical trade. When Ferdinand von Richthofen (1877) first coined the ‘Seidenstrasse’, it

was based on a colonial, romanticized gaze that captured the imagination of exotic lands and people. In our

age of mobilities, how would it be possible to reflect on this gaze from 'other' perspectives starting with

John Urry’s (1990) tourist gaze and the many emergent, othered gazes that begin (rather than end) with

imagination? There is little to imagine when considering China’s pragmatic and ambitious ‘One Belt, One

Road’ initiative that premises massive infrastructural development before the consideration of cultural

imperatives, environmental sustainability and local empowerment. On the other hand, there is also a

frequent over-imagination and commodification of sights, events and monuments in managing destinations,

overlooking the stories and gazes exchanged in the place making process. This paper suggests a place

mapping process involving the everyday, documenting culture through mobilities in terms of how people

move and embody the spaces of tourism through everyday practice and lived experiences. Islands are

employed as a metaphor to rethink the insularity of islands and imagine ‘other’ places on the Silk Road with

‘othered’ gazes as islands. EATSA serves as a powerful platform of engagement towards this endeavour as

an imaginative crossroad along the Silk Road, facilitating the exchange of stories and gazes from East to

West and vice versa, from West to East.

Research focus: With huge transnational investments in the Silk Road in terms of infrastructure

development, tourism marketing and a rejuvenation of the hospitality industry, it is vital to focus on

innovative ways to rethink how we can create a sense of place for tourism through the cultivation of cultural

imperatives, environmental sustainability and local empowerment. This paper suggests a place mapping

process involving the everyday, documenting culture through mobilities in terms of how people move and

embody the spaces of tourism through everyday practice and lived experiences.

Keyword: Silk Road, Imagination, Gaze

Corresponding author:

Desmond Wee

CBS (Cologne Business School)

Hardefuststraße 1

50677 Cologne

Germany

d.wee@cbs.de

32


Religious Sites’ Use of Information and Communication

Technologies

Cristina Barroco a , Paula Fonseca a , Suzanne Amaro a

a Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Portugal

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the use of ICTs, particularly Websites, social media and apps, by ten

of the most visited religious sites in the World. These religious sites represent the largest religious groups:

Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism. The methodology used in this study consisted of

performing an evaluation of each Religious Site’s Webpage divided in three stages. The first stage consisted

of a more technical evaluation, using Webgrader (https://website.grader.com/), an online tool that

evaluates the key metrics like performance, mobile readiness, SEO, and security. The second stage involved

examining the website’s accessibility according to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), using

Achecker (https://achecker.ca/). Lastly, the website evaluation was completed with a content analysis,

based on a checklist with several items divided into three main features: Informational, Communicational

and Functional. After this Webpage evaluation, the Religious Site’s use of Social Media was also analyzed, in

terms of active presence and engagement. Finally, the existence of mobile apps for these Religious Sites was

also examined. This study contributes to the gap in literature regarding the evaluation of Religious Site’s

webpages. Moreover, it provides a comprehensive overview of the use of ICTS among the most visited

Religious Sites that also serves as a benchmarking tool for other religious site managers to evaluate their

own use of ICTs. Practical implications are provided to help Religious tourist’s managers optimize their

websites and to better satisfy the specific needs of religious tourists.

Research focus: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have changed religious tourists’

behavior in all stages of the travel process, significantly impacting their travel decisions and experiences.

However, despite their importance, there is scarce literature focusing on Religious Sites’ use of ICTS. This

study fills this gap by focusing on the use of ICTs in Religious Sites.

Keyword: Religious Sites, Website Evaluation, ICTs, Religious Tourism

Corresponding author:

Cristina Barroco

Polytechnic Institute of Viseu

Campus Politécnico de Repeses

3504-510 Viseu

Portugal

cbarroco@estgv.ipv.pt

33


Religious Tourism After Covid-19: an Insight into the

Quarantine Stories in the Holy Qur’An

Tariq Elhadary a

a Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey

Abstract

The tourism sector is currently one of the most affected sectors by the outbreak of Coronavirus (Covid-19),

and the effects of this have caused both supply and demand for travel throughout almost the whole world

to come to a complete stop. The restrictions imposed on travel, in addition to canceling or reducing the

frequency of flights, led to a significant contraction in the supply of travel services (domestic and

international), while the demand gradually completely diminished. The impact of the Covid-19 virus

outbreak will undoubtedly have been felt throughout the tourism value chain. Small and medium

enterprises related to religious tourism are expected to be affected in particular, which calls for support

and recovery measures for the tourism sector. What are we going to do in our “new normal” post-pandemic

to prepare for religious tourism recovery? The paper attempts to investigate the quarantine stories in the

Holy Qur’an as a way of rebuilding faith. The paper claims that faith might be an effective step stone in

beginning to create a recuperation plan and outline steps for a speedy recovery and a swift rebound. The

paper adopts the textual analysis method to examine the prevailing and published research in context with

the pandemics, religious tourism and Qur’anic discourse analysis to combat the diseases and promote

positivity.

