E-mobility Technology Winter 2020


Electric vehicle technology news: Maintaining the flow of information for the e-mobility technology sector

VOL 7 | WINTER 2020









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PAGE: 78











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Editors Note




Editor: Mark Philips

Associate Publishers:

Rachael McGahern

Ujjol Rahman

Ryan Hann

Anthony Stewart

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(ISSN) ISSN 2634-1654.

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No resposibility can be accepted by CMCorporation Ltd,

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therefore disclaim all liability and responsibility arising

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Published October 2020.

The market share of

electrically-chargeable vehicles

increased to 7.2% of total

EU car sales, in the second

quarter of 2020, compared to

a 2.4% share during the same

period last year. The decline

in passenger car registrations

due to the COVID-19 pandemic

affected petrol and diesel

vehicles in particular, although

these two sectors accounted

for more than 80% of car sales,

according to CLEPA.

The traditional obstacles to

adopting electric vehicles are

disappearing. Range anxiety

has always been a big obstacle

for potential EV owners, but

charging infrastructure is

increasing and becoming more


Cost is a major consideration

when making the switch to

EV, and batteries – the most

expensive part of the car – are

continuing to fall in price. Due

to economies of scale and

technological improvements,

these technologies will become

cheaper as the innovators in

the supply chain continue to

invest in R&D.

The economic and health

challenges of the past months

have re-emphasised the

important role that transport

has for society at large. We

need to plan for a future that

will provide accessible and

affordable mobility for all.

At this moment EVs are more

expensive to buy, although

their running and maintenance

costs over time should prove

lower, and once buyers become

more aware of this fact, the

shift towards EVs will be even


There is increasingly a great

deal of activity in this segment

which will carry forward its


As showcased within these

pages new technologies are

constantly being developed and


Along with electrification

planning across our major

cities and increasing charging

infrastructure, we are now

seeing major advances in ADAS

and vehicle connectivity

These technologies, developed

for us by the smartest and

most passionate engineers will

ensure the EV becomes the

obvious choice for car buyers in

the years ahead.

In these stressful times

I would like to thank all

our contributors who have

supported us during these last

months. Thank you for your

help with maintaining the flow

of information.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 1









Riding the wave of electrification: Why

public transport and logistic fleets need

‘smart homes’.

Jean-Christoph Heyne, Global Head of Future Grids,

Siemens AG

5G critical to the growing connected car


Uwe Pützschler, Head of Automotive & Mobility

Solutions, Nokia

LiDAR Integration in Autonomous

Electric Vehicles

Robert Baribault, Ph.D. Principal Systems Architect,


Driving change: How materials science

is allowing e-Mobility to shift to the next


By Dr. Pradyumna Goli, Business Development

Manager Battery Systems North America & Holger

Schuh, Global Technology Lead Thermal, Henkel

Adhesive Technologies

Semiconductor choices enable point and

systemic e-mobility innovation.

Stephan Zizala, head of the Automotive High Power

Business Line at Infineon Technologies






An application for automotive

battery management

Introducing new Sensing technologies for BMS

and SOC measurements

As automakers strive to reach goals

for longer range, faster charging and

lower costs, adhesives stick as one of

the best solutions.

Nicole Ehrmann, Market Manager for

Transportation, Lohmann GmbHv

In search of the ideal battery, what is

a better battery?

Eric Verhulst CEO/CTO Altreonic-Kurt.energy

Novel Current Sensor Solutions for

Automotive Battery Monitoring


Lorenz Roos, Senior Application Engineer,

Maglab AG, Switzerland

Successful Thermal Management with

Liquid Cooling

Alexander Wey, Manager Product Unit Industrial

Thermal at FRÄNKISCHE Industrial Pipes (FIP)


The EV as a clean slate

Information technology and the car amalgamate,

Stefan Wagener Product Manager Infotainment at



Bridging the Future Integrating and

refining charging technology.

Jim Chen & Vern Chang, Phihong Technology



Moving e-mobility forward using

specialised PVD coatings

Dr. Mayumi Noto, Head of Global Business

Development for E-Mobility, Oerlikon Balzers.

Autonomus rideshares are coming

‘Q Car’ monolithic in its exterior design, choosing

interior volume over slick aerodynamics, Jonny

Culkin, Jeremy White, Richard Seale of Seymour

Powell the London-based industrial design studio



EV Performance and Safety Demands

Drive Changes to Hardware and


Rolland Dudemaine, VP Engineering, eSOL


Big Data Logging

Efficient validation of e-mobility

Bernhard Kockoth, Advanced Development Lead

at ViGEM GmbH


Advancing EV Electronics with Light-

Curing Technology

Chris Morrissey, Sr. Manager, Automotive Electronics

BD, Dymax Corporation


Future mobility: The innovation space

beyond the vehicles of today. The need

for transport decarbonisation continues

Professor David Greenwood, Advanced

Propulsion Systems lead at WMG, University of


2 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net




Lidar-powered ADAS is happening now

Sally Frykman, VP of communications, Velodyne

Lidar, and Dieter Gabriel, marketing manager

EMEA, Velodyne Europe


What is Parylene technology?

Enhancing reliability of e-mobility through

Parylene. Rakesh Kumar Ph.D. at SCS Coatings



The smart battery innovation

A pioneering innovative technology for a more

sustainable and efficient EV battery production,

insight from Rolf Hock IP PowerSystems GmbH


Assembly solutions in e-Mobility

Jürgen Hierold, Sales Director at Deprag

presents the Use of Screwdriving Systems in the

Automotive Industry




Unlocking Next-Generation Vehicle

Technology with 5GV

Peter Stoker, Chief Engineer – Connected and

Autonomous Vehicle at Millbrook, lifts the lid on

the ground-breaking work enabled by the AutoAir


The use of glass in EVs now goes way

beyond the windscreen

The R&D team at Schott explain how glass is

shaping the future

Adhesives and Sealants in Battery and

Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Where are adhesives and sealants used? Rebecca

Wilmot at Permabond




Design constraints for EV cooling


Fritz Byle Project Manager at TLX Technologies

explains the Discrete Proportional Valve System

Trends and innovations in Electric

Drive Units for lower cost and

improved performance

Thomas Frey Head of E-drive/ Innovation, AVL

P2 hybrid modules enable flexible

customer solutions and easy


Eckart Gold Engineering Director at Borg Warner

Transmission Systems


Long term stability of Thermal

Interface Materials.

Ralf Stadler, R&D Polytec PT


Intelligent Power Modules accelerate

transition to SiC-based Electric Motion

By Pierre Delatte, CTO, CISSOID




Creating a cost-and quality-optimized

battery value chain in Europe

Alexander Schweighofer, Business Development

Manger LIB, Rosendahl Nextrom

Impact of sensor technologies on the

e-vehicle powertrain performance

The resolution and accuracy of the rotor position

sensor has an influence on the performance of

an electric drive. Dipl.-Ing Ulrich Marl Lenord +


Autonomous Vehicle Accidents Test

Human Trust

Jeff Davis, Senior Director, Government Relations

and Public Policy at BlackBerry




Virtual Testing of ADAS & AV Systems

Edge Case Simulations, Mike Dempsey M.D.


Highlighting the possibilities of PCB

technology in the field of power

electronic substrates.

T. Gottwald, Director Next Generation Products,

Dr. Manuel Martina, Christian Rößle of Schweizer


A New Online Energy Prediction

Model with an accuracy close to 99%

Kristian Winge Sycada CEO explains the

algorithmic approach behind CYB

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



The smart, integrated depot of the urban e-vehicle fleet of

the future.




By embracing full

decarbonization in the

mobility sector, a decisive

contribution can be made to

combatting the climate crisis

– while drastically improving

the quality of life in our


In countries all over the world,

electrification targets in public

transport – and mobility in

general – are very ambitious, and

as I intend to argue, rightly so.

Globally, mobility accounts for one

third of the energy demand and

a quarter of carbon emissions.

In the mobility sector, public

transport and urban logistics

with their buses, trucks, and

commercial vehicles represent

a major lever for winding down

emissions if renewable energy

is used to fuel the electrified


We know that full decarbonization

in all areas is vital for combatting

the climate crisis and achieving

the goals of the Paris Agreement.

As outlined in the IPCC Special

Report on Global Warming of

1.5°C, we not only need to flatten

the carbon curve; we need to turn

it around fast in the next couple

of years. There is no Planet B, and

we really cannot afford to mess

this up.

Make no mistake, this will

involve disruptive change for all

players in the mobility market:

public transport operators

(PTO), logistics providers, local

governments, private investors in

urban infrastructure, and original

equipment manufacturers (OEM).

However, this change is not as

painful as it may sound. We have

nothing to lose, but everything to

gain by embracing this next cycle

of disruptive innovation: Cleaner

air, more livable cities, and a

better quality of life for everyone

are within our reach.

The good news is that the

solutions for the electrification

of public transport are already

available, and the first large-scale

electromobility projects have been

successfully implemented.

The Chinese megacity of Shenzhen

stands out as one of the early

adopters, becoming the world’s

first major city to run an entire

bus fleet – of over 16,000 buses

– completely on electricity. As a

result, the city has been able to

avoid 440,000 tonnes of carbon

4 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

emissions per year and curb

its notorious pollution, while

also reducing its fuel bill by

50 percent. Further megacities

in the Pearl River Delta and the

rest of China are set to follow in

Shenzhen’s footsteps.

Trailblazers and drivers in

bus fleet electrification

Going forward, megacities and

their electromobility strategies

will play a major role in driving

the intelligent management

of public and private fleets of

electric vehicles, as well as the

smart electrification of urban

logistics and public transport. But

international initiatives such as

C40 Cities have also made strong

commitments by signing the Fossil

Fuel Free Streets Declaration.

In this context, PTOs and logistics

providers are emerging as natural

trailblazers for electrification due

to their limited daily range, as

well as their predictable stops and

standstill times. All of these factors

lend themselves to recharging.

Already today, more than half

of newly purchased buses are

electric. By 2040, two thirds of the

entire global bus fleet are expected

to be electric,

which amounts

to a tripling of


in the public


sector. Twenty-four percent of light

commercial vehicles, like delivery

vans, will become electric, too.

While we are obviously seeing

some momentum, it is also

important to ask: What has

been holding PTOs and logistics

providers back from fully

transitioning to electromobility so


Of course there is the hurdle of

the initial CAPEX of procuring new

vehicles – currently, the price of

e-buses can be nearly twice that

of conventional diesel buses.

However, this is quickly offset by

a lower total cost of ownership,

reduced downtime, and lower

fuel costs. Most importantly in

terms of cost, an increase in the

size of electric fleets requires the

establishment of viable, affordable

charging infrastructure.

Whether this infrastructure is

funded by the public sector, as in

the case of PTOs, or by the private

sector, as in the case of logistics

depots, any investments will have

to be carefully deliberated and

must pay off in the medium or

long term. Subsidies or incentives

should also be considered so

that PTOs and logistics providers

can decrease their emissions and

still increase their profitability,

because there is an – albeit not

always quantifiable – added

value in transforming cities into

sustainable, livable spaces. In the

case of Shenzhen, the Chinese

government invested US$1 billion

in order to successfully electrify

the city’s bus fleet in only eight


The depot reimagined as a microgrid merging

generation, storage, consumption

While opportunity charging

solutions exist en route, most of

the charging of e-buses will take

place overnight in depots. The

depots we have today, however,

are not designed to supply an

electric vehicle fleet with energy.

The standard grid connection of a

bus depot with around 200 diesel

buses will run at 100 kW. However,

the grid connection of a bus

depot with around 200 e-buses

will require 10 MW, with peak load

increasing demand by a factor of


What are the solutions? One option

would be a costly grid expansion,

which might attract higher charges

from the power supplier; another

would be to install a storage unit

as a buffer, which would store

power during the day for load

balancing at night. Either way, it

is important to choose a solution

that balances grid limitations

with the high load needs of

depot charging. In addition, it is

worthwhile to reimagine the depot

as a location not only for energy

storage and consumption, but

also for onsite power generation.

Most depots feature large roof

areas that are ideally suited for the

installation of photovoltaics.

Madrid is one of the cities taking

into account all three aspects

of generation, storage, and

consumption in planning the

replacement of its La Elipa depot

with a capacity for 330 electric

buses. The futuristic building with

an area of 40,000 square meters,

32,000 of which will be dedicated

to bus parking, will be covered

with solar panels and generate

photovoltaic energy for its own

consumption. Furthermore, a 40-

MW substation will be installed.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Smart depots:

Why software integration is key

As this example clearly shows,

simply putting charging points

in place will not be sufficient

on its own – when electrifying

a depot, the whole energy

supply and demand will need to

be considered, encompassing

renewable generation, storage

integration, and charging potential

on location.

Such a holistic approach to depot

charging will need to be coupled

with intelligent load management

in order to increase energy

efficiency and ensure reliable

power supply. In fact, depots

can be designed as intelligent

microgrids, effectively turning

them into smart infrastructures.

On the charging level, intelligent

charging management software

will offer seamless, optimized

operations – e.g., to ensure that

the individual e-vehicles have

reached the desired state of charge

by the time they are ready to

leave the depot. Dynamic charging

helps to prioritize charging

processes accordingly. On the

general level, energy monitoring

and management software could

be implemented to control all

energy assets, such as buildings,

renewable power generation,

storage, and charging systems.

These solutions should be cloudbased

with multi-directional

data exchange and predictive

load management to balance the

depot’s overall energy needs in

the most efficient and economic

way. Thus, there would not only

be a flow of information from the

power generation units to the grid

control unit, but also a connection

that provides data from and to

the building management system

and the charging infrastructure,

for example. Furthermore, such a

system could integrate data from

external sources, such as weather

data or energy tariffs, to forecast

loads or charge when power

is cheaper. Basically, software

integration is the brain of the

smart depot.

Future-proof solutions

show the way forward

With the wave of electrification swelling on a global

scale, eased along by smart solutions, depots with

more than 100 buses or commercial vehicles will play

an increasing role in future cities and megacities.

It is clear that for electromobility to succeed, and

for full decarbonization in the mobility sector

to beembraced, we need this kind of smart

infrastructure. On the one hand, we will have to

combine flexible charging systems with renewable

energy sources and storage solutions; on the other

hand, we will need to harness the opportunities

of digitalization: Software to intelligently manage

charging processes as well as the whole energy

system of future depots will be key.

This urban charging

infrastructure will need

to be designed with

a holistic, end-to-end

perspective and adapted

to the local requirements.

It can be assembled

Jean-Christoph Heyne,

and optimized in order

Global Head of

to become the most

Future Grids,

economically viable

Siemens AG

solution for e-vehicle fleet

operators. Think of it as a

smart home for the e-bus fleets that will make our

cities more livable.


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/ 2 Matthew Keegan (2018):

Shenzhen’s silent revolution: world’s first fully electric bus fleet quietens Chinese megacity, https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2018/

dec/12/silence-shenzhen-world-first-electric-bus-fleet (accessed July 12, 2020); Mordor Intelligence (2019): Electric bus market – growth,

trends, and forecast (2020–2025), available online at: https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/automotive-electric-bus-market

(accessed July 12, 2020) 3 C40 Cities (2020): List of signatories having committed to the C40 Fossil Fuel Free Streets Declaration, available

online at: https://www.c40.org/other/green-and-healthy-streets (accessed July 12, 2020)


EMT Madrid: Nuevo centro de operaciones de La Elipa, http://www.nuevocentroelipaemt.com/ (accessed July 12, 2020)

6 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net






The freedom of the open road has been

cherished by many people for decades,

yet with increasing environmental

pollution, growing road accidents

and the sheer waste of time spent

in traffic jams, it’s no wonder people

are beginning to re-think how we get


Many of us are hoping that automated

driving and connected cars will help

address some of these issues. In

fact, the automotive industry already

accepts that vehicles will need to

communicate with each other, as well

as with roadside infrastructure and

network services, to keep traffic safe,

efficient and comfortable.

ne of the big challenges in

making the connected car

a partof our everyday lives

is that the automotive and

telecommunications industries

must work closely together to

make it a reality alongside telco

service providers, equipment

manufacturers, car manufacturers, map providers

and road operators and many others. To kick-start

this eco-system, the leading car manufacturers and

telecommunications companies, including Nokia,

founded the “5G Automotive Association” (5GAA) in


Global market analysis from Omdia outlined that

there will be 180 million connected vehicles on our

roads by the end of 2020 with this number growing

rapidly. Indeed, all new cars are expected to be

connected by 2022 using cellular connectivity and

supporting cloud-based telematics, infotainment

and other services to improve comfort and safety.

This connectivity will allow vehicles to interact

with the cloud, with each other and with the road

infrastructure - making roads safer, allowing traffic

to flow more easily and making driving more


Some manufacturers already use mobile networks to

warn their own cars about congested roads, broken

down vehicles, accidents or bad weather, a method

known as vehicle to network (V2N). Now projects are

underway in several European countries to exchange

warnings between vehicles of different manufacturers.

The industry recognises that the processing of

rapidly growing volumes of sensors and other data

needs to happen as close to the vehicles as possible.

This can be enabled by edge cloud which increases

the reliability and security of network services for

connected cars and reduces the latency and can also

enable new applications.

At the same time, LTE based short range

communication which is an important element of the

3GPP C-V2X (Cellular-V2X) technology has become a

reality and tested in large areas, such as China and

the US. Several on-board units and RSU products

with LTE V2X technology have become commercially

available. The combination of both short range

and network-based communication (V2N) provided

by C-V2X is a powerful instrument to address the

needs of the automotive industry as well as the road



e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

5G boosts

benefits for connected vehicles

The introduction of 5G New Radio (based on 3GPP

Release 15 specification) enables higher data rates

and lower latencies for V2N network communications.

The first deployments in commercial vehicles are

expected to start as early as 2021. The following 5G

phase (3GPP Release 16), expected to happen from

2023 onwards, will provide even lower latency and

high reliability to support V2V (Vehicle-to-vehicle) and

V2I (Vehicle to Infrastructure) type communication,

often referred to as 5G-V2X.

This offers key features that support higher levels of

cooperative automated driving. A recent 5GAA white

paper looked at the new functions it makes possible,

including areas such sharing sensor data, such as

video from the car in front; control information to

allow vehicles to drive in close formation, saving road

space; exchanging vehicle trajectories to prevent

collisions and protecting vulnerable road users like

pedestrians and cyclists. These advanced examples of

V2V and V2I communications are clearly only feasible

thanks to 5G technology. Although the physical radio

layers of LTE releases and 5G NR are very different, the

chipsets and associated communication stacks will

integrate the different radio technologies, supporting

smooth operation and backward compatibility of


Nokia has played key role in these connected vehicle

test projects focused on the verification of 5G based

new network capabilities and Multi-access Edge

Computing (MEC) to support the advanced needs of

automotive related use cases. The first MEC based use

cases was held in 2015 with Deutsche Telekom at the

National German test bed motorway A9 with partners

Continental and Fraunhofer. Since then tests have

been extended to more complex use cases in various

countries with other partners around the globe

such as in Japan, China and Germany. The ongoing

EU funded projects such as 5G Carmen includes the

analysis and verification of functions distributed

between edge clouds deployed in networks of

different operators even across borders. In the MEC-

VIEW project Edge computing is used to complement

local information generated by sensors in the vehicle

with information generated by road side cameras

with the objective to support automated driving in

challenging urban situations.

5G technology elements have been in the focus of

other projects like the EU financed 5GCar focused

on testing coordinated lane merge, the cooperative

perception of connected vehicles and protection of

vulnerable road users. Nokia, together with Seat,

Telefonica, FICOSA and other partners also tested

Vulnerable road discovery in Segoviav – utilizing

MEC. The 5G NetMobil project included the use of

network slicing technology to support different

Quality of Service (QoS) requirements when vehicles

use communication infotainment and safety critical

applications in parallel. Nokia has also supported

SoftBank with the construction of a 5G verification

environment for connected vehicles at Honda

Research and Development site in Japan.

With several industries on board, driven by the

telecom and automotive industries, the connected

car is really going places. However, the global

commercialisation of connected automated driving

will not only depend on the successful verification

and introduction of technologies in networks,

vehicles and road infrastructure. New business and

cooperation models between the ecosystem partners

will have to be developed and complemented with

the evolution of the regulatory framework related

to driving, data handling and management. This is

an industry challenge that we will solve by working

closely and collaboratively with our ecosystem


Uwe Pützschler, Head of Automotive & Mobility

Solutions, Nokia and Vice-Chair of the 5G

Automotive Association

e-mobility Technology International | | www.e-motec.net



Integration in Autonomous

Electric Vehicles


Electric vehicles (EV) are leading the

way towards safer

transportation and cleaner

environments. Deployment

of EVs is accelerating

as novel applications become even more rapidly

available. Driverless transport or Autonomous Driving

(AD) applications which include robotaxis, delivery

vehicles, cleaning units, are becoming the norm.

One of the main goals of AD is to maximize fast

service in a targeted location with minimum impact

on everyday life and little human interaction. In all

AD applications, detecting and classifying objects in

the surroundings is required and can be done using

LiDARs as one of the sensors.

Automated Driving and Driving Functions

A driverless vehicle has the same requirements as

human-driven ones. They have to stay in the driving

lane or change lanes, accelerate, brake as well as

perform other functions. The AD behavior, as seen

from the sidewalk, should be similar to vehicles with

drivers, even though the absence of a person is quite

obvious. To allow safe driving, an AD EV requires the

same functions as assigned to a driver to position

itself within its environment as it moves along its

itinerary and predicts the safest route to take.

Sensing is the capacity to determine what is outside

the vehicle, where these “objects” are relative to the

EV. Analyzing is using the sensing data and the EV’s

known reacting capacity to determine the correct

path prediction

to direct the EV

where it needs

to go safely

while protecting

the internal

load and the

integrity of the

Figure 1 – Driverless car high-level


vehicle. Reacting

corresponds to braking, accelerating, and turning the

wheels or, simply put, driving. The three functions

interact continuously to drive the EV, Sensing,

Analyzing, and Reacting do not have the same

complexity but share the same basic requirements:

they all need to be swift, precise, and reliable.

Sensing technologies and key parameters

Sensing is crucial for AD. Reacting depends on

Analyzing, which depends on the correct knowledge

of the environment, near and far, in all directions.

Common and reliable AD sensors are cameras, radars,

and solid-state LiDARs. The main specifications are

object distance and angular position relative to the


Cameras have the highest angular resolution and

can detect color and useful attributes to detect

road signs and streetlights, for example. Cameras

do not provide intrinsic time-based object distance

information. Radars and LiDARs are both selfcontained

distance measurement devices due to

the emission and reception of electromagnetic light

or radio waves. LiDARs hold the advantage in range

accuracy and field-ofview

resolution, while

radars perform better in

inclement weather and

have a more extended

daytime range. Both

LiDARs and radars

operate very well at

night but offer less

Figure 2 – Example of full

angular resolution than sensing coverage of the

cameras. Since cameras surroundings with four 180°


rely on outdoor light, they

operate better in the daytime than at night Finally,

both LiDARs and cameras can offer an ultra-wide field

of view, which is more difficult with radars.

12 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

In all cases, it is desirable to have detection all around the vehicle, as shown in Figure 2, with a 180° sensor

deployed on each side of an AD EV.

The maximum detection distance, or range, should cover the maximum braking distance, as defined by the

vehicle’s maximum speed, the reaction time, and the maximum deceleration. As an example, an AD vehicle

travelling at a speed of 40 km/h has a braking distance of 24 meters when the reaction time is half a second,

and the deceleration is 3.5 m/s². Other EV types without passengers may have a higher deceleration rate, in

which case the braking distance will be shorter.

Sensing Distance, Time of Flight, Distance

Resolution, and Full Waveform

LiDARs and radars use time-of-flight (ToF)

measurements to determine the position of objects.

They are self-contained distance and position

measurement sensors. ToF is based on echoes of

short-duration pulses. The sensor emits a brief,

high-intensity pulse and measures the time it takes

to receive a reflection from an external object. The

farther an object is from the sensor, the longer the

delay is between the emission and the reception

of the pulse. The main difference between radars

and LiDARs is the emitted pulse duration. A LiDAR

can emit a pulse duration in the nanoseconds scale,

shorter than radar pulses, with a higher position


ToF is applied to each pixel in the field of view.

LiDARs use a combination of multi-channel lasers and

photodiodes to increase the number of pixels in the

scene. Most interestingly for the EV path prediction,

ToF LiDAR provides the distance of the two objects in

the same pixel with high precision.

Figure 3 shows how multiple pulses can be received

in the same pixel. The first small detected pulse

corresponds to a low-reflectivity or semi-transparent


The light transmitted “through”

the first object propagates towards

the second object, which reflects

light back to the LiDAR, creating a

second peak in the detection data.

Pulse shape information can also

be used to determine the object

type, as may be inferred from

Figure 4. In this figure, we see that

multiple reflection types lead to

different shapes in the detection

data. The size and shape of objects

can then be inferred to help object


Figure 3 – Full waveform data of a LiDAR pixel.

The peaks are reflections from two objects at

different distances. The horizontal scale is in

data points.

Figure 4 – Impact of object type on full

waveform data. Different object types lead to

different peak shapes in the full waveform.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Sensing Singular Resolution

and Object Classification


Figure 5 – High- and low-resolution image comparison. All images provide the critical information to determine the

vehicle’s optimal path.

Determining the nature of objects outside the

vehicle is critical to predicting the correct EV path

and sending the correct instructions to Reacting. Our

experience of object classification is based on size

evaluation, color, speed and other factors. We chiefly

use angular resolution for this purpose, but our eyes

have so many functions that they should not be the

reference for AD.

The optimal sensor resolution for object classification

is considerably lower than human vision. Figure 5

shows an example of different simulated resolutions

for the same object at the same distance. In the

leftmost image, we immediately recognize a woman

running with a dog. There are details such as

the ponytail, the leash, the baseball cap that are

significant to human perception but irrelevant to

AD. This is due to a relatively high resolution of 480

x 320 pixels that creates a very clear image, which

would seem like a clear requirement for AD. The

central image has only 15 x 10 pixels and does not

provide as much information. We distinctly see two

objects, one taller and one shorter, with a good

idea of the horizontal size of the objects. Based

on this image, we can predict that the AD EV needs

to react and steer the EV away from these objects.

It is apparent that the position uncertainty from

the pixel size will make the EV move slightly more

than minimum to avoid the objects. This margin

needs to be embedded in the Analyzing function to

reduce the risk of accidents. Over a few acquisition

frames, the Analyzing function will determine that

it is slow-moving and will predict a safe path. The

rightmost image of Figure 5 shows the same data as

the central image, enhanced with some interpolation

to increase the number of pixels done before the AF

to increase classification probability. The content

of the rightmost image is much clearer, and we can

distinguish a human and a small animal. We may

conclude that a lower resolution is sufficient for AD


Another example of the combination of the full

waveform data and the lower resolution for object

classification is shown in Figure 6. In this use case,

the truck behind the cyclist is clearly seen and

the resolution is sufficient for classification of

both objects. The full waveform data of Figure 3 is

extracted from this scene. The first peak corresponds

to the bicycle, while the second peak is light reflected

from the truck.

Figure 6 – LiDAR data from Leddar Pixell

superimposed on a camera image. LiDAR fullwaveform

data detects two objects (bicycle and

truck) at different distances.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Classification and Analysis Function Training

For object classification, the Analysis function is

based on neural networks that require training.

Known objects tagged in images are used to

teach the AI the ability to classify objects. LiDARs

can provide the distance of detections and help

build a three-dimensional map that facilitates

the data sorting for classification.

Figure 7 shows classification results using the raw

data from a LeddarTM Pixell LiDAR. The resolution

of a few pixels per object is sufficient for correct


AI Learning can start with

simulations, but the final training

needs to come from real-life

situations. The next step towards

the final implementation is

prototyping and data collection on

a moving vehicle. Figure 8 shows

a quick and efficient prototype for

data collection before the full AD

EV integration is completed.

Figure 7 – Pedestrian classification using LeddarPixell and AI,

with full waveform raw data

Figure 8 – From prototype to full integration


Automated-driving Electric Vehicles are the short-,

medium-, and long-term future of transportation.

Emerging applications are being developed to

facilitate services such as public transport, goods

delivery, and other specialized applications. The

ability to position and classify objects in the

vehicle surroundings is key to path prediction

and increased safety. AD uses sensors and LiDAR,

as one of the sensors, provides intrinsic distance

measurement and offer sufficient angular resolution

for object detection and classification. The current

successful demonstrations of AD with EVs are critical

steppingstones opening mass volume markets, and

LiDARs are a critical part of the solution.

Robert Baribault, Ph.D.

Principal Systems Architect, LeddarTech

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Driving change:

How materials science is allowing

e-Mobility to shift to the next gear



Overcoming the safety and lifetime cost challenges that

come with EVs requires reliable, innovative and serviceable

materials from a dedicated partner. The effective use of

thermal interface materials (TIMs), adhesives and sealants is


Dr. Pradyumna Goli, Business Development Manager Battery Systems North America &

Holger Schuh, Global Technology Lead Thermal, Henkel Adhesive Technologies

Drving Change

Electric vehicles (EVs) are a major driver for

innovation within the automotive sector, but

their commercial success will depend on

whether they can achieve true mass market

appeal. The key factors governing whether

mainstream consumers will opt for an EV over

an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle

relate to safety, efficiency, and affordability, as

well as the presence of innovative features such

as autonomous driving. All the while, OEMs must

ensure that EV parts remain compliant with the

evolving safety standards.

The key components powering EVs are the

power storage, power conversion and e-drive

systems. Choosing and optimizing materials

for these units that deliver on affordability,

reliability and regulatory compliance, in terms of

design and assembly, is therefore essential. As

the industry and the regulations governing EVs

continue to evolve, formulating materials that

meet these objectives is becoming challenging,

but with the right dedicated partner, not


Protection against

thermal propagation

The safety requirements for a compliant EV are

completely different from those required from

a conventional ICE vehicle. Since batteries are

the key component in an EV, lithium-ion (Li-Ion)

technology is the primary technology used when

designing battery packs.

Current Li-Ion technology delivers many

advantages over other systems, including higher

energy density and charge retaining capacity,

as well as longer operating life. However, one

of the major limitations for this technology

is operating temperature. When Li-Ion cells

are exposed to elevated temperatures of over

80˚C, they become explosive in nature due to

the limitations of electrolyte chemistry. This

phenomenon is called “thermal runaway” and

poses a major limitation on the optimal design

for EV battery packs.

