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Maintworld 3/2020

Maintworld magazine - maintenance & asset management Maintenance and reliability in the pandemic PEOPLE, THE MOST VALUABLE ASSET IN YOUR ORGANIZATION UNITED NATIONS OF AUTOMATION ČSPÚ 20 YEARS OF CZECH INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE

Maintworld magazine - maintenance & asset management
Maintenance and reliability in the pandemic
PEOPLE, THE MOST VALUABLE ASSET IN YOUR ORGANIZATION
UNITED NATIONS OF AUTOMATION
ČSPÚ 20 YEARS OF CZECH INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE

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3/<strong>2020</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

Maintenance<br />

and reliability<br />

in the pandemic p 8<br />

PEOPLE, THE MOST VALUABLE ASSET IN YOUR ORGANIZATION PG 24 UNITED NATIONS OF AUTOMATION PG 32 ČSPÚ 20 YEARS OF CZECH INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE PG 46


You need knowledge. Your colleagues need knowledge.<br />

Techniques, solutions, strategy, and the business case - it is all<br />

critical knowledge.<br />

Whether your focus is condition monitoring or the bigger<br />

picture of reliability improvement, our websites, live events,<br />

and worldwide communities provide easy access to the<br />

information you need.<br />

We invite you to be part of MOBIUS CONNECT. With MOBIUS<br />

CONNECT you can...<br />

• Learn and share<br />

• Customize your learning pathway<br />

• Continue your educational journey, live or online<br />

• Engage with industry leaders from around the world<br />

www.mobiusconnect.com<br />

The maintenance and<br />

reliability industry’s<br />

professional network.


Find<br />

Your<br />

Learning<br />

Path<br />

Join thousands of other industry professionals by creating your free<br />

custom profile today at https://mobiusconnect.com/<br />

DOWNLOAD THE MOBILE APP


Turn Your Remote Workers<br />

Into Remote Experts<br />

Now more than ever we need to make our workforce more<br />

efficient, productive, and safe to stay ahead in this current<br />

climate. With Remote Expert, companies with a highly mobile<br />

workforce are able to do just that. Learn how connected field<br />

worker solutions enable organizations to keep more accurate<br />

records of where their workforce are, and at what times, and<br />

allow them to more intelligently schedule worker tasks.<br />

Learn more about this and other digital transformation<br />

solutions by checking out ICONICS’ virtual event:<br />

iconics.com/Connect<strong>2020</strong>


Automatically Detect Faults<br />

ROI Typically Within 12 to 18 Months<br />

Library of Preconfigured Fault Rules<br />

Rich Visualization and Reporting<br />

Predict, Reduce and Eliminate Downtime<br />

Improve Maintenance Efficiency


EDITORIAL<br />

People are Key –<br />

Also in the Digital Age<br />

THE TREND OF DIGITALIZATION IN<br />

MAINTENANCE IS definitely pushing<br />

through. And the proof is in the pudding,<br />

because the first virtual conference<br />

on digital strategies and new<br />

technologies in maintenance & asset<br />

management, Asset Performance 4.0,<br />

welcomed over 670 participants who<br />

enjoyed more than 100 presentations<br />

and keynotes on the future of maintenance.<br />

In his opening keynote, Knud<br />

Lasse Lueth, CEO of IOT Analytics,<br />

stated that an overwhelming amount<br />

of companies say Industry 4.0 creates<br />

value for them. 78 percent of companies<br />

experimenting with 4.0 technologies see a positive ROI change. But they still<br />

face major challenges. It is no surprise that the main challenge is investing in people,<br />

training and cultural change. In an all-technology era, the human factor still<br />

stays the most important.<br />

This vision is shared by Terrence O’Hanlon of ReliabilityWeb: “You need technology<br />

and processes, but ultimately, you need leadership because everything<br />

depends on the people”, he stated in his keynote, “4.0 technology alone will not get<br />

you reliability, the first step is to empower your workforce.”<br />

I takes two to tango<br />

Where technicians in the past manually inspected machines and manually scheduled<br />

repairs, 4.0 technologies allow us to let machines do the thinking: they can detect<br />

the failures, report them automatically, and, when needed, schedule in a maintenance<br />

intervention automatically. In coming years, we will depend more and<br />

more on Artificial Intelligence to tell us what to do and when to do it. But before<br />

we are there, the algorithms will need to learn from the knowledge and experience<br />

in the head of our technicians and engineers. And the technicians and engineers<br />

will need to learn how to learn from the algorithms.<br />

Huge gap<br />

Research by BEMAS, the Belgian Maintenance Association, with some companies<br />

adopting maintenance and industry 4.0 technology, revealed a huge gap between<br />

what workers and managers should know about AI and their current competency<br />

level.<br />

Covid-19 accelerated the digital revolution, which is having an impact on 4.0,<br />

too. Remote working inspires many companies for having remote monitoring. As<br />

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella put it at Asset performance 4.0: “We have seen two<br />

years’ worth of digital transformation in two months”. The ball of digitalisation is<br />

rolling. If you are active in the field of maintenance, reliability and asset management,<br />

then it is time to step up your digital skills…<br />

6 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

Wim Vancauwenberghe<br />

Maintenance Evangelist.<br />

48<br />

Acoustic<br />

signals are<br />

grouped into three risk<br />

classes depending on their<br />

number, activity, intensity<br />

and location.


IN THIS ISSUE 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

30<br />

Historically,<br />

condition<br />

monitoring of balanced<br />

machine bogie wheel bearings<br />

has been challenging.<br />

=<br />

38<br />

The<br />

best organizations<br />

reduce reactive maintenance<br />

to less than 10 percent of all<br />

work.<br />

8<br />

Maintenance and reliability in the<br />

pandemic<br />

14<br />

ssisting Maintenance Technicians in<br />

Today’s Work Environment<br />

18<br />

22<br />

24<br />

Achieve Greater Efficiencies in<br />

Maintenance Scheduling Automatically<br />

Failures and Diagnostics of<br />

Asynchronous Motors.<br />

People, the Most Valuable Asset<br />

in your Organization<br />

26<br />

28<br />

30<br />

32<br />

Low Rotation Speed Machine<br />

Control Using Ultrasound<br />

Wireless Sensors Can Now Replace<br />

Traditional Systems in Condition<br />

Monitoring<br />

Detection of Bearing Defects on<br />

Balanced Machine Bogies<br />

United Nations of Automation<br />

34<br />

The Skills Gap and the<br />

Covid-19 Impact<br />

38<br />

42<br />

46<br />

48<br />

Reliability and Maintenance (RM)<br />

Management: Are You Doing<br />

the Wrong Things?<br />

Disaggregated Asset Structure<br />

and Taxonomy<br />

ČSPÚ 20 years of Czech<br />

industrial maintenance<br />

Acoustic Emission Testing<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher Omnipress Oy,<br />

Väritehtaankatu 8, 4. kerros, 01300 Vantaa, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas<br />

tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com<br />

Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@<br />

media.fi Printed by Reusner, www.reusner.ee Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 7


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

Maintenance and Reliability<br />

in the Pandemic<br />

A well-run maintenance and reliability improvement program must monitor the<br />

economic and competitive environment and adjust accordingly. We must ask<br />

questions such as: can we invest more money or be conservative, is the goal<br />

higher production or cost reduction, and so on. That could never be truer about the<br />