Research focus: The quarantine stories in the Holy Qur’an as a way of rebuilding faith

Keyword: COVID-19, quarantine, Qur’an, recovery, religious tourism

Corresponding author:

Tariq Elhadary

Istanbul Gelisim University

Istanbul, Turkey

34510 Istanbul

Turkey

thmelhadary@gelisim.edu.tr

34


Religious Tourism as a Factor in the Development of the

Territory of Fátima – From the Island of Sicily to Fátima

João Caldeira Heitor a , Eunice Duarte b

a Instituto Superior de Gestão, Portugal

b ESCAD, Portugal

Abstract

Tourism materializes through the movement of people to a destination. In this sense, this article deals with

the relationship between Fátima and the island of Sicily. Religious tourism suffered an increase in demand,

causing challenges in terms of the development of the territories that shelters the sanctuaries. As such, in

recent decades, on the island of Sicily and throughout Italy, several journeys have taken place of the pilgrim

image, in this study we will only analyze the route of image no. 8, on the island of Sicilia. In this sense, it is

necessary to understand the relationship that exists between passing the image of Our Lady of Fátima ,

through the island of Sicily and the pilgrimage to the Sanctuary of Fátima. Thus, it is important to study

what impact it may have on the development of the territory of Fátima. In order to verify this relationship,

a survey of statistical data on the passage of image no. 8 was carried out since 2010, as well as the number

of groups of pilgrims who arrived at the Sanctuary of Fátima from the island of Sicily. As it turns out, there

is an increase in group visits to the Sanctuary after the passage of the image. The economic development

resulting from these pilgrimages is the only one that is easily verifiable in the territory of Fátima, and there

is still no measure of social, environmental and cultural development.

Research focus: Religious Tourism and development of the territory

Keyword: Religious Tourism, Territory development, Fátima, Sicily Island, Pilgrims

Corresponding author:

João Caldeira Heitor

Instituto Superior de Gestão

Av. Mal. Craveiro Lopes 2A

1700-284 Lisboa

Portugal

joao.heitor@isg.pt

35


Service Through Personal Encounters or Technology; the

Preferences and Privacy Concerns of Generation Z

Kitti Hiezl a , Petra Gyurácz-Németh a

a University of Pannonia, Hungary

Abstract

Companies nowadays use service personalization, both online and in the real world and most consumers

have higher satisfaction with a product tailormade to their needs. Personalized recommendation systems,

booking mobile applications are able to improve the guest experience and to tailor the products and

experiences to the guest's needs. However, to be able to provide such service, personal data collection is

inevitable. Even in the case of a satisfied consumer, privacy concerns are always present. As the hospitality

service product become more digitalized, it is essential to consider if the Personalization – Privacy paradox

is equally real for all age groups or target groups the hotel has. Do different age groups have different

security concerns from each other? In this paper, we analyze how the newest consumer group, Generation

Z, perceives the personalization privacy paradox and their willingness to share personal information in

exchange for personalized service and whether they prefer these services online over face- to -face

encounters.

Research focus: The focus of the research is the characteristics of Generation Z when it comes to sharing

their personal information. We measure the gap between their personalization needs and the wish to

receive personalized service. With that we have to analyze what would be the preferred way of

communication with the hotel as it is important to see if personalization should be a personal encounter or

hotels should rather focus on digital tools to help promote services.

Keyword: privacy, personalization, hospitality, Generation Z

Corresponding author:

Kitti Hiezl

University of Pannonia

Egyetem street 10.

8200 Veszprém

Hungary

hiezl.kitti@gtk.uni-pannon.hu

36


Slum Tourism Motivations Induced by Cinema: a Structural

Model

Arthur de Araújo a

a Lusófona do Porto University, Portugal

Abstract

As shown by previous studies, films can attract visitors to the places they depict even when the portrayal is

mostly negative. Building on these contributions, more recent studies have shown that films can play a

significant role in inducing motivations for slum tourism, that is, tourism to which poverty is part of the

attraction. In this context, the present study aims to verify which aspects of films depicting poor urban

places are responsible for attracting slum tourists. To this end, the investigation builds on previous

conceptualisations of how films attract visitors to the portrayed places, as well as on a previously proposed

model of slum tourists’ motivations. Quantitative Data was collected from tourists during their visits to Rio

de Janeiro’s favelas, and later subjected to Exploratory (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA),

under the principles of Structural Equations Modelling (SEM). Results corroborate a previously proposed

conceptualisation according to which slum tourism motivations include two dimensions: Learning and

Experiential motivations, which are affected by two main film determinants: Place & Personality and

Performance. The study is the first to quantitatively test a model of slum tourists’ motivations, as well as to

corroborate films’ effects on such motivations. Findings also point to relevant insights for destination

managers and other actors involved with slum tourism, particularly where it is boosted by films. Having a

better idea of what exactly motivates slum tourists, stakeholders can work together to make this activity

more ethical, sustainable and profitable, maximising benefits for all involved parts.

Research focus: The present investigation focuses on slum tourism motivations, more specifically, in

testing a model of the dimensions of such motivations, as well as the effect of films in generating them.

Keyword: film tourism, slum tourism, tourists’ motivations, favela, Rio de Janeiro, Structural Equations

Modelling

Corresponding author:

Arthur de Araújo

Lusófona do Porto University

Rua de Augusto Rosa, 24

3810-059 Porto

Portugal

arthurfilipearaujo@gmail.com

37


The Digital Revolution: Impact on Tourism Education

Kevser Çınar a

a Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey

Abstract

Digital technology is an obvious driver of society and the digital transformation underway seems to increase

the challenges of tourism education. The COVID-19 has changed dramatically the education system

fostering online transformation process in higher education institutions. However, practice and research in

the field of tourism and hospitality is still in its infancy. This study therefore aims to identify the advantages

and constraints it brings to the field in the literature. It follows a literature review methodology, focusing

on recently published, open-source, peer-reviewed research documents and analyzing selected documents

through a content analysis. The results showed that some of the obvious benefits of using digital

technologies in tourism education for students and teachers are i) flexibility in time and space, ii) the

development of technical/systemic skills, iii) keeping track of students' performance and giving feedback,

iv) teaching them to be self-disciplined; and (v) taking less time. Although the use of digital technology

appears to have a positive impact on student engagement, there is still some way to go to fully address the

development of digital literacy among students and teachers. This study makes a valuable contribution to

the current debate on the need to rethink tourism education by addressing the needs not only of students

but also of faculty members. Even though it is specific to tourism, the results of this document can be

considered as a contribution to the state of the art of future and ongoing studies in the field of education.