Manufacturers must comply with varying

regulations in different countries around the

world, in order to ensure that their battery pack

designs to be approved for local use. In China,

for example, EV systems must be designed in

such a way that passengers will have a minimal

5 minute window for escape1. In order to meet

these requirements, thermal management

is critical and the effective use of thermal

interface materials (TIMs) is fundamental.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

The role of

TIMs in thermal


TIMs are fundamental to thermal

management, since they optimize

heat transfer from components

such as batteries in power

storage systems, insulated-gate

bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules,

MOSFETS, and transformers in

power conversion systems, to

heat sinks. Power density is what

defines the amount of heat that

densities that can range anywhere

from 10KW/module to 350KW/

module, implying they require very

high performance TIMs.

As the name suggests, high

performance TIMs require high

thermal conductivity. This is an

increasingly important issue, as

these power electronics devices

are being miniaturized and at

the same time becoming more

powerful than ever before.

Higher thermal conductivity

will lead to higher TIM density

and thus slower dispense

performance, since more filler

is required. This is where

materials innovation such

as Henkel’s new BERGQUIST

GAP FILLER TGF 7000 can be

used to address a real market

need for high thermal transfer

without compromising on

dispense rates. This material

offers the best in its class

thermal performance (7

W/mK), as well allows

for achieving a maximum

possible tested dispense

rate of up to 18g/second.

Henkel also offers gap pads

of up to 12W/mK to address

thermal management issues

for devices that demand high

thermal performance (image


For the power storage systems

(image 3), the requirements are

completely different. A typical

4-in-1 IGBT module has a surface

area of 14 in2, whereas a typical

battery pack has a footprint of

5000 in2). Furthermore, batteries

have low power densities (6 watts/

cell-600 watts/cell), as well as a

limited operating temperature. As

a result, the thermal management

requirements for battery systems

are driven by factors such as

conformability, lightweighting, fast

flow rates for high throughput and

cost. Henkel APS series

products (image 4) are

engineered specifically

for power storage

applications to give

flow rates up to 80cc/

second. Furthermore,

the solutions succeed

in terms of thermally

conductivity and density,


3D model showing the

inside of an EV battery

pack with

cylindrical battery cells

while still offering a silicon-free


The overall implication is that no

single TIM can solve every thermal

management issue, and that

materials supplier should have a

broad portfolio to give maximum

flexibility to their customers.

Henkel GAP PAD® applied


Image 4: trial dispense of the


3010 APS


illustrated inverter (power

conversion system) visibily

applied Henkel GAP FILLER®

in the lower area

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Further critical factors to

EV safety

While the thermal conductivity coefficient for

heat transfer efficiency still remains the primary

requirement, there are other factors that should

be considered critical for optimizing EV safety.

Treatment of the battery pack surface is required to

protect it against corrosion, which can amongst others

damage the battery pack gasket. As a result, external

influences such as dust and moisture could interfere

with the components inside the pack, leading to

reliability and failure risks.

hurdles, it’s essential that OEMs work together with

their materials suppliers from the very beginning

of the design phase, in order to achieve the best

possible result. Success demands the reliance on a

supplier with a broad available technology portfolio

in order to ensure maximum flexibility. Henkel is the

ideal partner for component design, with dedicated

customer support in place, as well as the broadest

TIM, adhesive and sealant portfolio available on the


Furthermore, adhesives provide structural integrity

for ensuring strength during the robust operation of

the battery pack. EV batteries go through the harshest

of environmental and operational conditions, e.g.

temperature and humidity could vary from anywhere

between -40˚C to 49˚C and 0 to 85%. All of these

aspects will place a vast amount of stress on the

structural strength, meaning that any adhesive

designed for this application will have to perform

flawlessly under these extreme conditions.

As the TIMs should be compatible with the chosen

adhesive & sealant solutions, significant complexity

comes into play in terms of design. Given these

“thermal management is

critical and the effective

use of thermal interface

materials (TIMs) is



e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Total lifetime cost reduction

Battery efficiency and economics is what will

differentiate one EV automotive manufacturer over

another, as the technology moves further mainstream.

Battery costs have come down from US$1000/KWH in

2010 to just US$156/KWH today. The projections are

that these costs will drop even further to US$73/KWH

by 20302.

One key factor influencing the total lifetime cost

of EV battery packs concerns assembly speed. In

general, to optimize throughput, material solutions

should have high flow rates, allow for fast curing

and be compatible with large-scale manufacturing.

In particular battery cell architecture can create a

bottleneck in the assembly process: around 4,000

cylindrical cells are required to make a typical 80KW

battery pack. Since some OEMs are already producing

over 0.5 million cars a year in North America alone,

simple math dictates that over 2 trillion cells will

have to be manufactured and assembled to meet this

demand. In order to allow for the superfast assembly

of EV battery cells, Henkel collaborated with Covestro

on the development of a total system solution.

Hereby cells can be fixated in a UV-translucent carrier

within 5 seconds, through the use of a Loctite AA 3963

cure-on-demand adhesive (image 5).

It’s clear that TIMs, adhesives and sealants are

of substantial importance for the assembly and

operation battery packs. All materials should be

manufacture friendly, economical, compatible and

compliant when used together in line with relevant

local regulations. Henkel’s broad portfolio as such

is helping to drive change so that EVs can go even

further into the mainstream.

Image 5: 3D model of fixed cylindrical cells inside

a plastic carrier using the LOCTITE AA 3963 battery

assembly adhesive

The total cost of an EV will also depend on how

easily serviceable the design of the battery system

is, which is influenced by whether the gasket used

to seal the battery is reopenable or not. Since the

battery is the most expensive part of the EV,

having the ability to rework it easily without

having to take the battery out of the car body

can reduce these costs significantly, which is

where advanced gasketing technologies come

into play (image 6). Sustainability is another

key consideration to bear in mind. Ultimately

all materials that have been scraped off after

the battery has been repaired or serviced

will need to be disposed of with minimal

environmental impact. This is again where an

innovative materials supplier has a role to


Image 6: 3D model of a gasketing material being applied

on the flange of a battery pack





e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



Semiconductor choices

enable point and systemic

e-mobility innovation

Stephan Zizala is head of the Automotive High Power

Business Line at Infineon Technologies

The automotive combustion engine has been a

huge success over the past 150 years. Decades of

development have turned the crude engines invented

in the 1800’s into the highly efficient and reliable

power plants of today. Engine developers have also

made impressive progress in reducing emissions over

the past few decades. Today, however, the automotive

industry is shifting on to a new innovation path:

building zero-emission cars by electrifying vehicle

power trains.

Why is this happening now? First and foremost,

governments worldwide are trying to slow climate

change by reducing CO2 emissions. They are

tightening emission rules and offering incentives such

as subsidies and tax breaks for low-emission vehicles.

Secondly, there’s growing pressure on consumers

to choose eco-friendly mobility options. Even the

COVID-19 pandemic may accelerate the adoption of

e-mobility, as people try to stay away from public

transport yet still want to reduce their carbon

footprint. Thirdly, electric cars will soon offer a better

user experience than traditional vehicles, because

their drive trains are more responsive and charging

points are becoming more common than petrol

stations. Studies already show that most electric car

owners would buy another.

Within the next ten years, I expect the majority of new

cars sold to have a partially or fully electric drivetrain.

Carmakers are devoting billions of dollars, and their

top experts, to developing cars with electrification

strategies ranging from mild, full or plug-in hybrid

architectures through to full battery electric vehicles.

The transition to e-mobility may be so gradual as

to be almost unnoticeable for many consumers, if

their next car is equipped with mild hybrid features.

These use a starter-generator and a small battery to

help the engine during stop-start motoring, cruising

and, in more powerful set-ups, to smooth out engine

response during regular driving.

Full hybrid electric vehicles can drive using

electric traction alone, and charge their battery by

recuperating energy from braking and using the

engine as a generator. A significant step beyond

that, plug-in electric vehicles have enough batterypowered

range for the typical daily commute and can

be charged from (ideally green) power grid sources.

Finally, at the upper end of the electrification ladder,

battery electric vehicles are being introduced that

have enough performance and range to compete with

traditional rivals.

As with the development of petrol and diesel cars,

the shift to e-mobility will involve multiple cycles

of technological innovation, optimization and

maturation. Some of these will be so narrowly focused

on innovating one aspect of e-mobility that other

possible innovations will be set aside for later.

Semiconductors can be used in both point and

systemic innovations that address the three key

challenges of electric vehicle development: range,

charging time and system cost.

Many reports on e-vehicles focus on battery capacity

as a proxy for range, but do not mention how

efficiently the energy that those batteries store

is converted to movement. It is like judging the

performance of a traditional car on the size of its fuel

tank. It is here that semiconductors can have a crucial

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Chip Embedding

Infineon offers both silicon and silicon carbide

components in all form factors, from bare chips

and discretely packaged chips through to modules.

Customers can select the power semiconductors

that best fit their innovation strategy. Together with

Schweizer Electronic, Infineon is also working on “chip

embedding”, a way of integrating power MOSFETs into

PCBs rather than soldering them on top. This technology

will increase power-conversion density and reduce

systemic complexity. It should be particularly useful for

increasing the performance of 48V mild hybrid electric


impact on an e-vehicle’s range and cost. Even

a small change in the efficiency with which a

vehicle’s main inverter turns the battery’s DC

power into AC to drive the motor can increase

vehicle range by tens of kilometers.

Chip embedding is just one example of our systemic

approach to e-mobility innovation: rather than focusing

on single chips or functions, we try to understand and

address challenges at the system level. We believe

that the most significant contributions to innovation in

e-mobility in the automotive industry will come from

systemic innovations enabled by close cooperation

along the value chain. We offer more than a decade of

experience in e-mobility, a scalable e-mobility chip set

including sensors, microcontrollers, gate drivers and

dedicated power semiconductors, a clear roadmap of

new technologies in development, and a good track

record in volume production.

The efficiency of power conversion is governed

in part by circuit architecture and in part by

the device physics of the semiconducting

material used in the switching elements.

Most manufacturers of full hybrid, plug-in

hybrid and battery electric vehicles use silicon

IGBTs and diodes, because they are well

proven, widely available and have the lowest

component cost. However, for certain cars,

there may be a better solution. Silicon carbide

MOSFETs can be used to build inverters that

have greater conversion efficiencies than

silicon-based alternatives. They cost more, but

while it is fair to compare component costs

doing so misses the systemic advantages of

the newer technology. For example, it may be

possible to use the greater efficiency of silicon

carbide inverters to reduce the size, mass and

cost of the battery while achieving the same

vehicle range. This might quickly lead to a

positive business case for adopting this more

advanced technology.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



Information technology and the car


The EV as a clean slate

Electric vehicles (EVs) have come of age:

Instead of being conventional cars with a

squeezed-in electric drivetrain, oncoming

generations of EVs are specifically designed

to be electrified. This brings the chance for

a clean sweep. OEMs are beginning to utilize

this opportunity to leave behind the burden

of the established electric and electronic

architecture (E/E architecture). With 50

to 100 microcontrollers spread all over a

conventional vehicle, you are looking at a

complex network of heterogeneous embedded

hardware, connected via several types of

physical interfaces. This stands in the way of a

fresh start. Designing a new type of EV offers

endless design and architectural beginnings.

In order to prevent these endless beginnings

from turning into lost opportunities, there is

one particular issue that is worth addressing:

It is time to say goodbye to the underlying

“one box per function domain” E/E

architecture philosophy for several reasons.

This kind of network is a nightmare to

update, it stubbornly refuses installing new

functions after the end-of-the line, and the

wire harness has grown into another bother

weight-wise and complexity-wise. Plus,

where do you host the enormous amounts

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

of software, which will be shaping tomorrow’s cars?

Due to the increasing amount of software that gives

the vehicle its functionality, safety, efficiency and

comfort, a conventional premium car is likely to

reach an impressive 750 million lines of code per car

by 2025. Mind you – that is just “programmed code”,

i.e., without factoring in the algorithms to come

with artificial intelligence (AI). The timing is right for

cleaning up the E/E architecture.

There is yet another rationale behind this: Car makers

traditionally perceive the engine (and sometimes

the transmission) as key unique selling propositions

for their brand. In times of digitalization, however,

the variety of functions is particularly exciting

for electromobility and its users as it is precisely

them who have a great affinity for technology.

Accordingly, the cockpit and human-machine

interface are becoming more and more important.

Drivers and users expect a “digital vehicle”. This has a

correspondingly high influence on their perception of

the vehicle and thus on the purchase decision.

Having said that, “the cockpit” means more and bigger

displays, natural language conversation, haptics

(e.g. haptic feedback with 3D shaped displays), full

connectivity, and lots of software to provide it all!

The future cockpit is fully networked, and a Digital

Assistant will be able to take on different roles

and responsibilities such as a driver’s companion

or coach. Now, this working relation is developing

into a genuine relationship as the EV becomes

fully connected and turns into a member of the

global Internet of Everything. Can that be done with

the existing E/E architecture? No. The

answer lies in centralization, and higher

integration. The answer is: in-vehicle


There is a great opportunity in the EV as a clean slate.

Freed from all the legacy traditions of conventional

vehicles, an EV is the natural choice to make a stepchange.

Why should an EV offer anything less than a

user experience (UX) that tops the expectations of an

online generation? An EV offers more space and fewer

design restraints. So why not seize this opportunity

to introduce new technologies such as pillar-to-pillar

displays? They offer maximum freedom to display

whatever content, app, service, or entertainment

to the driver and passengers. Connectivity, flexible

allocation of contents, and context-oriented user

interfaces will give any vehicle a new UX; which will

strongly influence the driver’s appreciation of his/

her car. 3D display technology and curved surfaces

will help to guide the user’s attention, help her/him

to control functions and to enjoy high-resolution

viewing quality.

What we need to make all that possible is to alter the

E/E architecture. In order to bring all the elements of

human-machine interaction together and to offer a

seamless combination of information, entertainment,

apps and services, the many strings of entertainment

and information need to come together in one


In the cockpit domain, this trend towards a new UX

means changing over to a server-based architecture

that supports a systematic separation of hardware

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


and software, smooth (firmware) updates over the

air (F)OTA), cyber security, the safe use of ASIL and

non-ASIL functions (and various operating systems)

on a single hardware, higher functional safety, fast

interconnection to other on-board servers, memory

and processing power for future flashing and hosting

of updated features and new functions. All of which

translates into a future-proof system.

Is this just an attempt to conjure up a future

development? No, the change is already underway!

Volkswagen uses a server concept for ID. vehicle

models based on the modular electric drive matrix

(MEB). The conceptual framework for one of these

servers (the in-car application server ICAS1) is a

high-performance computer platform developed by

Continental in cooperation with Elektrobit. It is called

HPC (High Performance Computer), and the ID. Vehicle

models with the ICAS 1 HPC showcase the move

forward to a new E/E architecture based on server


As a Cockpit HPC, the server integrates functions

previously split up between several electronic control

units (ECUs), including the instrument cluster ECU

and the ECU, controlling the center panel display and

infotainment world. However, the cockpit HPC does

a lot more. Based on its capabilities, the cockpit

and multi-modal human-machine interface are

turning from what we once knew as the “driver

workplace” into a dialogue partner, which adapts

to the needs of drivers or their instantaneous

role. In an automated EV, the driver may well be a

passenger for long phases of the journey. During

these phases, he or she will want to make good use

of the time in the car. Screens will therefore have to

display different types of information, provide the

environment for different apps and pursuits, both

private and business – and maybe they have to offer

more display surface to meet that requirement.

Natural language exchange between human and

machine will have to be supported, and new elements

such as Augmented Reality head-up displays require

sufficient computing power for models that are

equipped with it.

Higher integration levels and standardized hardware

along with scalability of computing power and

memory provide

the possibility

to adapt an HPC

to the differing

requirements of

various models

and vehicle

segments. It

is true that

rather a lot of

the computing

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power of an

HPC will not be

utilized when

the car begins

its service life.

Probably even

the biggest

amount of

computing power

and memory may

be reserved for

the installation

of new functions

and feature

upgrades over

the service life of

the vehicle – and

new business

models that come with it. Of course, this will only

work, if the HPC provides cyber security and (F)OTA

updates. The two make an inseparable pair anyway:

There is no cyber security without OTA updates,

but there can also be no OTA update without cyber


Some may consider this new level of, e.g., above 10

kDMIPS computing power per server in the vehicle a

luxury but think again: Today, each and every one of

the 50…100 ECUs has its own embedded periphery.

They all have a housing, they all have connectors, and

they all require thermal management, and they are all

cabled. However, quite a few of these ECUs will never

be active at the same time because their activity is

restricted to certain driving or operating conditions

that may be mutually exclusive. So, who’s wasting


The features of the HPC create optimal conditions

for the integration of software from many sources.

As an example, Continental uses the HPC capabilities

for a strategic partnership with Pioneer. During the

development of a Cockpit HPC, a complete Pioneer

infotainment solution can be integrated into the

server, if an OEMs requests it.

Meanwhile, while the server-based approach offers

the chance for vehicle manufacturers to reduce

complexity with a leaner vehicle architecture, it

increases the complexity for Tier 1 suppliers. Manual

software development, for instance, is no longer an

answer to worldwide development with ever more

internal and external partners. To handle this complex

process efficiently and to ensure the quality of the

server and the software a new approach is required:

It takes a highly automated software factory and

a cooperation portal providing the security, tools,

automated testing and validation, and managing

documents for hundreds of software developers all

over the world, who are working on functions and

features. It is not only the E/E architecture that is

changing dramatically – beginning with the EV – it

is the complete automotive industry as information

technology and the car amalgamate.

Stefan Wagener

Product Manager Infotainment at Continental

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



Moving e-mobility forward using

specialised PVD coatings

Dr. Mayumi Noto, Head of Global Business Development for E-Mobility, Oerlikon Balzers.

The variety of small to large electric vehicles and their hybrid variants is

constantly increasing, and vehicle manufacturers can no longer afford not to

have electric vehicles in their range. But how can they optimise this

technology? Are there other ways to improve efficiency and range, protect

components from premature failure, and reduce maintenance costs for the end

user as a result? Specialised PVD coatings are key design elements that reduce

friction and wear, improving the efficiency of drivetrain technologies in electric


Producing more efficient engines has become

an important issue as the automotive

industry seeks to reduce CO2 emissions from

petrol and diesel engines. Specialised PVD

coatings have become key design elements

for reducing friction and wear in engine

components and minimising mechanical

loss, which boosts engine efficiency and

performance. And as manufacturers develop

increasingly advanced electric vehicles,

Oerlikon Balzers one of the world’s leading

suppliers of surface technologies has been

working closely with leading technology

companies to design and optimise

components for electric drive systems.

A typical electric car is equipped with an electric

motor with a maximum power of 30 to 70 KW, a

maximum torque of 130 to 200 Nm and a maximum

rotational speed of 7,000 to 20,000 rpm. Key adjacent

components such as gears, bearings and shafts need

to be optimised to satisfy various complex objectives

such as noise reduction and efficiency during more

demanding operating conditions. Gears in electric

car transmissions experience higher rotational

speeds and are subjected to various driving styles,

increasing the chances of wear, pitting, tooth failure

and scuffing due to repetitive friction at high speeds.

Poor lubrication or the presence of contaminants can

significantly reduce the service life of gears.

Specialised PVD coatings for the

automotive industry

A coating with a thickness of just 0.5 to 4 micrometres

considerably reduces friction and increases

surface hardness to protect gears and reduce gear

losses, thereby increasing the efficiency of electric


PVD is typically used to coat components at relatively

low coating temperatures of 200-500 °C. These

temperatures are ideal because they are below the

tempering temperature of steels, which means that

the fundamental material properties are not affected.

The BALINIT C coating from Oerlikon Balzers is a WC/C

ductile carbide/carbon coating that offers particularly

high resistance to adhesive wear (scuffing). It has a

multi-layered structure where fine WC crystals are

embedded into an amorphous carbon matrix (Image

1). This unique structure enhances the load-bearing

capacity and ductility of the coating even when there

is little or no lubrication.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

The standard FZG C test shows that fatigue

strength is increased by 10-15% over case-hardened

but uncoated gears (Figure 1).

The low friction coefficient of BALINIT C contributes

to lower local surface pressure (Hertzian

pressure) and offers superior running-in characteristics.

A scuffing test shows that gears coated

with BALINIT C have a longer service life of over 2

million tooth contact cycles (Figure 2).

“By incorporating BALINIT

coatings into component

design, our partners have

improved electric drivetrain

performance without

compromising other

requirements, such as having

a lightweight, compact design

and reducing overall production

costs”, explained Dr. Mayumi Noto, Head of

Global Business Development for E-Mobility, Oerlikon


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Surface solutions for a wide range of

automotive industry applications

Compact, lightweight and highly integrated

design of electric car components requires

production technologies which offer higher

precision and quality despite low tolerances

and highly complex production processes.

primeGear is a customised and highly

integrated service which delivers unbeatable

gear cutting tool performance. A team of

experts at Oerlikon Balzers determines the

critical improvements which can be made

in the gear production chain by conducting

detailed tool surface failure analyses and

consulting with the customer. Improving the

tool life cycle requires a holistic approach,

whether in surface treatment, cutting

processes, tool handling or reconditioning,

and this can lead to more sustainable and

higher-quality gear production processes.

“This is possible due to our learning curve

of 70 years as leading supplier for surface

solutions, and the integral concept of

primeGear”, Dr Mayumi continued.

For large battery boxes and electric motor

housings, Oerlikon Balzers provides

solutions to improve aluminium die casting

and steel sheet forming tools. In high

pressure die casting, BALINIT coatings reduce

soldering, heat cracks, erosion and abrasion

on moulds, mould inserts and cores. This

results in a longer service life and reduced

waste, giving manufacturers higher-quality

cast parts and reduced costs. For large

forming dies, Pulsed-Plasma Diffusion

(PPD) technology helps tools last longer by

hardening their surfaces and increasing their

wear resistance. PPD means tools need to

be maintained less frequently and is a more

environmentally-friendly process than hard

chrome coating.

Lightweight plastic parts are key components

in car interior and exterior design. As

plastics become stronger (higher glass

fibre content), more functional (sensors

and lighting) and more attractive in design

(texture and colour), forming technologies

to produce plastic parts need to overcome

new challenges. BALINIT coatings can prevent

corrosion and wear and reduce polymer

sticking, enabling easy release and scratchfree

products for injection moulding and


Providing customised solutions to

special requirements

We use our strong R&D capabilities to

tailor coating solutions to meet customer

requirements. In addition to coating

thickness and hardness, properties such

as structure, chemical and temperature

resistance and adhesion can be optimised to

suit individual needs.

With almost 75 years of expertise in coatings,

we have customised pre- and post-surface

treatments to produce the best possible

surfaces in order to achieve optimum

performance of coated parts and tools.

“Together with our automotive

partners, Oerlikon Balzers will

continue to provide solutions

and innovation to support

electric vehicles in order to give

the automotive industry a more

environmentally-friendly and

sustainable future,” Dr Mayumi


28 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

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Get a customised kit for your motor today!




Autonomus rideshares are coming

‘Q Car’ monolithic in its exterior design, chooses interior

volume over slick aerodynamics

In the first decade of the Digital Ride Hailing economy, service providers have

used existing hardware to move people from A to B. However, in the context

of Autonomous, Connected, Electrific and Shared mobility, we will see the

emergence of vehicles like Quarter Car, designed from the ground up with

these services in mind and pioneering new behavioural trends such as the

‘Private Shared’ vehicle.

Jonny Culkin, Seymour Powell’s Transport Designer

told us “A key issue we identified within the digital

ride hailing business model is the inefficiency

generated from the number of empty seats during

journeys. We have labelled this as the ‘Uber Pool’

problem, where despite cost based incentives,

passengers are unwilling to share their journey with

other users. It is a significant challenge for vehicle

manufacturers and ride hailing services to overcome

in order to unlock revenue and efficiency growth


“With the onset of autonomous, connected, electric

and shared mobility, it’s time to start defining the

first generation of vehicles designed specifically

for mobility services. Vehicles like Quarter Car will

lead the way in defining a trend of ‘Private Shared’

vehicles; adaptable spaces that will improve business

metrics and passenger experience in one hit.”

Quarter Car will help achieve profitability by offering

flexibility for service providers to drastically drive up

passenger occupation rates in each vehicle.


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Jeremy White, Seymour Powell’s Director of

Transport continued “By leaning on our wealth of

experience within the aviation and rail industries,

we have designed Quarter Car with passenger

experience at the very core of its purpose as an

interior led vehicle, prioritising internal volume

over traditional aerodynamic design. The space

is defined by retractable partitions through

two central axes of the vehicle, which allow the

segmentation of the interior into four individual

and sellable ‘spaces’, giving service providers

the ability to address the needs of a variety of

passengers simultaneously within one vehicle.”

The interior partitions would allow passengers to

book an individual quarter to themselves for a

private journey. Alternatively, friends, colleagues

or couples can book spaces face to face or side by

side, with the potential to hire the whole vehicle

and enjoy a convivial ride with a group. Booking

spaces in partially full vehicles, as well as waiting

longer for your pick up, will be incentivised to

ensure the occupancy rate is always as high.

Quarter Car also enables additional revenue

streams for mobility service providers through the

application of in-car digital technology such as

transparent glazing displays, gestural interaction

capability and artificial intelligence. These provide

operators with the tools they need to create a

cutting edge, personalised and engaging digital

experience. Depending on the service provider,

customers could have the option of cost premium,

ad-free journeys, while cheaper rides will contain

curated and contextually aware advertising.

Passengers might also choose to pay for tailored

digital experiences for purposes ranging from

entertainment, retail and education, which could

include descriptive educational content of famous

landmarks, or entertaining video content tailorable

to the passenger’s requests.

Interior Volume vs


Quarter Car is delibaritely monolithic in its exterior

design, choosing interior volume over slick

aerodynamics by leveraging underfloor electric

architecture packaging to reduce the overall

footprint whilst also increasing the perception of

interior space.

We can justify this volume change by speculating

that we may view aerodynamic efficiency through

a different lens by the time Level 4/5 autonomous

vehicles arrive. Quarter Car will be a Battery Electric

Vehicle using clean energy to operate inbetween

urban and suburban environments at relatively low

speeds. Aerodynamic efficiency will not be the way

we define the shape of this vehicle, rather, improved

passenger experience will lead to efficiency gains

through increased vehicle occupation levels

Spaces Not Vehicles

By prioritising this drive towards interior volume,

a vehicle’s interiors can be led by domestic and

interior influences, enabling them to be considered

as moving ‘spaces.’ We will change the way we spend

our time in them, which we believe will lead to a

host of corporations, previously unattached to the

mobility world, becoming interested in staking their

claim, in order to broaden their brand portfolio and

open up new revenue streams.

“We speculate that this type of vehicle could attract

a range of new mobility players, from boutique

hoteliers providing luxury, mobile spaces to their

guests or even co-working ventures looking to

assist in fulfilling the productivity potential in the

gaps between work and home, or even an airline

offering a door to door ticketing service; expanding

their business class offering across multimodal

touchpoints.” Jonny expained.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 31






January 21, 2021,

09:00 - 18:00 (CET)


sustainable and

safe for health!




e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020


As the way we use these shared vehicles changes, so

will our expectations of their levels of hygiene and

cleanliness – particularly as we move into a postpandemic


Throughout the process of designing Quarter Car,

we were passionate about creating an interior that

looked superemely modern with design cues taken

from high quality furniture, whilst also retaining all of

the anti-dirt trapping and easy-to-clean functionality

of traditional utilitarian transport.

We recognise that shared mobility solutions might be

the ones to suffer in the long term from the Cov-ID

crisis, but Quarter Car has the potential to address

many of the health concerns attached to this.

Richard Seale Seymour Powell’s lead automotive

designer went on to say “Not only can we divide

the space into four, air locked cubicles, which allow

each passenger to travel in their own ‘bubble,’ all

of Quarter Car’s soft furnishings are designed to be

easily swapped and the surfaces behind them feature

no sharp edges – allowing a very swift and thorough

servicing routine to be performed multiple times a

day, giving passengers peace of mind that the mode

of transport remains as safe and viable as possible.

Not only this, but there are methods of digital

feedback that could be explored, as part of the

service’s app or even through the display technology

within the vehicle, that could further this confirmation

of excellent hygiene standards.”

Air Quality

Richard went on to say

“During the initial design

process of Quarter Car, we

left no stone unturned when

questioning the conventional

wisdom of traditional vehicle

design. As part of this

process, we began to wonder

whether a vehicle could in

fact positively contribute

to the air quality of the

environment it operates in,

rather than the contrary. We

believe that if we are going to

flood cities with new mobility

solutions, in various ways

each vehicle should do a little good for every mile

travelled, collectively contributing to better living

standards for all.”

There are two ways in which Q-Car becomes a positive

emission vehicle, first of all, it’s fully electric and

utilises energy generated only from clean sources,

consequently Q-Car doesn’t have any tail pipe

emissions. Secondly, the vehicles actively cleans the

air while it moves by using carbon capture technology,

thus offsetting the negative impact of any carbon

emitting vehicles still operating in the urban realm.

At Seymour Powell we value our independent voice

within the industry – it gives us the ability to think

freely about the future of the industry and what

physical and digital services and products we may see

in the coming years. It is this free thinking that has

led to the creation of our Quarter Car concept, which

we hope will contribute to the ever accelerating drive

towards sustainable transport in our urban centres,

whilst also providing new and enriching passenger

experiences for future users. We strongly believe,

however, that digitial ride hailing represents just one

mode in what will be an eclectic range of options in

our future transport ecosystem, and we look forward

to turning our gaze towards other modes of e-mobility

over the coming months, not only through our selfdirected

thought pieces but also working closely with

industry leaders to bring some of these solutions to


Seymour Powell is the London based design studio called

on to help design the interior of the Virgin Galactic Space


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Advancing EV Electronics with

Light-Curing Technology

How Light-curing materials and technologies

are being used in advanced EV electronics

Chris Morrissey, Sr. Manager, Automotive Electronics BD, Dymax Corporation



The global automotive electronics market is projected

to grow to a CAGR near 6-7% over the next five

years, with the electrification and Advanced Driver

Assistance Systems (ADAS) segments positioned

to surge to 16%. This unprecedented growth, along

with increased environmental regulations and safety

requirements, to the consumer desire for enhanced

in-vehicle conveniences, has vehicle manufacturers

seeking ways to improve system performance while

decreasing overall costs. Traditional solvent-based

materials and mechanical fasteners may be less

expensive to purchase and implement, but long term,

increase overall manufacturing costs. As a result,

many design engineers of EVs, BEVs, and PHEVs are

turning to light-curing technology to solve issues

related to low throughput, difficult waste disposal,

and field failures.

“Legislated changes, consumer demanded items

(particularly those relating to convenience and/

or comfort) as well as safety enhancements, have

driven automotive development year after year.

Today, with the added popularity of electrification

and autonomous driving, the volume of electronics

in vehicles is growing fast even as vehicle demand

moderates. These drivers, combined with an

increased need for cleaner emissions and improved

fuel economy are also increasing the need for

environmentally compliant materials.” Chris

Morrissey, Sr. Manager, Automotive Electronics, Dymax

Corporation explained.