situation we face today.<br />

JASON TRANTER,<br />

ARP-L<br />

Mobius Institute<br />

IT IS WORTH CONSIDERING two possible<br />

approaches: a conservative approach to<br />

weather the storm, and an aggressive<br />

approach to take advantage of vulnerable<br />

competitors.<br />

A conservative approach<br />

If the plan is to “hunker down and<br />

weather the storm”, then it is important<br />

that the reliability improvement strategy<br />

is adjusted accordingly. The focus<br />

will be on minimizing costs.<br />

Let’s quickly review some opportunities.<br />

EQUIPMENT FAILURE<br />

If we experience fewer failures, then we<br />

avoid the costs of repairing the equipment:<br />

parts, materials, and overtime<br />

labor.<br />

Pareto analysis can tell you which<br />

items of equipment are costing you the<br />

most. If our Pareto analysis only tells<br />

us which items fail most frequently, that<br />

will be useful, but if we know the costs<br />

associated with each failure, then we<br />

will know exactly which items of equipment<br />

we should focus on.<br />

Once we know which equipment is<br />

the biggest drain on our maintenance<br />

budget, we can investigate why the<br />

equipment is failing, and what we can<br />

do about it. We can implement proactive<br />

steps (lubrication, cleaning, etc.)<br />

we can consider cost-effective reliability<br />

improvement tasks (eliminating the<br />

root cause) and we can ensure we have<br />

condition monitoring and inspections<br />

in place so that we can see the problems<br />

coming.<br />

Equipment failures also impact production<br />

output and potentially safety/<br />

environment, but we will discuss that<br />

separately.<br />

STOREROOM INVENTORY<br />

There is a great deal of money tied up in<br />

spares/material inventory and the holding<br />

costs can be a drain on the business.<br />

In many countries/regions the tax<br />

system requires organizations to treat<br />

the inventory as an asset and thus tax<br />

must be paid. If you are holding parts or<br />

materials that have not been fully depreciated<br />

but are no longer required in your<br />

plant then you may be able to sell those<br />

parts, even if it is just for scrap. They may<br />

not be required to be held in inventory for<br />

a few reasons:<br />

• They are too old to be used<br />

• You have changed the design of the<br />

process and those parts/spares will<br />

not be required<br />

• You are holding such a high volume<br />

that a reduction would not have an<br />

impact for a very long time (but you<br />

will need to weigh up the benefits<br />

8 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

of selling those assets versus the<br />

likelihood that you will have to<br />

repurchase them in the future)<br />

It is also important to evaluate where<br />

the inventory is being held, and the<br />

restocking policy.<br />

HOLD INVENTORY WITH<br />

A TRUSTED VENDOR<br />

If you have a clear understanding of the<br />

likelihood of equipment failure and the<br />

lead time available to order the necessary<br />

parts, then you can consider holding<br />

stock with a supplier (i.e. at their<br />

facility and not yours and you do not<br />

pay for them until you need them) and<br />

you can reduce the quantity ordered<br />

when stocks are low. It is unfortunately<br />

common for purchasing departments<br />

to order higher volumes, especially if<br />

there is a volume discount. When times<br />

are tough, it is even more important to<br />

review those decisions.<br />

KNOWING WHICH SPARES<br />

WILL BE REQUIRED<br />

One key element of this is the requirement<br />

to understand the future demand<br />

for spares and material. If the plant<br />

suffers a high level of reactive maintenance,<br />

then we will need quick access to<br />

the necessary parts and materials which<br />

probably means holding a larger inventory.<br />

Pareto analysis will tell you which<br />

equipment fails most frequently which<br />

helps you to plan which spares must be<br />

held on site. But Pareto analysis is based<br />

on historical data - we are worried<br />

about the future.<br />

SEE PROBLEMS COMING<br />

With an effective condition monitoring<br />

program, we can see the problems coming<br />

with enough time to order the parts<br />

without having to pay a premium for<br />

the parts or their transportation. Pareto<br />

analysis, criticality analysis, and a clear<br />

understanding of failure modes will<br />

enable us to review whether we have the<br />

appropriate condition monitoring and<br />

inspections in place.<br />

If we can reduce the number of failures<br />

through improved reliability, and<br />

gain an earlier warning of future failures,<br />

we can reduce our inventory and<br />

order fewer replacements when stock<br />

gets low.<br />

OVERTIME REDUCTION<br />

Overtime that results from equipment<br />

breakdowns will obviously be reduced if<br />

there are fewer failures, which we have<br />

already discussed. But if you have an<br />

effective condition monitoring program,<br />

and an effective planning and scheduling<br />

system, then you can perform the corrective<br />

maintenance work more efficiently<br />

and avoid the necessity to perform that<br />

work outside of normal hours.<br />

QUALITY LOSSES<br />

Every organization wants high first pass<br />

quality, but it is especially important<br />

when the organization must reduce its<br />

costs. You must understand the needs<br />

of your business so that you understand<br />

the importance of improving quality. The<br />

costs associated with poor quality can<br />

include:<br />

1. Wasting precious materials if the<br />

product is scrapped<br />

2. Wasting energy (and incurring<br />

overtime labor costs) during<br />

rework or catchup production<br />

3. Regulatory fines and other<br />

potential costs when disposing of<br />

poor-quality product<br />

There are two basic ways to address<br />

this issue. One is to wear an Engineer’s<br />

hat and look at the logic of how quality<br />

is being affected, and the second is to<br />

wear an Journalists’ hat and engage with<br />

people to understand what they have<br />

observed that impacts quality.<br />

Ultimately, we need to perform root<br />

cause analysis to understand what is at<br />

the heart of quality losses so it can understand<br />

what we can do to eliminate them.<br />

WASTE<br />

Every business needs to reduce waste,<br />

but it is especially important when the<br />

focus is on reducing costs. Downtime,<br />

quality losses, inefficiencies, and excess<br />

spares/material inventory are all forms<br />

of waste which we have already discussed.<br />

If you are engaging with operators<br />

and technicians and asking them for<br />

their observations and ideas for improvement,<br />

you will learn about all<br />

forms of waste. If you conduct plant<br />

walk-throughs and you stop and<br />

observe people going about their work,<br />

you will observe many forms of waste.<br />

Your challenge is to assess which cost<br />

the business the most and then set<br />

about eliminating those forms of waste.<br />

WHAT ABOUT DOWNTIME REDUCTION?<br />

Downtime may be more tolerable if<br />

there is reduced demand for the product<br />

being manufactured. If you provide<br />

a service, wastewater treatment for<br />

example, then the requirement to<br />

minimize downtime will not change.<br />

Only you understand your organization.<br />

If reducing downtime is still critically<br />

important, then all the normal goals<br />

apply. Reducing equipment failure and<br />

effective planning and scheduling<br />

(supported by effective condition monitoring)<br />

will help you reduce downtime.<br />

What about safety and the environment?<br />

Safety, environmental protection, and<br />

regulatory compliance apply regardless of<br />

the business conditions, so we must never<br />

lose focus on those critical areas.<br />

WHAT NOT TO DO<br />

A common reaction to the demand to<br />

reduce costs is to cut out all training and<br />

reduce the maintenance department<br />

headcount.<br />

Given that the author runs a training<br />

business, I obviously have a conflict of<br />

10 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

a great opportunity to leap forward and<br />

grab market share. Who knows, maybe<br />

we can become strong enough to acquire<br />

a competitor.<br />

One of the ways to grab market share<br />

is to offer a higher quality product, in<br />

greater volume, at a lower cost.<br />

HIGHER QUALITY<br />

You must examine what it takes to improve<br />

quality and determine whether you<br />

have any influence over those factors.<br />

We discussed this in the previous section,<br />

although in that case our primary goal<br />

was to reduce costs.<br />

GREATER VOLUME<br />

There is a relationship between product<br />

cost and volume. If you reduce your<br />

internal costs in the ways discussed in<br />

the previous section and you can produce<br />

more product, you can reduce the price<br />

of your product or service and still be<br />

profitable. If you reduce the price of your<br />

product or service, and there is additional<br />

demand for that product or service, then<br />

there will be a need to increase your<br />

capacity to deliver on the higher volume.<br />

Equipment reliability is obviously<br />

important when there is a requirement<br />

to increase output. But there are several<br />

factors that ultimately impact on output:<br />

EVERY ORGANIZATION WANTS HIGH FIRST PASS QUALITY,<br />

BUT IT IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT WHEN THE ORGANIZATION<br />

MUST REDUCE ITS COSTS.<br />

interest, however if people are not<br />

skilled or qualified to perform their<br />

roles they will make mistakes which<br />

will cost the business more money.<br />

The good news is that virtual training,<br />

and elearning, are less expensive<br />

than instructor-led public training.<br />

Reducing headcount is also counterproductive.<br />

You need people to<br />

perform the proactive tasks of cleaning,<br />

lubricating, adjusting, inspecting,<br />

and monitoring equipment condition<br />

in order to avoid future failures.<br />

When you cut the headcount,<br />

not only does impact morale, but the<br />

number of equipment failures will<br />

increase.<br />

THE MAIN MESSAGE<br />

There are basically two ways to reduce<br />

costs: cut and slash versus improving<br />

efficiency and reducing waste.<br />

History has told us that the organizations<br />

that cut and slash do not succeed<br />

unless the situation is truly urgent. Improving<br />

efficiency, improving quality<br />

and throughput, and reducing waste in<br />

all its forms (which includes equipment<br />

failures) not only helps an organization<br />

through a crisis but it sets it up for future<br />

success.<br />

An aggressive approach<br />

When the market is down, and your<br />

competitors are struggling, it presents<br />

INCREASE THE OVERALL EQUIPMENT<br />

EFFECTIVENESS (OEE)<br />

The OEE is a measure of our ability to<br />

produce the saleable product. An OEE<br />

of 100% means the equipment is always<br />

available, it is able to operate at 100% of<br />

the desired rate, and there are no quality<br />

losses. We have discussed quality but let<br />

us take a quick look at the other factors.<br />

Obviously, reliability affects the<br />

availability. Eliminating the root causes<br />

of failure will increase the reliability of<br />

the equipment. Condition monitoring,<br />

effective planning and scheduling, and<br />

effective spares management ensure that<br />

periods of downtime are minimized.<br />

But there are other factors that affect<br />

availability and production rate:<br />

• We must minimize the number of<br />

minor stoppages. They will not be<br />

recorded officially as “downtime,”<br />

but they still reduce our ability to<br />

produce product. Minor stoppages<br />

may be due to reliability issues,<br />

operator error, and for several other<br />

reasons. You must understand<br />

what those reasons are. Pareto<br />

analysis can help in this regard,<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 11