Research focus: The evolution of information and communication technologies influences and even

changes almost all sectors of the digital era that we are experiencing together with Industry 4.0 and

globalization. These rapid transformations in the world are also affecting tourism education both as a

structure and as a learning environment. The Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has also fostered this

digital revolution forcing many universities and other higher education institutions around the world to

temporarily close their doors and have delivered their courses online. The article focuses on this digital

revolution process identifying the benefits and limitations it brings to the literature.

Keyword: tourism education, digitalization, COVID-19, higher education, online education

Corresponding author:

Kevser Çınar

Necmettin Erbakan University

Yaka Mah. Yeni Meram Cad. Kasım Halife Sok. No: 11/1

42100 Konya

Turkey

kcinar@erbakan.edu.tr

38


Smog as a factor affecting urban tourism

Aleksandra Łapko a , Roma Strulak-Wójcikiewicz a , Aleksander Panasiuk b

a Maritime University of Szczecin/Faculty of Engineering and Transport Economics, Poland

b Jagiellonian University/Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Poland

Abstract

City tourism is one of the most dynamically developing forms of tourism. Tourists' decisions regarding

choosing a destination are influenced by a number of factors determining the subjective assessment of the

tourism attractiveness of a given city, and one of them may be the state of air pollution as it can have a

negative impact on the health of both city dwellers and tourists. The article presents the results of surveys

conducted among a group of 509 respondents from Poland. On this basis, an assessment was made of the

extent to which information on the condition of air quality in a given city is relevant for persons planning a

tourist trip.

Research focus: research on how air pollution in cities can affect their tourist attractiveness

Keyword: city tourism;, tourism management, air pollution

Corresponding author:

Aleksandra Łapko

Maritime University of Szczecin/Faculty of Engineering and Transport Economics

Henryka Pobożnego 11

70-507 Szczecin

Poland

am@am.szczecin.pl

39


The Importance of Fish Consumption: a Hungarian

Perspective

Zsuzsanna Ivancsóné-Horváth Ivancsóné-Horváth a , Csaba Kőmíves a

a Széchenyi István University Kautz Gyula Faculty of Economics Department of Tourism, Hungary

Abstract

The examination of fish consumption came again to the forefront in Hungary in connection with a healthy,

balanced nutrition. The Hungarian national government has launched to increase the number and

frequency of fish meals, which is limited only to the Advent period. This work, examines the role that fish

consumption plays in people's eating habits, with particular reference to restaurant fish eating habits. The

topic was analyzed by secondary and primary research. The primary research consisted qualitative

(questionnaire) research, which was used to support the relevance of the research questions. The results of

this research can be used by F&B managers, who can adjust their new restaurant offerings accordingly and

support this segment with various marketing actions. The data are being processed by using SPSS 23

statistical software packages. The sampling frame was made by using a snowball method in addition to the

descriptive statistical data (modus, median, standard deviation). This publication contains quantitative

sorting and crosstabulation analyses and regression.

Research focus: Examination of fish consumption in Hungary.

Keyword: Fish consumption, Hungary, Menu, Offer

Corresponding author:

Zsuzsanna Ivancsóné-Horváth Ivancsóné-Horváth

Széchenyi István University Kautz Gyula Faculty of Economics Department of Tourism

Egyetem tér 1.

9026 Győr

Hungary

komives.csaba@sze.hu

40


The Influence of Pre-Trip Beliefs, Impressions, and Feelings

on the Intention to Visit a Destination

Carlos Peixeira Marques a

a University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Portugal

Abstract

This paper draws a structure of pre-trip destination image based on two dichotomies well acknowledged

in the literature: on the one hand, the view that image is formed by perceptions (cognitive) and feelings

(affective) (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999); on the other, the idea that it may be based on more concrete

attributes or more abstract holistic impressions (Echtner & Ritchie, 1991). It is proposed that beliefs about

attributes influence holistic impressions and both affect feelings. Then, in accordance to the Model of Goaldirected

Behavior, it is hypothesized that image influences the antecedents of intentions, such as the overall

attitude (Park et al., 2017) or the desire (Park & Petrick, 2009). A PLS-SEM was designed with

measurements adapted from existent literature. The model was tested in a random telephone sample of

411 potential travelers living in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal. At the beginning of

2019, respondents were asked about their intentions to visit one rural inland destination during that year,

and about the independent variables as well. Overall the results conform to the proposed model, the largest

effects being the proximal relationships in the sequence attributes – holistic – feelings – attitude – desire –

intention. Beliefs about attributes are very influencing, particularly on attitude; anticipated feelings of

excitement affect attitude and desire; holistic impressions regarding charm and romance seem to be less

important, but still have an effect, particularly on intention. It is suggested to pay attention to those

attributes that have more potential to reinforce the holistic and affective components.

Research focus: The research focus is on the structure of destination image, namely how more abstract

components are affected by more concrete ones, establishing a sequence beliefs – impressions – feelings.