Three market segments driving the increased use

of light-curing technologies in the design of EV

electronics are ADAS, infotainment, and battery

management systems (BMS). There is a need for

materials that solve common issues associated

with the sensors, modules, and circuits found in

camera modules, lidar, printed circuit boards, and

EV batteries. Additionally, replacing technologies

that contain hazardous ingredients, produce waste,

and require higher amounts of energy to process is

becoming more important. There is also a desire to

increase functionality, reduce circuit size, and extend


G. Bachmann, a chemistry that was environmentally

friendly and would significantly increase productivity

in industrial manufacturing processes was

created. LCMs can provide significant benefits over

conventional bonding (or joining) technologies,

including lower operating costs driven by lower labor

needs, space savings, lower energy demand, and

higher throughput.

40 years ago, Dymax was instrumental in the

development of light-curable materials (LCMs) as

we know them today. Through the ingenuity and

forward-thinking of the company’s founder, Andrew


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

How do light-curable

materials work?

Light-curable materials are typically comprised of five

basic elements: the photoinitiator, additive, modifier,

monomer, and oligomer (Figure 1). The ultraviolet (UV)

light-curing process begins when the photoinitiator

in the LCM is exposed to a light-energy source of

the proper spectral output. As illustrated in Figure

2, the molecules of the LCM split into free radicals

(initiation), which then commence to form polymer

chains with the monomers, oligomers, and other

ingredients (propagation), until all ingredients have

formed a solid polymer (termination). Upon sufficient

exposure to light, the liquid LCM is polymerized, or

cured within seconds.

Figure 1 LCM Composition

1. Liquid unreacted state

The types of light-curable materials successfully

being utilized throughout the EV electronics market

include structural adhesives, conformal coatings,

encapsulants, and masking resins. Since their

inception Dymax LCMs have helped to minimize

environmental impact. Formulated products are

all one-component, solvent-free, halogen-free,

RoHS compliant, eco-friendly, and meet REACH (no

substance of very high concern (SVHC)) requirements.

Using these products offer manufacturers the benefits


2. Photoinitiators generate free radicals

• Improving structural bonds

• Protecting circuits from environmental damage

• Minimizing movement and shrinkage

• Addressing thermal management, thermal shock,

and vibration

• Enhancing PWB/PCA functionality and


• Eliminating shadow-area concerns

• Solving cure-confirmation issues

3. Polymer Propagation

4. Polymer Termination

Figure 2



e-mobility Technology International |




Light-curable adhesives cure in seconds upon

exposure to UV/Visible light. They form high-strength,

environmentally resistant bonds to plastic, metal,

and glass substrates used in automotive electronics

manufacturing. Due to their ability to bond to a

wide variety of substrates, they excel at assembling

dissimilar materials, something that cannot be

done with traditional fastening methods and other

chemistries. The fast cure of the adhesives is one

major advantage LCMs have over other slow-cure and

labor-intensive application processes.

Masking Resins

Temporary, peelable electronic maskants are applied

to printed circuit board components to protect them

prior to conformal coating application or wave solder

and reflow processes. Extremely fast cure allows

boards to be immediately processed without the

need for racking or waiting. The products conform

to intricate designs, are non-slumping for vertical

and horizontal surfaces, are compatible with gold

and copper connector pins, and are resistant to

solvent-based conformal coatings and primers. After

proper cure, the maskants leave no silicone, ionic

contamination, or corrosive residues when removed.

Conformal Coatings

Conformal coatings enhance the long-term reliability

of automotive electronic parts. When applied

to circuitry on printed circuit boards they act as

protection against destructive environmental

conditions, that if left uncoated (unprotected), could

result in a complete failure of electronic systems. A

key advantage to light-curable conformal coatings is

the ability to use a non-solvated “green” (100% solids)

material. Other important material properties include

resistance to rapid and extreme temperature changes,

as well as protection against high heat, humidity,

moisture, chemicals such as gasoline, and corrosive

materials like salt and sulfur.


Encapsulation and wire bonding

materials for bare die, wire bonds,

or integrated circuits (IC) found on

PCBs exhibit excellent protection

against thermal shock, heat,

humidity, and various corrosive

elements. Their fast cure helps

reduce processing and energy

costs associated with alternative


EV Electronics


Where LCMs

Are Utilized

There are a number of technologies

formulated into various LCM chemistries to

improve the overall manufacturing of EV


36 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Curing in Shadow Areas

Dual-Cure Light/Moisture-Cure


Dual-cure coatings are formulated to ensure complete

cure in applications where shadow areas on highdensity

circuit boards are a concern. Previously, areas

shadowed from light were managed by selective

coating – eliminating the need to cure in shadow

areas – or a secondary heat-cure process. Shadow

areas cure over time with moisture, eliminating the

need for that second process step or concerns of

component life degradation due to temperature


Multi-Cure® Light/Heat Cure


Multi-Cure adhesives and coatings combine the highspeed

cure of UV or UV/Visible light with secondary

cure mechanisms that enhance polymerization.

Secondary cure mechanisms, which include moisture,

thermal, or activator cure, are useful when light can

only reach a portion of the bond line, or when tacking

a part prior to final cure to allow easier handling and

transport during the manufacturing process.

Enhance Bond-Line


Blue Fluorescing Technology

Many light-curable materials feature

technologies that enable easy visual cure

confirmation and post-cure inspection.

In high-speed manufacturing, automated

vision systems are employed to inspect

finished parts for imperfections in

the bond line or to detect incomplete

coating coverage. Formulations with blue

fluorescing technology are visible under

low-intensity black light for easy visual

confirmation of properly finished parts.

to ensure complete material coverage. Once exposed

to the appropriate amount of LED/UV/Visible light

energy, the color transitions to another color or turns

colorless, providing confirmation of full cure.

Speed up Production with

Environmentally Friendly


LED Light-Curing Technology

Due to the costs and difficulty associated with

the disposal of hazardous waste, manufacturers

are starting to implement LED-curable materials

and light-curing into their processes. LED curing is

considered a “green” technology because it offers

manufacturers the following benefits:

• High electrical efficiency and instant on/off

capability for lower operational costs

• Long service life that eliminates bulb replacement

and reduces maintenance costs

• Compact equipment that reduces the size and

cost of the light-curing system

• Cool light radiation extends curing capabilities for

heat-sensitive substrates

• “Green” attributes eliminate mercury and ozone

safety risks and handling costs

• Narrow wavelength spectrum emission minimizes

substrate thermal rise

Brightly Colored Materials

Some LCMs contain a color pigment

such as pink or blue in the uncured

state, that enable them to be easily

seen when dispensed onto substrates

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Copper and aluminium

wire splicing

Multi-conductor cables

Twisted wires


Supports e-Mobility and lightweight construction

Aluminium and copper

wire on 3D terminal

Battery foil and tab welding

High current /-voltage cable on terminal



e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

ADAS - Active Alignment

(CMOS) & Lidar (adhesives,


Adhesives and encapsulants are used for a variety

of camera module and lidar applications including

camera module fixation, lens to housing, lens fixation,

IR filter bonding, housing to substrate, die attach,

windscreen bonding, and image sensor to substrate.

Critical to the manufacturing of camera modules

for ADAS is the positioning and staking of lenses

within the camera module housing. The industry is

moving away from passive alignment (mechanical

fixturing with clips, i.e.) which can cause the lens to

shift, tilt, defocus, and rotate. Active alignment using

light-curable adhesives enables fast fixturing (in

seconds) for high accuracy (< 0,1mm) and multi-axis

alignment with optical control. Additionally, since the

polymerization doesn’t happen until exposure to light

energy, assembled parts can be moved until properly

positioned. After positioning, encapsulants are used

for environmental protection of the components.

CMOS adhesives also feature:

• Cold ship/storage, as well as ambient storage

• Low shrinkage

• LED and/or heat-cure capability

• Moisture and thermal-cycle resistance

Some other benefits these materials bring to the

assembly process include urethane acrylate and

cationic UV and/or heat cure technologies, LEDcurable

formulations, very low movement, heat and

humidity resistance (85°C, 85% relative humidity), and

excellent bonds to metal and plastics.

Infotainment (PCB Based)

(conformal coatings,

encapsulants, maskants)

A key consideration for engineers looking to employ

light-curing technology in their PCB designs is whether

or not boards feature high-profile components

that cast shadow areas where light cannot reach.

Newly formulated 100% solids conformal coatings

feature secondary moisture curing that allows

material under shadow areas to cure, helping to

eliminate concerns about uncured material on the

PCB. These products exhibit high reliability in tests

such as heat and humidity resistance (85°C, 85 %

relative humidity), thermal shock resistance (-55°C to

+125°C), and corrosion resistance (flowers of sulfur,

salt spray and common automotive fluids). Dymax

dual-cure conformal coatings allow for the design of

smaller, more dense PCBs by allowing shorter spaces

between conductors, increased mechanical support

for components, and improved fatigue life of solder


Encapsulants are polymeric materials used to protect

die (chip) and interconnection to ensure longterm

reliability of chip-on-board (COB) assembly.

Dymax materials are used in liquid and glob top

encapsulation applications where they are dispensed

on top of a chip and its wires and then cured to form a

protective barrier.

Light-curable maskants are temporary materials

that are used at the board level to protect printed

circuit boards during surface finishing and assembly


EV Battery Packs/BMS

(conformal coatings,

encapsulants, adhesives)

The EV battery pack includes a battery management

system (BMS) to monitor state of charge, temperature,

current, balance cells, determine permissible

operating conditions, and send information to the

driver. Common EV battery applications include

potting and wire bonding of battery modules, coating

protection of PCBs in BMS, sealing battery case

enclosures, and encapsulating electrodes in unit cells.

A range of LCMs are used to adhere and protect these

components, including conformal coatings for thermal

management and exterior protection, structural

adhesives for housing and frames, and encapsulants

for wire bonding. Dymax materials are most effectively

used where bonding and fixation of cylindrical li-ion

battery cells must be secured within plastic housing

cells and coating of PCBs.

“From the design phase through performance testing,

we assist manufacturers in solving their most complex

application problems. As the EV electronics market

evolves, we will continue to develop light-curing

technology that makes manufacturers more capable

and efficient” Chris concluded.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



An application for

automotive battery management

Introducing new Sensing technologies for BMS and

SOC measurements

Stéphane Masson-Fauchier, GPM BMS & Business Manager Auto & Damien

Coutellier - Innovation Electronic Engineer LEM

OEM’s in the past few years have shifted their strategy

to focusing on electrification. New developments

are focused on hybrid and electric vehicles whether

they are passenger car, trucks and buses and to some

extent some industrial applications as well. Every year

the amount of combustion engine driven vehicles are

decreasing while the new xEV’s are increasing. These

vehicles are equipped with Lithium ion batteries of

different capacities.

LEM a world leader in electrical measurement

with production plants in Beijing (China), Geneva

(Switzerland), and Tokyo (Japan) is launching a new

state of the are current measurement sensor “The

CAB SF 1500 will help customers provide reliable and

sustainable transport solutions”, according to Damien

Coutellier - Innovation Electronic Engineer, LEM

To properly support this new market trend the State

of Charge (SoC) has become a key parameter to be

monitored just as the fuel consumption gauge is for

internal combustion engine vehicles.

This new current sensor technology is specifically for

xEV’s Battery Monitoring applications. The sensor can

be installed in the BMS (Battery Management System),

BDU (Battery Disconnecting Unit) or Junction Box.

Introduction of Sensing

technologies for BMS and

SOC measurements

The CAB SF 1500 current sensor is one of the key

elements of the BMS dedicated to Lithium-ion battery

packs. Lithium-ion batteries are very efficient but

their reactions to misuse can be dangerous. Hence

it is necessary to monitor each electrochemical cell

to prevent these cases of unauthorized use. This

monitoring work is carried out by the BMS.

“Fluxgate sensors, such as CAB have

higher sensitivity and provide a higher

signal level. They also have better

high temperature stability than Hall

effect or Shunt Sensors.”

State of Charge (SoC) can be determined by

measuring the current and integrating it with the

coulomb counting method. Lithium-Ion State of

Charge (SoC) measurement made by coulomb

counting allow a measurement error of less than

1%, which allows a very accurate indication of the

energy remaining in the battery. Coulomb counting

is independent of battery power fluctuations (which

cause battery voltage drops), and accuracy remains

constant regardless of battery usage. Therefore, the

more accurate the measurement is the better the SOC

is, thus providing the most accurate information to

the driver. Coulomb counting depends on the current

flowing from the battery into external circuits and

does not take account of self-discharge currents or

the Coulombic efficiency of the battery.

“Note that in some applications such as automotive

batteries the “continuous” battery current is not

monitored. Instead the current is sampled, and the

40 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

continuous current is reconstructed from the samples.

In such cases the sampling rate must be fast enough

to capture the current peaks and troughs associated

with the acceleration and regenerative braking

corresponding to the user’s driving style”.

Stéphane Masson-Fauchier GPM BMS & Business

Manager Auto at LEM, points out.

Battery Management Systems requires current sensors

able to measure currents from several mA to several

kA. This large measurement span requires very low

offset and sensitivity error current sensors in order to

monitor properly and safely the battery parameters

(internal resistance, SoC, SoH...).

Shunt current sensors rely on a defined resistive

material that is inserted in the current path to be

measured. Voltage across the resistive element is

measured by a signal processing unit. The material

chosen as a resistive element usually highlight low

temperature drift and low thermal EMF in order

to achieve very good offset and sensitivity drift

performances. On the other hand, the use of a

resistive element inserted in the current path to be

measured implies that self-heating of the sensor is

high when used in high current applications. Another

drawback in some applications concerns the isolation

and this technology is by definition non isolated

with the current path. Lately with the battery pack

size increases, a higher current range needs to be

measured. Heating becomes an issue, and other

newer technologies are therefore suiting more such


Hall effect open loop current sensors are the most

cost effective and natively isolated current sensors

that highlight good offset, low sensitivity error, high

bandwidth and minimum current consumption.

Nevertheless, this type of sensor suffers directly

from all magnetic circuit imperfections (remanence,

non-linearity, saturation ...) in addition to electronic

imperfection contribution (sensitivity and offset

drift mostly due to the Hall Cell sensing element).

This inevitably leads to reduced performances of the

Battery Management Systems when these sensors are

implemented in this type of application.

Hall effect closed loop current sensors permit the

removal of part of the magnetic circuit imperfection

in the trade-off for a larger current consumption by

operating the magnetic circuit in closed loop at low

magnetic field and flux density. It allows the reduction

of the magnetic offset in the trade-off, increasing

the current consumption of the sensor. On the other

hand, as for the Hall effect Open Loop Sensor, Hall

cell is used to sense the flux density and all its error

contributions will remain (so called electrical offset

and sensitivity).

“In order to address most of the drawbacks of sensor

technology, we developed the CAB product based

on the so called “Open Loop Fluxgate” which is a

technology perfectly suited for Battery Management

Systems requirements”. explains Damien.

Figure 1 : CAB SF 1500 Features Overview

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 41

Open Loop Fluxgate current sensor offers the

following advantages:

• Low offset and offset drift, best in class sensitivity

error when compared to Shunt or hall effectbased

sensors thanks to the absence of offset.

This can be easily seen for small currents

measurements where the relative effect of the

offset is more significant for the Hall based

technologies sensors.

• An excellent over-current recovery

• A much higher sensitivity than other technologies

• A large dynamic range allowing capabilities of

measuring from very small to very high current

values with the same sensor

• High bandwidth and fast response time

Timing and Next Steps

“Production scale-up for this new sensor has begun in

the past few months.

LEM is highly committed to delivering premium

product in terms of features, reliability and quality.

We already know that our customers are striving for

new additional features that could be implemented

later on such as busbar temperature. This will give

our customer information to manage safety topics

and thermal management in an even better way.

Combining the sensor to a protection device such

as relays, fuse or pyroswitch would provide a fully

integrated solution to the customer managing safely

all critical parameters.” concludes Stephane.

Associating a complex & efficient design, meeting

the most stringent market requirements offers many

advantages however being more expensive to produce

can be seen as one drawback of this sensor compared

to other technologies. Although as with most new

technologies mass take-up soon brings the costs


It operates as a current transformer on which the

secondary is modulated using an electronic controlled

voltage source. The electronic controlled voltage

source allows for the hysteresis cycle of the magnetic

material at a frequency higher than the sensor

bandwidth which allows measurements of both AC

and DC current whereas a single current transformer

would be limited to AC.

The Data Processing Unit is finally used to digitally

compute the current and reach the best in class

performance of the LEM Battery Management Current

Sensors portfolio. Safety versions of the product

use LEM patented analog and digital architecture to

measure the current which achieves an ASIL-C ready


Figure 2 : CAB SF 1500 Product View

42 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net








FOR e-Drive





We were making products for electrical cars

long before they became the latest trend.




As automakers strive to reach

goals for longer range, faster

charging and lower costs,

adhesives stick as one

of the best solutions.

Nicole Ehrmann

Market Manager for Transportation, Lohmann GmbH

Functionality is absolutely


All means of transportation are powered

by energy, derived from renewable sources.

A simple check-in with a mobile phone

allows the uncomplicated use of bus, train

or car - the bill comes at the end of the

month and is paid depending on the power

consumption. This idea is still utopian. But

our metropolises need new traffic concepts

and our vehicles need new drives. Climate

change, shortage of raw materials and the

impending traffic gridlocks are forcing a

switch to post-fossil energy sources.

The solution: Electromobility

It can create the freedom of movement that modern

societies need. New materials are used because

new design concepts and functionalities will be

realized and integrated in the car of the future

Design, entertainment and communication play an

important role as do new energy storage systems

such as the fuel cell or the lithium ion battery. This is

where the “Bonding Engineers” come into play with

their adhesive solutions. In the field of functional

tapes in particular, a team of bonding engineers from

Lohmann a leading global manufacturer of high-end

adhesive bonds have been using their inventiveness,

to introduce innovations that play a considerable role

in developments in the electromobility sector.

44 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Bonding Area

Functional tapes: Bonding

isn’t the only task

Functional tapes do more than just connect two

objects with one another. These adhesive tapes

feature additional properties like insulation,

conductivity, grip, shielding and much more.

Functional tapes are in great demand, particularly

in the field of electromobility, because here it is not

primarily a question of bonding per se, but rather of

thermal and electrical conductivity and thus shielding

or grounding in the component, as is required for

sensors, for example. In addition, electronic devices

are becoming smaller and smaller, even in vehicles.

In principle, this is advantageous, but the tight space

also increases the probability of short circuits or

disruption from electromagnetic interference. This

is where functional adhesive tapes are the right

choice, because they not only ensure precise bonding

of different components, but can also be used for

earthing, heat dissipation or shielding. Adhesive

tapes are also used in the area of sealing: To protect

the highly sensitive electronic components, materials

are used that adapt perfectly and seal gaps. These

not only ensure that dust, dirt and moisture cannot

penetrate, but in the field of display technology, for

example, they also have a damping effect and protect

the sensitive technology from impact. It is actually no

wonder that an average of around 4.5 m² of adhesive

tape is used in an automobile today.

Every enterprise that is researching and developing

pioneering technologies to make electromobility

a reality, is confronted with the question: What

motivates consumers to buy new cars and choose

certain options? One point is certainly design. Today’s

cars often share either the same or similar exterior

design whereas interior design offers various options

for individuality. Here, displays with curved screens

or functional surfaces and touch applications as well

as LED or OLED interior designs are in high demand.

These individual design solutions require individual

bonding solutions. Our (antistatic) range offers e.g.

display protection against electrostatic discharge.

This, obviously, is more important for the design of

electric cars than it is for conventional automobiles.

AS tapes thus function as protection film for lenses,

TFT and LCD modules as well as optically bonded

touch displays.

When it comes to function and safety topics such as

ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems) or highly

automated or fully autonomous driving, different

issues than those concerning design need to be taken

into consideration. A rising number of sensors and

devices accompanying the above-mentioned issues

need to be safely bonded within the vehicle. Here, EC

(electrically conductive) and TC (thermal conductive)

tapes come into play. Lohmann’s Bonding Engineers

have found diverse TC solutions for the application

fields of LED, power transistors, heat sinks or PCB

heating parts – only to name a few. EC solutions are

required for low current electrical interconnections,

grounding (sensor bonding e.g.) or the connection

of conductive materials e.g. These two functional

materials add to a car’s fulfilment of function and

safety issues.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Another thing which must not be forgotten is the

fact that manufacturers in the automotive and

electronics sector are increasingly demanding

silicone-free bonding solutions for parts and

components. For this we have developed the

DuploCOLL® HCR range. The disadvantages of

silicone products are obvious: The properties

of electrical and electronic components can be

significantly changed or impaired. Silicones also

hinder the painting process. The DuploCOLL® HCR

range meets these new demands. The adhesive

solutions are silicone-free, highly chemical- and

temperature-resistant and resistant to all kinds of

environmental influences.

The double-sided PE foam adhesive tape

DuploCOLL® G, which is equipped with a

customized activator, is particularly suitable for

the assembly and permanent fixation of mounting

parts on large glass surfaces, as are often used in

the construction of electric vehicles. In this case

it is all about design. Ever larger glass surfaces

and more and more applications are a continuing

trend in the production of new vehicles. However,

this development also harbors risks: If emblems,

lettering and plastic attachments are to be affixed

securely on glass, this means that the glass

surface must be pre-treated with an activator

in an additional step. This is labor intensive

and costly. DuploCOLL® G was developed by

the Bonding Engineers exactly in order to save

this additional process step. The double-sided

foam adhesive tape possesses an activator that

is already implemented in the special adhesive.

This eliminates the customary use of an activator

in addition to cleaning. It is also temperature,

weather and moisture resistant whilst maintaining

its consistently good performance.

A compressible carrier made of permanently

elastic PE foam to compensate for component

tolerances, a pure acrylic adhesive on the

open side for excellent final adhesion and the

aforementioned integrated activator in the special

adhesive ensure a quick and efficient adhesive

bond. The maximum adhesion is reached after 24

hours, an initial tack after 30 minutes. In addition,

an excellent adhesion to the substrates has also

been confirmed.

Summary and final


The numerous fields of application of adhesive

tapes are exhausting but include infotainment

systems such as radio, navigation systems, mobile

communication or mirrors, drive trains such

as electric motors, air conditioning systems or

batteries, sensors such as safety sensors or camera

systems as well as charging systems, both in the

vehicle itself and the charging stations. In the field

of functional adhesive tapes, Lohmann distinguishes

between thermally resilient applications, shielding

applications and signal connections, electrically

insulating applications and antistatic applications in

the area of infotainment.

The developments in the field of electromobility

and digitization with the integration of stationary

and portable modules continually require new

bonding solutions. Interference signals from

vehicle components among each other, but also

from and to external sources, play an equally

important role in the development of adhesive

solutions, as do temperature fluctuations and

susceptibility to interference of high-frequency

signals, which are a result of the size reduction

and weight savings of individual components and

complete assemblies. Here, it is important to offer

revolutionary bonding solutions in the areas of

temperature management and shielding materials

and also to continually develop them in the future.

One common denominator exists: All adhesive tapes

have a dual function, with the bond itself actually

playing a subordinate role. The focus clearly lies

on the thermal or electrical conductivity. Lohmann

sees a far-reaching potential for electromobility in

the future and wants to position itself clearly in this


Our “Bonding Engineers” are proud to be part of this

automotive revolution.

Nicole Ehrmann

Market Manager for transportation

Lohmann GmbH

46 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

In search

of the ideal


Battery power is gaining a lot of

attention in the search for a cleaner

world. Electric energy is clean and

silent. The disadvantage is that

electric energy is like water flowing

from a mountain stream. It must be

used when it is generated, or else,

it is wasted. This is why we need

batteries that store electric energy.

Most batteries use a chemical reaction

generating a flow of electrons and

ions between electrodes, which in

turn provides an electrical current.

This current of electric energy can

be used—in theory—to do everything

from powering a car to stabilizing a

power grid. The problem with most

batteries, however, is that they can’t

store and release the electrons very

efficiently yet. Thus, we have to use

large and heavy batteries, often racks

of them, to do the work of a single

combustion engine.

The reason why comes down to the

electrons. Electrons are very tiny. In

classical electrochemical batteries,

48 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

we actually store them using a

reversible chemical reaction. Typical

examples are the classical lead-acid

car batteries and the now widely

used lithium-ion ones. Capacitors, on

the other hand, store the electrons

statically. This allows for very fast

storage and release. However, because

the electric charge is mainly a surface

phenomenon, capacitors can’t hold

much energy. Ironically, the tiny

electrons are the reason that batteries

and capacitors are heavy as the

resulting energy density is much lower

than of the fuels used in combustion


with the current designs.

Lithium-ion batteries, for example,

can short circuit over time. When

that happens, it can start a fire in

the whole battery pack. Here, the

culprit is not the electron flow, but

the redox reaction and the flammable

electrolyte. As well as this, batteries

suffer reduced energy efficiency in

freezing as well as hot temperatures,

and have a limited operating life,

suffering reduced performance over

time. Thus, we need a better battery to

overcome these challenges.

And, there are further problems

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


So, in search of a better

battery, what is a better


An outstanding battery must be practical,

sustainable, and safe. The main requirements

are a high(er) energy density, combined with

more power output, in addition to a lighter

overall weight and safer design. This means

we need a battery the capability to store and

release more electrons faster, and to do so in

a smaller, lighter battery. In addition, we need

one that works for a lifetime, and at high and

low temperatures without compromising

energy storage or output. The lifetime

requirement is one of the most important

ones when it comes to sustainability and being

practical to use.

A better battery is light as a feather, fits easily

in your car, and powers it reliably and safely


Best practice: the

complexity of Li-ion


The most widely used batteries today are

variants of Lithium-ion. In cars, the Lithium

Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide (NMC)-type

dominates, because they have the highest

energy density. Energy provides range. But

cars, and many other applications, also need

power, i.e. the capability to charge and

discharge quickly.

Here, we hit a


Power requires

current, and in

conjunction with the

unavoidable internal

resistance, this

generates heat.

The heat is

quadratic with the

current and this is

the main cause of

cell degradation,

not to mention fires.

Hence, such

batteries are not just a collection of cells, but

an elaborate mechanical construction with

liquid cooling, sensors, and software-driven

controllers that carefully manage and monitor

the battery (see the picture on the left

exposing part of a Li-ion battery pack). This

can increase the weight and volume by a third.

If such a battery fails, then it is a costly

operation to replace it. And in the event of a

fire, the entire car may have to be replaced.

The alternatives: a

trade-off war

There are, of course, alternatives to NMC

batteries. Lithium FerroPhosphate (LFP)

batteries are safer, but have less energy and

power. Lithium-Titanate (LTO) batteries have a

better lifetime performance and more power,

but even less energy. There are alternatives to

lithium-ion as well.

Solid-state batteries do away with the

flammable electrolytes and can store more

energy, but this results in very low power

densities. Other batteries use different

materials, such as lithium-sulfur, and recently,

silicium. These are promising improvements,

but to meet all requirements for a better

battery in a volume production process is not

a trivial step.

None of these designs alone give us the

featherlite, safe, and efficient battery we need.

So what can we do?

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Going hybrid

As no battery technology on its own can provide

the best in class for all parameters, why not

combine them? Lithium-based supercapacitors

are good at most of the parameters, indeed, often

even too good on power capability, but are poor at

energy density.

Hence, we have developed a hybrid device using

activated carbon (a variant of graphene) as one

of the electrodes. We then use a classical lithium

compound as the second electrode. The result is

a cell architecture that works like a capacitor in

terms of power and storage, but also delivers a

decent energy density.

As the main active component is carbon, it needs

less lithium, which reduces costs and is better

for the environment. Depending on the lithium

compound used, we have cells optimised for power

or for energy. While the hybrid power capacitors

deliver 80 to 100 Wh/kg, they can be charged very

fast and deliver up to 20 times their nominal power.

The hybrid energy capacitors deliver 230 Wh/kg

and can deliver up to 1,5 times their power with no

active cooling.

In addition, this battery needs no cumbersome and

heavy Battery Management System, most

often no expensive cooling or heating

(as the temperature range can be

from -40 to 80°C). It provides

decent power capability, is

inherently safe, and easily lasts

between 10 to 30 years (or 1 million


The benefits of

going hybrid

While the energy density of our battery is not

spectacularly better than the best Li-ion cells, this

is compensated for by the other parameters. It can

deliver the power when needed in a smaller package

As well as this, it can be charged relatively quickly.

It can reach up to 75% of its nominal capacity

in 5 minutes although the latter requires a

corresponding charging infrastructure that is not yet

common. Moreover, it doesn’t suffer from cold or

heat and will no start to burn when abused. As one

can see in the picture, the resulting battery pack is

very dense, yet very straightforward to put together.

It’s very robust and simple and therefore resulting

in a very trustworthy battery that will last a lifetime

without any fire risk.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

The challenge:

driving an e-car like

a classical one

So, a battery needs to meet several often conflicting

criteria to be an ideal solution, from the technical

point of view. What is more, in the case of electric

vehicles, the results must also be acceptable to the

market. Is it practical to use? Is it better than (or at

least as good as) what people are using now?

Today’s fuel based cars are convenient to use. You can

fill one up in a few minutes, and you can easily pass

a 1000 km before the next fill-up (depending on the

journey). Given that the energy density of fuel is 80 to

100 times higher than the energy density of batteries,

achieving the same result is a tough challenge.

The solution is to work on multiple fronts, and there

are still hurdles. Firstly, charging in 5 minutes requires

charging at 12 times the nominal power. Only hybrid

power capacitors can provide this with an acceptable

energy density. One should not underestimate the

impact on the charging system; currents will be very

high. Secondly, we must consider vehicle efficiency.

While a Hyundai Kona Electric recently set a range

record of 1026 km, the driving conditions were very

specific, with an average speed of about 30 km/hr.

This reduced the energy consumption to 6.2 kWh/100

km, which is two times better than when driven

normally. But it gives us an indication of a workable


An energy efficient electric vehicle doesn’t need to

be a 3 ton SUV that accelerates like a sportscar. If

the vehicle is designed from the start as a “battery

on wheels” and the energy consumption can be

reduced to 5 kWh/100 km, which is a mostly a matter

of weight and drive train efficiency, then a 32 kWh

power capacitor battery will provide for about 600 km

range that can charge 475 km in just 5 minutes with

a 360 kWh charger. That charger in itself can be a 30

to 40 kWh powercapacitor battery reducing the need

for a high power grid connection. Our e-vehicle might

not be a sportscar but at least it is a practical and an

economical car to drive. w

Eric Verhulst,



e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Novel Current Sensors

Solutions For Automotive And

Industrial Battery Monitoring Systems


With the electrification of mobility and the

transformation towards renewable energies, batteries

are becoming an essential part of high availability and

reliability systems such as energy grid storage and

e-mobility vehicles. Representing a major share of the

system cost; battery efficiency, energy density, and

lifetime requirements are ever-increasing, pushing for

constant innovation in the battery technologies. State

of the art high energy density batteries used both in

the e-mobility and energy sector; require specialized

Battery Monitoring Sensor (BMS) to cope with the

application and safety requirements.