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

but only if the length of the delay<br />

and the reason for the delay are<br />

recorded.<br />

• We must minimize changeover<br />

losses. If you use the same equipment<br />

to produce different products,<br />

and there is a delay while<br />

equipment is set up for the new<br />

product run, then it is critically<br />

important to reduce those delays.<br />

The best analogy is the racecar<br />

pit crew. They can change the<br />

tires, refuel, and perform repairs<br />

in a fraction of the time it would<br />

take you or me because they have<br />

streamlined the process and<br />

they are prepared before the car<br />

reaches the pit. We must investigate<br />

how we can achieve optimal<br />

levels of efficiency.<br />

• We must also examine the production<br />

rate, i.e., the number<br />

of widgets per hour. Why is the<br />

equipment unable to operate at<br />

the desired rate? Is it possible<br />

to operate at a higher rate? We<br />

must answer those questions and<br />

address the root causes.<br />

A traditional reliability specialist<br />

might look at these items and believe<br />

that they are outside their sphere of<br />

influence and experience to attempt to<br />

address these issues. The author humbly<br />

disagrees. If you engage with people,<br />

ask for their suggestions and ideas, but<br />

do not wear maintenance/reliability<br />

blinkers, you will find ways to eliminate<br />

waste and increase production output.<br />

If you are smart enough to be involved<br />

with maintenance and reliability, you<br />

will be able to handle any opportunities<br />

for improvement that are revealed.<br />

INCREASE PLANT CAPACITY<br />

Plant capacity can be affected by seasonal<br />

factors, limited product demand,<br />

and other factors. But one of the major<br />

contributors to restricted plant capacity<br />

is scheduled maintenance (shutdowns,<br />

turnarounds, and outages).<br />

At one extreme, a plant with poor<br />

reliability, a lack of understanding of<br />

the failure mechanisms and reliability<br />

theory, and ineffective planning, will<br />

suffer frequent long outages.<br />

At the other extreme:<br />

• A plant with higher reliability will<br />

have less work to perform during<br />

the outage and the time between<br />

outages can be extended.<br />

• A plant that understands reliability<br />

theory will utilize condition-based<br />

maintenance and thus<br />

perform less time-based maintenance.<br />

As a result, less work will<br />

be required during the outage.<br />

• A plant with an effective planning<br />

process, with written procedures<br />

for every task, and kitting and<br />

staging, will ensure that the time<br />

during the outage is used efficiently.<br />

• A plant with highly skilled and<br />

motivated maintenance technicians<br />

who have the training<br />

and tools to perform precision<br />

maintenance, will perform the<br />

necessary work correctly the first<br />

time. Rework will not be required,<br />

and infant mortality failures will<br />

be eliminated. The plant will<br />

start up the first time and begin<br />

producing quality products more<br />

quickly.<br />

• And a plant with documented<br />

startup procedures will ensure<br />

the equipment is not stressed<br />

during startup thus eliminating<br />

operator driven infant mortality<br />

failures.<br />

LOWER COST<br />

There is a great deal you can do to create<br />

an environment where your company<br />

can reduce the price of its products<br />

or cost of your service.<br />

As described above in the “conservative<br />

approach” section, you can<br />

eliminate failures and waste to reduce<br />

the cost of doing business. It is worth<br />

noting, however, if you increase output<br />

without increasing overhead costs, the<br />

cost-per-unit-product goes down even<br />

before you focus on cost reduction.<br />

What will you do?<br />

You must decide what changes you can<br />

make in the shortest period of time (given<br />

that this is an urgent situation), and<br />

the relative importance of quality versus<br />

output versus cost. The more you<br />

understand about your organization, its<br />

goals, constraints, risks, and opportunities,<br />

the more likely you will be to survive<br />

this difficult period, and potentially<br />

flourish.<br />

12 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


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UE SYSTEMS<br />

www.uesystems.com<br />

info@uesystems.com<br />

CONTACT US FOR AN<br />

ONSITE DEMONSTRATION


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

MELISSA TOPP,<br />

Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS,<br />

melissa@iconics.com<br />

Safety (and Productivity) in Numbers<br />

ASSISTING MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS IN TODAY’S WORK ENVIRONMENT<br />

The working environment for today’s maintenance technicians is tricky. The<br />

COVID-19 pandemic has certainly changed the way that many people perform<br />

their jobs around the world. At the same time, many maintenance technicians<br />

may have found that their workload hasn’t changed too much, or may have<br />

increased due to related factors. In either case, the work still needs to be done<br />

and it’s often reassuring for on-site techs to know, sometimes through modern<br />

technology, that they’re not alone in their responsibilities.<br />

14 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

ICONICS (https://iconics.com), a global<br />

automation software developer and member<br />

of the Mitsubishi Electric Group, has<br />

created multiple software tools that can<br />

help maintenance technicians, and other<br />

employees throughout an organization,<br />

remain productive while simultaneously<br />

adhering to current social distancing<br />

requirements. A specific combination of<br />

these solutions; featuring connected field<br />

worker/remote expert capability, IIoT<br />

connectivity, and fault detection and diagnostics<br />

(FDD); is specifically recommended<br />

for those involved with maintenance<br />

management and operations.<br />

Connected Field Worker<br />

/Remote Expert<br />

Since the emergence of the COVID-19<br />

pandemic, many organizations with maintenance<br />

requirements have sought the<br />

right combination of employee collaboration<br />

mixed with required social distancing.<br />

To aid in these efforts, ICONICS has<br />

introduced its CFSWorX connected field<br />

service solution, with integrated remote<br />

expert feature. CFSWorX empowers organizations<br />

to alert the right field worker<br />

to respond to equipment service needs. It<br />

THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC HAS<br />

CHANGED THE WAY THAT<br />

MANY PEOPLE PERFORM THEIR<br />

JOBS AROUND THE WORLD.<br />

contains a set of digital tools that provide<br />

real-time monitoring of field equipment,<br />

real-time monitoring of service worker<br />

availability and location, and alerts to<br />

field workers when field equipment requires<br />

service.<br />

In addition, CFSWorX can be integrated<br />

with Remote Expert assistance<br />

features. In this challenging time, companies<br />

are embracing video conferencing,<br />

chat, and dispatching of remote experts<br />

to resolve issues and provide support and<br />

collaboration. CFSWorX with Remote<br />

Expert functionality helps to guide field<br />

technicians and customers with live annotations,<br />

as well as utilizes live video<br />

and audio streaming with remote experts<br />

to improve issue resolution and remote<br />

knowledge sharing. This solution can<br />

be used through technicians’ existing<br />

mobile devices, as well as through headmounted<br />

computing devices such as RealWear’s<br />

HMT-1, for instance.<br />

NOTE: ICONICS is offering FREE use of<br />

its CFSWorX solution for the remainder<br />

of <strong>2020</strong> for new applications. Those interested<br />

can inquire about the free trial offer<br />

at https://iconics.com/CFSWorX-free.<br />

IIoT Connectivity<br />

How does IIoT connectivity assist with<br />

these same safety and productivity concerns?<br />

IoT-integrated software can provide<br />

the trusted connection to an organization’s<br />

equipment to provide extensive<br />

remote monitoring and KPI analysis,<br />

which can assist in maintenance task<br />

assignment. Real-time conditions can<br />

be determined off site, which can sometimes<br />

reduce the need for on-site investigation<br />

or determine a reduced number<br />

of required personnel. IoT-connected<br />

software also helps to provide the upto-the-minute<br />

detailed information<br />

that maintenance personnel need when<br />

they are required to be on site. ICONICS<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 15