Then assessing how these constituents of destination image contribute to develop attitude towards a

destination, trigger desire, and ultimately concretize on the intention to visit. The results may thus help

designing a communication strategy suited for specific communication effects, like brand attitude or

behavioral intention.

Keyword: Destination image, Goal-directed behavior, Visiting intention, Attitudes, Desire

Corresponding author:

Carlos Peixeira Marques

University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro

CETRAD – The Centre for Transdisciplinary Development Studies

5000-801 Vila Real

Portugal

cmarques@utad.pt

41


The Power of Spillover Effects: Japanese Students Reaction to

Poland Tourism Advertising

Joanna Kosmaczewska a

a Poznan University of Life Science Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Poland

Abstract

The conceptual framework of this paper is built on the tourism commercial spillover into more positive

attitudes toward a specific country, the country’s people, and its government. The purpose of this paper is

twofold. First, a theoretical model of spillover effect was extended on the cognitive country image (CCI),

affective country image (ACI) and the product country image (PCI) in the context of tourism advertising.

Second, the pre-post experimental research was conducted to measure the changes in respondents’

attitudes toward aspects which were examined. A sample of 138 Japanese students participated in a prepost

experiment evaluating the country before and after exposure to the commercial. To answer the

research questions paired sample t tests was used for the constructs grouped into the main categories such

as: responders’ attitude towards cognitive and affective image of Poland, Polish products image, Poles and

Polish government image. The research results indicate that commercial “Poland – come and find your

story” did “bleed over” to create a more positive attitude among respondents in all areas measured.

Research focus: The research is focused on the spillover effect of the tourism commercial on the CCI, ACI,

PCI, people and the goverment

Keyword: spillover effect, advertising, country image

Corresponding author:

Joanna Kosmaczewska

Poznan University of Life Science, Faculty of Economics

Jackowskiego 47c/7

60-513 Poznań

Poland

joanna.kosmaczewska@up.poznan.pl

42


The Role of Big Data in Tourism Destination Management:

Some Empirical Evidence

Vincenzo Asero a , Enrico Panai b

a University of Catania, Department of Political and Social Sciences, Italy

b University of Sassari, Italy

Abstract

With the rapid development of Internet and social media, a massive amount of data is generated, recorded,

gathered and stored, heralding the beginning of a new era of Big Data. The concept refers to the sources,

variety, velocity, and volumes of the data available. The accelerating use of Big Data has also brought

fundamental changes in tourism sectors, offering new opportunities. In particular, public data published on

microblogging social platforms, like Twitter, can be exploited to improve the management of tourism

destinations. Given the borderless nature of this new data, tourism statistics are on the frontline of Big Datarelated

innovations of statistical sources and methods. However, when considering the potential benefits of

Big Data for the analysis of tourism, the many different types of variables which can be appropriately and

effectively utilised need to be analysed. This study, using an inductive analysis of tweets collected in the

touristic area of Catania (Sicily) and Cagliari (Sardinia) from 2010 to 2019, highlights the kind of tourismrelated

information that can be inferred from public online records on Twitter. Results show that Big Data

can be useful for local stakeholders in decision-making processes and for planning tourism development

strategies.

Research focus: Useful for local stakeholders in decision-making processes and for planning tourism

development strategies

Keyword: Big Data, Tourism Destination Management, Twitter

Corresponding author:

Vincenzo Asero

University of Catania, Department of Political and Social Sciences

8, Via Vittorio Emanuele II

95128 Catania

Italy

vasero@unict.it

43


The Role of Expertise in the Wine Experience: How Far Social

Representations, 4Es and Memory are Linked and Explain

Behavior?

Roxane Corbel a , Patrick Bouchet a , Anne-Marie Lebrun a

a Université de Bourgogne, France

Abstract

Wine tourism becomes a global phenomenon since the mid-90’s and is an essential component of rural

tourism, especially in France due to its cultural heritage. The economic contribution of wine tourism in

France raises more than 5 billards per year since 2016 (Atout France, 2016). Wine tasting is seen as the

core of a multi-level experience in which wine tourism includes more than wine tasting (Madeira and al.,

2019) and is seen as a holistic experience including multifactorial assets (Sigala, 2019a). This research tries

to understand the wine tasting experience as an embeddedness in Wine Tourism through the 4Es’

framework (Pine and Gilmore, 1999; Quadri-Felitti and Fiore, 2016; 2012, Thanh and Kirova, 2018), also

through the approach of the Social Representations Theory (SRT). SRT is seen as a useful framework in

tourism (Dickinson and al., 2009; Lebrun, 2014, 2015) in which level of expertise is a determinant variable

in its own structuration, especially in the wine context (Lo Monaco and Guimelli, 2008). Indeed, experts

refer more on their own experience and knowledge than novices who focus on context to grab clues in order

to establish familiarity (Honoré-Chedozeau and al., 2019). Thus, practice and sharing enhance the

modification of SR through the wine experience, but also the evaluation of people towards lived experience

according to their own level of expertise. Furthermore, we find 1/ that novices and experts have different

representations’ structuration which lead to different experience living and 2/ that SR explain memorable

experience and behaviour.

Research focus: This research tries to understand the wine tasting experience as an embeddedness in

Wine Tourism through the 4Es’ framework (Pine and Gilmore, 1999; Quadri-Felitti and Fiore, 2016; 2012,

Thanh and Kirova, 2018), also through the approach of the Social Representations Theory (SRT) and

expertise. We find 1/ that novices and experts have different representations’ structuration which lead to

different experience living and 2/ that SR explain memorable experience and behaviour.