Current sensing has long been an important function

implemented by BMS, to protect batteries from

abuse and trigger safety shutdowns when operated

in over current. Now, however, requirements for

current sensing are becoming much more stringent.

In particular, industry-standard high energy density

batteries such as Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) or

Lithium-titanate (LTO) show stable output voltage as

a function of their capacity particularly in their utility

range, requiring coulomb counting to determine the

State of Charge (SoC), State of Health (SoH) and State

of Function (SoF) of the batteries.

The SoC is of particular importance for Electric

vehicles (EV) manufacturers constantly working on

improving the performance and safety of their battery

systems. Specially, range anxiety is one of the biggest

friction points of the electrification of the mobile

park, pushing not only for higher density batteries

with increasing thermal runaway and stringent

requirements but also accurate SoC measurements

enabling the BMS to optimize battery efficiency and

operation for long cycle life.

Sensing Technologies

Conventional current sensors used to measure the

SoX solutions are based on Hall or shunt technology.

Shunt current sensors measure the voltage drop

across a precision shunt resistor to determine the

current flowing through the shunt. This resistive

measure, although offering very interesting dynamic

ranges and linearity, does have some limitations at



high currents and at low currents. At low currents,

the output voltages of the sensor interfaces, may be

clamped and therefore over-estimating the currents.

Active compensations such as voltage offset or

current injection can overcome such technology

limitations and therefore, improving the low current

measurement specifications. Whereas at high currents

the resistive power dissipation in the shunt starts to

be an thermal issue.

Magnetic current sensors are contactless, providing

galvanic isolation, no power dissipation and enabling

faster readout. At the same time, the offsets arising

from the unbalanced measurement bridge, and

temperature and stress effects, can be corrected via

active feedback loops, adjusting the gain parameters

and actively compensating the sensor offset thanks to

combinatory readout measurements.

Both technology diversities not only on technology

but also in terms of required active compensation,

make them very suitable for a redundancy

measurement for functional safety application. In

particular, in the automotive and high-density energy

storage industry, BMS are facing rising functional

safety requirements. The combination using

both technologies, shunt and magnetic, becomes

increasingly attractive. Not only providing redundant

measurement of the current but also strengthening

the system diversity and therefore reducing common

faults and silent latten faults.

Maglab developed a platform approach, in order to

accommodate different customer current sensing

requirements while reusing the same module

architecture and therefore increasing the reliability at

lower cost. Such a platform relies on the combination

of a shunt and contactless magnetic field sensor

consisting of ferromagnetic shield and xMR or Hall


The module assembly relies on the proper dimension

on one hand of the shunt, balancing accuracy versus

thermal performances and on the other hand of the

laminated U formed (LU) magnetic shield, where

magnetic saturation at high current and footprint

have to be balanced. Based on this and the market

demand, three standard designs have been proposed

(see Figure 1).

54 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Further to

the subassemblies,

a universal




2) was


to measure

both the


and the



The readout electronics provide not only the

amplification chain but also the required

high voltage isolation for the shunt up 4 kV, a

configurable microcontroller and a CAN interface.

The detailed system level diagram of the readout

electronics are shown in Figure 3. As it can be

seen, particular attention has been given to the

safety and redundancy of the design. In particular

for signal processing, the external high speed

18 bits ADC allows the high accuracy readout of

the shunt voltage measurement, redundant and

independent to the internal 12-bit ADC used for

the Hall measurement. Both converted signals are

then processed at the microcontroller where after

filtering, a safety check is performed and an error

signal is raised in the event of discrepant values

above a configurable threshold. Both current

measurements can be output via the CAN interface,

meeting the system level safety requirements.

Furthermore, thanks to the onboard capabilities

of the microcontrollers, additional features have

been included in order to increase the system

accuracy and performance. An onboard multi point

calibration and zero offset compensation can be

easily programed, accounting for non linearities

and module-to-module divergences. In addition,

aon-PCB temperature sensor located on top of the

shunt allows easy thermal bridging and therefore

accurate thermal compensation. Thanks to all active

compensations, a total 1% resolution full range over

lifetime can be achieved. Such temperature can be

directly outputted via the CAN interface.

A battery voltage measurement is done via a probe

connection to the other polarity of battery throughout

a galvanic isolated pin connection. Such voltage can

be directly outputted via the CAN interface.

In order to cope with the constant expansion of the

Figure 1: Sub-assemblies of different shunts (75 µΩ,

50 µΩ, 35µΩ left to right) with laminated U-shields.

Figure 2: BMS module and electronic PCB

with high voltage isolation

Figure 3: System Level diagram of the Battery

Management System

electrification market and its evolving requirements,

new efforts are being made to further develop the

current sensing platform. The particular focus for

the upcoming generation will be to reduce its overall

footprint, adapt it for higher volume requirements

and increase the choices of interface.

Lorenz Roos, Senior Application Engineer, Maglab AG,


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



Successful Thermal

Management with Liquid Cooling

Thermal management is essential for

Charging stations and electric vehicles.

The increasingly more effective

lithium-ion batteries in hybrid and

electric vehicles also require highperformance

charging stations to

supply the vehicles with power.

All components in these charging

stations have to maintain an

optimal temperature level – firstly,

because rapid charging processes

massively heat the entire system,

and secondly, in order to reduce

negative effects on the range of

the electric car and the life of

the batteries. Efficient thermal

management on the basis of liquid

cooling is an ideal solution here.

A tight cooling system made of

plastic with matching conduits

and connectors that can also be

equipped with sensors ensures

utmost safety.


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Electric and hybrid vehicles are getting

increasingly popular, and the associated

charging infrastructure with great coverage

is installed. The range of electrically driven

vehicles – i.e., how far they can go on one charge

– is decisive for their acceptance. To ensure

its sustainable increase and to remain flexible

while traveling, the power density of lithium-ion

batteries is going up while the charging duration

of modern electric and hybrid vehicles continues

to decrease. At the same time, shorter charging

times for electric and hybrid vehicles are

becoming more important. Yet, rapid charging

processes develop a great deal of heat losses

leading to massive waste heat flows. To ensure

a continuously high charging cycle efficient

thermal management is required.

All components

generating heat losses

need to be considered.

The service life as well as the performance

and safety of lithium-ion batteries greatly

depend on the operating temperature and

temperature fluctuations that occur inside

each individual cell. Batteries or energy storage

systems in principle have different temperature

requirements: For instance, the batteries and

their cells must not exceed resp. undercut the

average temperature of 15°C to 35 °C to ensure

a maximum service life. Thermal management

systems help to keep lithium-ion batteries

at an optimal thermal degree, and minimize

temperature differences in the cells.

Efficient cooling performance, low space

requirements and even heat distribution: the

advantages of liquid cooling are particularly

impressive in systems with high energy storage

requirements such as electrically powered


Solutions for the liquid

cooling of charging

stations made of flexible

and stable plastic tubes

and reliable connectors.

Yet along with the battery cooling that has been

primarily considered so far, it is also essential

to cool the increasingly more potent systems

as well as the entire thermal circuit. This

includes, for instance, converters and radiators

in electrically powered vehicles, or the cable

and charging system with reservoirs, pumps and

heaters in charging stations. This is because all

components potentially emitting heat have an

impact on the temperature and functionality of

the entire system.

Since the entire system in the charging station

heats up strongly during fast charging processes,

efficient heat management is essential.

Coordinated solutions with tubes and connectors

made of plastic are ideal for water cooling.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 57

Liquid cooling is an ideal

solution for energy stores.

The tasks of cooling systems include constant

temperature reduction and, at the same time,

heat transfer. To achieve this, the heat needs to be

transported away from the emitting components,

and possibly activated where heat is required. There

are two variants available for cooling – with air or

water. Air is characterized by low thermal capacity,

i.e., it quickly absorbs heat making heat transfer

hard to implement. Significant noise level and lots

of space required are further disadvantages of airbased

heat management.

Since modern systems can store increasingly more

energy, and there is often only little construction

space available for thermal management, liquidbased

cooling has the ever-growing potential –

both for charging stations and inside the hybrid

and electric cars themselves. Water absorbs heat

slower than air, which leads to a lower heat transfer

coefficient. Due to this, more heat can be absorbed

with water-based cooling. To achieve similar

cooling performance with air, a significantly greater

volumetric air flow is required due to the lower

thermal capacity.

Constant flow is lower with


Another important aspect for the assessment of

both variants is that of flow rate: To get the battery

cells to the ideal average temperature of 35 °C, a

constant flow of some 13 °C is required in an aircooled

system. A water-cooled system already

operates at a far higher temperature of 32 °C. Thus,

to achieve the same cooling rate with air, the flow

rate must be significantly higher than with liquid.

This suggests that water cooling systems can have

a more space-saving design, and at the same

time enabling the technical advantages of even

heat distribution. A battery - whether for vehicles,

trucks, buses or energy storage devices - can be

temperature controlled directly on the cooling plate

and connected to the entire liquid cooling cycle.

A reliable conduit system

is crucial for water-based


Different components are required to successfully

implement heat transfer in liquid cooling. Each water

cooling system features, e.g., sensors to measure the

temperature of the medium. When used in very cold

regions a heating element is normally integrated to

balance too low temperatures. Conduits also play a

significant role in charging stations – after all, they

contain the water that is routed through sensitive

cable systems and connects them to reservoirs,

pumps and heaters.

Since the construction space tends to get smaller

and smaller, flexible and at the same time

mechanically robust corrugated and smooth plastic

conduits are best suited for cooling systems. They

must allow high flow rates and withstand operating

pressure of up to four bar. The advantages as

compared with rubber or metal solutions are higher

performance, easy installation, weight reduction

and flow optimization to name but a few. Conduit

dimensions in nominal diameters between 8 and 37

can be used in a water-cooled system.

Due to the flexible design of conduit systems that

can be adapted to the individual requirements, for

example, by means of rigid expansion elements of

oval shape, liquid can be routed through narrow

spaces without any difficulty. What matters here is

that the conduits do not change their mechanical

strength through thermal deformation. They do not

necessarily have to be extruded from polyamide

(PA) 12; multi-layer conduits can also be used

that require different design depending on the

application and system pressure.


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020


The tubes and connectors for thermal management

are based on common connection standards. The

FIPSC SAE Connector, for example, provides a secure

battery connection in accordance with the SAE



With the Dry-Disconnect Connector and the

“dripless function”, liquid cooling systems can be

maintained drip-free if necessary.

A harmonized system

ensures utmost safety.

In general, systems for liquid cooling should be

maintenance-free. In exceptional cases, special

connectors (shut-off) are used which enable dripfree

maintenance with their dripless function. Since

liquid cooling systems work continuously - and

keep the batteries at the optimum temperature

even when the vehicle is at a standstill - the

quality and workmanship of the heavily used

components are crucial for a long service life.

Perfectly matched, customized components from

one source have been developed, for instance, by

the supplier of thermal management solutions

FRÄNKISCHE Industrial Pipes (FIP).

The conduits and connectors must be based on

the common connection standards. It means, for

example, that an SAE standard can be used for a

battery connection. For energy stores or charging

stations, a connector based on the VDA standard

can often be used as a counter-piece connection in

the interface itself.

Higher efficiency for

charging stations and

e-cars goes with water



According to the VDA standard, the FIPSC MC

Connector reliably connects tubes for liquid

cooling in, for example, charging stations.

To summarize the above, it can be stated that

water cooling allows effective transfer of large

volumes of heat with relatively small flow rates.

For this reason, it achieves better continuous

cooling performance as compared to air. Given

that, the water-based approach is particularly well

suited for the cooling of systems with high energy

storage requirement, such as charging stations and

electrically driven vehicles themselves. To ensure

sustainable heat transfer, a well-matched system

solution consisting of flexible and at the same

time stable plastic conduits coupled with reliable

connectors is the best choice.

Alexander Wey, Manager Product Unit

Industrial Thermal at FRÄNKISCHE Industrial

Pipes (FIP)

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 59


Bridging the Future

Integrating and refining charging technology

The global annual sales of electric vehicles have reached over 4 million, which

is a small proportion of the total car sales. However, compared to the 1 million

sold in 2015, the growth rate is incredible.

BloombergNEF estimates that by year 2025, the global cumulative annual

sales of electric vehicles will be increased ten-fold, reaching 11 million. The

price of electric vehicles could be equivalent to that of traditional vehicles by

2025-2030. By 2030, global electric vehicle annual sales are projected to reach

30 million.

The Necessary

Factors of Electric

Vehicles Replacing

Traditional Petrol


A. Charging time must be close to the

time for filling gas into a car. The acceptable

charging time for urban consumers is about

10 minutes. (*1)

B. The driving distance of the car cannot

be shorter than that of traditional cars :

the normal driving distance of a car with

a full tank is about 500 to 600 kilometers.

Electric vehicles must be able to reach 600

kilometers. (*2)


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

The Necessity of Fast


Power supply is an important topic of urban

traffic. The existing power system in the city is

mainly for providing power to residences, office

buildings, and for lighting in the city. Now, with

the rise of EV’s, the power supply system must

provide extra power. A densely populated city

where 70~80% of the power is being consumed,

means only about 20% is available for charging

EV’s. Assuming a community consumes about

4MKVA and if only 20% (800KW) is available for

fast charging, after simple calculation the power

is apparently not enough for the community to

charge 4 electric vehicles simultaneously.

The Self-sufficient

Research, Development

and Design of The Core

of Charger Controls

CSU 3.0, the core controller of electric

vehicle chargers researched, developed, and

designed by Phihong Technology, uses highly

efficient MPU and multi-threading scheduling

to execute the control and monitoring of the

electric vehicle chargers. It is mainly used in

DC fast chargers and high-end commercial AC

chargers. There are 6 main functions:

In order to respond to the booming trend of

electric vehicle and power grid system demand

worldwide, Phihong Technology a leading global

supplier of OEM power solutions, with close

to 50 years of professional power supply and

production technology, provides multiple electric

vehicle charging solutions and is dedicated to

realizing the future of green energy through even

smarter and ecological electric vehicle charging


Figure 1: main functions of CSU3.0

Process Control of The Charger

CSU3.0 has many standard communication and

control interfaces that control, monitor, and protect

various functional modules inside the charger.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 61

User-friendly Graphic


CSU3.0 employs a clear and understandable graphic

interface to interact with users for operations and

eliminates the associated problems of translation

between various languages.

Power Control and

Communication of the Power


The CSU3.0 communicates with and controls the

power module inside the charger through a CANbus

communication interface. During non-charging time, an

energy saving principle is deployed in standby or off

mode control. When charging, the power output control

is based on the principles of power demand and backend

power management.

The system has the standard global open source

charging communication built in, including widely used

CCS2 in Europe, CCS1 for North American cars, CHAdeMO

for Japanese cars, and GBT used in China.

To ensure compatibility and enhance electric vehicle

communication in the future mass production, Phihong

Technology actively participates in testing seminars

sponsored by various units or car companies to

enhance the EV charging communication protocol

compatibility of the CSU3.0.

Figure 2: Phihong Technology EV charger, CSU3.0

and power modules

The Linkage and

Communication of Back End


It also supports the widely used standard charger backend

management communication protocol : OCPP.for

smart charging.

The increase in vehicles and chargers in the future

will put heavy pressure on power grids. The increase

requires charging processes to proceed in response

to a different level of charging demand rather than

charging at full load all the time. The charging

process planning requires comprehensive information

communication to be synchronized between the

charger and the back-end management.

Figure 3: Graphic user interface

Figure 4: illustration of smart power grid

communication support


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

Smart Home and Smart

Power Grid Communication


All advanced nations in the world now face the

problems of rising peak loads, energy depletion, and

the greenhouse effect, and have been devoting efforts

to development and promotion of renewable energy,

like wind and solar power. However, renewable energy

is easily affected by seasonal changes and cannot

be generated in a stable condition. Furthermore,

the traditional power grid can no longer satisfy the

development demand of renewable energy. To ensure

that the power grid provides safe and reliable power,

having smarter, immediate modulation and even more

precise prediction and grasp on loading is necessary.

Therefore, developing smart power grids can elevate

the quality of power usage, and smart energy usage

has become an international energy-saving trend.

In a smart home, the CSU3.0 is planning to support

the linkage and communication of the current

standard Energy Management System, including

Echonet lite used in Japan, IEEE 2030.5 standard in

North America, and EEBus in Europe.

To balance the power load impact on the power

grid, the system will support OpenADR, IEC61850

energy management communication for an existing

power grid to respond to the smart power grid being


The Plan for Global Safety

Protocol Certification

To meet the global demand for chargers for electric

vehicles, Phihong Technology is deploying a global

safety certification strategy that will comply with the

laws and regulations of various nations, and meet

the requirements for electricity, personal safety,

conduction radiation, and radio frequency such as

North American UL, European CB, CE, etc.

Integrating and refining charging technology is

regarded as the first step towards the future smart

power grid.

by Jim Chen, Phihong Technology-Electric Vehicle BU RD VP &

Vern Chang, Phihong Technology-Electric Vehicle BU Software


* 1: Using Tesla Model 3 as the example: For a 60KWh battery

capacity to be fully charged in 10 minutes requires a 360 KW

charging system and 180 KW for charging in 20 minutes.

* 2: Using BMW I3 as the example: For a 42KWh battery capacity to

be fully charged in 10 minutes requires a 240 KW charging system

and 120 KW for charging in 20 minutes.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 63


EV Performance and Safety Demands

Drive Changes to Hardware and Software

By Rolland Dudemaine, VP Engineering, eSOL Europe

The priorities driving the development of EV electrical architecture differ

significantly from those that govern conventional internal combustion

engine (ICE) vehicles, and will be met through fundamental changes to

hardware and software.

Consumer adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is

expected to grow, driven by factors such as increasing

concern over climate change, new and improved

models entering the market, and proposed legislation

to ban sales of new ICE vehicles in the future.

The arrival of the EV introduces a step in the

otherwise curved trend of electrification sweeping

through established function categories: body/

chassis, comfort, safety, powertrain and infotainment.

With no combustion engine on board to power

subsystems such as cabin heating, or drive an

alternator, the EV’s electrical infrastructure differs

significantly from that of conventional vehicles.

Changing Priorities of the

Electrical Infrastructure

New priorities are taking precedence in EV electrical

infrastructures, including safe battery management

and efficient use of electrical energy everywhere to

extend driving range. Where the battery is concerned,

greater care must be given to monitoring the

battery condition and stabilizing aspects such as

internal temperature and cell balancing to maximize

performance and longevity. Meanwhile, EV battery

voltages are generally higher than the 12V lead-acid

battery in a conventional vehicle, meaning extra

safety precautionsare required.

Drivetrain electrification, in combination with

other trends such as the infusion of V2X (vehicle to

everything) connectivity and higher-level autonomous

driving capabilities, is a catalyst for more centralized

vehicle electrical infrastructures. Aggregation and

integration of multiple domains, currently handled

by large numbers of individual ECUs distributed

throughout the vehicle, enable vehicles to become

software-defined and help to enhance overall

quality, cost, and performance. Importantly for EVs

in particular, aggregation also helps to reduce wiring

weight and complexity, as well as saving precious

battery energy – all of which contribute to increased

driving range.

64 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

The trend to centralize control of demanding

vehicle functionalities is driving demand for highperformance

computing with a minimal power

requirement, leading to the development of highly

efficient, heterogeneous, manycore processors to

handle these diverse workloads.

At the same time, there is a clear requirement

for flexibility and scalability within the electrical

infrastructure. OEMs need this to create differentiated

product ranges cost-effectively by implementing

different applications and features on different

models, utilize different hardware platforms of

varying cost and complexity throughout their product

ranges, and deliver new models within tough time-tomarket

targets. They also need to deploy and enable

new functionality after physical delivery, Over-The-Air


Meanwhile, new concerns surrounding safety and

cyber-security are appearing. With increasingly

pervasive connectivity and higher levels of autonomy,

there is clear potential for malicious hacking to

threaten individual safety and even national security.

As far as functional safety is concerned, established

standards like ISO 26262 arguably may not be

sufficient for emerging use cases like autonomous

driving. Newer standards such as SOTIF (Safety of

the Intended Functionality) and UL4600 are being

developed to cater for these applications. OEMs and

Tier 1s need hardware and software architectures they

can rely on as part of the solution to these challenges.

Changing Faces of Hardware

and Software

To give the best chance of success, it makes sense

to consider the software platform as well as the

hardware and, in particular, the architecture of the

operating system (OS) which brings together these

rapidly developing computing elements.

Figure 1 depicts an automotive software platform

which incorporates the AUTOSAR Adaptive Platform

Figure 1. The software platform of the future must support safety, scalability, and real-time determinism.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


(AUTOSAR AP). This addresses the demands of

future vehicles and is intended for use in systems

certified up to ISO 26262 ASIL-D. AUTOSAR AP

standardizes foundation-layer software and allows

for planned dynamics, which permits adaptability

without compromising the handling of safetycritical

processes. Planned dynamics is achieved

through several measures, such as making sure all

processes are registered during system integration,

and restricting privileges for starting processes.

In addition, AUTOSAR AP manages communication

between application processes and external entities

according to strict policies established during system


The platform shown is based on a Service-Oriented

Architecture (SOA), which is well suited to future

centralized and zone-based vehicle electrical

architectures and provides flexibility as well as

transparency in terms of implementation and

mapping: the location of the server providing the

service is independent of its use, which is critical

for distributed computing. Moreover, transparency

provides a good foundation for Freedom From

Interference (FFI), which is one of the central concepts

in functional safety. On the other hand, a physical

mechanism like the memory management unit (MMU)

of the processor is needed to provide assurance of

FFI. The OS virtualizes this mechanism in the form of

‘OS processes’, which are the physical instances of the

services and applications.

In the architecture illustrated in Figure 1, many

components run as processes. Frequent interaction

between processes is necessary, for example if an

application process needs to use a service that is run

as another process. Historically, functional safety has

been predicated on protecting processes from one

another. AUTOSAR AP now introduces a reliance on

Inter-Process Communication as an OS feature, which

can be much more costly performance-wise than

intra-process communication; it can also evolve into

a significant system performance issue when all the

software is integrated.

OS for Manycore Processing

With demands for unimpeded inter-process

communication in software, as well as large

numbers of intercommunicating processor cores

in the manycore CPUs at the heart of the emerging

centralized hardware architecture, traditional OSes

are increasingly likely to fall short in their ability to

service all parts of the system adequately to maintain


In contrast, a distributed microkernel OS is inherently

suited to servicing large numbers of interlinked cores

and processes. It enables fast and deterministic

response, which is particularly important to ensure

proper handling of real-time control applications

in domains such as powertrain. A distributed

microkernel OS is unlike typical microkernel OSes.

With no need for cross-core kernel locks to prevent

concurrent accesses, which can impair performance,

the architecture ensures parallelism is preserved.

eSOL has developed such a distributed microkernel

OS, eMCOS, to meet the future needs of the

automotive sector including the requirements

for scalability, safety and real-time determinism.

eMCOS can scale in multiple ways to handle either

small or large sets of functions. Applications can be

connected between the microkernels and users can

customize the adaptation layer to suit their intended

purpose. Ideally suited to state-of-the-art manycore

processors, eMCOS supports inter-cluster message

passing and so allows dynamic AUTOSAR AP and static

AUTOSAR CP (Classic Platform) to run on the same

chip. A layered scheduling mechanism enables hard

real-time determinism and permits high-throughput

computing combined with load balancing. Standard

support is available for multi-process POSIX and

AUTOSAR programming interfaces, and there are

special-purpose APIs for functions such as Distributed

Shared Memory (DSM), fast messaging, NUMA memory

management, thread-pool, and others.


The demands placed on vehicle electrical

infrastructures continue to intensify and are being

further compounded by the transition to fullelectric

powertrain. Centralization and aggregation

of functions formerly handled by individual ECUs is

driving moves to adopt manycore CPUs to achieve

a suitable combination of computer performance,

energy efficiency and low power consumption. These,

however, are not best served by conventional OSes.

Designers therefore need to understand the effects of

OS selection and, in particular, consider a distributed

microkernel OS to maximize the advantages gained by

adopting manycore to meet the needs of tomorrow’s


66 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

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Big Data Logging

Efficient validation of e-mobility


Bernhard Kockoth, Advanced Development

Lead at ViGEM GmbH


The automotive industry is investing billions

of euros in the development of new mobility

concepts. Although experts are convinced that

the widespread advancement and adoption of

autonomous vehicles will soon be associated

with the development of e-mobility, today´s

development of electric (EV) and autonomous

vehicles (AV) are running on two tracks. However,

the advantages of such a combination are

obvious: autonomous driving brings efficiency

in driving and battery use, while EV technology

drastically cuts down on emissions, fuel costs,

and maintenance.

Due to the complexity of environmental and

traffic conditions, the validation of such new

mobility concepts is a big challenge for the

automotive industry and its suppliers. The

recording of data as a basis for the development

of automated driving functions and autonomous

driving easily exceeds conventional embedded

storage solutions and capacities. For more than

ten years, ViGEM has provided comprehensive,

all-in-one solutions for collecting, storing,

and transferring big data and has established

itself as a technology leader in the field of Car

Communication Analyzers (CCA).

Next level of

autonomous driving

Before merging onto roadways, self-driving

cars will have to progress through 6 levels of

driver assistance technology advancements.

Most vehicles on our roads today belong to

the category of level 0 or 1. This refers to cars

that have systems allowing both machine and

driver to share control (driver only or partly

automated).. The use of ADAS functions helps

pilot vehicles in level 2 (i.e., lane assist) and 3

(temporary hands off). The vision of the future

is that the

automation of

driving reaches

highly automated

and autonomous

driving technologies

operating in level 4 and 5. For example, cars will

communicate directly with other vehicles and

infrastructure, such as parking lots or traffic

lights. This new technology, called vehicle-toeverything

(V2X), will be enabled by data from

sensors and other sources that travel via high

bandwidth, high reliability, and low latency

signals. This will not only improve safety but

provide drivers and passengers with valuable

information about the road ahead. Equipped

with this kind of artificial intelligence, selfdriving

cars will be able to act as independent

road users them-selves.

To realize the development of

sophisticated, advanced driver

assistance functions, a number of

requirements for the authentic recording

of all internal vehicle network traffic

must first be fulfilled, e.g.:

1. Logging of ground truth sensors and

vehicle bus data for use in machine


2. Validation of new ADAS technology

under real-world conditions to

keep raw data for proof of correctness

and to counter future legal


3. Reproduction of realistic scenarios

for Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) and

Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) testing.


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Challenge 1: Logging of ground truth data

The validation of complex functionalities often

requires a huge number of kilometers/miles to be

driv-en by fleets of test vehicles. The data acquired

from these field operational tests (FOT) become valuable

puzzle pieces in ascertaining the roadworthiness

of a vehicle. Among the most complex function-ality

elements in a modern vehicle are ADAS features

like adaptive cruise control (ACC), lane keeping,

emergency braking, and of course, piloted driving.

This is why accurate and high-performance data

loggers are needed most during the development


The validation of new ADAS functions requires a

comprehensive collection of environmental and

traffic data. New sensors, especially high-resolution

cameras, as well as lidar and radar interfaces

generate enormous amounts of data to supply the

best “vision of the environment.” Capturing all such

signals, a necessity in the development of automated

driving systems, requires very high performance that

goes beyond the typical embedded systems capability

found in most traditional electronic control units

(ECUs). For comparison: ten years ago, a fleet of cars

generated a few hundred gigabytes of data per week.

Today, a single vehicle in level-3 development easily

generates 60 TB or more during one driving shift!

These high data rates require recording capabilities

of up to 10 Gbit/s per channel, and the ag-gregated

data rate in cars can pass 50 Gbit/s in continuous


“When installed in the trunks of test vehicles, data

ViGEM data logger CCA 9010.

logger devices have to be very robust to guarantee

reliable operation in automotive environments while

enduring shocks and vibrations, as well as a wide

range of temperatures. For example, the rugged

ViGEM data loggers and removable data storages

feature temperature stability ranging from usually -20

to +65° C”. explained Bernhard Kockoth, Advanced

Development Lead, Vigem GmbH

“The data loggers put all collected data onto one

robust removable data storage with capacities of 16

TB, or up to 64 TB. These cartridges can be exchanged

in a matter of seconds so that no valuable testdrive

time gets lost. Removable data storage can be

shipped from almost anywhere in the world to the

data center where a CCA Copy Station performs a fast

upload into the cloud while the vehicle keeps driving.

A holistic approach to easy and reliable recording of

ground truth data makes the CCA an ideal tool for

field operational tests where a fleet of cars does not

need to return to a location with data center upload

capability after every test drive. In this manner, the

read-out raw data is quickly available for further

analysis purposes, such as use in machine learning or

the development of artificial intelligence”, Bernhard


Mobile big

data logger

with interfaces

for cameras,

radar, lidar,

and multiple

other sensors.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Challenge 2:

Limited electrical power

OEMs and suppliers of the EV industry face an

additional challenge when advanced driver

assistance systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving

have to be tested on pure electrical platforms: the

current draw from measurement equipment. In a

combustion-powered vehicle, there is no problem

in placing additional electronics and computer

equipment consuming kilowatts of power. One

simply adds an extra battery and an inverter.

But available power management in electric

vehicles is different from that in combustion

vehicles, and the mobile measurement equipment

power draw is comparable to that of an air

conditioning system. In some circumstances,

drivers must deactivate their air conditioning in

order to make the remaining kilometers to the

next charging station. The situation is similar for

the power consumption of the measuring devices:

lower power consumption is more important than

high computational power. That´s why engineers

need the best of both worlds for tests under

realistic conditions: high computa-tional ability

running on low electrical power.

To deal with this challenge, ViGEM provides high

performance data loggers that operate within

low electrical power requirements. The compact

Car Communication Analyzer CCA 9003 hardly

requires more current than a car stereo and may

be powered directly from most vehicle 12V circuits

without the need for a second battery and power

rail. It allows for longer operation time and better

range when used in an EV.