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

IoTWorX IoT software for any edge<br />

device provides the bridge between an<br />

enterprise and ICONICS’ HMI/SCADA,<br />

data analytics, and mobile solutions running<br />

in the cloud. Customers are able to<br />

take advantage of key IoT technologies<br />

including connectivity to digital assets,<br />

secure cloud communications, and builtin<br />

real-time data visualization.<br />

NOTE: ICONICS has announced virtual<br />

machine offers on the Microsoft Azure<br />

Marketplace that contain the complete<br />

installation of GENESIS64, Hyper<br />

Historian, IoTWorX, and AnalytiX®<br />

Suite, currently available for the recently<br />

released version 10.96.1 and previous<br />

version 10.96. Leveraging these virtual<br />

machine offers on Azure accelerates the<br />

onboarding of new projects or lets users<br />

quickly test out new functionality without<br />

lengthy installation times or having to<br />

procure new hardware or equipment from<br />

IT. Visit https://iconics.com/azureoffers<br />

for more info.<br />

Fault Detection and<br />

Diagnostics (FDD)<br />

In tandem with IoTWorX IoT connectivity<br />

integration, ICONICS’ Fault Detection<br />

and Diagnostics (FDD) technology<br />

can help determine whether certain<br />

conditions warrant an on-site technician<br />

in the first place. ICONICS FDDWorX<br />

incorporates algorithms that weigh the<br />

probability of faults and advises management,<br />

operators, and maintenance personnel<br />

of actions to prevent equipment<br />

16 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

failures or excessive use of energy. When<br />

equipment failures occur, the solution<br />

provides automatic guidance to a list of<br />

causes sorted by probability, resulting<br />

in reduced downtime and lower costs to<br />

diagnose and repair.<br />

FDDWorX collects equipment process<br />

data using industry-standard data<br />

collection mechanisms. It can automatically<br />

generate alert notifications and<br />

reports. Operators can use real-time<br />

displays to analyze relevant data such<br />

as the status of equipment operating<br />

outside rules parameters. FDDWorX<br />

helps organizations evolve from a legacy<br />

break-fix maintenance method to a more<br />

proactive one, using insights from data<br />

analyses to make smarter technician<br />

assignments and decisions, including<br />

whether or not to even send personnel<br />

on site at all.<br />

Connections for the Task<br />

at Hand<br />

The successful maintenance departments,<br />

and organizations in general, that<br />

emerge from this global pandemic will be<br />

those that can make rational, data-driven<br />

decisions to safely keep their business<br />

processes up and running. Such decisionmaking<br />

is enabled through vendors such<br />

as ICONICS and through modern software<br />

solutions such as CFSWorX, IoT-<br />

WorX, and FDDWorX. This combination<br />

of software tools can help maintenance<br />

departments triage which job tickets absolutely<br />

require on-site technicians, help<br />

decide which field worker is best to assign<br />

and seamlessly notify that person with<br />

the required details, provide real-time<br />

equipment operational data (as well as<br />

schematics, if necessary) via IIoT connectivity,<br />

and even provide the on-site tech<br />

with connection to a remote coworker<br />

who can apply their own years of expertise<br />

and familiarity to the task at hand.<br />

Maintenance tasks can often seem<br />

like an individual effort, perhaps even<br />

more so during the pandemic. In these<br />

challenging times, through technology<br />

solutions such as those from ICONICS,<br />

it may be reassuring to know that even<br />

when you’re alone on a job, you still have<br />

connections. To see these technologies in<br />

action, check out ICONICS’ virtual event,<br />

Connect <strong>2020</strong>: Digital Transformation<br />

Solutions for a New Normal, streaming<br />

on October 15. Register ahead of time or<br />

view the sessions on demand by visiting<br />

https://iconics.com/Connect<strong>2020</strong>.


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Achieve Greater<br />

ACTENUM CORPORATION<br />

info@actenum.com<br />

Efficiencies in Maintenance<br />

Scheduling Automatically<br />

Across a range of industries around the world, Plant<br />

Operations have heavy investments in expensive<br />

machinery that are critical to their success. Meticulous<br />

planned and reactive maintenance of this machinery<br />

and infrastructure is a key component of<br />

continuous and efficient operations. And in today’s<br />

environment, any advantage can mean the difference<br />

between gaining new work and losing a customer.<br />

MECHANICAL UNDERPERFORMANCE<br />

can lead to decreased efficiencies,<br />

and machine failures can result in unplanned<br />

downtime and lost production,<br />

which can be financially devastating<br />

in today’s competitive market.<br />

Inconsistent maintenance of equipment<br />

can cause not only problems<br />

with production runs but can also<br />

have serious impact on the lifespan of<br />

the equipment.<br />

18 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Daily Hurdles to Overcome<br />

A maintenance manager’s typical day<br />

involves scheduling required maintenance<br />

work by assigning it to the available<br />

maintenance crews, and other<br />

resources. Over a typical week, a manager<br />

may have to schedule hundreds of<br />

these maintenance activities, some of<br />

which may be critical. But what if the<br />

software used to build and manage the<br />

maintenance schedules is out of date or<br />

unsophisticated? Then there will be a lot<br />

of manual work being done, and because<br />

there is no time to carry out the required<br />

analysis of the schedule, important<br />

questions will go unanswered, like the<br />

ones below:<br />

1. How will maintenance activities<br />

impact production? For example,<br />

will today’s maintenance shutdown<br />

cause a production problem<br />

next week?<br />

2. Can we reduce non-productive<br />

time a little more and still complete<br />

the work on time? How<br />

much money will that save?<br />

3. If we have any medical issues and<br />

crew members are out, what will<br />

be the impact on the schedule?<br />

4. Should I move up any work on<br />

specific equipment to lessen the<br />

impact on the plant production?<br />

5. What’s the best response to unanticipated<br />

events, such as a<br />

breakdown or outage that we can’t<br />

control?<br />

To ensure reliable ongoing production,<br />

maintenance managers need to<br />

have a higher degree of scheduling<br />

automation at their fingertips and use<br />

software’s predictive capabilities to create<br />

an effective and efficient schedule of<br />

maintenance work orders.<br />

Better Maintenance from<br />

Scheduling Software<br />

Today, advanced maintenance scheduling<br />

software—incorporating AI-powered<br />

optimization—effectively addresses the<br />

challenges of scheduling maintenance<br />

activities and provides answers to questions.<br />

Such software enables a maintenance<br />

manager to schedule much more<br />

rapidly and efficiently:<br />

• It empowers management to<br />

determine the best time to take<br />

equipment down for maintenance<br />

• It is sensitive to production requirements<br />

and schedules<br />

• It is aware of production run gaps<br />

and slow downs<br />

• It takes availability of certified and<br />

skilled technicians into account<br />

• It considers the parts and tools required<br />

for each maintenance task<br />

• It links schedules to user-defined<br />

Key Performance Indicators<br />

(KPIs) that may be used for predictive<br />

analysis and to answer<br />

METICULOUS PLANNED AND<br />

REACTIVE MAINTENANCE<br />

IS A KEY COMPONENT OF<br />

CONTINUOUS AND EFFICIENT<br />

OPERATIONS.<br />

questions<br />

• It enables the creation and evaluation<br />

of schedule scenarios that<br />

may be used to plan for any contingency<br />

The Power of Automation<br />

Maintenance teams are made up of<br />

intelligent individuals. But their time<br />

could be going to waste when it’s spent<br />

on the clerical tasks that keep a maintenance<br />

program going. This means that<br />

the more automation available to build<br />

and manage the maintenance schedule,<br />

the less time the team will waste on<br />

keeping the wheels turning, so they are<br />

free to complete work orders and keep<br />

machinery running smoothly when it’s<br />

needed. That’s where today’s scheduling<br />

software outshines traditional tools.<br />

Modern scheduling software streamlines<br />

the maintenance needed to keep operations<br />

running and eliminates the need<br />

for multiple additional applications<br />

or spreadsheets and time-consuming<br />

manual calculations that are used to assemble<br />

and manage a schedule.<br />

Today’s scheduling software eliminates<br />

the guesswork from manual<br />

processes and ensures that no key steps<br />

are missed. Not only are process errors<br />

eliminated, the manpower that was once<br />

allocated to these repetitive steps can<br />

now be devoted to other aspects of the<br />

plant’s operations. Furthermore, modern<br />

scheduling software presents crucial<br />

information in real time for evaluation,<br />

so management can develop alternative<br />

action plans when necessary to ensure<br />

critical targets are not missed.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 19