Keyword: Wine Experience, Expertise, Social Representations, 4Es, memory

Corresponding author:

Roxane Corbel

Université de Bourgogne

C3S – UFR STAPS – University of Burgundy 3 Rue Edgar Faure,

21000 DIJON

France

corbel.roxane@gmail.com

44


Tourism Ambassadors as a Destination Image Inducers –

Savoie Mont-Blanc Case

Jean-Claude Morand a , Lucília Cardoso b , Noélia Araújo Vila c , Giovana Goretti Feijó de Almeida d

a Savoie Mont Blanc Ambassador, France

b Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation (CiTUR) – Polytechnic of Leiria,

Portugal

c Universidad de Vigo, Spain

d Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR), Brazil

Abstract

The image of destinations is a key factor when it comes to positioning and attracting the attention and

interest of potential tourists. Today, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) are part

of virtually all areas of society, being also useful and fully adopted in tourism image projections (mainly

through social networks). Therefore, this article focuses on the figure of the ambassador as a diffuser or

enhancer of the image of a tourism destination, particularly through the use of a dedicated web platform

created by the French tourism destination authority – the Savoie Mont-Blanc Ambassadeurs. To understand

the repercussion of this initiative, a content analysis of its Facebook page is made, studying variables such

as fans, content and engagement.

Research focus: Savoie Mont-Blanc Ambassadeurs Facebook content analysis is made, studying variables

such as fans, content and engagement.

Keyword: Destination Brand Image, Tourism Ambassadors, Destination Imagery, Brand Awareness, Savoie

Mont Blanc Ambassadors

Corresponding author:

Lucília Cardoso

CiTUR – Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation / Polytechnic of Leiria

Rua do Conhecimento, n.º 4

2520-614 Peniche

Portugal

lucyalves.lucilia@gmail.com

45


Tourism and Sustainability: Possible Communion? Truths

and Uncertainties in the Current Context

Eunice Duarte a , Sílvia Romero b , João Caldeira Heitor c

a ESCAD, Portugal

b Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

c Instituto Superior de Gestão, Portugal

Abstract

To understand tourism as a lever for development is relevant to realize its economic importance. The 21st

century presents us the status quo that economic activity achieved, is one of the largest activities in the

world. With this importance, some concerns emerge. There is an urgent need to alert to the fact that there

are both sides of the coin: on one side the positive impacts; on the other side the negative consequences

when there is no planning. At the same time that it improves the view on the environment, defends culture,

preserves history, brings people together, in line with sustainable development, it can also bring harmful

effects to places. The basic pillars of sustainability cannot be ignored. It is necessary to think about the

viability of tourism with the combination of sustainability and profitability in harmony and consonance.

That communion is possible and necessary for the success of sustainable tourism. The purpose of the article

is to understand these two concepts: tourism and sustainability. In that sense we make a bibliographic

review of them to understand their evolution through history and to identify the moment that they got

together to obtain success, because sometimes they seem to be on opposite sides. It was possible to

conclude that the concept of tourism and sustainability are complex concepts that evolved and were added

by pressing need, leading to thinking about tourism sustainability from different levels of meanings and in

a flexible way, adapted to the current realities.

Research focus: Tourism and Sustainability

Keyword: Tourism, Sustainability, Sustainable tourism, Sustainable development

Corresponding author:

Eunice Duarte

ESCAD

Ocidental do mercado nº33 2ºesq

2900-516 Setúbal

Portugal

eunice.duarte29@gmail.com

46


Towards a Happy Island: Developing Tourists’ Needs for

Urban Open Public Space in Kish

Ali Afshar a , Mona Erfanian Salim a

a Eqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education

Abstract

This paper studies the assumed relationship between tourists’ needs and the concept of happy city in the

urban open public space (UOPS) in Kish Island as the most favourite tourism destination of Iran in Persian

Gulf. The main research question is “how answering to the tourists’ needs in UOPS can directly affect the

happiness of Kish Islanders and visitors?”. The literature review is employed to establish a conceptual

framework for the paper. For this purpose, various theories and definitions have been reviewed to have a

better understanding of the two groups of key concepts including the tourists’ needs for UOPS and the

factors affecting the tourists’ needs. These theoretical findings are also developed in the traditional context

and the current context of Kish. These help to enhance the theoretical findings and to justify the claim and

the direction of the research towards the concept of happy city. This paper also describes the

methodological approach utilized and adopted in this study to find the logical answers to the main question

of the research. Therefore, it employed an exploratory case study approach that found data from

comprehensive literature review, field observations and semi-structured interviews. The outputs will guide

the design of UOPS of the island as tourism has priority over other development strategies. Thus, this paper

is meant to attend to and identify the needs in this tourism area and consequently create a novel link

between the three bodies of knowledge, namely, tourism industry, urban design and happy city.

Research focus: Kish Island is a coherent social structure in the context of an extraordinary nature in the

northern coast of Persian Gulf, a network of sympathetic local communities and groups of tourists. The

island can be a place where infrastructure and facilities are provided, through the awareness, place

attachment and popular companionship, satisfaction of all tourists. So, Kish Island has to be a place where

daily life, leisure and tourism go beyond the boundaries of private spaces and are formed in the realm of

urban open public spaces responding to the tourist’s needs.