Challenge 3:

HiL testing

For the authentic reproduction of real-world

scenarios, all captured data must be recorded with

synchronous timestamps. ViGEM devices manage

the distribution of time via the gen-eralized

Precision Time Protocol (gPTP). gPTP, defined in

IEEE 802.1AS is a protocol used to synchronize

clocks throughout a computer network, allowing

clock accuracy in the nano-seconds range, making

it suitable for measurement and control systems. It

is used not only to synchronize multiple cascaded

CCA devices but all connected capture modules

in a dis-tributed measurement setup, where

incoming data packets get timestamped instantly

at arrival. Timestamping the data with nanosecond

resolution as close as possible to the sensor or

ECU is essential for frame-by-frame scenario

reconstruction in HIL labs.


The progress of automated driver assistance

systems and autonomous driving functions will

depend on qualification and validation processes.

The upcoming age of mobility will combine

these two emerging technologies: autonomous

driving and fully electric cars. Advancements in

the battery charge times, range, and reliability of

electric vehicles can both define and accelerate

the speed at which autonomous vehicles will be

ready for real road trips.

Bernhard Kockoth is an Advanced Development

Lead at ViGEM GmbH from Karlsruhe, Germany.

Over the past 20 years, he has worked for a

number of Tier-1s on automotive drivetrains,

infotainment, ADAS, and since 2017 in

measurement systems for automated driving. At

ViGEM, he researches technology solutions to

respond to future industry demands.

Every bit counts. Big data logging for the validation

of autonomous driving.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net






The innovation space beyond

the vehicles of today

The need for transport decarbonisation


Professor David Greenwood, Advanced Propulsion Systems lead at

WMG, University of Warwick

As we entered 2020, the automotive world was

undergoing a technology transition faster that

we have seen in the last hundred years – from

petrol powered to electric cars, which are IT

connected. Covid-19 has accelerated this, forcing

us to think carefully about why, whether and how

we travel. Home working and travel restrictions

were implemented in a matter of months. Walking

and cycling enjoyed a renaissance, mass transit

(buses and trains) were deserted and concepts like

electric scooters, previously effectively banned by

government, were pushed forward into regional trials.

We now have the opportunity to focus on a different

future. Our actions over the next three to five years

can be aligned to a 20 to 30 year vision which delivers

better air quality, zero net carbon emissions, healthier

lifestyles, profitable industries and high quality


The transport sector is pivotal to improving our

environmental and economic future. If we are to

deliver continuing economic growth for the UK, it will

be essential to develop connected, green solutions

across multiple modes of travel – from trains, planes

and cars to boats, bikes and scooters.

The UK Government’s ‘Road to Zero’ strategy sets

out a pathway for decarbonising transport and

consultation is now underway regarding banning sales

of new non-electric cars, including petrol, diesel and

hybrid vehicles from 2035.

This needs to happen at a time when the automotive

industry is least able to invest in innovation due to

the triple challenges of electrification, post-Brexit

trade rules, and a sales slump. Innovation is crucial

to bring sustainable technologies to the market at an

affordable cost and in a way, which meets all users’


Approaches to mass transit

We need to think about modal shift in a different way

– mass transit in buses, trams and trains is one way to

deliver low carbon transport, by using a heavy vehicle

to transport many people. Another is to look again

at micro-mobility - the use of smaller vehicles to

transport a single person, especially for local journeys

Statistics indicate that use of bicycles, e-bikes and

motor bikes for instance have been significantly

higher post-covid, and that some migration from

public transport to private cars is likely.


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

What is micro-mobility?

Micro-mobility is about using smaller, lighter and

more efficient vehicles to achieve short journeys. It

could include hoverboards, bikes, e-bikes, scooters,

mopeds, motorcycles and small four wheel vehicles

(like the Renault Twizy) – technically referred to as

L-Category vehicles.

For short journeys, these can be time-efficient, cost

effective and very low energy consumption, reducing

congestion and parking problems. These can be

municipal (e.g. Boris bikes) or privately owned.

Where powered, they are usually good candidates for


Cities around the world have taken very different

approaches with very different results. Some (like

San Francisco) could be likened to the “wild west”

of scooters and bikes, with thefts, littering, dumping

and road accidents – others (like Berlin) have put

regulation in place and seen the benefits of that.

There are lots of key variables to consider around

these new modes of transport, including elements

such as age restrictions, licensing, insurance, lanes

and road infrastructures, ownership and protective


Regulation in this area hasn’t kept pace with

technology and acts as a barrier. Vehicles such as

hoverboards and electric scooters are currently

classed as motor vehicles in the UK and are therefore

illegal to ride on either the road or pavement. Electric

assisted bikes are classed as bicycles, although the

difference between these and electric mopeds is

becoming more blurred.

Adopted and applied correctly, these forms of

transport could have real benefits, but played badly

we could result in safety and sustainability problems

similar to those in San Francisco.

Vehicle categories

The smallest examples of micro-mobility are selfbalancing

unicycles and hoverboards, which are

small enough to carry on a bus or into the office.

These are often first and last mile solutions in

conjunction with public transport, but currently

illegal on pavements, cycle lanes and roads in

the UK. Safe use of these could, in future, provide

last-mile transport, and increase public transport


Limited trials, on electric scooters, are currently

being carried out for people with a provisional

licence, and for rental fleets. Comparatively, France

allows usage from 12 years old and use of privately

owned scooters. Here, however, no infrastructure

was enacted and scooters should ride in the main

carriageway. Many concerns have been raised over


Bikes and e-bikes should use cycle lanes where

possible, but the state of these in the UK is

not as good as other European countries. The

surfaces are often poor, lanes are often shared

with pedestrians, and often end abruptly at road

junctions, Petrol or electric mopeds are restricted

to 28mph and can be ridden from 16 years old in

UK with a licence, basic training, insurance and a

helmet. These vehicles are not allowed on cycle

ways, and therefore must be on the road (not

motorways). Arguably such vehicles would be safer

on “cycle lanes” at speeds 30mph.

Petrol or electric motorcycles can be ridden from

17 years old in the UK with a licence, insurance and

a helmet, and can be used on a main carriageway.

Petrol or electric quadricycles require the same

licensing and insurance as a car, however the

vehicle type approval requirements, especially for

crash protection, are much lower.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 73

Water-based Thermal Management

Solutions for electric vehicles & charging stations

Powerful corrugated and smooth tubes

Form-fitting connecting elements

Space-optimized connectors


Securely lockable fixing elements

Function-integrated plug systems

with integrated sensors

Protection sleeves and pads


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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Adapting behaviours

The public response to Covid 19 has highlighted that

societal behaviours can be malleable and receptive in

ways that were previously unthinkable. Sales and use

of bikes and e-bikes have increased. Rental e-scooter

trials have been accelerated, and there are also more

electric motorcycles, with many more planned for


If sustainability through micro-mobility is technically

achievable at scale, it assumes people will continue

to adapt their daily routines. This may not always be

the case, and significant research is still required to

understand public attitudes and behaviours. If not,

we could fail to realise the benefits or worse, we could

see unintended consequences such as an increase in

injuries through traffic accidents. Questions like “how

do I look when using this” can also have as much of

an impact on uptake, as price or technical capability.

It would clearly be desirable to lock in some of the

carbon and air quality benefits we saw during the

early stages of lockdown. As we look at growing our

“cycle lane” network we have a unique opportunity

to think about how this could be used for a wider

variety of low carbon transport solutions. There is a

good argument that low speed, vulnerable vehicle

types – such as bicycles, e-bikes etc could share

a cycle lane operating at

The Rise of Electromobility

Offers Opportunity to Advance

Next Generation ADAS

Lidar-enabled ADAS is happening now,

delivering next level capabilities to protect

pedestrians, assist drivers and save lives.

Sally Frykman, VP of communications,

Velodyne Lidar, and Dieter Gabriel, marketing manager

EMEA, Velodyne Europe


The automotive industry is ever-changing. The

COVID-19 pandemic may have a lasting impact on the

way we live and work. The automotive industry could

change dramatically, accelerating innovation to meet

global needs on the roadways and in communities.

“Plunging sales could force factories to close and

lead to takeovers and mergers, but also bolster

sales of electric cars. Some automakers may emerge

stronger…The pressure to go electric could become

more intense,” writes Jack Ewing, New York Times, May

13, 2020. This in line with a recent statement from

Volkswagen that the overall situation“ is more likely to

accelerate the transition towards e-mobility because

of increased environmental and social awareness.”

If the pandemic does foster the rise of electric

vehicles, this could be a catalyst for quicker adoption

of next-generation advanced driver assistance

systems (ADAS).

The digitization of the automotive industry is being

advanced hand-in-hand with electrification. These

moves will stimulate the demand for connectivity,

shared mobility and enhanced levels of ADAS features

and autonomy.

Mobility as a service is an example of the progression

of automotive technology. Ownership, maintenance

and management of fleets through centralized

mobility or platform providers are becoming

increasingly important. This trend has the potential to

fundamentally influence or change industry business


Furthermore, connectivity of vehicles is advancing.

Functions, such as dynamic navigation based on

traffic, weather and road conditions or automatic

guidance to free parking spaces, may become easy

to implement. Buyers of modern electric cars, which

are equipped with evolving technology, are coming to

increasingly expect these features.

And now comes the crucial point: it is assumed that

as autonomous vehicles become more market-ready,

the proportion of specific electronics and software

in vehicles would or must increase, e.g. advanced

sensors or algorithms for environmental simulation.

However, this point also applies the other way

around: the rise of electric cars has the potential

to significantly pave the way for next generation

ADAS functionality. For one simple reason: consumer

demand. For customers of state-of-the-art electric

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cars, the communication and infotainment systems,

combined with safety functionality, is an important

factor. Ultimately, with such important decisionmaking

criteria in the purchasing process, the OEMs

who offer the most differentiating technologies have

an advantage.

And, when it comes to enhanced ADAS, lidar could

become the most significant catalyst to bring

functionality to the next level.

Lidar: An Ideal Safety Choice

for ADAS

Automakers can greatly improve the effectiveness and

efficiency of driver-assist features by employing lidar

as a key perception component.

A Frost & Sullivan report on driver assistance

technology observed that “unlike radar, lidar provides

much higher resolution, enabling accurate object

detection. Unlike cameras, lidar provides accurate

depth perception, with distance accuracy of a few

centimeters, making it possible to precisely localize

the position of the vehicle on the road and detect

available free space for the vehicle to navigate.”

The report also commented that lidar technology

can “offer a 360-degree horizontal field of view and

up to 40-degree vertical field of view” – capabilities

“essential for accurately locating the vehicle within its

environment and planning its driving path.” It pointed

out how lidar “can operate in poor lighting conditions,

unlike cameras, since lidars are their own light

source.” By employing lidar in night-time scenarios,

there is the potential to improve the detection and

safety of pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists

during this time.

Lidar sensors have the potential to enable

automakers to create superior ADAS, addressing

edge-cases for current approaches, including winding

roads, potholes, on/off ramps and roadways with

unclear lane markings. This functionality can be

realized in a compact form factor; for example,

directional lidar sensors can be situated behind the

vehicle’s windshield for streamlined integration,

allowing vehicles to maintain their aerodynamic


Need for Validation and

Future Standardization

developed an ever-evolving portfolio of lidar

solutions, is a thought-leader in safety. The company

is actively advocating for autonomous solutions.

Velodyne envisions the automotive community

pulling together to identify lidar requirements and

standardize how to address them. The goal is to have

lidar products undergo testing and validation based

on the standards early in their product lifecycle

with the results available to automakers and Tier 1


As lidar sensors become more widespread in vehicle

deployment, there has been a call within the industry

to identify requirements and methods for lidar sensor

testing and validation.

Misleading reports and information have been

published about the precision, accuracy and range of

lidar sensors. To be of value to automakers, all lidar

sensors should be assessed by the same gauge.

Velodyne Lidar, an industry pioneer that has

Lidar Takes ADAS to the

Next Level

As electromobility advances, the potential of nextlevel

ADAS can too. Automakers will continue to

make customer safety a priority as they roll out

autonomy and ADAS. Employing lidar, along with a few

inexpensive cameras, is a revolutionary approach to

safety. It enables vehicles to detect and avoid objects

in a range of environmental conditions and roadway


Lidar-powered ADAS is happening now, delivering

next level capabilities to protect road users, assist

drivers and save lives.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


The smart

battery innovation



A pioneering innovative technology

for a more sustainable and efficient

EV battery production



battery cell


with less

overall energy


bears various



for mass


Ralf Hock

IP PowerSystems GmbH

E-mobility is one of the most prominent

issues of our time as it can solve many

of the occurring world problems like

environment pollutionand climate

change. Still, electric vehicles remain

a niche market. The main obstacles to

boost an e-mobility revolution lie in

the high costs and the environmental

impact, i.e. the sustainability of the Liion

battery cells. So, innovative materials

and processes receive continuously

increasing attention to lower production

costs and to enable a “greener” battery


A major ecological and economic

problem is the energy consumption

to create a moisture-free atmosphere

necessary for cell production for the

protection of the moisture-sensitive

electrolyte and electrode materials.

Large dry rooms consuming high

operating costs are hardly to avoid.

After extensive research one company

has developed a new and efficient

solution to overcome this unfavourable


In the town of Coswig, northwest of

Dresden Germany, IP PowerSystems

GmbH develops processes and designs

machines which offer efficient and

ecologically advantageous solutions

for the automated and sustainable

production of lithium-ion battery

cells. Here, Ralf Hock, managing

director of IP PowerSystems GmbH,

explains a pioneering technology that

he is convinced will lower costs and

the carbon footprint for EV battery


As a result of the company’s extensive

R&D efforts, an innovative technology

arose with the aim of finding an effective

and environment-friendly alternative to

the conventional production of Li-ion

battery cells.

The result of which enables electrolyte

filling at ambient atmosphere without

a dry room, a process which has not

been possible until now. This novel

“Method for producing electrolyte

pouch cells for electric battery

arrangements, corresponding device

and electrolyte pouch cells“, is patented

with international application number

WO 2016/198145 A1. It includes a new

production process starting with the cell

assembly and final sealing before the

filling step.

The assembly of the cell components –

i.e. the electrode-separator-stack with

welded-on tabs and the pouch foil – is

completed similar to conventional

production. Additionally, closed filling

plugs – so called ports – are integrated

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within the seam of the pouch cell

for the sealing process, which can be

performed in a dry microenvironment.

The sealing machine executes the

complete and hermetical sealing of the

cell. Due to this pioneering technology

no special dry/clean atmosphere is

needed for the next steps in process.

Subsequently, the hermetically sealed,

dry pouch cell is transported to the

filling without the need for a dry room.

The number and position of ports are

adapted to the required cell size and

electrolyte quantity. Access into the

cell is realised by penetration of one

or multiple ports by dosing needles.

The needles are specially designed to

enable vacuuming and filling of the cell

with the same needle. Both process

steps can be realised by one or multiple

needles. Due to the flexibility in filling,

the wetting of the electrode surface with

electrolyte can be improved.

The wetting of the electrode surface,

especially wetting of the large pore

surface of the electrochemically active

electrode material, is one of the crucial

bottleneck steps and can take up to

48hs. Due to the novel technology of

IP PowerSystems GmbH, this process

can be accelerated by fast spreading of

the electrolyte within the cell and by

adjustment of temperature as well as


In the conventional production process

the filling is typically done in a vacuum

chamber. Such is not required in the

filling machine of IP PowerSystems

GmbH. Here, the filling under standard

pressure facilitates a pressure difference

between inside (vacuum) and outside

(standard pressure) of the cell leading

to faster wetting. The technology also

provides the opportunity to reduce

process time and hence production


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Directly after filling, the ports are sealed off by sealing

clamp jaws. Thus, the cell is hermetically closed at any

time. In addition, the contaminated sealing seam is

minimised resulting in reduced negative effects on the

battery´s lifetime.

The formation gas, which is generated during the

activation/formation process, can be extracted by

the degassing machine utilising port and dosing

needle. The degassing can be accomplished in one

step after the formation or continuously during

the formation. The latter is another novel, patentpending

technology by IP PowerSystems GmbH. This

eliminates the need for conventionally used gas bags

for the collection of formation gas. These gas bags are

typically contaminated with electrolyte resulting in

high disposing costs and efforts as hazardous waste.

The process flexibility is granted for all required

process conditions. The requirements and conditions

were determined in collaboration with OEMs,

manufacturers for niche products and research

institutes. This also includes the format flexibility.

All existing pouch cell formats can be produced on

the machines based on this innovative technology.

The company provides equipment for cell production

from sample quantity up to mass production covering

niche applications as well as mass applications.

IP PowerSystems GmbH not only has different

technologies for electrolyte filling of pouch cells but

also has further significant developments for the

sustainable and automated production of cylindrical

and prismatic cells.

Automation of cell manufacturing can make a

substantial contribution to a lower overall energy

consumption of the Li-ion battery cell production.

A flexible and module-based automation system to

efficiently optimise the complete cell production is

Robo Automation Kit, which has been developed by

the company. The Robo Automation Kit is a flexible,

universally applicable automation kit in which various

modules can be combined and existing machines

and production lines can be easily integrated. If

required, the modules can be re-combined to form a

new solution allowing a flexible process adaption of

production lines for pouch, prismatic and cylindrical


The modules of Robo Automation Kit consist of the

same Basic Unit with integrated switch and control

cabinet. Due to its very small size, it fits in any

Pilot Sealing Machine

Pilot Filling Machine

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Pilot Filling Machine

Robo Automation Kit

place of an existing production. With the camera

image recognition system and the menu-supported

sequence control, no robot programming knowledge

is required.

Existing machines of a cell manufacture can be easily

automated by Robo Operator® for a production

line. Robo Operator® is a self-working, mobile and

flexible automation solution for operating and

handling different kind of production machines.

Neither mechanical connection to the production

machine nor data exchange interface is required. An

employee without special robot setup knowledge

can commission Robo Operator® on the intended

machine within a very short time, so that Robo

Operator® can work completely on its own without

intervention or supervision. Eventually, the vision of

flexible production becomes reality.

In collaboration with research institutes, it is planned

to equip Robo Automation Kit and Robo Operator®

with AI and machine learning in order to be able to

react flexibly to new circumstances or disruptions in

the process chain. The method of machine learning

has numerous advantageous aspects in predictive

maintenance and predictive process control to reduce

ramp-up time.

In summary, a “greener” and more efficient Li-ion

cell production can be reached by the innovative

technologies and developments of IP PowerSystems.

Sustainable Li-ion battery cell production with less

overall energy consumption bears various advantages,

especially for mass production.

The filling without dry room results in considerably

reduced expenses, energy consumption and carbon

footprint. Due to the elimination of the gas bag,

no excessive amount of pouch foil is required and

costs as well as effort for the disposal are reduced

contributing to a sustainable cell production.

Accessibility of different filling strategies allows for

the acceleration of the wetting procedure, one of the

crucial bottleneck steps.

Lower overall energy consumption and thus,

further enhancement in production efficiency can

further be accomplished by automation of the cell

manufacturing, e.g. with the help of Robo Automation

Kit and Robo Operator®. The modules of this

flexible construction kit can be easily combined and

recombined to achieve flexible production lines for

pouch, prismatic and cylindrical cells.

“Thanks to the company’s new developments and its

special expertise we are able to play a big part in our

customers’ success. We are convinced, the use of our

pioneering technologies will pave the way towards the

e-mobility revolution.” Ralf Hock concluded.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 81



Next-Generation Vehicle

Technology with 5G

Peter Stoker, Chief Engineer – Connected and Autonomous

Vehicle at Millbrook, lifts the lid on the 5G testbed for

transport at Millbrook and the ground-breaking work

enabled by the AutoAir project.

The 5G testbed for transport at Millbrook Proving

Ground, launched last year as the AutoAir project, is

a private, fully operational high-speed mobile data

network. It was installed to support the development,

testing and validation of connected and self-driving


As the first network of its kind in the UK, AutoAir really

is leading the charge when it comes to innovation.

Not only is it supporting developers of connected

and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) and associated

technologies, it is also helping to position the UK

automotive industry as a leader in global CAV and

driverless vehicle technology development.

Before we dive too far into the use cases being

explored and the impact that AutoAir is already

having on future technology and transport

infrastructure, it is important to first understand the

origins of the testbed.

In 2017, the UK government Department of Digital,

Culture, Media and Sport called for the establishment

of 5G vertical sector testbeds and trials. The AutoAir

consortium, led by Airspan, which brings together

leading lights from the mobile communications and

transport sectors, was formed in response to call to


The testbed is the only accelerated development

programme for 5G technology based on small cells

that operate on a neutral host. This makes it a truly

unique set up. It allows multiple public and private

mobile network operators (MNOs) to simultaneously

use the same infrastructure using network slicing,

which can radically improve the economics for 5G


As part of the project, the consortium set up 60GHz

mmWave mesh radio between small cell sites to

connect them to the core network (“backhaul”). This

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

has enabled the consortium to compare this with the

costs of deploying fibre. The testbed itself consists

of 89 radios, covering 2.3, 3.5, 3.7GHz 4G and 5G

spectrum, 60GHz mmWave mesh and 70GHz highspeed

vehicle-to-infrastructure links. 59 masts were

fitted around Millbrook, linked by 30km of power lines

and fibre cabling.

The AutoAir testbed has already yielded significant

insight. For instance, it’s provided clarity as to how

MNOs, vehicle manufacturers, governments and

transport operators could harness neutrally hosted 5G

and mmWave spectrum networks in the future for a

more cost-effective and connected mobility.

AutoAir’s innovative proposition is a wholesale access

neutral host hyper-dense small cell deployment

model for transport corridors. It provides a single,

shared infrastructure set across multiple MNOs.

This makes mobile services on transport corridors

more attractive for mobile operators and end users,

unlocking a multitude of possibilities.

For example, in the UK, all four existing MNOs would

be able to share the same physical network. In

addition, other organisations, such as emergency

services, road maintenance firms and vehicle

manufacturers would be able to run their own private

networks on the same shared infrastructure at a

fraction of the cost of deploying their own physical


It should be evident that the fledgling stages of the

AutoAir testbed were more concerned with transport

infrastructure. The reality, though, is that the AutoAir

testbed has only really begun to scratch the surface of

how 5G technology might be harnessed more widely

in the automotive sector.

That is why it is exciting, and hugely important,

that the AutoAir testbed is now being operated on

a commercial basis. This gives CAV developers the

ability to really push the network to its limits and

make significant advances in their technology.

Millbrook’s unique environment provides an

unrivalled location in which to do this. For instance,

developers can simulate weak and strong cell signals

and understand the impact of hills and other terrain

in a single location, while having access to all data

generated during testing. They can also create

virtual events using augmented and virtual reality

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


for vehicles on its allowing them to test complex

scenarios that simply would not be practical, or safe,

on public roads.

As a result, a variety of organisations, working on

a myriad of uses-cases, are already exploring the

capabilities of the 5G network. One particularly

interesting, and potentially lifesaving, trial that was

successfully run courtesy of AutoAir was the “Smart

Ambulance” trial with the East of England NHS.

This pioneering project involved equipping a

standard ambulance with state-of-the-art devices

and connectivity to create a Smart Ambulance that

simulated 5G connectivity. The ambulance was

transformed into a unique remote consultation room,

able to relay a live video stream to a remote team –

potentially saving the time needed to save a life.

And that’s just one example of how the super-fast

data transfer afforded by 5G might shape our futures

on the road.

Indeed, the 5G testbed at Millbrook is also enabling

CAV developers to expedite the testing and

development of new infotainment and multimedia

technologies. As was demonstrated with the Smart

Ambulance trial, 5G facilitates vehicle-to-vehicle (or

vehicle-to-remote location) communication in realtime.

But that’s just the tip of the iceberg. This new

level of connectivity enables over-the-air software

updates in real-time, as well as delay-free video and

music streaming, real-time map downloads and more.

Looking beyond road transport, one area explored

is that of high-speed rail. Trials were done on the

mmWave network, installed by Blu Wireless as part

of Autoair, with a view to improving the passenger

experience. How often has connectivity on the rail

network delayed communication, broken voice calls,

and interrupted data? The challenge was to see how

effective the deployment of mmWave trackside could

be. Using the High-Speed Circuit at Millbrook for

the work, Blu Wireless, in partnership with McLaren

Applied fitted a vehicle with a train antenna system

and drove at up to 160mph, whilst streaming data to

and from the vehicle. The results were impressive – a

steady 1.6GBps, peaking at 3GBps. Work continues to

evolve, now looking at infrastructure installations in

remote areas – where there may not be ready access

to power and fibre.

This new age of connectivity and autonomy is not

without its pitfalls. One of the biggest areas of

concern in relation to connected and autonomous

cars has always been cyber security. With enormous

amounts of data being transferred in real-time from

vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to infrastructure and

beyond, there is little wonder there are concerns over

hacking and privacy.

The UK Government in the form of the Centre for

Connected and Autonomous Vehicles ran a feasibility

study competition in 2019/20, looking at the threats

to vehicle networks. As a direct result of the Autoair

testbed, Millbrook was a partner in a consortium

with industry experts Cisco, Telefonica and Warwick

Manufacturing Group, looking at the challenges,

mitigations and regulatory futures in cyber. This could

well pave the way to the creation of bespoke CAV

Cyber test facilities in the future, equipping the UK at

the forefront of this important area.

There is, however, much

more work to be done.

The achievements and findings of the AutoAir testbed

so far are fundamental steps towards enabling key

5G use cases for CAVs and other transport solutions.

The project is also a prime example of why working

at Millbrook is so rewarding. Having the opportunity

to be ‘in the room’ when cutting-edge technology

solutions that could change the future of mobility are

being devised and tested is a real privilege. While the

AutoAir testbed is, in every respect, a collaborative

team effort, I feel a certain amount of pride that it’s

our Bedfordshire proving ground that is home to the


The final point I’d like to impart is this: the AutoAir

testbed will not be a snapshot in time in the

development of CAVs, the associated technology and

the wider infrastructure. Instead, the testbed will be

updated with the latest technology as it nears market

reality, and is set to serve the industry as a national

standard for many years to come.

Peter Stoker, Chief Engineer – Connected and Autonomous

Vehicle at Millbrook.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020




ViGEM is your powerful partner

for qualifying and validating

ADAS and autonomous driving.

Contact us to discuss your custom solution!

ViGEM GmbH, sales@vigem.de, www.vigem.de



Signed, sealed, delivered

Signed, sealed, delivered

Whether it’s electric compressors, lithium-ion batteries

and supercapacitors, or solid-state batteries, the use of

glass in EVs now goes way beyond the windscreen

The heart of air con

Glass is a key component of electric

compressor seals, the tiny bonds that are at

the heart of all air conditioning systems in

EVs, and without them the cabin temperature

would quickly rise, along with the tempers and

safety of the passengers. Studies have shown

that road safety is at great risk if drivers suffer

from temperatures beyond the 30-degree

mark, while air conditioning also protects the

driver and passengers from air pollutants since

substances such as dust are removed along

with humidity.

On the outside, an EV appears the definition

of calm – an oasis of silence. But under the

bonnet it’s a different story. High pressure,

high voltage, high humidity and high

temperature make it a harsh environment for

small components. The electric compressor

seal not only has to cope with the extreme

pressure of the refrigerant, but the vibration

of the engine, remaining fully gas-tight and

insulated over a long period of time. Glass-tometal

sealing (GTMS) provides all that, with the

potential to do more.

Developed by German technical glass maker

SCHOTT about 80 years ago, the first hermetic

glass-to-metal seals were used in radios

and the emerging TV market, providing an

effective bond between the two materials for

tube amplifiers. SCHOTT continued to work

on the technology, developing compressor

seals for refrigerators in 1957, vastly improving

their efficiency. In more recent years, the

company started to apply its GTMS experience

to improve the effectiveness of automotive

electric compressors, with the EV market a

major focus.

“When you think about the robustness of

a glass-to-metal seal, it’s very important

to select the material combinations very

carefully,” explains Yasuo Tsukada, Sales

Manager for Electric Compressor Terminals at

SCHOTT. “One of our USPs is that we have the


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

longest experience and the broadest portfolio when it

comes to product range and the number of industries

that we serve, enabling us to develop perfectly

optimized components.”

Here comes the

science bit

In compressor applications, the effectiveness

of glass-to-metal seals relies on ‘compression

sealing’ and therefore the high compressive

strength of glass and the relative coefficients of

thermal expansion (CTE) of the glass and metal.

Choosing an outer metal housing that has a CTE

that’s much higher than that of the glass and

the conductor pins results in the metal housing

shrinking firmly onto the glass during cooling

to create a hermetic seal. This gas-tight seal

is mechanically strong, virtually impervious to

gases, and provides high electrical insulation.

Glass-to-metal seals aren’t just used in air

conditioning. They are so strong and pressureresistant

that they are also used as connectors

in oil and gas exploration equipment, electrical

terminals for cryogenic pumps for liquefied

natural gas vessels, and even as containment

penetrations for nuclear power plants.

“A key advantage of glass-to-metal seals is that

they are manufactured using purely inorganic

materials,” Yasuo Tsukada continues. “In comparison

to non-hermetic, organic polymer seals for example,

glass is non-aging, highly resilient to mechanical

stress, high pressure and temperature cycling. It is

also resistant to aggressive and potentially corrosive


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net 87


High voltage challenge

The development of electric compressors and their

seals is moving as quickly as the development of

all other EV technology – and that includes power.

There’s little doubt that to increase endurance

and performance while decreasing charging time,

the voltages involved in EVs have to go higher,

which makes life more challenging for component

manufacturers whose products need to increase

their electrical insulation to match.

Three types of compressor terminals:

1. Ceramic insulation

In high-voltage systems, the operating voltage from

the drive battery is often above 200V, reaching 500V

for particularly powerful batteries. Some OEMs even

use 800V systems. This level of electrical power

places huge demands on the electrical insulation

of the car’s components, with compressor seals and

feedthrough terminals particularly challenging for

the automotive industry.

2. Extended sealing glass insulation

SCHOTT have responded to this challenge by

developing a GTMS solution that incorporates

rubber. While glass provides the physical

connection, rubber increases insulation and

prevents condensation, which would shorten

the creepage path and encourage sparkover.

“After conducting an extensive series of tests,

our engineers have found the ideal combination

of materials,” explains SCHOTT R&D Manager

Akira Fujioka. “The elastic components make the

connection much more reliable and durable.

3. Rubber insulation

Cross section of compressor

with the compressor terminal.

88 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

The next generation of seals

The effectiveness and reliability of glass-to-metal

sealing means it has a wider range of EV applications

than air conditioning, and SCHOTT is the first company

in the world to successfully create a permanently

tight connection between glass and aluminium. These

hermetic glass-to-aluminium seals (SCHOTT GTAS®) are

designed to eliminate moisture intrusion and electrolyte

dry-out by using an inorganic, non-aging

glass seal.

SCHOTT now offers lithium-ion battery lids with glassaluminum

sealed terminals that prevent humidity

intrusion into the cell housing. These rugged, gas-tight

designs are simpler than conventional lid designs and

can significantly enhance both safety and the service

life of the battery.