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Faster and More Flexible<br />

Scheduling software with built-in optimization<br />

capabilities assigns tasks to<br />

the right resources in seconds, tracks<br />

work progress until completion, and<br />

builds history for future reference.<br />

Maintenance managers can instantly<br />

see all open maintenance requests, what<br />

each department is working on, and<br />

the upcoming scheduled maintenance<br />

they need to plan for. Through robust<br />

reporting, stakeholders can access realtime<br />

data and evaluate the status of any<br />

project. And they can allocate workloads<br />

based on work requirements and availability<br />

and adjust intelligently when<br />

there’s a change in one part of the maintenance<br />

schedule.<br />

In addition to eliminating the need<br />

for error-prone manual data entry and<br />

un-auditable collections of spreadsheets<br />

and project files, today’s advanced<br />

scheduling software centralizes equipment<br />

and resource information in a<br />

database, designed to manage all types<br />

SCHEDULING SOFTWARE WITH BUILT IN,<br />

AI-POWERED OPTIMIZATION CAPABILITIES ASSIGNS<br />

TASKS TO THE RIGHT RESOURCES IN SECONDS<br />

of maintenance activities, and it makes<br />

that information available to all team<br />

members involved in operations. Moreover,<br />

today’s scheduling software will<br />

find those activities that can be aligned<br />

so any equipment shutdown period is<br />

minimized. Another significant benefit<br />

of scheduling software is the flexibility<br />

it provides to maintenance managers in<br />

terms of mobility. Maintenance managers<br />

no longer have to be at their desks to<br />

view reports about their plants’ productivity<br />

and progress. Instead, all critical<br />

information is available online, enabling<br />

access anywhere, anytime.<br />

Case Study: Refineries<br />

Refineries present an excellent example<br />

of how scheduling software can enable<br />

better maintenance scheduling and<br />

execution. Intelligent production planning<br />

and scheduling are vital to ensuring<br />

refinery profitability, logistic reliability<br />

and safety at the local and corporate<br />

levels. Refiners must ensure that key<br />

process units are kept running, regulatory<br />

requirements are effectively met,<br />

and systems are responsive and highly<br />

adaptive to changes in feedstock properties.<br />

To maintain competitiveness, oil<br />

refineries are constantly searching for<br />

optimization opportunities to improve<br />

their operations.<br />

Scheduling software is a valuable<br />

decision support tool that provides fast,<br />

accurate and transparent information<br />

on activities, with the flexibility to solve<br />

short-term problems. It enables refineries<br />

to maximize project collaboration<br />

and efficiency, shorten project timeframes,<br />

reduce risk, and achieve predictable<br />

and reliable production. More than<br />

a valuable tool, scheduling software is<br />

an important information system. The<br />

scheduling information, which was previously<br />

restricted to a limited group, is<br />

now democratized within the refinery<br />

and allows for a collaborative effort, and<br />

better, faster responses. It also replaces a<br />

set of non-standard and personal spreadsheets<br />

that can cause confusion. Production<br />

scheduling definitions, data and<br />

information are structured and standardized<br />

allowing for quick comprehension<br />

and best work practices. With one<br />

application for all maintenance activities,<br />

companies can enhance their process<br />

and create new workflows that drive<br />

greater efficiencies and productivity.<br />

Scheduling Empowerment<br />

In today’s environment, maximizing<br />

every minute of operations is critical to<br />

staying ahead. Because of its many efficiency,<br />

safety and accuracy benefits,<br />

production scheduling activity must be<br />

understood as a strategic advantage. By<br />

adopting advanced scheduling software<br />

as part of their digital push, organizations<br />

can automate and schedule maintenance<br />

activities faster, more reliably,<br />

and more accurately. At the end of the<br />

day, it empowers maintenance managers<br />

and their companies to drive operations<br />

forward with confidence.<br />

20 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

Failures and diagnostics<br />

of asynchronous motors<br />

RADIM SGLUNDA<br />

www.adash.com<br />

radim.sglunda@adash.cz<br />

Asynchronous motors<br />

are the most common<br />

type of motors used.<br />

They are known for their<br />

advantages such as low<br />

purchase price, high<br />

efficiency, easy regulation<br />

and simple but robust<br />

construction.<br />

DESPITE THEIR HIGH reliability Asynchronous<br />

motors suffer from some<br />

malfunctions of machine parts. We<br />

can divide failures in an asynchronous<br />

motor into failures of mechanical and<br />

electrical origin, and also on stator, rotor<br />

and bearing failures.<br />

Stator faults<br />

Stator winding faults are majority<br />

problems of stators. The most<br />

common source of faults due to the<br />

winding is broken isolation. Thermal<br />

stress has the greatest impact on the<br />

life and quality of isolation. Another<br />

undesirable effect is the electrical<br />

stress of the transient voltage. In the<br />

case of more and more frequent use<br />

of inverters for soft-start, rectangular<br />

voltage pulses are modulated at<br />

the output of the inverter.<br />

Rotor faults<br />

The rotor of an asynchronous motor<br />

consists of a shaft, insulated sheets<br />

pressed on the shaft that form the rotor<br />

magnetic circuit and windings. Mostly<br />

the winding of the rotor consists of a<br />

cage structure, which is formed by bars,<br />

which are connected at the ends.<br />

Rotor eccentricity (unevenness of<br />

the distance between the rotor and the<br />

stator) is the most common fault, followed<br />

by rotors bars interruption. The<br />

cause of these faults can be the use of<br />

poor quality materials, overloading or<br />

heavy starts. In the case of rotor bars,<br />

the fault may increase the resistance<br />

of the bar, or completely break the bar<br />

electrical circuit. Rotor bars failures<br />

result mainly in engine starting deterioration<br />

and generating parasitic moments.<br />

Also the broken bar causes addi-<br />

22 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

WE CAN DIVIDE FAILURES<br />

IN AN ASYNCHRONOUS<br />

MOTOR INTO FAILURES<br />

OF MECHANICAL AND<br />

ELECTRICAL ORIGIN, AND<br />

ALSO ON STATOR, ROTOR AND<br />

BEARING FAILURES.<br />

tional faults in others bars, because the<br />

current in them is bigger due to missing<br />

bar (the broken one) current path.<br />

Bearings faults<br />

All parts of the bearing are subject to<br />

degradation. The cause of bearing failures<br />

can be considered as mechanical<br />

stress during rotational movement and<br />

bearing currents. Mechanical stress<br />

can be caused by poor: installation, assembling,<br />

or using and maintaining.<br />

The bearing currents can be caused by<br />

induction (due to asymmetric electrical<br />

circuit or power supply) and by frequent<br />

voltage changes (caused by power supply<br />

from semiconductor converters).<br />

Bearings faults detection is almost<br />

cover by vibration analysis. All mechanical<br />

(and some electrical) faults<br />

have unique signature in vibration<br />

spectrum of machine and vibration<br />

analysis can recognize them.<br />

Electrical (and some mechanical)<br />

motor faults have unique signature in<br />

frequency spectrum of motor current.<br />

And the MCSA method can recognize<br />

them. The MCSA abbreviation means:<br />

Motor Current Signature Analysis.<br />

In motors with faults, excessive sidebands<br />

are created, which distort the<br />

frequency spectrum. Each fault then<br />

has its specific signature. Individual<br />

defects can be distinguished from each<br />

other according to the amplitude bands<br />

and the frequency.<br />

The basis of this method is to measure<br />

the course of the stator current of<br />

one or more phases in the time domain<br />

(with sufficient resolution) and its subsequent<br />

spectral analysis.<br />

The ADASH VA5Pro vibration<br />

analyzer offers unique possibility of<br />

analyzing vibration and current in one<br />

device. The MCSA module allows you<br />

to do analysis of current signature from<br />

the spectrum - based on your knowledge<br />

and experiences. Or you can use<br />

automatic detection function. It is the<br />

similar idea as ADASH automatic Fault<br />

Source Identification Tool (FASIT) for<br />

vibration analysis. The device can automatically<br />

recognize the main causes of<br />

failures as unbalance, looseness, misalignment<br />

and bearing faults. The MCSA<br />

module of the VA5Pro device is able to<br />

automatically identify rotor and stator<br />

faults, eccentricity and power quality.<br />

BEFORE THE ADASH<br />

THE ADASH founders, Adam Bojko and<br />

Radomir Sglunda first met at the Physical-Technical<br />

Testing Institute in Ostrava<br />

in the late 1980s.<br />

THEIR FIRST JOBS were related to<br />

seismic measurements in coal mines.<br />

That was the first experience of using<br />

a vibration analyser, which supporting<br />

written materials referred to “rotating<br />

machinery analysis”.<br />

FURTHER STUDIES of this topic led to<br />

various side jobs such as modal analysis,<br />

operating deflection shapes, on-site<br />

balancing, vibration analysis etc. while<br />

still working as government employees.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 23