Keyword: Tourists’ Needs, UOPS (Urban Open Public Space), Happy City

Corresponding author:

Ali Afshar

Eqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education

Unit 10C, Khoddami St., Vanak

1994836951 Tehran

Iran

alafshar@gmail.com

47


TRevPAR as Hotels Performance Evaluation Indicator and

Influencing Factors

Luís Lima Santos a , Cátia Malheiros a , Conceição Gomes a , Tânia Guerra a

a CiTUR – Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation / Polytechnic of Leiria,

Portugal

Abstract

In a global competition current scenario, measuring the performance of hotels is increasingly important for

managers who, to take decisions, need management indicators and tools. The most common indicators are

occupancy rate and RevPAR. The goal of any hotel is to be as profitable as possible, so they must work on

increasing revenues and decreasing costs. To increase revenues the focus has been on revenue management

practices, and there is already several software that help hoteliers to define the most appropriate price for

each customer. Therefore, managers mostly seek to increase accommodation revenue, however, from a

total revenue management perspective, revenue from other departments must also be considered. The

TRevPAR (Total Revenue Per Available Room) appears as a more comprehensive indicator that takes into

account all hotels revenue sources. In this research, TRevPAR influence factors will be studied and

highlighted, since this information is important in the hotel managers’ decision. This analysis was carried

out in 948 hotels from 2010 to 2017. This sample was obtained by crossing two databases: SABI platform

and Portuguese National Tourism Registry (RNET). The tested determining factors were the hotel's

location, size, number of stars and services. An exhaustive study in terms of services was the purpose, thus,

the influence on TRevPAR was tested on outdoor and indoor pools, tennis, golf, spa, meeting rooms and

restaurants. The results show a global increase over the years analysed (2010-2017) in TRevPAR. The

location, size and number of stars influence TRevPAR, as do most services.

Research focus: In this paper, TRevPAR influence factors will be studied and highlighted, since this

information is important in the hotel managers’ decision. This analysis was carried out in 948 hotels from

2010 to 2017. This sample was obtained by crossing two databases: SABI platform and Portuguese National

Tourism Registry (RNET).

Keyword: TRevPAR, Hotel, Performance

Corresponding author:

Luís Lima Santos

CiTUR – Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation / Polytechnic of Leiria

Rua do Conhecimento, n.º 4

2520-614 Peniche

Portugal

llsantos@ipleiria.pt

48


Way of Saint James. Religion and Tourism

Noelia Araújo Vila a , Lucília Cardoso b , Jose Antonio Fraiz Brea a , Arthur Filipe de Araújo c

a Business and Tourism Faculty, University of Vigo, Spain

b CiTUR – Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation / Polytechnic of Leiria,

Portugal

c Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, University of

Aveiro, Portugal

Abstract

Religion has always played a significant role in many aspects of society, including travels and travellers’

behaviour. In fact, throughout most of human history, religion has been the main reasons for people to

travel, and to this date, it is still the main motivation for many journeys. Such journeys are referred to as

religious tourism or pilgrimages, which are relevant phenomena within the tourism sector. This is

demonstrated, for instance, by the number of pilgrims worldwide, which has significantly increased in the

last decades. One of the most widely known places of pilgrimage in the world is Santiago de Compostela

(Spain), and “el Camino de Santiago”, which encompasses different routes that pilgrims take from different

places in Europe, is among the main pilgrimage routes. The present work analyses “el Camino de Santiago”

from three perspectives: 1) that of potential pilgrims searching for information about “El Camino”; 2) that

of tourists who do the Camino, namely, their motivations; and 3) that of the academic world. Results show

that “el Camino de Santiago” generates interest worldwide due to both religious and tourist aspects, which

are often combined within visitors’ motivations.

Research focus: The present work analyses “el Camino de Santiago” from three perspectives: 1) that of

potential pilgrims searching for information about “El Camino”; 2) that of tourists who do the Camino,

namely, their motivations; and 3) that of the academic world.

Keyword: religion, tourism, Way of Saint James, Santiago de Compostela, Camino

Corresponding author:

Noelia Araújo Vila

Business and Tourism Faculty, University of Vigo

Ourense

3204 Ourense

Spain

49


Web Reputation of Protected Areas as Tourism Destinations:

a Case Study

Annalisa Stacchini a

a University of Bologna

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why tourist inflows in three Italian protected areas,

endowed with valuable natural and cultural heritage, are below their potential. These sites participate in

the European Regional Development Project EXCOVER, that aims at developing sustainable tourism in

underrated Adriatic areas. To this goal, it is important to investigate the reputation of the sites among the

general public, especially in the imaginary of people who have never visited it, to understand and change

what keeps tourists away. This task is brought about through a semantic analysis of online reviews, that are

crucial in the construction of non-visitors’ imaginary about a destination and influence travel choices.

Customers’ reviews are scraped from TripAdvisor through a code written on-purpose. Topics are modelled

through an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, chosen because a consolidated theoretical model of

destination reputation is still missing, so reviews are allowed to tell what is relevant to reviewers, without

prior constraints. Moreover, to the exploratory aim of this study, online opinions are not considered as

answers to predetermined questions, but as free instances of word-of-mouth. The resulting proxies of web

reputation are compared across time and space, to get the information needed to devise effective tourism

development strategies and marketing initiatives. The originality of this contribution lays in the

investigation of the web reputation of protected areas still to be developed into tourism destination.

Moreover, it may provide some hints useful to the formulation of a solid theoretical model of destination

reputation.