The technology can also be used with supercapacitors

and Electric Double Layer Capacitors. The gas-tight lids

offer a reduction of capacity losses over time by up to

60%, enabling capacitor developers to design smaller

capacitors with long operating lives. Similar in structure

to lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors can store and

release large amounts of energy in much less time,

recharging electric cars in minutes and supporting startstop


A solid future

Lithium-ion batteries are the most common source of

power for EVs, but the technology behind solid-state

batteries is promising to overcome the limits of today’s

battery cells. It’s estimated that solid-state batteries

could shorten charging times, increase reliability and

extend the range of EVs above 300km – a significant

increase and one that could finally fulfil the wishes of

the drivers.

But while lithium-ion batteries use liquid electrolytes

for ion conduction, solid-state batteries use solid forms,

enabling the use of alternative electrode materials.

Since energy density is increased, storage capacity

is pushed up, which increases the amount of energy

available on a single charge. Key to the success of

solid-state batteries are glass-ceramic powders. Used

as an electrolyte, they show high levels of conductivity,

plus temperature and chemical stability – the ideal

properties for a high-performance battery.

“Our team is in the process of further developing these

materials and their production on an industrial scale

to achieve the best possible performance,” says Dr

Andreas Roters, one of SCHOTT’s leading scientists.

“We have been working with solid-state batteries

since 2011, when hardly anyone in Europe spoke of

them. We are now involved in a variety of cooperation

and development projects, and have built up a global

network of partners with contacts to leading industrial

manufacturers and suppliers.”


Heart of glass

Whether it’s electric compressors,

lithium-ion batteries and

supercapacitors, or solid-state

batteries, the use of glass in EVs now

goes way beyond the windscreen. It

has a major role in the development

of technology that will define the

future of the sector, pushing it

forward to fulfil its huge potential.

That’s great news for manufacturers,

the environment, and, most

importantly, people. “Glass may be

one of the world’s oldest materials,

but it has a crucial role to play in our

future,” Dr. Roters concludes.


SCHOTT GTAS Lid Systems for Capacitors


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net




Adhesives and Sealants in

Battery and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

When I was a child, I used to see battery-powered milk floats trundling along

at 15mph, holding up the traffic. How things have changed! Battery-powered

sportscars are now zipping up and down the motorways and autobahns. Battery

technology has moved on in leaps and bounds to make it a practical, economical

and viable everyday driving solution for the modern-day motorist - whilst also

helping cut emissions to improve local air quality.

About the Author:

Rebecca Wilmot 20

years at Permabond,

starting in the

laboratory, technical

service department,

and now on the

business, sales,

and marketing

management side of

activities. She loves

the adhesive industry

and finds the diversity

of applications,

markets, and products


Key areas of focus for battery development include:

• Efficiency and size

• Increased power output

• Speed of charging

• Cost of materials

• Safety

Whilst the whizz-kids are revolutionising batteries;materials suppliers are having

to up-the-stakes with their offerings to the industry. For adhesives manufacturers,

this means developing products that combine some quite specific features:

#1 in this season’s must-haves

is thermally conductive adhesive.

Batteries get extremely hot whilst

charging, the demand is to charge

as quickly as possible, which tends

to exacerbate the situation, so it is

essential to dissipate heat away from

battery cells quickly and effectively.

Battery cells are arranged in modules

which make up the battery pack (the

large unit normally concealed under the

floor in electric cars). The need to keep

the battery size as small, yet efficient as

possible, means tightly stacking battery

cells - increasing the temperature

within the battery module. Heat needs

driving away from the battery cells,

so they are potted with thermally

conductive adhesive.

The modules sit on top of a heat sink,

to maximise heat transfer, a thermally

conductive adhesive is used to bond

them in place. The adhesive also

couples as a way of absorbing shock

and vibration whilst driving to prevent

damage to sensitive components.

Inclusion of thermally conductive

fillers into adhesives can affect other

properties, for example, viscosity. It

is all very well asking for an adhesive

with the maximum thermal conductivity

possible, but can you dispense the

material is the question?! High levels

of thermally conductive filler material

render the adhesive virtually solid and

unable to be mixed or extruded easily.

90 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Ability to cope with expansion and


Battery cells and other components expand and

contract significantly as they heat up and cool

down; there is also the issue of sudden temperature

changes or “thermal shock.” Adhesives and sealants

are used around the cells to hold them in place and

need to have some flexibility to cope with expansion

and contraction without inducing stress onto the

components or cracking off. Different materials

expand and contract at different rates, this is more

evident with larger components, so choosing an

adhesive with a degree of flexibility and optimising

the glue line thickness will help cope with the stress

of differential expansion and contraction without

debonding or causing damage to the parts.

Graph showing how the % content of metal oxide filler affects

thermal conductivity and viscosity of adhesive material.

Electrical resistance.

It is important that whilst the adhesive is thermally

conductive, it must also be electrically nonconductive.

Otherwise there will be short circuits

galore and a car full of frazzled occupants going

nowhere. A high dielectric strength is essential

(dielectric strength is the maximum electrical field a

material can withstand before it becomes conductive).

Another benefit of using adhesives for sealing battery

housings is that they provide a 100% seal against

moisture ingress, and potting adhesives surrounding

the cells and other electrical components prevent

contamination and possible malfunction.


Non-burning, fire retardant adhesives help to

maximise vehicle safety. Fire retardant fillers can

be combined into the adhesive formulation, and

these are often thermally conductive as well - so can

kill two birds with one stone! These fillers are selfextinguishing

– so if you try to set fire to the material

and take the flame away, the fire does not propagate

along the adhesive layer, and the flame dies out.

Using toughened adhesives in the construction of

battery packs helps absorb impact forces, reducing

the level of damage to the battery during a collision.

Toughened adhesives also help to protect the battery

pack against the shocks and vibrations experienced

when driving; they can also help with sound

deadening for improved passenger comfort.

Production considerations.

There is no point in having a new technically

advanced innovative adhesive that lacks practicality

on a production line. Battery production is big

business and getting bigger by the day as EV

popularity and demand increases, so it is essential

that the adhesive selected can lend itself to

automatic dispensing and have a cure schedule that

optimises production throughput and efficiency.

Two-part adhesives may need metered dosing and

mixing before dispensing onto parts, single-part

adhesives may require an oven or UV lamp to cure the

adhesive. Solvent-based products or other hazardous

chemicals may no longer be allowed in the workplace,

or less hazardous products preferred for easier


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020


Capital expenditure costs of implementing adhesive

on a production line vary depending on the level

of automation required and sophistication of the

equipment. It is possible to use adhesives for

minimum outlaye.ghandheld dispensing guns.

Overheads will vary according to the amount of

space required and cost of running and maintaining

equipment. Adhesive products themselves,

considering the amount of adhesive used per battery,

will come under ongoing cost scrutiny. It is interesting

to note, the level of thermally conductive filler and

the nature of the filler is the main cost driver for

thermally conductive adhesives.

Higher levels of thermal conductivity can be achieved

with different, more expensive fillers, but dielectric

strength can be affected, with materials becoming

electrically conductive – for some applications, this

is great, but in the case of high voltage batteries for

Graph showing how the cost is relational to conductive

filler content (metal oxide).

electric vehicles, probably not so desirable!

Where are adhesives and sealants used?

• Encapsulation or potting of battery cells

• Bonding cells into modules

• Bonding modules to cooling plate / heat sink

• Gasketing and sealing the battery pack

• Encapsulation and potting of other sensitive

electronic components

• Potting of connectors and sealing pyrotechnic

disconnect units

As well as battery bonding, high performance

adhesives are also used for electric motor bonding –

bonding magnets to rotors, magnets to stators, and

sealing motor housing. Motors are often requiring

adhesives to withstand 180-220°C as well as rigorous

impact and thermal shock testing. In the event of an

accident, a pyrotechnic disconnect unit detonates to

release the battery system

to help prevent fire and

electrocution, adhesives

are used to secure and

pot connectors as well

as seal and protect units.

Friable adhesives can

be used to secure the

explosive charge, similar

to those found in airbag

detonation devices.

“ Here at Permabond

we have a portfolio of

special developments

combining high

thermal conductivity,

fire retardancy,

toughening, and

also adhesives with


resistance. We have a

long and impressive

history of supplying

adhesives to the

automotive industry

worldwide, with many

products specified by

leading automotive

manufacturers and Tier

1 automotive suppliers,

who insist on high

quality cutting-edge

products. Bespoke

formulations can be

developed to meet

our customers exact

requirements, helping

them to achieve

production savings and

performance benefits. ”

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net




Long term stability of

Thermal Interface Materials

Recently, there has been a strong and increasing

demand for innovative manufacturing concepts for

electric and hybrid vehicle batteries. The design

of a battery system from lithium-ion cells presents

special challenges to thermal management. As the

performance and durability of the cells depend

strongly on the temperature of their environment,

the thermal management system has to care for an

efficient dissipation of the heat losses, as well as

for the heat supply in case the batteries are cold.

In operation, heat is generated when the system is

being discharged due to accelerating, but also when

charged at the charging station or during recuperation

of braking energy.

Heat delivery and dissipation can be provided

in various ways. Liquid-cooled systems have

heat exchangers joined to the cells where the

cooling medium absorbs the heat and conveys it

to an external chiller. The heat transfer is mostly

accomplished directly from the cells into a cooled

baseplate, where Thermal Interface Materials

(TIMs) ensure an optimal thermal connection of

the components and compensate for dimensional


Structural thermally conductive adhesives ensure

both mechanical and thermal connection. They are

used to bond prismatic (hard case) cells to coolers

or housings or to attach external chillers to frames

holding the individual cells, e.g. in hybrid or 48V


Fig 1: Cell Bonding.

Fig 2: Gapfiller injection.

Removable TIMs such as single component non-curing

conductive pastes or curing gap fillers are designed

to provide thermal connection only, while cells or

modules are fixed mechanically to the cooler or a

battery tray. They thus allow for repair concepts when

individual modules need to be replaced.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Fig. 3: Chemical and physical factors responsible for

ageing and their impact on composite materials.

Typically, TIMs are dispensed on one of the

components prior to assembling. However, more

recent assembly processes require TIMs that can be

injected into the resulting gap after cell-modules have

been attached to the cooling system.

Independent of the nature of the respective TIM,

they are all composites made up of two or more

components. Since the organic matrix, predominantly

a polymer or liquid, generally has a low thermal

conductivity of about 0.1 to 0.5 W/mK, it is

complemented with thermally conductive fillers such

as metal oxides or nitrides. This type of composite

thus combines the advantages of the polymers such

as low weight, good processability, and corrosion

resistance, with the thermal conductivity provided

by the inorganic fillers. The resulting thermal

conductivity of a composite material can reach

between appr. 1 and 5 W/mK and is a function of

the different thermal conductivities and the volume

fractions of both matrix and filler.

A key risk factor in the development of thermal

interface systems is the need to provide the material

with sufficient thermal and mechanical stability to

maintain its function when used in a battery during

the vehicle lifetime of 10 – 15 years. TIMs are exposed

to manifold operating conditions and environmental

impacts during their service life. Both physical and

chemical ageing processes may occur (Fig.3).

In real-life operation the influencing factors and

ageing mechanisms are complex. During vehicle

use, the material is simultaneously subject to

increased temperatures, temperature changes, shock/

vibration, mechanical stress and load changes as

well as exposure to environmental media such as

atmospheric oxygen or air humidity. Moreover, the TIM

must be compatible with the common construction

materials used in batteries, like steel, aluminum, and

various polymers and coatings, where no interactions

or alterations of both the components and the TIM are


In order to advance research and development of

new materials, it is essential to simulate real-time

ageing processes with the aid of laboratory tests in

a timely manner. The aim of carrying out accelerated

stress tests is to simulate the real loads in continuous

operation as best as possible. The estimated

conditions in the battery over lifetime will determine

the selection of appropriate accelerated ageing tests.

Common methods of accelerated ageing include high

temperature storage (HTS), temperature cycling or

shock (TC), climatic storage, alternating climate test,

power cycling (PC), and various mechanical tests

like vibration or shock tests. The evaluation of the

tests is based on monitoring of parameters like the

visual appearance, thermal conductivity, thermal

or electrical resistance, thermal mass loss, oil or

plasticizer separation, mechanical characteristics or

rheological properties (complex viscosity, yield point,


High Temperature Storage

In high temperature storage, the thermal stress upon

the material is simulated. By using high, constant

temperatures, the aging of a material is accelerated,

which in turn allows for a prediction of lifetime,

provided that there is a uniform reaction kinetics. A

respective industrial standard series is ISO 60216/

DIN EN 60216, which is designed to estimate thermal

degradation of electrical insulating materials. Here

the relative temperature index (RTI) represents the

numerical value of the temperature corresponding

to the time where a selected property reaches a

predetermined limit.

Temperature Cycling

In contrast to the constant temperature load when

performing high temperature storage, a temperature

profile is applied during the cycle tests. Respective

industrial standards are known from semiconductor

testing and can be applied to TIMs. This procedure

simulates changing environmental temperatures as

well as temperature variations due to charging and

discharging processes in batteries. A distinction is

made between slow and continuous temperature

changes in contrast to rapid temperature shocks

where the change between high and low temperature,

e.g., +80 °C and -40 °C, takes place within a very short

time after a defined holding time.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Learn more about TLX’s new discrete proportional

technology at tlxtech.com/dpv

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Climatic Storage/Alternating

Climate Test

Some stress tests feature a combination of

temperature and humidity (damp-heat) storage. This

type of highly accelerated temperature and humidity

stress test (HAST) puts extraordinary stress upon

the components. Depending on the conditions, a

failure can be brought about already after a few

days. There are also combinations of temperature

cycling and humidity storage called alternating

climate test. An extremely accelerated ageing, as with

this load combination, is important for the efficient

development of new material systems.

Power Cycling

The power cycling test is the most realistic but also

the most elaborate stress test. Here, the stress is

simulated not only by a temperature profile, but by

applying operating conditions, such as the charging

and discharging of a battery. In contrast to passive/

external temperature changes, the temperature

change is actively effected by electrical heat output,

which is introduced directly into the experimental

setup. Very high numbers of cycles are feasible

using this test. As a result, the influence of the

parameter changes occurring during operation, such

as temperature, gap width or air humidity, can be

properly simulated. Power cycling can be carried

out even under difficult conditions such as extreme

temperature, abrupt temperature change or high

relative humidity.

Vibration Testing

By vibration of the engine or interaction of the vehicle

with the road in operation, almost all components of

an automobile constantly subject to vibration. This

type of stress can be simulated in a vibration test

bench by setting certain vibration frequencies. There

are respective industrial standards for components in

general but also especially designed for EV batteries.

Fig. 4: Thermal resistivity of gap filler vs. no. of power cycles.

Complex/Combined Testing

As described above, overall lifetime prediction of

TIMs used in EV batteries is complex.

Only a combination of accelerated ageing tests such

as climate storage (HAST), temperature change (TC)

and high-temperature storage (HTS) may provide

reliable information for the long-term assessment of


Test procedures and respective boundary conditions

have to be selected, which give a reasonable

representation of the environment found in the

battery, and which can be suitably amplified in order

to accomplish accelerated ageing

However, also, the dimensions and level of testing

play a crucial role in evaluating the results. Where

a certain material may survive in small test setups,

when it comes to large samples the thermal

expansion may lead to additional voiding or cracking.

Gravity effects may play a role in samples that

are inclined according to parking in steep terrain,

which won’t be detected in samples that are stored

horizontally. Hence, it is necessary to find evaluation

criteria to assess the scaling of degradation and

ageing effects from laboratory samples into real-life

sized setups.

“ Here at Polytec PT we have developed a comprehensive range of TIMs, designed for different battery types, assembly

processes and performance requirements.

As an ISO 9001:2015 certified company, our production processes are well documented and the compliance of our

employees with these production processes are regularly reviewed.

Every batch of our finished product is tested to ensure compliance with standard or customized specifications. Our test

lab is well equipped for measuring rheological behavior, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties and the stability

of our TIMs under exposure to various environmental conditions. ” Ralf Stadler, R&D, Polytec PT

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net




How to get rid of the weakest link

Creating a cost- and quality-optimized battery value

chain in Europe

Alexander Schweighofer, Business Development Manger LIB

Electric and hybrid vehicles offer a great potential

to meet the social challenges of future mobility in

a sustainable manner. Here, the lithium-ion battery

plays a key rolenow. The cell technology enables high

ranges of electric vehicles while at the same time

providing attractive driving dynamics, which makes

the new vehicles attractive for the customer.

Battery systems of hybrid vehicles include up to a

hundred lithium-ion cells, depending on the range

required to drive the vehicle electrically and the

capacity of the cells. Several thousands of cells can

be installed in pure electric vehicles. As a cell format,

three different lithium-ion cells have prevailed:

cylindrical, pouch and prismatic cells. Depending on

the electrical connection of the cells and the available

space, several lithium-ion cells are installed by

contacting to a battery module. These subunits offer

advantages in handling and mounting the battery

system. Battery modules are

then merged into a high-voltage

battery pack and integrated into a battery system.

According to the current state of knowledge, the

assembly of E-Mobility modules and packs is done

on automatic or semi-automatic chained production


The module feeding, the module test, the module

installation into the battery housing and the module

screwing are automated. All other production steps

such as cooling systems, cabling, pre-assembly of

plugs or venting elements as well as installation of

coolant distributors or seals are carried out at manual


The module production has a higher degree of

automation but is also carried out on state-of-the-art

chained production lines. The printed circuit boards

98 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

and wiring harness are usually assembled manually

here. There is a lot of catching up to do in series

production, but also in the prototype and small series


Conventional production lines have various


1. high change-over times

2. low flexibility

3. small variety of product variants which can be


4. no shared used of processes between different

chained assembly lines possible

5. in the event of an accident/unexpected break

down of a machine part in a chained production

line will causes the shutdown of the entire

production line.

In general, as with a chain, a production line is only

as strong as its weakest link. The slowest machine in

the production line therefore specifies the maximum

production cycle/output. To compensate for different

cycle times on different production lines, small

intermediate storage (buffers) must be set up at the

ends. Not only does their use cause time delays; from

the logistics sector, it is well known that storage costs

must be avoided.

Due to the ever-increasing demand for high-voltage

batteries and the associated high number of cells

installed in electric and hybrid vehicles, automated

and highest flexible manufacturing processes with

short process times and high process reliability are


Data handling and processing are one of the most

important parts in the battery systems value chain

to increase quality and safety for the customers and

to decrease battery cost via smart solutions. Those

topics must be implemented in very early stages of

prototyping and small series to ensure reproduceable

production quality for product testing, validation and

legal approbation.

For those reasons, the innovative principle of matrix

production is being developed by Rosendahl Nextrom,

which is a highly flexible manufacturing (technology)

solution for small and large-scale production without

sacrificing the cost-effectiveness of a flow production.

The aim is to create a cost- and quality-optimized

battery value chain in Europe. The market penetration

of e-mobility and new battery systems in Europe

is to be supported in the best possible way by

standardization and flexibilization of production as

well as process innovation and optimization using the

digitalization of factories.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


“The intelligent

production of the

future must be

highly flexible, highly

productive and

resource efficient”.

A new road to success

Innovation, flexibility, scalability, cost-efficiency –

these and a lot of other words describe the way to

success. Therefore, production solutions for E-Mobility

Module and Pack assembly for the processing of

cylindric, prismatic and pouch cells with different

sizes and materials are necessary.

The implementation of a matrix production allows

newcomers, well established manufacturers and

transformers to build up a scalable E-Mobility

manufacturing system which is easily adaptable to

different battery types. The optimization of resource

management, avoidance of environmental pollution

and development of innovative hard- and software

applications is in the focus.

Small-series production and mass production have

their own, very special requirements. Individual

adjustments in the level of automation fulfill these

requirements - of course the costs for these changes

should be kept as low as possible.

One step further is to implement an AGV system

(automated guided vehicles) which leads to another

level of automation.

The aim is to achieve a lot size of 1 with the new

production solution that means that you can

produce products individually without incurring high

costs when changing the machine. The upgraded

production plant is capable of processing cylindrical,

prismatic as well as pouch cells almost fully

automatically into battery packs.

The production system can grow at any desired time

from micro to large-scale production.

Another key advantage is that new extensions are

integrated into the overall system without negatively

affecting them in manufacturing.

In summary, the innovative matrix structured

production enables not only flexible manufacturing

but also reduces the lead time through unit

extensions. That means modules with premium

quality can be produced at affordable cost with

extreme variety of types.

“We follow the approach to elaborate an additional

benefit for customers targeting and efficient

production process, overlapping traceability of the

whole value chain of battery systems and a reduction

of further development durations for change

implementation and new products”, according to

Mr. Alexander Schweighofer, Business Development

Manger LIB

Rosendahl Nextrom aims to build a comprehensive

network architecture including simulation and 3D

visualization for a holistic planning and realization

of the products. Generated data during production

process shall be used as well as feedback loops for

the development and optimization of new machines

with the support of the digital twin approach.

The specific focus of the solution is to give customers

the ability to make continuous improvements and

optimization in order to build a sustainable value


One major technology which will be implemented

to build a network which is capable of fulfilling the

requirements of the connection of different kind of

tools is the usage and expansion of the 5G technology.

5G enables a real time connection between

different end users and machines and supports

the integration and the data transfer between all

connected participants. A main advantage of 5G for

us in implementing data along the value chain is the

generation of our own private 5G VPN tunnel with the

relevant companies. This opens an opportunity to

implement and improve process quality based on the

availability a raw data information.

The intelligent production of the future must be

highly flexible, highly productive and resource


100 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

LIB Matrix

Development Center for new


“Our development center, which is in Austria, not

only offers space for R&D projects and process

developments but also the possibility to test and

successively develop new kinds of manufacturing

solutions in close cooperation with local and

European companies, research institutions and

universities” Alexander continued.

“In conclusion new kinds of manufacturing could be

tested and successively developed to reduce the longterm

costs to produce modules and battery packs. The

development of the required different manufacturing

solutions is driven by Rosendahl Nextrom due to its

longtime experience in battery machine production

and knowledge and contacts in the battery producing


The final goal is to establish a new manufacturing

(technology) solution highly variable and flexible for

different market demands”. Alexander concluded.

BM Rosendahl battery production system

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



Impact of sensor technologies on

the e-vehicle powertrain performance

The resolution and accuracy of the rotor position sensor has an

influence on the performance of an electric drive.

All over the world, new electric motors are currently

being developed for the future drive-train of electric

vehicles. The electric motor and its components

will undergo various levels of maturity similar to

combustion engines in recent decades. The goal of

all developers is increasing the efficiency of the drive

system with respect to the greatest possible range of

one battery charge.

An important component in this context is the motor

sensor system.

The measurement of the current of the 3 phases Iu,

Iv Iw and the angular position θ of the rotor are of

crucial importance.

The following diagram shows the mathematics behind

a field-oriented control of a synchronous machine.

This article points out the impact of the parameters

resolution and accuracy of rotor position and rotor

speed on the performance of a drive.

Lenord + Bauer and Altair have added a configurable

rotor position sensor to the already existing and

validated simulation of a typical IPM machine of a

mid-range vehicle.

This image shows the

components of the

simulation. The element

Position Sensor is new.

102 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Influence of the

resolution on


Evaluations of the torque curve show, as expected, a

low-resolution leads to higher torque fluctuations in

the starting phase.

Especially when a vehicle has to accelerate

under a high-torque condition avoiding

sliding wheels and vibration and thus

material-friendly, the resolution of the

speed-sensor is of decisive importance.

The graph on he left clearly shows that, for

example, a sensor resolution of 8 bit and a

typical inverter switching frequency of 10kHz

leads to a resolution of the speed of 2344

RPM. During run-up at very low speed the

speed controller does not measure the real

gradient of speed and therefore the torque

controller overdrives. This inevitably leads

to vibrations in the drive and ultimately

to noises when starting up. That’s what we

know from trams or other railways where

this does not play a major role due to the

few starting phases and the very stable

mechanical design of the engines. In electric

vehicles with many stop and go phases

vibrations and noises are undesirable.

A typical situation in a passenger vehicle

is, for example, driving over a curb or a

fully occupied bus, which has to start on an

ascending road.

Blue line: 8-bit resolution

high torque ripple causes

high vibrations and loud


Red line: 10-bit resolution

lower torque ripple causes

lower vibrations and less


Comparison of the power consumption shows

in the start-up area that a higher resolution

(red line) contributes to a gain in efficiency.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net
















e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Influence of the accuracy

on performance

The second important parameter is the accuracy

of the system. For this we simulated various load

scenarios for an electric vehicle. One of the bestknown

scenarios is certainly the acceleration of a

car from 0 to 100 km/h. This scenario was simulated

3 times. The individual simulations only differed in

the accuracy of the rotor position sensor used.

Rotor position



0- 100km/h

0 – 62,4 m/h

Torque ripples

+- 2° el. 7,04 s High

+-1° el. 6,64 s Middle to high

+-0,2° el. 6,44 s Low to middle

The results in the table above show that the accuracy of the

rotor position sensors is crucial for the performance of the

powertrain. With the same engine power, same controller and

inverter it is possible to accelerate faster while consuming the

same or less power.

Evaluations of the torque curve show, as expected, a low-resolution leads to

higher torque fluctuations in the starting phase.

Summary and Conclusion

We have proved in various simulations of electric

drive trains, that the resolution and accuracy of

the rotor position sensor has an influence on the

performance of an electric drive.

Therefore, developers of new drive systems

should consider not only possible variations

of the rotor and stator design or faster inverter

switching times, but also the sensor technology in

their test stands as part of the statistical design

of experiments. Crucial parameters of the rotor

position sensor are resolution and accuracy.

“Our sensors have been playing an important role

in electric drives for more than 30 years. We are

passionately driving the development of electro

mobility in order to increase comfort of driving

and contributing to an eco-friendly environment.”

concluded Dr. Matthias Lenord, Founder, Lenord,

Bauer & Co. GmbH

Dipl.-Ing Ulrich Marl

In 2009 he became the

head of production at

Lenord + Bauer, followed

by the position of general

manager of production

for 8 years. In 2018 he decided to face a new

business challenge and changed the position

into sales department to conquer the worldwide

market for upcoming electrical vehicles. Based

on fundamental technical experience and

excellent knowledge of production and quality

management method he is an excellent point of

contact for many engineers in the automotive

R&D departments around the world.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



BlackBerry’s pedigree in safety, security, and continued innovation has led

to its QNX technology being embedded with more than 45 OEMs and more

than 150 million vehicles on the road today.

Autonomous Vehicle Accidents Test Human Trust

Jeff Davis, Senior Director, Government Relations and Public Policy at BlackBerry

Humans have an issue with trust. While innate to our nature, trust is also something that must be earned

over time, and once lost it can take a long time to get it back, if at all. This is particularly true where new

technologies like autonomous vehicle safety are concerned. We see time and again that regardless of the

extensive number of hours that autonomous vehicle testing is done safely, a single incident can overwhelm a

news cycle.

Think of last year’s Uber crash or the more recent Tesla crashes. They do not become associated with a single

company, rather, they become a trust challenge for a whole industry.

New Technologies Bring New

Challenges to Safety and Security

In the findings from an investigation into one crash, a

Tesla was found to have repeatedly made maneuvers

at one particular area of highway that eventually

resulted in the vehicle crashing into a concrete

barrier. On several occasions, the driver was able

to maintain control and override the maneuvers to

safely keep the vehicle in lane, but during the final

incident, the driver was distracted and was not able to

avoid the crash. Of further concern is that the car first

increased speed from 62 mph to 71 mph just prior to

steering into the barrier.

In an investigation by the National Transportation

Safety Board (NTSB) of an unrelated accident, the

NTSB found that the fatal collision of a car with

autonomous driving features and a slow-moving truck

was also partly the result of the driver not regaining

control of the vehicle in time. It referenced an earlier

accident where systems that “underpin AEB systems

have only been trained to recognize the rear of other

vehicles… in part because radar-based systems

have trouble distinguishing objects in the road from

objects that are merely near the road.”

This represents a challenge with autonomous vehicle

technology in its current state. Drivers tend to lose

focus on the road, giving too much responsibility to

low-level automation features, allowing technology

to work in a domain beyond its capabilities. The end

results are both tragic and fear-inducing. Distracted

driving is just as life-threatening in a vehicle with

automated features as it is in a conventional vehicle.

The misunderstanding lies on two fronts: first, some

companies are overly bullish in their confidence

of the self-driving features of the car, leaving their

consumers at risk. This is miseducation, and it

is dangerous in itself. The second inappropriate

interaction comes from a misunderstanding of what

autonomous features are designed to do in today’s

vehicles. Lower level autonomy is there to augment

a human driver, not replace them. It helps the driver

with things we humans are really bad at, like paying

attention for long periods of time, or checking all our

blind spots.

However, at this point, there are a lot of things

that humans do better than cars, like contextual

understanding and object identification. In any case,

the technology gets blamed much more than the

humans do, and it results in a lack of trust that hurts

the entire industry.

106 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Mistrust, with a Side of Mistrust

Another modern phenomenon that impacts the

trust of a consumer is a security incident, and if a

misbehaving autonomous feature was the result of a

cyberattack, the court of popular opinion could put

an end to autonomous vehicles. Even with drivers

maintaining control, there is a risk that these highly

connected vehicles could be infected with malware

when connecting to a mobile device, downloading

traffic reports, or with updates for a potential

maintenance issue by the manufacturer, which could

have devastating consequences.

The mind can go to several nightmare scenarios:

attackers crashing cars into each other, threat actors

stopping cars on the highway and blocking major

arteries, and other similar scenarios. But more

likely, attackers could use malware to steal payment

credentials stored in the car’s systems for use in

automatic payments at gas stations, drive-through

restaurants, car washes, or similar businesses where

the driver may not need to exit the vehicle to make a


And an almost-inevitable scenario could be that

marketing data collection companies could monitor

communications to know where you drive and when,

how long you stayed, what communications you saw

or listened to, etc.

Adapting Current Security Solutions

to New Technologies

This brings the world of connected and autonomous

vehicles right up there with every network that

requires the protections offered by security

technologies such as firewalls, antivirus (EPP),

endpoint detection and response (EDR), distributed

ledger technology (DLT), etc. The massive mobile

endpoint that is the modern vehicle comes with

more than its share of security concerns and begs

the question: are today’s security solutions going to

translate well to an autonomous vehicle?

On the one hand, that car should appear to those

security systems as one big network, albeit one that

weighs more than a ton and can move faster than 100

mph. As a practical matter, though, the nature of the

systems that make up that vehicle are going to be

radically different. As such, manufacturers must work

closely with firms on advanced security systems that

are designed to work specifically with autonomous


Safety, Security, and Trust

The future of transportation and mobility is one of

the most exciting fields of technology, one that is

both growing rapidly and producing advancements

that occur at dizzying speeds.