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

People, the Most Valuable<br />

Asset in your Organization<br />

Electrical motors, pumps,<br />

turbines, generators,<br />

blowers, compressors.<br />

The amount of rotating<br />

equipment is huge in<br />

industry.<br />

ALL THESE MACHINES have been designed<br />

with a purpose, but they differ<br />

from each other depending on the application.<br />

There is one thing which all<br />

rotating machinery has in common,<br />

and that thing is people. There is always<br />

people behind each machine, designing,<br />

drawing, calculating, transporting,<br />

ROMAN MEGELA<br />

GAZDOVA<br />

Senior reliability<br />

engineer at<br />

EASY-LASER AB<br />

installing and maintaining it. Today, we<br />

have many tools to help us to be more<br />

reliable, efficient, and accurate. We have<br />

got fantastic tools such as process simulation<br />

software, 3d printers, laser alignment<br />

tools, and many others. Computers<br />

with high-speed internet connection<br />

provide access to the required information<br />

and communication all around the<br />

world. But despite this, in many cases we<br />

still struggle to achieve reliability. Why<br />

is that?<br />

Take the ownership<br />

My background comes from assembly,<br />

service, and commissioning of gas<br />

compression systems where I gained<br />

experience for more than 20 years. Since<br />

I was involved in the assembly, I got the<br />

chance to learn installation procedures.<br />

I grew up using API 686 from the beginning<br />

and I spent my apprentice life training<br />

those procedures which the company<br />

was following very strongly. And I was<br />

not left on my own until I was certified<br />

24 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

and ready to make my own decisions.<br />

But over the years, I realized I will never<br />

stop training and learning. I was always<br />

learning new installation standards,<br />

specifications, and assembly procedures<br />

such as ISO standards, Norsok standards<br />

or ANSI standards. I quickly found out,<br />

that people who had the knowledge and<br />

proper training were the most efficient<br />

performing their tasks. I learned from<br />

my senior colleagues to take ownership<br />

of assets. Even if the machine belonged<br />

to the organization and I was an external<br />

service technician, I took care of it as<br />

if it were my own. I had the interest in<br />

performing proper assembly and installation<br />

work.<br />

This interest makes you want to learn<br />

more things, see details and creates awareness.<br />

You get to recognize sounds, noises,<br />

and behaviour of the machines. If you<br />

keep your interest in place you will be<br />

able to install the machinery in a proper<br />

way, and you will detect any disturbances<br />

because you will measure and compare. In<br />

the end, the machinery uptime and reliable<br />

operation is what matters.<br />

MY THREE RULES<br />

OF SUCCESS ARE:<br />

1. Set up standards for your teams.<br />

2. Train your teams to be able to<br />

perform the required work.<br />

3. Document all your work for future<br />

references.<br />

Empower and motivate your people<br />

to take ownership of their work. Provide<br />

them with the necessary training<br />

to understand the tasks and the consequences.<br />

Allow them enough time<br />

to properly perform their work.<br />

“We are responsible for the decisions<br />

we are making, but also for the<br />

decisions which we ignore.”<br />

EMPOWER AND MOTIVATE<br />

YOUR PEOPLE TO TAKE<br />

OWNERSHIP OF THEIR WORK.<br />

Trust your team<br />

Recently, I had the pleasure of talking to<br />

a neurosurgeon. A doctor who performs<br />

brain surgery on a daily basis. We had a<br />

chat and we discussed reliability issues.<br />

I asked him about his reliability strategy.<br />

He gave me an explanation which makes<br />

perfect sense for me. The key in his profession<br />

is to perform only brain surgeries<br />

95% to 100% of the time. No less, no more<br />

and no other surgeries. There are numbers<br />

of patients in his hospital which are<br />

distributed between a number of doctors.<br />

If the number of patients increase, they<br />

will also increase the number of doctors. It<br />

is extremely important to keep the brain<br />

centred and focused, but also the muscle<br />

memory. They are taking important decisions<br />

and within the seconds. And we really<br />

want to them to be reliable.<br />

I perfectly align myself with this philosophy.<br />

As I always said, there are no magic<br />

wands in the industry. With all the amazing<br />

tools and advanced technologies available,<br />

we cannot stop relying on the people.<br />

The people will give value to the tools by<br />

using them properly.<br />

Reveal Your Potential<br />

Get a Reliability and Maintenance Assessment<br />

Call us +1 919-847-8764


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Low Rotation Speed<br />

Machine Control Using<br />

ULTRASOUND<br />

The founding principle of<br />

predictive maintenance<br />

could be “better safe<br />

than sorry”. It requires<br />

sound knowledge of the<br />

machines, taking into<br />

account of early signs<br />

and economic realism.<br />

PATRICE DANNEPOND, Area Sales<br />

Manager SDT Ultrasound Solutions<br />

TODAY, PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE IS<br />

based on different technologies that<br />

maintenance departments can use to<br />

assess failure risks, frequency ratio<br />

and severity level.<br />

But it is another matter when it<br />

comes to selecting the right analysis<br />

tools, the right technology and<br />

the right indicators for the early<br />

detection of a failure on a rotating<br />

machine, in particular low-speed machines.<br />

Ultrasonic technology is used<br />

to issue this diagnosis, as it can be<br />

easily and efficiently implemented.<br />

Recently, SDT International took<br />

up this challenge on a rotating machine<br />

with a rotation speed of 8 RPM.<br />

More than a week earlier, the<br />

maintenance department of a<br />

world-renowned company had detected<br />

unusual noise on a strategic<br />

production asset. The sudden stop of<br />

this machine would have led to the<br />

complete shutdown of the production<br />

site. Not to mention the financial cost<br />

of replacing these 4 bearings, the time<br />

required for the procurement of these<br />

specific bearings and the cost of the<br />

maintenance labour.<br />

There was a dual stake here: control<br />

the condition of these bearings<br />

and attempt to detect the origin of<br />

this noise.<br />

A diagnosis could be issued using<br />

the new ultrasonic measuring instrument,<br />

SDT340, and its FOCUS<br />

mode that can generate sampling<br />

frequencies up to 256 K samples<br />

per second.<br />

26 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

The spectrum shows an impact at<br />

the rotation speed (0.139 Hz) of the<br />

shafts of the rotating machine, along<br />

with its harmonics. Sub-harmonic<br />

frequencies can also be observed at<br />

0.5 x the rotation speed, which is a<br />

characteristic spectrum for a rotational<br />

clearance due to friction or<br />

significant impacts. No impact due<br />

to bearing frequencies are observed.<br />

Our diagnosis is confirmed by the<br />

time spectrum.<br />

The time spectrum shows that the<br />

observed impacts are indeed associated<br />

with the rotation speed of the<br />

shafts of the machine at 0.139 Hz, i.e.,<br />

a rotation speed of 8.34 RPM.<br />

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE<br />

IS BASED ON DIFFERENT<br />

TECHNOLOGIES<br />

THAT MAINTENANCE<br />

DEPARTMENTS CAN USE<br />

TO ASSESS FAILURE RISKS,<br />

FREQUENCY RATIO AND<br />

SEVERITY LEVEL.<br />

In terms of energy, these impacts<br />

are not necessarily constant for<br />

each shaft revolution (time signal<br />

recorded over a period of 2 minutes).<br />

The encountered problem is due<br />

to the wear of the shafts and of the<br />

disks that are mounted onto these<br />

shafts and generate friction.<br />

Now, the maintenance department<br />

knows the origin of the noise<br />

and the condition of the bearings,<br />

which need just to be monitored on<br />

a periodic basis.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 27


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

Wireless Sensors<br />

Can Now Replace Traditional Systems<br />

in Condition Monitoring<br />

Online condition<br />

monitoring has been<br />

waiting for wireless<br />

solutions for over 10<br />

years. Now with the<br />

latest technology, Nome<br />

has been able to develop<br />

wireless IoT systems to<br />

be competitive with most<br />

wired systems.<br />

MECHANICAL WEAR is inevitable in all<br />

machines and equipment and bearing<br />

failure is one of the most common<br />

faults in industrial machines. Vibration<br />

measurements of rotating machinery are<br />

considered the best method of determining<br />

a machine´s condition. Depending<br />

on the industry one unplanned downtime<br />

can cost from several thousand up<br />

to millions of euros in just one hour. A<br />

single failure prevented is can be enough<br />

to cover years of wireless condition<br />

monitoring costs. In any case, there are<br />

benefits other than direct cost savings.<br />

Keeping track of machine health ensures<br />

good product quality, safe operation,<br />

minimal environmental impact and preserves<br />

assets.<br />

Now with the latest technology Nome<br />

has been able to develop wireless online<br />

systems to be competitive with most<br />

wired systems. Wireless sensors can<br />

measure time signals, waveforms, trend<br />