Research focus: This study conducts a semantic analysis of customer reviews, published on TripAdvisor,

about tourism-related attractions and services in three Italian protected areas, to investigate why tourist

inflows are below the level that could be expected given the local endowment of valuable resources. The

scientific contribution brought by this analysis consists in showing how user-generated contents can be

used as proxies of destination reputation among the general public. The method employed is inexpensive,

more comprehensive and less researcher-influenced than sample surveys. It can be applied to investigate

the web reputation of any destination, but is especially useful in tourism development planning.

Keyword: web reputation, protected areas, unsupervised topic modelling

Corresponding author:

Annalisa Stacchini

University of Bologna

Strada Domopora 19/A

47893 Borgo Maggiore

San Marino

annalisa.stacchini2@unibo.it

50


What Do the Japanase Think About Portugal? An Analysis of

the Tourism Destination Image

Zélia Breda a , Lucília Cardoso a , Cláudia Arakaki a

a University of Aveiro, Portugal

Abstract

This work aims to study the image of Portugal as a tourism destination from the point of view of the

Japanese who have travelled to Portugal and those who have not yet visited the country, in order to

understand how tour operators can approach this market and increase the number of Japanese tourists in

Portugal. Through a questionnaire survey it was possible to realize that there is still a lack of information

about Portugal as a tourism destination in Japan. The image of those who did not visit yet Portugal is good,

although many still imagine that it is a dangerous country and they will not be able to communicate with

the local population in English. Those who have visited have highly praised the gastronomy and believe that

this can be used as a marketing strategy. Those who did not visit, but wish to travel to Portugal, confirm

that they expect to taste the local gastronomy, as they know that some of the Japanese food have an influence

of the Portuguese cuisine. With the increasing worldwide popularity of Portugal as a tourism destination,

the number of Japanese tourists has also increased, and is expected to grow even more with the planned

direct flights, as the the lack of a direct air connection was pointed out as the biggest negative point in

visiting Portugal. It is important to know how to deal with Japanese tourists so that they feel motivated to

visit Portugal, or repeat the visit, the first step being to understand what is the image of the Japanese in

relation to Portugal as a tourism destination and to adopt the necessary measures.

Research focus: The image of the destination has a great impact on the tourist's decision when it comes to

choosing the place to visit. Although Portugal was one of the first European countries to have contact with

Japan, having the two countries a special historical relationship, it is not a popular tourism destination for

the Japanese people, especially if compared to other European countries, such as France, Spain and

Germany. Therefore, it is important to understand what image Portugal has as a tourism destination in

Japan.

Keyword: Japan, Portugal, tourism, destination image

Corresponding author:

Zélia Breda

University of Aveiro

DEGEIT, Campus Universitário de Santiago

3810-193 Aveiro

Portugal

zelia@ua.pt

51


How Using an Ethical Approach Facilitates the Organization

of an International (Online) Conference During a Global Crisis

Enrico Panai a , Alberto Mario Carta a

a University of Sassari, Italy

Abstract

The 2020 Pandemic forced the informational turn in every sector around the world. For several months,

our social relations, a large part of the economy, education services and much more have been transferred

online. Our IT-mediated existences lost their classical point of references. In reorganising an international

conference online, we had to face new problems and ethical questions. Embracing the informational

ontology proposed by Floridi, we used an Information Ethics (IE) approach before the pandemic,

considering all the agents as informational agents immerged in a global environment made of information,

the infosphere. When the pandemic was declared and the informational turn became manifest, the IE

framework adopted turned out to be the best possible choice during the global lockdown. This study shows

the relevance of an ethical framework for making decisions both in safe times and during a crisis. In fact, IE

can facilitate morally good actions toward respect, transparency, trust, freedom of expression, openness

and fairness. Value and informational agents have been the sources and the targets of our moral actions,

with the ultimate goal of decreasing the informational entropy of the infosphere. This case study confirms

the importance of ethics in the decision-making process and aims to provide new tools to help organising

conference ethically.

Research focus:

Keyword: Conference organization, Ethics of Information, Crisis management

Corresponding author:

Enrico Panai

University of Sassari

Via Roma, 151

07100 Sassari

Italy

enricopanai@gmail.com

52


53


PROGRAM

54


Monday 15 th of June, 2020 - 6th EATSA 2020 PROGRAM

OPENING

10:00

Introduction

Enrico Panai

EATSA’s President

Che-Jen Oliver "Oliver" Su

University of Sassari

Anna Depalmas

AGCI’s President

Gianni Pintus

EATSJ Chief Editor

Kevser Çınar

Tourism Cafe Lab

Ali Afshar & Desmond Wee

Q&A

BREAK

DESTINATION

Chair: Madhuri Sawant

11:15

The Influence of Pre-Trip Beliefs, Impressions, And Feelings on The Intention to

Visit A Destination

(Marques)

What Do The Japanase Think About Portugal? An Analysis of The Tourism

Destination Image

(Breda, Cardoso, Arakaki)

Applying Values of Success and Competitiveness Focused on Culture – Based on

the Nation Brand Hexagon of Anholt

(Mazurek)

Examining the Structural Relationships of Distinct Dimensions of Destination

Loyalty and Its Antecedents

(Dias, Cardoso, Oliveira)

Developing “Maslow’s Human Needs Hierarchy Models” In Interfacing Between

Urban Design and Tourism Knowledge

(Erfanian Salim)

Determination of Characteristics of Prestige-Seeking Segments in Lithuanian

Tourism Market

(Pileliene)

BREAK

55


12:30

Keynote Speaker

Prof. Giacomo Del Chiappa

How tourist behavior is being changed and transformed

by the COVID-19 outbreak?