It is critical that safety and security are top of mind

from the beginning of the process and throughout

the development and production processes if the

industry is going to foster and maintain the trust

required for the adoption of these technologies.

Safety, security, and trust are fundamental to this

effort and inseparable in their importance.

In the race to produce

self-driving cars,

the ability to build

consumer trust is

as important as the

ability to build the

technology itself. For

the driving public to

adopt autonomous

vehicles en masse,

it’s not enough to

simply trust the

technologies – people

must also trust that

the companies building

these technologies

will act responsibly. It

is a moral imperative

for those of us within

the industry that are

advancing this fast

approaching future to

make sure it is both

safe and secure.


Jeff Davis:


Senior Director,


Relations and

Public Policy

at BlackBerry,

Jeff previously

served as a

Senior Vice


at ITSA, the

nation’s largest


dedicated to


the research,


and deployment

of Intelligent


Systems (ITS)

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net





reliability of





Rakesh Kumar Ph.D. at SCS Coatings explains

As we move towards e-mobility

due to environmental friendliness,

economic considerations and social

forces, scientific and engineering

communities have focused their

efforts on creating motors/engines

that receive their energy from the

power grid or energy storage sources.

These motors and engines support

many types of vehicles, including

ships, hover boats, planes, helicopters,

drones, unmanned aerial vehicles,

etc., and their long-term success

heavily relies on the development of

reliable electronic systems and energy

108 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

storage systems (electric, hybrid and

fuel cell technologies).

Today, electronic systems no longer

work as independent components,

but as fully integrated systems

that use sensors, MEMS and radar

to control various autonomous

functions. The reliability of electronic

components and systems can

be compromised, at best, or fail

completely, worst case, due to their

exposure to harsh environments,

which causes the corrosion of

components due to water, salt

and other stress factors. Parylene

technologies enhance the reliability

of electronic systems and components

by not only offering solutions to

eliminate such catastrophic reliability

failures, but they also enable the

development of innovative electronic

systems and components for

e-mobility. Electronic systems and

components can either be coated with

Parylene for their protection from

environmental degradation, and/or

Parylene can be used as a structural

material to make such components

and systems.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


What are Parylene


Parylene is the name for a unique series of polymeric

organic coating materials that are polycrystalline

and linear in nature, possess excellent dielectric

and barrier properties per unit thickness, and are

chemically inert. Of the commercially available

Parylene variants, Parylene C, Parylene HT® and

ParyFree® are the most suitable for e-mobility

applications. In addition to electrical insulation

at ultra-thin levels, Parylenes provide outstanding

moisture, chemical and dielectric barrier capabilities.

Parylene HT also offers increased thermal and UV

stability. Parylenes are RoHS and REACH compliant

and have been proven to provide metallic whisker

mitigation in lead-free solder applications. Parylenes

are ideal for protecting electrical components, wires,

PCBs and sensors – any component that require

reliable, long-life performance in harsh environments,

including those in electric power drivetrains.

What differentiates

Parylenes from other

conformal coatings.

Rather than dispensing, spraying, brushing or

dipping, Parylene coatings are applied using a

vapor deposition process. The Parylene process is

carried out in a closed system under a controlled

vacuum, with the deposition chamber remaining

at room temperature throughout the process. No

solvents, catalysts or plasticizers are used in the

coating process. The molecular “growth” of Parylene

coatings ensures not only an even, conformal coating

at specified thicknesses, but because Parylenes are

formed from a gas, they conforms to all surfaces,

edges and crevices of a substrate, including the

interiors of multi-layer electronic packages. Parylenes

provide a superior pinhole-free shield to protect

against corrosive liquids, fluids, gasses and chemicals,

even at elevated temperatures (up to 350°C longterm).

Parylenes are typically applied in thicknesses

ranging from 500 angstroms to 75 microns. A 25 micron

coating of ParyFree, for example, will have a dielectric

capability in excess of 6,900 volts. No other coating

material can be applied as thin as Parylene coatings

and still provide the same level of protection, which

is why manufacturers have used Parylenes in the

automotive and transportation industries for over 4


In markets such as e-mobility, where many electronic

systems, RF devices and sensors are used, it is critical

that such devices and systems are well protected for

long-term reliability, without the loss of any signal or

communication. To avoid signal degradation of high

frequency devices when they are protected with a

conformal coating, it is important that loss tangent of

the conformal coating does not adversely change over

the operating frequencies. The loss tangent and low

dielectric constant of Parylenes are very stable up to

70 GHz, as tested, but expected to be stable up to 100

GHz as well, which help advance next generation high

frequency devices.

Harsh Environments

Parylenes have also been used to provide moisture

and chemical barrier properties to a wide array of

components, including sensors and circuit boards,

providing protection from the most corrosive

chemicals such as nitric and sulfuric acids and

common automotive fluids like brake fluid, power

steering fluid, and windshield washer fluid. For

example, fuel cells operate in the midst of corrosive

110 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

chemicals at elevated temperatures, a very harsh

environment for electronics. Parylene HT provides

superior protection for these fuel cell components

due to its moisture and chemical barrier properties

and high temperature stability.

The operating system environment of vehicles can

range from -40°C to more than 300°C, making coating

stability imperative to the trouble-free life of vehicle

electronics. As stated, Parylene HT provides longterm

thermal stability up to 350°C, with intermittent

exposures up to 450°C. The coating also offers UV

stability (more than 2,000 hours of highly accelerated

UV exposure, per ASTM G154), providing protection

from degradation and discoloration.

With electronic systems increasingly replacing

mechanical control systems, tight package protection

is needed to keep moisture and chemicals from

causing shorts. At the same time, this protection must

not add dimension to the control electronics, and the

coating must be dielectrically compatible to ensure

that signals are not blocked. Parylene coatings are

lightweight, do not add significant mass or dimension

and do not block communication signals.

Even as vehicle monitoring and conditioning has

moved to electronic systems, traditional printed

circuit boards and sensors are also being replaced

with MEMS technologies in this next generation of

vehicle design. The use of MEMS reduces overall

package size while putting more capabilities into one

tiny microelectronic package. Due to their properties

and gas-phase deposition process, which results in

ultra-thin, conformal coatings, Parylenes are able

to effectively protect MEMS packages against wear,

moisture and corrosive fluids.

The prevalence of complex and integrated electrical

systems shows no signs of slowing down. Pressures

to lower costs, migrate offshore production and

consolidate abound in the electric vehicle industry.

At the same time, OEMs feel pressures to bring

better, faster and cheaper components and systems

to the market. Adding Parylene technologies to the

component manufacturing process enhances the

reliability of electric driven vehicles’ electronics and

components, regardless of the type of vehicle or

operating system. The level of protection Parylenes

afford manufacturers is one that reduces costly

maintenance and warranty issues for the life of

the vehicle. The good news is that as components

become more complex and are exposed to new and

increasingly extreme environments, new Parylene

technologies and services are being developed and

deployed to parallel this growth.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



Assembly solutions

in e-Mobility

Jürgen Hierold, presents the Use

of Screwdriving Systems in the

e-Mobility Sector

Electro mobility is the definitive key technology for

the sustainable transport system of the future. The

policy-assisted development of E-mobility is moving

in the right direction. The automotive industry and its

suppliers, however still find themselves in a dilemma

regarding the design and project planning of their

production and assembly systems. Uncertainties in

planning for volume and unknown practical values

continue to be the greatest challenges.

E-mobility imposes certain requirements on the

assembly process: top processing reliability for safetyrelated

components, high flexibility due to the wide

variety and targeted reliable electro-static discharge

(ESD capability) of system components utilised. In

addition, these components require an assembly

environment which fulfils the guidelines of technical

cleanliness and also scores highly on ergonomic

aspects. The customer may face difficulties in coming

up with an economical solution to this complexity.

112 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020


The automation specialists need to offer flexible

assembly solutions for all grades, which can all

be adapted to the current market situation: from

components and manual work stations, up to semi

or fully-automatic assembly systems. This flexibility

specifically counteracts planning uncertainties and

should be continually responsive to modification


One such guarantee of success is the “intelligent

manual work station”, which can be flexibly

adjusted to any economic situation and is

particularly beneficial if automatization appears

uneconomical. This is particularly relevant for

E-mobility where production rate trends are

difficult to predict. For the assembly of E-mobility

components, it is preferable to opt for a flexible,

upgradeable assembly line with intelligent manual

work stations which combine manual handling with

top processing reliability.

“In addition to our standardised manual work

stations, we have developed automated, extremely

flexible assembly cells of our DCAM product

family. Equipped with one of our most modern

screwdriving function modules, combined with

high quality industrial spindle screwdrivers with

a screw feeder, it will complete any screwdriving

task. The modular assembly cell is particularly

suitable for fluctuating production rates, diverse

product ranges and short product life cycles. As

a system solution, the DCAM combines efficiency

with the best possible processing reliability. The

modular, flexible platform concept, in combination

with the freely programmable X-Y axles, justifies

the implementation of this assembly cell for the

most varied of assembly tasks”, says Jürgen Hierold,

Sales Director at the machine builder Deprag in

Amberg, Germany.

A measure in attaining highest flexibility is the use

of modular system concepts with standardised

components. Deprag has a comprehensive module

portfolio including sensor-controlled screwdrivers,

feeding systems, controllers etc., all from a single

source. These individual modules are already

coordinated with each other, thereby saving time

and effort in integration. The high flexibility means

that assembly systems can be quickly adapted

to the current market situation; counteracting

planning uncertainties and quickly reacting to

changing requirements.



e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Virtual Testing of ADAS and AV

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Telephone +44 1926 885900 Email sales@claytex.com



e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Abrasion and Particle



With regard to technical cleanliness the manufacturer

has developed it’s own complete CleanFeed concept

with specific CleanFeed components. This includes

elements for low abrasion part feeding to minimise

the accumulation of damaging particles from the

outset. Low abrasion sword feeders are particularly

gentle at sorting, separating and suppling fasteners.

Sensors on the device automatically determine

the number of strokes necessary so that stroke

movement and therefore abrasion is kept to a

minimum. Furthermore, hoppers help to keep

a consistently low quantity of fasteners in the

feeding system because fewer screws mean less

contamination. However, because the generation

of particles cannot be entirely eliminated, suction

systems are also an effective method of creating

cleanroom conditions. The “Particle Killer” targets and

removes dirt particles before assembly and ejects

them through a filter. A SFM-V vacuum screwdriving

module on the other hand, uses suction to remove

residual dirt directly from the screwdriving tool via

additional vacuum sources. As well as modifications

to the hardware, particle contamination is also

combatted by intelligent adjustments managed by

the controller, such as a reduction in speed during bit

engagement with the screw head, at the same time

averting wear and tear on the tool.

Because productivity plays an essential role in the

e-Mobility sector, Deprag has developed the ‘Cockpit’

a new digital service, which facilitates an easy

introduction to the interconnected factory.

The software facilitates supervision and analysis

of assembly tasks and provides analysis tools for

continuous process optimisation and the recognition

of trends. The data from a company’s various factory

locations, their production lines and connected

devices are collected centrally by the system. Data

can even be collected from production locations

spread throughout the world. The ‘Cockpit’ can be

configured remotely through the ‘Internet of Things’

and current operating data can be retrieved.

This ensures early detection of potentials and

swift reaction to any variations. When screwdriving

processes are optimised in a timely manner less

reworking is required, production time and quality

improves, and products can be safeguarded or even

enhanced. Whether it is used to connect screwdriving

systems or smart tools – all processes can be

monitored, analysed and optimised centrally.

Stefan Müller, Head of Deprag Software Development,

clarifies: “Our ‘Cockpit’ is a practical and extremely

efficient development which operators can access at

any time to get a clear overview of all our controllers”.


All customer specifications for E-mobility are fully

satisfied by our standard components: processing

reliability, flexibility, ESD-capability, technical

cleanliness, ergonomics and economic efficiency.

“With over 760 employees and representation in

over 50 countries, we are constantly learning and the

knowledge we have accumulated is what makes us

a respected partner for the realisation of innovative

automation concepts on a global scale. As well as

full service in the field of screwdriving technology,

feeding, controller and measurement technology, we

incorporate the products in complex semi- or fully

automatic assembly systems. Everything is available

from a single source, from consultation to service and

system maintenance”, Hierold concludes.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Design Constraints for

EV Cooling Systems



Fritz Byle Project Manager at TLX Technologies explains the Discrete Proportional Valve System

Designs for EV cooling systems are significantly more

complicated and challenging than designs for ICE

(Internal Combustion Engine) vehicles. EV cooling

systems must accommodate several sources of heat

generation in the vehicle (Figure 1) including:

• Inverter electronics to control the motors used

for the vehicle’s propulsion

• Charging electronics (may or may not be

integrated with inverter electronics)

• Motor(s) used for vehicle propulsion and energy


• Vehicle propulsion (high voltage battery)

Therefore, an optimal EV cooling system configuration

is significantly different and more complex than what

is required for ICE cooling applications. The method

for controlling the coolant flow between components

is one critical aspect of this type of cooling system.

The main attributes of such a proportioning method


• Predictable relationship between setting and flow

(lack of hysteresis)

• Zero steady-state power at any setpoint (energy


• Capable of fully shutting off flow (leak-free off


• Fail-safe condition when power is lost (e.g., full


Figure 1, EV Cooling Components

In a typical EV drivetrain, each of these heat sources

may require maximum flows of eight to ten liters

of coolant per minute. Sizing the cooling system to

accommodate concurrent maximum flows results in

energy and weight penalties in the pumping system.

Precisely controlling the flow of coolant to each heat

source based on temperature feedback is a more

efficient solution. This allows for a smaller capacity

pump because different optimal setpoints can be

established for each heat source. For example,

inverter electronics can be operated at their optimal

temperature of 40°C to 65°C while motors or the

battery can be cooled further or allowed to run

warmer as performance demands dictate. In addition,

waste heat from electronics and motors can be

recycled to provide cabin heat and/or warm the

battery during cold weather operation. This can avoid

or minimize electrical resistance heating, greatly

reducing parasitic electrical loads.

Issues with Extant


The combination of the above attributes is not

shared by any extant control valve. Specifically,

valves that incorporate near-zero hysteresis, zero

steady-state power, and a near-zero flow state are

available (e.g., rotary valves actuated by stepper

motors). In stepper-driven rotary valves, hysteresis

is not truly zero but is determined by the

repeatability of the step position and the backlash

between the motor shaft and the valve element

(backlash may be zero if the valve element is an

integral part of the shaft). However, stepper-driven

rotary valves have some undesirable attributes:

1. A rotating seal is required on the stepper

shaft. Rotating seals are prone to leakage.

2. No fail-safe condition. If power is lost to the

stepper, the valve will remain in the lastcommanded


3. Stepper motors are relatively costly and can

add substantial weight to a valve.

4. A stepper motor controller is required.

5. A position sensing/feedback system may be


116 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Figure 2, DPV Section

Table 1, Three-Valve DPV States

The DPV Concept as an


Figure 3, DPV and Continuous Proportional Valve Performance Curves

An alternative solution for enabling all the desired

attributes while relying on a simpler valve actuation/

control strategy is a discrete proportional valve (DPV).

The DPV concept relies on intelligent combination of

simple binary (on/off) solenoid valves (Figure 2). Two

or more on/off valves with differing flow coefficients

are combined in a single manifold to achieve a stepped

approximation of a linear flow response. For example,

a system of three valves gives 23 or eight possible flow

states. The flow states can include a zero-flow state

or a non-zero minimum flow state depending on the

design. Table 1 shows the possible states for a 3-valve

system where the individual valves are sized for flows

of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 volumes per unit time. Figure 3

shows the resulting relationship between flow and

valve command for such a system compared to the

typical response of a continuous proportional valve.

Referring to Figure 3, the blue curve reflects the typical

performance of a continuous proportional valve. At

0% command, the valve has some minimum flow due

to bypass leakage. As the command is increased, there

must be some built-in deadband to accommodate

part-to-part variation in response. This is shown by

the flat portion of the curve between 0% and 15%

command. As command is further increased, the valve

begins to open, and the flow response follows the

lower blue curve. An upper deadband at 100% flow

occurs, typically between 85% and 90% command.

As the valve is commanded to reduce flow again, the

response follows the upper blue curve. The difference

between the upper and

lower blue curves is the

hysteresis of the system

due to mechanical

friction and magnetics.

Hysteresis also increases

the effective deadband

at full flow.

The orange curve in

Figure 3 shows the

response of a 3-valve

DPV system. The

response is stepped, and

there is no hysteresis.

By definition, a given

command will always

result in the same valve

members opening, and

thus the same flow

coefficient. In addition,

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

there is no requirement for either lower or upper

deadbands. What appears to be a lower deadband is

actually the controlled true off state. It can be designed

as such or designed to be a minimum flow value such

that there is always some flow through the system (to

avoid pump damage, etc.).

The DPV concept in its simplest form does require

steady-state power. However, by incorporating a

latching solenoid design into the valve actuator, the

steady-state power requirement can be eliminated.

Latching solenoids can be constructed by using

permanent magnets or other means to hold the

actuator latched. This eliminates power draw in any

given steady state.

A true zero-flow state is a native attribute of a DPV

valve system (all valves off). Other implementations

of proportional control can also provide effectively

zero flow, however tight mechanical tolerances can be

required, which raise the risk level related to debris

sensitivity and wear. Tight mating tolerances also

increase cost. The DPV concept achieves a zero-flow

state without requiring this trade-off.

DPV Control

The control system to drive a DPV valve system can be

implemented in essentially two ways:

1. The control system is embedded in the valve system.

Analog or digital input is used to command the


2. Establish an electrical connection only to the DPV

system. Control is centralized remotely.

Schema (1) requires some intelligence be built into the

valve system as well as power electronics to control

each valve via an on-valve control board. This DPV

control board would require a minimum of only three

incoming wires: power, ground, and signal. The control

board would translate the desired state, communicated

on the signal line, into commands to the valves. The

control board will also provide for the fail-safe state if it

detects a loss of power.

Schema (2) requires two wires for each valve in the DPV

system. The control electronics can then be centralized.

This increases the amount of wiring required but offers

better environmental protection.

In an actual vehicle application, some of the benefits

of both options may be realized by co-locating multiple

DPV systems on a manifold and locating the control

electronics close by. Such a configuration would also be

desirable from a fluidics perspective.

The control electronics for a DPV system are inherently

simple, requiring only a mapping of the desired flow to

DPV state. The single complicating factor for DPV control

is a result of the zero steady-state power. Opening a

valve requires a forward current pulse; closing the same

valve requires a reverse current pulse. The requirement

for both polarities eliminates the possibility of a

common ground and requires two independent

connections to each valve. Even with remote electronics,

however, the wiring requirements for a three-valve

system are not prohibitive.


According to Dennis Jensen, Business Development

Manager of Advanced Products at TLX Technologies

“Adapting extant technologies to the new and everchanging

advancements in e-mobility is often not

the best solution. For example, the cooling systems

for internal combustion engines are relatively simple

and are not designed to deal with the widely-varied

cooling needs from multiple heat sources found in

electric vehicles. Therefore, adapting that technology

to electric vehicles is not the most efficient or effective

solution and can be counter-productive in the quest for

increasing energy efficiency”.

The simplicity and design flexibility of the discrete

proportional valve (DPV) provides advantages that

match the unique needs of EV cooling and energy

management systems. While the DPV does not provide

for smooth control of output, but rather stepped

control, it alleviates the need for deadbands and

eliminates hysteresis completely, simplifying control

algorithms. Importantly, it is also a power-efficient

solution in line with the demands of next generation

EVs. The DPV also has the potential to enable further

efficiency gains by recycling heat that otherwise would

be rejected to the environment.

TLX Technologies seeks to offer solutions that are

designed and manufactured specifically for the

e-mobility market. That is why we developed the

discrete proportional valve (DPV). The DPV provides

lightweight, customizable semi-proportional coolant

flow with exceptional energy efficiency, a leak-free off

state, fail-safe condition, and no hysteresis.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Trends and innovations

in Electric Drive Units for

lower cost and improved



Electrification is entering a new market phase. At this

turning point into its next chapter, a significant shift

in focus for electrified vehicles can be observed. It is a

shift away from technology feasibility demonstration,

premium vehicles or small series development

towards kick-off of mass production, technology

commercialization and consequently more affordable

and technology optimized vehicles. For some time,

production volumes and customer acceptance of

electric vehicles has widely increased as more and

more vehicles have a sufficient driving range (>400

km) and very good driving performance.

Nevertheless, most current generation EVs are still

considered to be too expensive or less attractive

when compared with combustion engine cars.

Consequently, a reduction in cost and improved

performance is paramount to ensure successful and

sustainable growth of the market.

Integrated electric drive units (EDUs) combine electric

machine, transmission, differential and usually

the power inverter into one easy to install unit. In

contrast to past EDUs with separate and standalone

components, this integration has resulted in reduced

weight and dimensions, fewer connections, cables

& interfaces as well as an overall lower cost. Also,

vehicle assembly is more efficient through the

packaging advantage of an integrated EDU.

Figure 1, EV Cooling Components


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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020





New Semi-








Figure 2 Main trends & innovations for power electronics to reduce cost & size and to increase efficiency &


In addition to integration, several other technology

trends on the EDU sub-component level are expected

to bring costs down and boost performance further

to make EVs even more viable. New, faster and more

efficiently switching semiconductors like SiC & GaN.

are entering automotive applications or soon will do.

Even though these new semiconductors are currently

still more expensive than Si-based technologies,

cost savings in other parts of the system due to their

unique characteristics can compensate for the higher

semiconductor cost. Examples include a reduction

of DC link capacity, simpler cooling, fewer required

EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) measures and a

reduction in size.

Multiphase approaches result in a reduction of

phase currents enabling higher power applications

at lower voltage levels, such as 48 V. Overall, a

diversification in voltage levels will result in more

cost optimized solutions because components

can be better adapted to the specific performance

requirements of the different vehicle applications.

Greatest component availability currently exists

for passenger cars around 400 V with low cost due

to economies of scale for mainstream and mass

volume vehicles. A strong short-term momentum

for electrified vehicles market growth will come

from 48 V based applications because of their safer

voltage level, no/less isolation requirements as well

as cheaper and simpler integration into existing IC

based platforms. This offers a relatively fast and

cost-efficient reduction of CO2 emissions for OEMs to

comply with emission legislation. On the other side,

800 V systems come with significant advantages such

as minimized charging times enabling comfortable

long-distance trips, highest power & torque but also

lower weight and reduced dimensions of relevant

powertrain components. Consequently, 800 V or

higher is the preferred voltage level for performance

and commercial BEVs.

AVL pioneered this technology with a first 800 V

based demonstration vehicle (AVL Coup-E 800) back

in 2012 and has since then continuously evolved

respective inverters, e-motors and EDUs. For some

time now, AVL has experienced growing customer

interest in 800 V not only for commercial vehicles but

also for passenger cars.

Considering increasing component power densities,

EMC progressively faces more challenges to fulfill

regulatory requirements, to maintain overall system

reliability and at the same time to keep cost at the

lowest feasible level. As a result, we see a clear need

and trend to take EMC optimization into account at

the earliest possible development phases. AVL has

developed dedicated EMC simulation tools allowing

early guidance and design optimizations for inverter

developers to greatly reduce EMC issues. This is

achieved through advanced inverter layouts and

incorporation of passive but also active filters. The

latter can contribute to significant cost and volume

reduction compared to passive elements.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020






Less rare







Figure 3 Main trends & innovations for e-motors to reduce cost, size, less need of critical materials and

increased performance

Optimal electronic hardware cooling is critical for

reliable performance and durability. Innovative

cooling concepts (e.g. air-cooling or common cooling

loops instead of separate cooling for inverter and

e-motors in integrated EDUs) offer significant

potential for overall system simplification and

thereby cost and volume saving.

All above trends and innovations on both EDU

and component levels are likely to power a more

accessible electrified future with the next generation

of electric vehicles. Customers want short charging

times and greatest possible vehicle range at an

acceptable cost.

The key to design and enable such EDUs are system

understanding, methods and tools that support

the design and innovations as described before.

AVL offers the full range of simulation, testing,

engineering capabilities and experience from past

projects to successfully drive these innovations and

bring them into the market.

AVL is the technology development partner to

not only engineer the propulsion technologies of

tomorrow, but also to make them ready for series

production utilizing the company’s global presence

and independent access to a broad network of


Thomas Frey Head of E-drive/ Innovation, AVL

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net



P2 hybrid modules

enable flexible

customer solutions

and easy


New environmental protection guidelines

and stricter emission standards are the

result of a growing sense of responsibility

for climate protection. In the automotive

industry, rigorous emissions regulations and

the aim to achieve greater efficiency are

driving innovations and the development of

new mobility concepts. Current trends are, for

example, autonomous driving and e-mobility

– a large number of hybrid and electric

solutions are conquering the ever growing


Various drivetrain architectures are available to

automobile manufacturers for the design of mild

and plug-in to full hybrids, ranging from a simple P0

configuration to P1, P2, P3 and P4 to PS (power split).

The P2 architecture, which is currently receiving a

lot of attention in the industry, is positioning the

electric motor between the transmission and the

combustion engine. To disengage the combustion

engine, this configuration uses a disconnect clutch

enabling pure electric driving. The technology

is suitable for various types of trans-missions,

including manual transmissions.

On-axis and off-axis P2


BorgWarner’s innovative technologies support

manufacturers in hybridizing their vehicles by

providing a wide range of functions and design

options. The company’s portfolio includes two types

of P2 hybrid modules (Fig. 1), which are easy to

integrate into a drivetrain and can be tailored

Fig. 1: BorgWarner’s P2

modules enable purely

electric driving, improve

performance and optimize

fuel efficiency.

to customer requirements. An on-axis design with

the electric motor integrated directly into the drive

shaft or a configuration parallel to the axis can be

used depending on the installation space available.

The on-axis arrangement is ideal for powertrains with

longitudinally mounted engines, with sufficient space

for integrating the electric motor. Due to the axisencompassing

design, torque transmission can be

realized easily and cost-effectively.

Configurations with transversely mounted engines and

limited space often use off-axis configurations, which

provide advantages in the transmission ratio and high

flexibility in installation. In this solution, the rotational

speed and torque are transmitted, for instance, by a

chain (Fig. 2).

Both architectures can be supported with normal

pressure (about 20bar system pressure) or high

pressure (up to 60bar system pressure) clutch layouts.

Hydraulic control modules which exactly fit to these

applications are available in the BorgWarner product

portfolio, too.

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Fig. 2: Placement of the electric engine

in a on-axis (top) and off-axis (bottom)


selecting the rotor design an interior permanent

magnet (IPM), which is suitable for all stator designs,

is preferable to an induction machine. It maintains

the magnetic field without external excitation, thus

increasing the overall performance and efficiency of

the electric engine.

Criteria for the module


When implementing various module configurations

with electric engines not only space requirements

but also the operating voltage, winding type and

cooling system are relevant. An electric motor with a

small diameter and high rotational speeds for better

efficiency can be easily integrated within the off-axis

solution. The on-axis design, on the other hand, is

more suitable for a larger electric engine with lower

rotational speeds and higher torque generation.

There are two alternatives available for the operating

voltage. Low-voltage systems offer a cost-effective

solution and significant CO2 reductions. Sufficient

power for pure electric driving is generated by highvoltage

systems providing more than 100 kW. These

are also characterized by the highest power savings

potential. (Fig. 3).

Not only the operating voltage, but also details

such as the windings and wire shape influence the

performance of the electric motor. Thanks to their

low torque ripple and low cogging torque, distributed

stator windings improve the Noise, Vibration, Harshness

behavior (NVH) of the overall system. Ideally, a

rectangular wire, which maximizes current density and

improves heat transfer, acts as a conductor. When

Various cooling solutions

Depending on the operating conditions and

temperatures, different types of cooling can be

used for the electric motor. With oil cooling, the

principal thermal components and the coolant

are in direct contact. This process is very effective

and achieves a continuous cooling capacity for

constant average temperatures and ensures an ideal

heat transfer. Cooling with a water-ethylene glycol

mixture represents an alternative method in which

significantly lower coolant inlet temperatures can be

realized, which is at an advantage for dealing with

temporary temperature peaks. The overall efficiency

is slightly lower since the cooling medium itself is not

direcly in contact with the heat source. The so-called

outer cooling jacket dissipates the heat of the electric

engine to the coolant via the stator.

When both methods are combined, the waterethylene

glycol mixture flows around the stator at

an inlet temperature of only 65°C. Internally injected

oil, which typically has a temperature of approx. 90°C

due to gearbox operation, dissipates the heat from

the rotor. This approach achieves high efficiency in

normal operation and very good performance at

peak temperatures. However, the use of an additional

cooling jacket often comes at significantly higher

costs. For this reason, the cooling capacity actually

required to meet the target should be carefully

examined in the design phase.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Fig. 3: Individual solutions thanks to different advantages

of high- and low-voltage electric engines.

Types of coupling

In a P2 hybridization configuration, different types of

couplings can be used to separate the combustion

engine from the rest of the drivetrain. Due to its small

size and low cost, combined with high efficiency, a

freewheel is particularly suitable for applications

where space is critical and applications are trimmed

for maximum efficiency. Functional disadvantages

can be avoided mainly by using multi-disc clutches.

Especially wet friction plate clutches, which are

characterized by a combination of high functionality

and compactness as well as durability, are particularly

suitable for this.

If the transmission architecture employs a dual

clutch basic transmission, the disconnect clutch as

well as the dual clutch can even be integrated into

a complete module along with the electric motor,

resulting in many advantages. The triple clutch thus

generated leads to a further significant reduction

in installation space requirements and is currently

becoming the most popular configuration in this

transmission segment.


The P2 configuration represents one of the most

future-proof hybridization architectures that

manufacturers can employ to speed up their vehicles’

readiness for the market. The bonus: It offers easyto-use,

cost-effective electrification options and can

be flexibly adapted to customer specifications. It also

enables hybrid functionalities such as stop-start,

regenerative braking, electric motor charging and

pure electric driving. Manufacturers can hybridize

existing power trains at low additional costs because

neither the engine nor the transmission need to be

modified or even replaced on a large scale.

BorgWarner’s technology combines efficiency,

flexibility in design options and durability, thus

making a significant contribution to the success of

hybridized vehicles.


Eckart Gold Engineering Director at

Borg Warner Transmission Systems in

Shanghai, China.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Intelligent Power



Modules accelerate

transition to


Electric Motion

New fast switching Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Transistors

are now widely available as discrete devices or bare die.