values, envelopes and surface temperatures.<br />

All saved to a secure cloud storage<br />

or via interfaces to customers internal<br />

systems. To get the most out of online<br />

condition monitoring Nome also offers a<br />

remote analysing service where certified<br />

professionals can analyse the results.<br />

Why Wireless Technology is<br />

Now the Way to Go?<br />

With thousands of wired accelerometer<br />

installations we have experienced wiring<br />

to be the most time consuming and<br />

many times even the most expensive<br />

part of online condition monitoring<br />

system installation. Moreover, wired<br />

systems are often exposed to electrical<br />

interferences. In many cases there is no<br />

sense to start building up an online condition<br />

monitoring system for only a few<br />

critical machines, while start-up costs<br />

get very high per measurement point.<br />

Often there is not enough down time<br />

to perform the installations for wired<br />

systems.<br />

Condition monitoring has been waiting<br />

for wireless systems for more than 10<br />

years. Nome took part in testing wireless<br />

systems already in 2010. Back then the<br />

problem was high power consumption<br />

of vibration sensors and wireless data<br />

transfer. Good quality vibration measurement<br />

requires sample rates close<br />

to 10 kHz and with a signal length of<br />

3 - 5 seconds. Vibration signal analysis<br />

requires the time signal to be available<br />

for analysis. This means high power<br />

consumption on both measurements<br />

and data transmission. When comparing<br />

to example temperature measurement<br />

one good quality vibration time signal<br />

can include 30 000 samples when one<br />

sample temperature data with 60 second<br />

sample rate requires 30 000 samples in<br />

approximately 20 days (30000 / (60*24).<br />

That is why vibration measurements<br />

require the best sensor and data transmission<br />

techniques. Optimising the<br />

power consumption engineers need to<br />

compromise. When these optimizations<br />

are done compromising the data quality<br />

in measurements or analysis the whole<br />

idea why measurements are done is lost.<br />

Nome has solved the problem with<br />

power consumption by combining BLE5<br />

and LPWAN data transfer technologies.<br />

These are two extremely low power<br />

technologies and they are most suitable<br />

for IoT sensors. LPWAN can also<br />

penetrate walls and other barriers more<br />

easily. Machines run inside thick walls,<br />

28 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

ships, and other structures so this can be<br />

a crucial factor when thinking of using<br />

wireless systems for condition monitoring.<br />

LPWAN technology with implementations<br />

is coming along with the new 5G<br />

networks. This gives even more reasons<br />

to utilize the technology.<br />

Wireless technology is also suitable<br />

for Artificial Intelligence. AI can open<br />

whole new ways on how machine maintenance<br />

and condition monitoring is<br />

executed. The technology already exists<br />

but there hasn’t been a sensible way to<br />

collect enough data for AI until now.<br />

Now with the right algorithms and accurate<br />

sensors machine learning is possible<br />

for condition monitoring. The AI could<br />

learn the behaviour of each individual<br />

machine and compare it to other similar<br />

machines. This reduces the time needed<br />

to analyse results by personnel. In<br />

other words, artificial Intelligence could<br />

replace humans in vibration measurements.<br />

The time saved from basic measurements<br />

can be harnessed for more<br />

complicated work such as problem solving<br />

or special measurements.<br />

Benefits of Wireless Condition<br />

Monitoring in Short:<br />

• Reduction of unplanned failures<br />

• Reduced overall maintenance<br />

costs<br />

• Increased asset life<br />

• Improved equipment performance<br />

- Key Performance Indicators<br />

(KPIs)<br />

• Reduction/elimination of collateral<br />

damages<br />

• Prioritized and planned maintenance<br />

actions<br />

• Increased efficiency of maintenance<br />

management<br />

• Avoiding opening up of equipment<br />

at fixed intervals<br />

• Reduced environmental impact<br />

• Savings from route measurement<br />

costs<br />

• Savings from startup costs<br />

• Daily monitoring<br />

• Almost immune to electrical disturbances<br />

• Remote data collection, analysis<br />

and reports<br />

• Can be installed by own staff<br />

Wireless nmas Chess Condition<br />

Monitoring System<br />

nmas (nome monitoring and analysing<br />

system) Chess is most suitable for machines<br />

that have no previous monitoring<br />

system or old systems that are outdated.<br />

Connection to the analysing database is<br />

established automatically and the installation<br />

can be done by anyone. Warning<br />

and alarm limits and threshold levels can<br />

be adjusted with an Android application<br />

to suit individual machines and needs.<br />

nmas Chess is the world’s first wireless<br />

CONDITION MONITORING<br />

HAS BEEN WAITING FOR<br />

WIRELESS SYSTEMS FOR<br />

MORE THAN 10 YEARS.<br />

condition monitoring system to utilize<br />

LPWAN network. Multiple sensors can be<br />

connected via BLE 5 to the router which<br />

transfers information to cloud service using<br />

LTE-M network. This results in a system<br />

that is ready for the future needs without<br />

sacrificing any functional quality or battery<br />

life.<br />

Simple steps for installing nmas<br />

Chess system:<br />

1. Mount the sensor using M8 thread,<br />

magnetic base or adhesive.<br />

2. Mount the router to a suitable distance<br />

and power with USB cable provided.<br />

3. Install the application and configure<br />

the sensor to suit your needs.<br />

The system features:<br />

• wide frequency range 0 – 10 000Hz<br />

• 24-bit resolution<br />

• Highly developed analysing software<br />

with browser access<br />

• Remote analysing service<br />

• Android app<br />

• Cloud storage<br />

Nome has also developed the system to be<br />

suitable for OEM. Thresholds, warning limits,<br />

alerts, data interface and even the design<br />

can be customized to meet the needs of different<br />

manufacturers. By offering an online<br />

condition monitoring service, manufacturers<br />

can add significant value to their products.<br />

Sensors can also deliver valuable usage<br />

information to manufacturers. This data can<br />

be used when improving warranty policies,<br />

developing new products or offering new<br />

services to customers. The system is easy to<br />

send with the machine to the customer.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 29


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

Detection of bearing<br />

defects on balanced<br />

machine bogies<br />

Historically, condition<br />

monitoring of balanced<br />

machine bogie wheel<br />

bearings has been challenging,<br />

due to the very<br />

slow speed rotation and<br />

furthermore, in most<br />

cases, the variable speed<br />

adds even further complication.<br />

ADRIAN MESSER,<br />

CMRP<br />

adrianm@uesystems.com<br />

WE WILL BE EXPLAINING how these specific<br />

assets were successfully monitored<br />

at a mining company, using an ultrasound<br />

inspection instrument.<br />

Within this mining company, the<br />

coastal operations had many examples<br />

of failed bogie wheel bearings and, in<br />

each case, there was a great potential<br />

for subsequent damage to the shaft or<br />

the bearing bores in the bogie housing,<br />

which would add even more to the rebuild<br />

costs.<br />

Thus, the maintenance team was<br />

working through multiple failures on<br />

the CLB Stacker long travel bogies. Led<br />

by the balanced machine specialist, the<br />

team built historical maps including rebuild<br />

vendors and the use of OEM spares.<br />

A study of SAP data for 16 of the 37<br />

stackers in this company, across different<br />

sites, revealed an incredible $3,491,146<br />

in maintenance costs, directly related to<br />

bogie bearing failure, not to mention the<br />

additional unscheduled time loss, also<br />

important to consider.<br />

SURVEY USING ULTRASOUND<br />

TECHNOLOGY<br />

Next, a team of experts was asked to assist<br />

in this matter with identifying bearing<br />

defects using ultrasound technology,<br />

which is a proven technic to identify<br />

early bearing failures, especially when it<br />

comes to slow speed bearings.<br />

A survey was conducted with an<br />

Ultraprobe 15.000 ultrasound inspection<br />

instrument, and an identified bogie<br />

set was removed and sent for strip and<br />

assessment, after the ultrasonic instrument<br />

showed signs of bearing damage<br />

– which could be perceived by the sound<br />

quality heard & confirmed after a sound<br />

spectrum analysis of the recorded ultrasounds.<br />

30 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

This is a screenshot taken from the Spectralyzer<br />

software (for sound analysis),<br />

time series view. The peaks clearly point<br />

to a damaged bearing, since a healthy<br />

bearing will present a very uniform<br />

wave, without any peaks in amplitude.<br />

In this case, we can clearly see peaks<br />

in amplitude, representing harmonics<br />

equally distanced. This is an obvious sign<br />

of bearing damage.<br />

Stacker 13 Bogie#2 – Prior to removal<br />

Again, when performing sound analysis, we can find evidence of bearing damage. A<br />

bearing in good condition would be uniform on the time series view. But in this case we<br />

see again peaks in amplitude, corresponding to impact points or increased friction.<br />