13:00

Tourism Cafe Lab

“into the future of our researches”

Chairs: Ali Afshar & Desmond Wee

56


Tuesday 16 th of June, 2020 - 6th EATSA 2020 PROGRAM

SUSTAINABILITY + STAKEHOLDERS

Chair: Tariq Elhadary

10:00

Gender and Sustainability in Cruise Tourism Market

(Asero, Kasimati)

Tourism and Sustainability: Possible Communion? Truths and Uncertainties in The

Current Context

(Duarte, Romero, Caldeira Heitor)

Contexts of Political (Un) Stability in Asia And the Chinese Instrumentalization Of

Outbound Tourism

(Breda, Xing, Tavares da Silva)

Smog as a factor affecting urban tourism

(Łapko, Strulak-Wójcikiewicz, Panasiuk)

Empirical Research on Internal Marketing in The Hospitality Organization

(Hashimoto)

TRevPAR as hotels performance evaluation indicator and influencing factors

(Lima Santos, Malheiros, Gomes, Guerra)

A Study of the Current Retention Strategies Followed by Employers for Satisfying

Employees of Travel Agencies /Tour Operators of Pune City, India

(Sawant, Biwal, Ragde)

BREAK

TOURISM(S) + DESIGN

Chair: Kevser Çınar

11:15

Way of Saint James. Religion and Tourism

(Araújo Vila, Cardoso, Fraiz Brea, de Araújo)

Religious Tourism After Covid-19: An Insight into The Quarantine Stories in

The Holy Qur’An

(Elhadary)

Religious Tourism as A Factor in The Development of The Territory of Fátima –

From the Island of Sicily To Fátima

(Caldeira Heitor, Duarte)

Religious Sites’ Use of Information and Communication Technologies

(Barroco, Fonseca, Amaro)

Slum Tourism Motivations Induced by Cinema: A Structural Model

(de Araújo)

Towards A Happy Island: Developing Tourists’ Needs for Urban Open Public

Space in Kish

(Afshar, Erfanian Salim)

BREAK

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12:30

Keynote Speaker

Prof. Tamara Ratz

Awareness, respect and responsibility in tourism

13:00

Tourism Cafe Lab

“into the future of our researches”

Chairs: Ali Afshar & Desmond Wee

58


Wednesday 17 th of June, 2020 - 6th EATSA 2020 PROGRAM

EXPERIENCE + CONSUMPTION

Chair: Francisco Diaz

10:00

An Analysis of The Travel Experience of Chinese Tourists in Central Portugal

(Breda, Cardoso, Mendes)

The Role of Expertise in The Wine Experience: How Far Social Representations,

4Es and Memory Are Linked and Explain Behavior?

(Corbel, Bouchet, Lebrun)

The Importance of Fish Consumption: A Hungarian Perspective

(Kőmíves)

Dynamic Pricing and Conservation Policies of World Heritage Sites: An Optimal

Control Perspective

(Ogonowska, Chenavaz, Torre)

Creative Tourism as A Destination Experiential Marketing Strategy

(Duarte, Lopes)

Islands of The Silk Road: Trading Stories, Gazes and Imagination

(Wee)

BREAK

THE POWER OF YOUTH

Chair: Anne-Marie Lebrun

11:15

Determinant Factors of Participate Intention Toward Tourism Development:

The Case of Young Residents in Okinawa Island, Japan

(Miyagi, Hashimoto, Kakutani)

Erasmus Students as Destination Evangelists: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

(Amaro, Barroco, Antunes)

Service Through Personal Encounters or Technology; The Preferences and

Privacy Concerns of Generation Z

(Hiezl, Gyurácz-Németh)

Adolescents’ Influence Tactics in Family Travel Decision Making: An East Asian

Perspective

(Su, Yen, Lan, Cho, Oh)

The Power of Spillover Effects: Japanese Students Reaction to Poland Tourism

Advertising

(Kosmaczewska)

BREAK

59


12:30

Keynote Speaker

Prof. T.C. Chang

Insularities in Tourism Studies:

Between Eurocentrism & Asiacentrism

13:00

Tourism Cafe Lab

“into the future of our researches”

Chairs: Ali Afshar & Desmond Wee

60


Thursday 18 th of June, 2020 - 6th EATSA 2020 PROGRAM

DIGITALISATION + TECHNOLOGIES

Chair: Che-Jen Su

10:00

Tourism Ambassadors as A Destination Image Inducers – Savoie Mont-Blanc

Case

(Morand, Cardoso, Araújo Vila, Feijó de Almeida)

The Digital Revolution: Impact on Tourism Education

(Çınar)

The Role of Big Data in Tourism Destination Management: Some Empirical

Evidence

(Asero, Panai)

How Do Family Businesses In Tourism Industry Adapt To Technological

Challenges? The Conceptual Framework and Research Design

(Olszewski, Bednarska, Hadryś, Zmyslony)

Web Reputation of Protected Areas as Tourism Destinations: A Case Study

(Stacchini)

Experiencing Nature: Beauty and Tension in Poland’s National Parks— Analysis

of Tripadvisor Reviews

(Nowacki)

Impact of Tourists’ Willingness & Acceptance of Artificial Intelligence (Ai)

Applications Employed for Smart Destination Tourism Services in Vietnam

(Das, Mondal)

BREAK

COMMENT

11:15

How Using an Ethical Approach Facilitates the

Organization of an International (Online) Conference

During a Global Crisis

Enrico Panai, Alberto Maria Carta

11:30 AWARDS CEREMONY

11:45 GENERAL ASSEMBLY

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AWARDS

63


64


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