Their low on-resistance at high blocking voltages, high

switching speed and thermal performance allows system

engineers to achieve significant gains in size, weight

and efficiency for motor drives and battery chargers

whilst anticipating a continuous drop in SiC devices

pricing. However, an important brake for the adoption of

SiC in high power applications is the availability of welloptimized

power modules as well as the learning curve in

reliably driving them. Intelligent Power Modules answer

both challenges by offering highly integrated and plugin-play

solutions accelerating time-to-market and saving

engineering resources.

Pierre Delatte, CTO, CISSOID

This article discusses the benefits of selecting

CISSOID’s 3-Phase 1200V SiC MOSFET Intelligent

Power Module (IPM) scalable platform for power

converter designs in E-mobility applications. This

low-loss technology offers a fully integrated solution

including a 3-Phase water-cooled SiC MOSFET power

module with built-in gate drivers. This article not only

presents the electrical and thermal characteristics of

the power modules but also discusses the support

they bring to fully benefit from SiC advantages. There,

a key element is the gate driver and its ability to drive

safely and reliably the SiC MOSFETs.

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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Figure 1. CXT-PLA3SA12450

3-Phase 1200V/450A SiC

MOSFET Intelligent Power


Low losses & enhanced

thermal robustness translate

into higher power density

CXT-PLA3SA12450 is part of a scalable platform ranging

from 300A to 600A per phase. This 3-Phase 1200V/450A

SiC MOSFET IPM features low conduction losses,

with 3.25mOhms on-resistance, and low switching

losses, with 7.8mJ turn-on and 8mJ turn-off energies

at 600V/300A (see Table). It cuts losses by at least a

factor of three with respect to state-of-the-art IGBT

power modules. The module is water-cooled through

a lightweight AlSiC pin-fin baseplate for a junction-tofluid

thermal resistance of 0.15°C/W. The power module

is rated for junction temperatures up to 175°C while

its gate driver operates up to 125°C ambient. The IPM

withstands isolation voltages up to 3600V (50Hz, 1min).

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


3D models & trusted thermal characteristics enable

fast power converter design

A great benefit of this IPM is the high level of

integration of the power module with its gate driver

and cooling AlSiC pin fin baseplate. This allows a rapid

mechanical integration with the other elements of

the power converter such as the DC bus capacitor and

the cooling system as shown in Figure 2. The system

designer may save a lot of time having access to an

accurate a 3D model of the IPM including the gate

driver right from the very beginning.

Having the conduction and switching losses of the

power module fully characterized together with a fully

optimized gate driver reduces the thermal

design space and possible iterations in the

optimization of the power converters.

Figure 2. Co-integration of CXT-PLA3SA12450 IPM with

DC Bus capacitor and liquid cooler

Based on the junction-to-fluid thermal

resistance of 0.15°C/W per switch

position, with a flow rate of 10l/min

(50% ethylene glycol, 50% water) and an

inflow temperature of 75°C, the maximum

continuous drain current derating versus

the case temperature can be calculated.

This is based on the on-resistance at

maximum Tj, and the maximum operating

Tj, and is shown in Figure 3.

If the maximum continuous drain current

is a standard characteristic useful to

compare the current rating of power

modules, a more realistic Figure-of-Merit

(FoM) is probably the RMS phase current

versus the switching frequency as shown

in Figure 4 for the CXT-PLA3SA12450. It is

calculated for a DC bus voltage of 600V, case

temperature of 90°C, junction temperature

of 175°C and 50% duty cycle. This FoM is

more useful to understand the applicability

of the module. With this Intelligent Power

Module platform being scalable, Figure 4

also extrapolates the safe operating area of

1200V/600A module (dashed line).

Figure 3. CXT-PLA3SA12450 maximum Continuous Drain Current

versus the case temperature.

Figure 4. Phase current (Arms) versus switching frequency (Conditions: VDC=600V, Tc=90°C, Tj

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Robust SiC Gate Drivers

enable fast switching and

low losses

The CXT-PLA3SA12450 3-phase gate driver leverages

on the experience gained with single-phase SiC gate

drivers, e.g. CMT-TIT8243 [1, 2] and CMT-TIT0697 [3]

designed respectively for 62mm 1200V/300A and

fast-switching XM3 1200V/450A SiC MOSFET power

modules (see Figure 5). The 3-phase gate driver

has been optimized to fit on top of CXT-PLA3SA12450

power module thanks to a more compact transformer

module or creepage distances compliant with

pollution degree 2. The CXT-PLA3SA12450 gate driver

also includes a DC bus voltage monitoring function.

As for CMT-TIT8243 and CMT-TIT0697, the CXT-

PLA3SA12450 gate driver board has been designed for

a maximum ambient operating temperature of 125°C.

All the components have been carefully selected and

sized to be suitable for operation at this temperature.

It also relies on CISSOID’s high temperature gate

driver chipset [4, 5] and a power transformer module

optimized for low parasitic capacitance (10pF

typically) to minimize common mode currents at high

dV/dt and for high operating temperature.

Figure 5. CMT-

TIT0697 Gate

Driver Board

for fastswitching


1200V/450A SiC



The CXT-PLA3SA12450 gate driver still has headroom

to support the power module scalability. The

module has a total gate charge of 910nC. At 25KHz,

the average gate current is equal to 22.75mA. This is

well below the 95mA maximum current capability of

the on-board isolated DC-DC converter. The current

capability and gate charge of the power module

can thus be increased, without gate driver board

modifications. With the populated gate resistors, the

actual max dV/dt is in the range of 10 to 20 KV/µs. The

gate driver has been designed to be immune to dV/

dt up to 50KV/µs, offering margin in terms of dV/dt


Gate Driver Protections improve

system functional safety

Gate Driver protection functions are critical to

guarantee the safe operation of the power module.

This is particularly true when driving fast-switching

SiC transistors. The CXT-PLA3SA12450 gate driver

offers the following protection functions:

• Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO): CXT-PLA3SA12450

Gate Driver monitors primary & secondary

voltages and reports a fault when below a

programmed voltage.

• Anti-overlap: avoids simultaneous turn-on of

both high-side and low-side to prevent short

circuit of the power half bridge.

• Protection against any short-circuit at secondary:

isolated DC-DC converter cycle-by-cycle current

limitation protect the gate driver against any

short-circuit (e.g. gate-source short-circuit).

• Glitch filter: suppresses glitches on incoming

PWM signals which might be due to common

mode currents.

• Active Miller Clamping (AMC): implements a

bypassing of the negative gate resistor after

turn-off to protect the power MOSFETs against

parasitic turn-on.

• Desaturation detection: at turn-on, checks after

blanking time that the power MOSFET drainsource

voltage is below a threshold.

• Soft Shut-down: in case of fault, a slow turn-off of

the power transistor is implemented to minimize

overshoots due to high dI/dt.


Silicon Carbide (SiC) Intelligent Power Modules

(IPM) provide system designers with an optimized

solution accelerating their power converter design.

The co-integration of driving and cooling functions

offers trustable electrical and thermal characteristics

from the start reducing the long learning curve often

associated with this still relatively new technology.

This new scalable IPM platform will support

new adopters of SiC technology for E-mobility



[1] CMT-TIT8243: 1200V High Temperature (125°C) Half-Bridge SiC MOSFET Gate

Driver Datasheet : http://www.cissoid.com/files/files/products/titan/CMT-


[2] P. Delatte “A High Temperature Gate Driver for Half Bridge SiC MOSFET

62mm Power Modules”, Bodo’s Power Systems, p54, September 2019

[3] CMT-TIT0697: 1200V High Temperature (125°C) Half-Bridge SiC MOSFET Gate

Driver Datasheet : http://www.cissoid.com/files/files/products/titan/CMT-


[4] High Temperature Gate Driver Primary Side IC Datasheet: DC-DC Controller

& Isolated Signal Transceivers http://www.cissoid.com/files/files/products/


[5] High Temperature Gate Driver -Secondary Side IC Datasheet: Driver &

Protection Functions http://www.cissoid.com/files/files/products/titan/CMT-


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Virtual Testing of ADAS

& AV Systems

Mike Dempsey


Edge Case


Cars today are delivered with a plethora of advanced

driver assistance systems (ADAS) such as lane keeping

assistance, adaptive cruise control, automated

emergency braking and much more. These systems

are very complex and expensive to develop and yet

the customer perception and experience with them is

often quite negative.

There are a number of factors to explain this:

customer expectations often exceed what the systems

are designed to do and it’s difficult to explain the

limitations in clear, easily understandable terms.

Another issue is that the systems are developed to

meet the regulatory requirements but these test cases

do not reflect the real world in which they need to


What does this have to do

with simulation and edge


Well, if we want to develop our ADAS features to

perform better in the real world we need to be able to

test them in scenarios that are representative of the

real world. However, it is difficult to safely recreate

real world scenarios on a physical proving ground.

For instance, we don’t really want to risk crashing our

prototype vehicle into another vehicle during a test.

But the real challenge is the number of edge cases

that need to be considered. We define an edge case

as a scenario that is individually unlikely but when

considered together, they make up all the risk.

Autonomous vehicle developers now recognise that to

achieve commercial viability their systems will need

to be trained, tested and validated on a huge number

of edge cases. Similarly, for ADAS features it is

increasingly apparent that they need to be developed

and validated on the relevant set of edge cases.

At Claytex we have been developing autonomous

vehicle simulators that are designed to support the

testing, training and validation of the vehicle systems.

We focus on scenario-based testing of the complete

system, which means we combine vehicle dynamics,

sensor models, control systems and a detailed

virtual world complete with traffic and pedestrians

to challenge the vehicle. ADAS developers can, and

should, utilise the same simulation technology as

they are using the same sensors and control methods.

The type of simulation tool that you need to

effectively test an ADAS feature or AV controller is

quite different to the simulation tools that have

been used for the past 10-20 years of vehicle

development. These are complex closed loop systems

where simplifications in any one part of the system

model can have a significant impact on the overall

capability of the system. For example, if you have a

great vehicle dynamics model with the real control

system but use a smooth road and basic animation

then it won’t present a representative scene to the

perception sensors which in turn means the object

detection will find it easy to identify and track targets.

The end result is that you will be limited in how much

you can use the simulation tools to develop, test and

validate your system.

Figure 1: Block

diagram of ADAS

and AV appropriate


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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Our simulators are built around rFpro which is a driving

simulation tool and provides our virtual environment.

A unique feature of rFpro, compared to traditional

driving simulation solutions, is that it allows driving

simulation to be used to test the vehicle dynamics of

road vehicles. By delivering a high-resolution road

surface in real time, while generating accurate, realistic

graphics without lag, professional test drivers may

contribute to the engineering process while the car

design is still model-based.

The vehicle model can be developed using any of

the major vehicle dynamics tools including Dymola,

CarMaker, CarSim, Simulink and many more. At Claytex,

we favour the use of Dymola as this allows our vehicle

model to include more than just the suspension,

we can also model the powertrain, battery, thermal

management and all the other vehicle systems.

rFpro has the industry’s largest library of digital twins

of public roads, test tracks and proving grounds,

spanning North America, Asia and Europe. These

include multi-lane highways, urban, rural, mountain

routes and automotive proving grounds, all replicated

faithfully from the real world using their unique 3D

reconstruction process.

For drivers testing aspects of vehicle dynamics, these

models come with accurately modelled digital road

surfaces, built from kinetic LiDAR surveys, using rFpro’s

TerrainServer to map the entire drivable surface to

a 1cm grid along, and across, the road. Every bump,

ripple and discontinuity will find its way through your

tyre model into your vehicle under test.

What this means for ADAS and AV development is that

we can develop the vehicle dynamics model and test

scenes to have a very high level of correlation between

the real and virtual world. This ensures that the motion

and related noise sources that affect the sensors is

captured in the simulation.

Physics-based sensor models

ADAS and AV systems rely on their perception sensors

to detect and understand the world around them.

They typically use a suite of different types of sensor

including camera, LiDAR and radar to measure the real

world and sensor fusion within the control system

to interpret the data. Detailed sensor models are

required to support the development of these systems

as when ideal sensors are used it becomes too easy

for the systems to identify and understand the scenes

and react. This leads to, for example, automated

emergency braking systems being able to identify

pedestrians much earlier in the ideal simulation

compared to the real world which could lead you down

the wrong development path.

Our camera sensors rely on the rendering capabilities

of rFpro which supports both real-time and non-realtime

simulation modes. When running in real-time

mode we can easily achieve full HD resolutions at

60fps, typically our driving simulators run at even

higher resolutions and frame rates. Camera sensors

can be calibrated to include lens distortion and tone

mapping effects that enable the simulation to match

the real camera you are using.

Figure 2:


of an RCCC


with lens


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e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Claytex has developed detailed LiDAR and radar

models that include environmental and weather

effects. For example, our real-time model of the

Velodyne Puck LiDAR sensor runs at 325 frames-persecond

and its position is updated at each frame

based on the underlying vehicle dynamics model and

rotational speed of the sensor. The weather model

has been developed using real test data to determine

the effect of rain, and other weather effects such

as fog, on range accuracy, intensity and number of


The end result is that the sensor models are capable

of generating representative data feeds that include

the appropriate noise features. To support the

training and validation of the perception systems

these data feeds are backed up with a wealth of

data such as depth maps, bounding box information,

object velocities and much more.

Figure 3: Velodyne Ultra-Puck sensor model output from

simulation of a complex scenario

Scenario based testing

Harnessing all this simulation power in an effective

way is challenging and scenario-based testing is

the most appropriate way when working on the

development of the control systems. Scenariobased

testing means that we have a way to specify

every aspect of the test including the scenery, static

objects such as traffic cones, dynamic objects such as

traffic and pedestrians, weather conditions and the

intended path for the ego vehicle. Taken together a

specific combination of these define a scenario.

This presents another big challenge which is the

definition and management of the scenarios within

some form of database. For instance, if we consider a

generic scenario where a pedestrian steps out in front

of a moving vehicle then there are a huge number of

parameter variations that we might need to consider

such as the basic mechanics of the scenario: vehicle

speed, distance from the vehicle to the pedestrian

when they step out, other traffic and parked cars; but

there are other factors such as time of day, weather

conditions, pedestrian clothing. This very quickly

leads to a huge number of potential scenarios from

one simple conceptual scenario.

As part of a collaborative R&D project we are working

with several partners on novel approaches to the

management of the scenarios and how we go about

testing and assessing the performance of your system

to identify any weak points without having to test

every possible parameter combination for every

conceivable scenario which is impractical.

Figure 4: Test scenario including pedestrians and parked

cars after a short shower has made the road surface wet

Figure 5: Same test scenario replayed at night which

presents a different challenge to the perception systems

To summarise

The effective development of ADAS features to meet

real world usage requirements can be enabled

through simulation but you will find that the tools you

need are more complex and need to integrate every

aspect of the system performance. This migration

to new and improved simulation tools to support

ADAS development is perhaps even more important

in a post-Covid world where physical testing has

become even more complicated with additional safety

requirements related to social distancing.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net




New PCB technologies enabling

New Electrical Power Applications

Highlighting the possibilities of PCB technology in the

field of power electronic substrates.


T. Gottwald,

Dr. Manuel Martina,

Christian Rößle of

Schweizer Electronics




Semiconductor Field-

Effect Transistor


Printed Circuit Board


Direct Bonded Copper /

Direct Copper Bonding


Surface Mount



Gallium nitride


Silicon carbide


Aluminum oxide


Aluminum nitride


Silicon nitride


Coefficient of thermal

The transition from mechanical to electrical power brings new challenges to

manufacturers and requires new solutions for the electrical system, where the PCB

(Printed Circuit Board) is of crucial importance.

High currents, heat dissipation of power electronic components, low inductances

and miniaturization needs are only a few of the requirements that lead to

innovative solutions on PCB level.

Chip embedding technologies are meanwhile used to embed thin bare dies of

Power Semiconductors into the PCB which leads to powerful alternatives to

conventional power electronic modules.


The global warming and the pressure on

CO2 reduction led to an increasing ratio

of Renewable Energy from wind power

plants and solar energy systems. As

these sources must be connected to the

power grid DC to AC, AC to DC, DC to DC

converters and the like are applications

of growing volume. Because the energy

of renewable sources tends to be more

costly, the total systems´ efficiency is


Due to the same reason the Automotive

Industry is under legislative pressure

to achieve their CO2 reduction targets.

That’s why hybrid and electrical

drive is bringing momentum to the

development of new solutions for

the electrification of automotive

applications. High power demand

leads to increasing challenges for high

current and for thermal management of

dissipated power losses as well.

The power conversion is done with

power semiconductors which have to

be assembled on a substrate. This can

either be a power module made from

Ceramic substrates like Direct Bonded

Copper (DBC/DCB) or with a Printed

Circuit Board (PCB).

The task of the substrate is to manage

high currents, high heat dissipation and

high switching frequencies to support

the electrical conversion of energy in

the best way.

Over the last few years PCBs

achieved an increasing share in these

applications as they typically have a

cost advantage over Ceramics. PCBs

offer the opportunity to manage the

power stage and the control board in

one single substrate while Ceramic

power stages always need to have

an additional control board and the

related interconnection architecture like

plugs and cables.

This article highlights the possibilities

of PCB technology in the field of power

electronic substrates.

136 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Fig. 1: 6-layer multilayer PCB with 4 inner layers, 400 µm

copper each.

1. Heavy copper PCBs

Heavy copper PCBs have been used in the automotive

industry for a long time, e.g. for fuse- and relay boxes.

This technology experiences a revival as the electrical

power increases in many applications. The technology

is also useful to reduce the parasitic inductance of the

conductors by using the heavy copper layers as power

lines which can be stacked one above the other in a

heavy copper multilayer.

Up to 4 layers made from 400 µm (12 oz) Copper

can be realized in the inner layers, which leads to a

potential ampacity of more than 1000 A. The outer

layers of such a heavy copper multilayer should be

kept below 150 µm. Otherwise additional effort must

be made for the solder mask process to achieve a safe

electrical insulation.

2. Power Combi-Board

The disadvantage of heavy copper PCB technology

is the incompatibility with fine pitch structures

which cannot be etched with heavy copper.

A power electronic system typically consists of a

power stage with heavy copper design and a separate

control board with standard copper thickness for

SMT assembly. The installation space must be large

enough to host both boards and the connectors

between the two boards.

With the Power Combi Board, a combination of both

requirements can be achieved. Heavy copper is

partially installed in the inner layers beside standard

copper construction. The electrical connection of the

whole board is carried out with one common outer

layer in SMT compatible copper thickness.

For heat dissipation the insulation layer between the

heavy copper layers are a barrier for optimal heat

transportation in z-axis. Heavy copper PCB technology

should therefor preferably be used to manage high

currents. Therefore, If heat dissipation is important

for the application, other technologies should also be

considered like the Inlay technology.

Fig.2: Power Combi Board: Heavy copper beside standard copper thickness for power and control in one PCB

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


3. Insulated Metal Substrates


An Insulated Metal Substrate typically consists of a

metal heat sink, a thin insulation layer and a single

copper layer on top. The construction is useful for

simple designs which host a lot of heat generating

components. For more complex components it is not

possible to do the routing with one layer only.

Today IMS substrates can also be manufactured

with more than one layer to enable the combination

of higher complexity layouts with optimized heat


The typical Aluminum back is a light weight but also

a high CTE metal. To increase the reliability of the

assembled components Copper was introduced as

heat sink metal on the back side. This also improves

the thermal capacity and other characteristic as

shown in Fig. 4

4. Inlay Technology

For minimizing the thermal resistance from the power

components to the heat sink the shortest way will

lead to the lowest thermal resistance. In most cases

the heat is dissipated in z-axis from the assembled

top side of a PCB through the board to a heat sink,

which is installed at the bottom. By laminating a

massive copper element into the PCB, the thermal

resistance can be reduced

dramatically. If the Inlay

is not only used for heat

dissipation but also for

high currents the lowest

ohmic resistance can also

be achieved.

Fig 5: Top: Top and bottom side of an inlay board for

1200 A peak currents. Bottom: Cross section through an

inlay board with 2 mm thick copper inlays in the inner


Fig. 3: Insulated Metal substrate with copper


5. Embedding Technology

When it comes to highest performance requirements

and lowest installation space, conventional solutions

encounter limitations regarding installation space

and power density. Miniaturization was the first driver

for embedding because space savings are possible

if some of the components are installed inside the

PCB instead of the outer


To improve heat

dissipation from the inside

of the PCB to the heat sink

Schweizer Electronic [3]

and Infineon Technologies

[4] developed the socalled

p² Pack® Technology

Fig.4: Comparison of characteristics Copper vs. Aluminum

138 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

which uses a power semiconductor assembled in a

lead frame which acts as a heat spreader and reduces

the thermal resistance significantly. The top side

contacts are connected with a heavy copper layer

using copper filled micro vias which replace the bond

wires, which typically are used in conventional power

modules. With this technology not only the heat

dissipation but also electrical parameters could be

improved as follows.

Electrical performance

On State Resistance: The part of the package

resistance associated with the bond wires is virtually

eliminated with chip embedding. The exact value

depends on the respective semiconductor technology

generation, the voltage class, and the semiconductor


Thermal Resistance: Due to the excellent heat

spreading which is achieved with a lead frame in

p² Pack technology the systems thermal resistance

significantly improves. Also, the thermal impedance

and therefor the robustness of the devices is

therefore improved due to the thermal capacity of

the lead frame.

Switching performance: Low parasitic inductance

is achieved as a result of the almost flat connection

between the top of the chip and the vias, and short

distances between the DC-link capacitors and power

semiconductors. This enables faster switching, with

lower losses especially with fast switching devices

like GaN and SiC semiconductors.

Miniaturization: Many systems for current and

future applications need to be shrinked while

simultaneously providing additional functionality.

Chip embedding can save valuable space on PCB


Higher Reliability: Replacing bond wires or DCB

ceramics substantially increases reliability. In power

cycling tests with a temperature difference dT of 120

K, designs were able to withstand more than 700,000

active cycles.

System Cost Reduction: With savings on plug

connectors and cables, optimized cooling, reductions

in required chip surface areas for power components,

smaller passive components, fewer EMC issues, the

insulation already built in and overall space savings,

system cost savings are considerable.

Figure 6: Cross section of a Smart p² Pack

power PCB (top) and a half bridge (bottom).

Fig. 7: Inverter PCB in Smart p² Pack

Technology. Top: partly X-Ray image

showing the Standard Cells in top view.

Bottom: Cross section of Smart p² Pack showing

the embedded Standard Cells in side


e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Picture perfect E-mobility assembly.

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in focus. From Intelligent Manual Workstations and Position Control Stands (PKS) to EC-Servo

Screwdrivers and CleanFeed Systems, DEPRAG’s advanced assembly tools help you address the

challenges of e-mobility assembly. For e-mobility, DEPRAG is your best shot.

Find out more at www.deprag.com

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Roadmap to high voltage

and Wide Bandgap


PCB embedding technologies like the p² Pack

technology will enhance the performance of

power electronic applications. Due to its´ very low

parasitic inductance this new technology supports

low loss switching at high frequencies which is of

utmost importance when so called wide band gap

semiconductors come into play. The next generation

of Automotive drives, which will be equipped with SiC

and with GaN devices, is already in development and

showing outstanding results. [2]

With a built-in insulation it will be possible to

assemble the Smart p² Pack directly on the Heat sink.

The TIM (Thermal Interface Material) can be chosen

either as electrically non-conductive or as electrically

conductive material.

Additional features

Standardization and modularization are important

factors for the success of a new technology. Therefore,

half bridge designs were built as demonstrators with

current sensing by using shunt elements for the

measurement of the phase current of an electrical

motor. As shunts are relatively large components,

miniaturization efforts are supported while reliability

improves: Solder joints are replaced by micro – vias

for the connection to the board.

By embedding the shunt into the p² Pack the heat

dissipation from the shunt is improved dramatically

which increases the possibility to use shunts for

current measurements even for very high currents e.g.

300 A per phase.


New PCB technologies have the potential to support

e-mobility systems by minimizing form factors,

increasing the systems´ performance and by reducing

the system cost when determined on system level.

The embedding of power electronic devices is able

to replace conventional power modules, which

also improves system performance and reliability

significantly and is useful for low voltage applications

with highest currents as well as for wide band gap

devices in high voltage applications. [2], [5]


The authors acknowledge the contribution of Infineon

Technologies AG and the Schweizer Electronics’ Innovations

Team to this work.


[1] Adrian Röhrich and Christian Rössle, Chip Embedding

of Power Semiconductors in Power Circuit Boards, ATZ

elektronics worldwide, 06/2018

[2] C. Marczok, M. Martina, M. Laumen, S. Richter, A. Birkhold,

B. Flieger, O. Wendt, T. Päsler: SiC modul - Modular hightemperature

SiC power electronics for fail-safe power

control in electrical drive engineering. Proceedings CIPS

2020, 11th International Conference on Integrated Power

Electronics Systems

[3] https://www.schweizer.ag/de/produkteundloesungen/


[4] https://www.infineon.com/cms/en/about-infineon/


[5] Thomas Gottwald, Christian Roessle : Minimizing form

factor and parasitic inductances of Power Electronic

Modules: The p² Pack Technology. 7th Electronic System-

Integration Technology Conference (ESTC 2018)

Figure 9: X-Ray image of a Half-Bridge design

with embedded shunt (right). X-sectional view

of Half-Bridge design with embedded shunt in

the middle (bottom)

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Production system

for Lithium-Ion

modules and packs


With our technology and manufacturing

solution you can achieve your goals in the

most efficient manner.

Meet us there!



e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020









The energy consumption of electric

buses has proven to be more sensitive

to driving style and external conditions,

such as ambient temperature, than their

fossil fuelled cousins. This sensitivity,

coupled with a shorter range and the

need to opportunity charge during

the day, means that the operations in

public transport are exposed to more

volatility as well as planning uncertainty.

This volatility requires bus operators to

invest in additional battery capacity or to

acquire more assets in order to service a

concession. Or, alternatively, to adopt new

tools and technologies that bring more

visibility and adaptability to the operation.

From an economical and sustainability

point of view, the latter would seem the

better choice.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


Towards operational

excellence in zero-emission

public transport

In this magazine, we have previously covered some

of the innovations coming out of the Cloud-Your-Bus

(CYB) programme co-funded by EMEurope. CYB is a

consortium of a group of technology leaders and

technical universities and with a mission to create

operational excellence in zero-emission public

transport. This article deals with a unique algorithm

that has been developed by the Technical University

of Eindhoven (TU/e) together with IoT and telematics

company Sycada and which allows for accurate SoC

prediction at the end of a route just shortly after that

the vehicle has commenced its journey.

The SoC prediction challenge,

closer to solved

Accurately predicting the energy consumption

of a bus on a given route is one of those critical

tools, but it is not a trivial task to accomplish a

high level of accuracy. Current energy consumption

prediction models suffer from several practical and

computational limitations and, more often than

not, fail to factor in environmental and contextual

parameters. Hence they have limited real value in

a dynamic operational or bus planning context. As

a result, most, if not all, bus operators plan their

zero-emissions operations based on limited historical

datasets for buses and routes. But these estimations

are inherently inaccurate with an error margin up to


The online energy consumption prediction model

developed by the TU/e and Sycada in the context of

CYB has shown to bring this error margin down to an

average close to 1%.

When made available to bus operators, this more

accurate information can facilitate better and faster

decision making and help optimise route and charge

planning throughout the day. This in turn has a

massive positive impact on both capital (Capex) and

operational (Opex) expenses and will help accelerate

the transition to zero-emission public transport in

Europe and beyond.

themselves was to develop a prediction algorithm for

electric city buses which does not rely on plenty of

vehicle parameters and time series to be accurate. In

fact, the model only requires two parameters, along

with a chosen route and its recorded characteristics,

to be updated in real-time.

The model is divided in two parts: an offline and

an online algorithm. The offline model uses the

historical data to generate an initial estimate of the

energy consumption. The online model will correct

the prediction result by adjusting the vehicle mass

value. Additionally, the online approach is based on

a recursive algorithm to adjust only two parameters,

which greatly reduces the complexity and practical

(computing) limitations during the operation.

Offline estimates based on

historical data

For a given route from location A to location B,

relevant data can be collected repeatedly to establish

a historical energy usage database. The essential

signals consist of the time of day, vehicle location

and speed, battery voltage, battery current, drivetrain

voltage and drivetrain current. These datasets are

collected via a wireless gateway that connects to

the CANbus system(s) in the bus. Assuming that the

sampling frequency is identical for all signal channels

and the data lengths for all channels are identical, the

reference profile and reference auxiliary power profile

can be obtained. Using the profiles, the initial energy

consumption estimate can be done.

The figure below shows the energy consumption

(black line as reference profile) for a specific route

calculated based on measured drive-train and

auxiliary power profiles over 16 different cycles.

Because the vehicle mass is assumed as a constant,

and the time for operating the auxiliary system is

fixed, the estimated total energy consumption for the

investigated route is fixed as well.

A new algorithmic approach

The challenge that the CYB researchers gave

144 e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net

e-mobility Technology International | Vol 7 | Winter 2020

Online corrections with

tuning parameters

However, in case of electric city buses the drive-train

power request is significantly influenced by the load

of passengers being carried for a particular trip on

a given route. The auxiliary request is influenced

by several factors, one of the most dominant is

ventilation and air conditioning. Both of these terms

are subject to change as the trip progresses and

requires the algorithm to make relevant corrections in

real time. The two parameters needed to be updated

are mass-estimate for drive-train power estimation

and correction gain-estimate for auxiliary estimation.

All other influencing factors on energy estimation are

considered as perturbation.

Input for adaptive line and

charge planning

“The practical usability of the model is twofold”, says

Kristian Winge, CEO of Sycada. “Firstly, it allows for

early flagging of critical deviations from assumptions

that can ruin the current day-to-day operational

planning and hence require adaptations. Secondly, it

allows for continuous improvements in tactical lineand

charge planning by creating more transparency

in the impact of passenger load, environmental

factors, seasonality and time of day on energy usage


Impressive level of prediction


Live test results confirm that the real-time estimation

model is an advanced system capable of estimating

the approximate energy consumed by the electric

city bus over the given route well in time, and is also

producing robust results over different data cycles.

In offline estimations the absolute error over some

cycles would go as high as 40 % and on an average

remains at 18.5%. On the other hand in real-time

(online) energy estimations the absolute error were

under 4 % and on an average remains 1.2%.

This illustrates the superior performance of the realtime

energy estimation system developed by TU/e

and Sycada.

In the adjacent figure the results are compiled for the

progression of the absolute error in estimation for all

available data cycles with the reference profile used

as base data profile. It can be seen that, as more data

is made available, the resulting error rate decreases

and eventually becomes bounded around zero. The

performance of the real-time energy estimation is

exceptionally good in the region from around 20-25%

of the travelled distance along the route.

The new model is particularly useful in public

transport operations where the distance for lines and

rotations are known and fixed.

e-mobility Technology International | www.e-motec.net


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