HISTORICALLY, CONDITION<br />

MONITORING OF BALANCED<br />

MACHINE BOGIE WHEEL<br />

BEARINGS HAS BEEN<br />

CHALLENGING.<br />

Stacker 6P Bogie#4 – Post workshop strip.<br />

As diagnosed using spectrum sound<br />

analysis, the raceway is displaying<br />

spalling damage.<br />

Stacker 13 Bogie#2 – Post workshop strip<br />

As we can see, during strip and assessment,<br />

in both cases, severe spalling was<br />

found on the raceways.<br />

Stacker 6P Bogie#4<br />

– Sound Spectrum<br />

Prior to Removal<br />

CONCLUSION<br />

Whilst the detection of defects in these<br />

bearings is certainly possible through<br />

diligent inspections such as the daily<br />

rounds, categorising severity is extremely<br />

difficult, if not impossible.<br />

This can be achieved by using an<br />

ultrasound inspection instrument with<br />

sound recording capabilities. This will<br />

allow maintenance teams to load the file<br />

on a sound spectrum analysis and identify<br />

issues in an early stage, quick and<br />

easily, even in very slow speed bearings.<br />

It is important to note that, while<br />

bearings rolling at a medium/high speed<br />

can normally be monitored by relying on<br />

dB levels and verifying them against a dB<br />

baseline, this is not always the case with<br />

slow speed bearings. Since slow speed<br />

bearings, in many cases, will not produce<br />

enough energy to show a relevant dB<br />

increase, it is necessary to rely on the<br />

sound quality and posterior sound spectrum<br />

analysis. That is how issues can<br />

be identified when using ultrasound for<br />

slow speed bearing monitoring.<br />

And because ultrasound surveys are<br />

easy and quick to conduct, they can be<br />

performed in relatively short intervals<br />

of time.<br />

Given the history of this particular<br />

case study, the point of failure detection<br />

was between 6 and 12 months from the<br />

scheduled change out. Therefore, an ultrasound<br />

survey frequency of 3 months<br />

could be considered appropriate for<br />

stackers, and of 6 months for reclaimers<br />

and ship loaders (given their lower duty<br />

cycle). The recommendation to extend<br />

the surveying of balanced machine bogie<br />

bearings across the coastal fleet at the<br />

above intervals would allow the company<br />

to potentially save millions in maintenance<br />

costs, as we seen before. A clear<br />

case where predictive maintenance,<br />

using a technology such as ultrasound,<br />

clearly pays off.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 31


PARTNER ARTICLE<br />

United Nations of Automation<br />

The OPC Foundation will continue to<br />

expand its role as the “United Nations<br />

of Automation” - the foundation where<br />

different organizations work together<br />

to standardize and harmonize.<br />

STEFAN HOPPE,<br />

President,<br />

OPC FOUNDATION<br />

THE BASIC IDEA FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE OPC<br />

Foundation in 1996 was to create a communication<br />

standard based on the Microsoft COM/DCOM architecture<br />

of that time – “OLE for Process-Control” – was thus<br />

established as the de-facto standard “of the last mile” for<br />

controllers.<br />

The new architecture OPC Unified Architecture “OPC<br />

UA” is much more than just an operating system independent,<br />

neutral platform for data communication: OPC<br />

UA is the so-called Lego building block for the standardization<br />

of data and interfaces and their secure exchange<br />

scaling from the sensor to the cloud (and back) – including<br />

discovery of devices, onboarding and more. The<br />

milestones consisted of the definition from 2003 to 2006,<br />

the validation of the technology and publication of the<br />

core functionality in 2008, followed by the international<br />

standardization as IEC 62541 standard in 2011. First<br />

products were available on the market in 2007 and these<br />

are stably addressable via today’s OPC UA clients – there<br />

was no break in the technology.<br />

OPC UA will probably never be “complete” as the<br />

framework is constantly being expanded: In 2018, the<br />

first major expansion to the existing client/server communication<br />

model with a publish/subscribe communication<br />

model (PubSub) was released – in addition to other<br />

deployment scenarios such as distribution in broadcast,<br />

integration in smaller devices, communication to the<br />

cloud via MQTT or AMQP, this was also an important<br />

THE TREND TOWARDS DATA AND INTERFACES<br />

BEING STANDARDIZED WILL CONTINUE<br />

32 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


step as preparation for use at the field level: PubSub initially<br />

enables a high-performance controller-to-controller<br />

communication in order to connect devices of different<br />

eco-systems horizontally with a neutral approach.<br />

“Holistic approach blurs the boundaries of<br />

process and factory automation”<br />

The OPC Foundation Initiative “Field Level Communication”<br />

(FLC), newly founded in November 2018, has larger<br />

goals than the reduction to “OPC UA with TSN for the<br />

factory”. The harmonization of requirements from process<br />

and factory automation will result in common device<br />

services: Device management, firmware updates, OOE<br />

data, power management, MES services or even common<br />

data types will blur the boundaries of process and factory<br />

automation in device handling - of course, special technological<br />

requirements will remain. The work is already advanced,<br />

OPC Safety and OPC Motion are currently being<br />

developed and can be used in the future - with an optionally<br />

switchable TSN if determinism is required.<br />

The OPC Foundation has joined the Ethernet APL<br />

initiative: In process automation “OPC UA over APL/<br />

SPE” will be established as the successor of the current<br />

de facto Hart standard and will gradually be installed as a<br />

new solution - initially only as a “second diagnostic channel”<br />

(NOA channel) but increasingly also in the first data<br />

channel.<br />

In the long term of two decades, the number of fieldbus<br />

systems will be reduced to a maximum of the “Big 5”<br />

including OPC UA. Many products of the future will be<br />

hybrid products that will have integrated the OPC UA solution<br />

in addition to the established technology - like cars<br />

that have electric drives for different scenarios in addition<br />

to conventional combustion engines.<br />

The trend towards data and interfaces being standardized<br />

as far as technically possible at the data source will<br />

continue – if feasible directly in the device and sensor:<br />

A flow meter will provide standardized “OPC UA flow<br />

measurement data” as soon as the APL cable is plugged<br />

in. Otherwise, other transmission techniques will remain<br />

for special scenarios, to become interoperable via OPC UA<br />

gateway at the appropriate point.<br />

However, I am concerned about the large number of<br />

“user organizations” that have been started, often with<br />

a promising “Open” in their name. More and more new<br />

organizations often take care of the same tasks. The key<br />

to the future is not to initiate new organizations - but the<br />

much closer cooperation of existing organizations. Just<br />

as the climate challenge cannot be solved by individual<br />

states, but only by the community of states - so it is in automation.<br />

The OPC Foundation currently cooperates with other<br />

organizations in more than 55 initiatives - as “United<br />

Nations of Automation” – in order to fulfil the vision of a<br />

Plug&Produce solution with an open, uniform, secure and<br />

standards-based IIoT communication solution - from the<br />

sensor through all levels to the cloud with all the requirements<br />

of industrial automation. The challenge of the OPC<br />

Foundation in the next decade is to channel the global<br />

“OPC UA movement” and structure the many activities.<br />

The goal is a plug&play of standardized information.


TRAINING<br />

The Skills Gap and<br />

the Covid 19 Impact<br />

GREGORY L. FOLTS,<br />

President/ CEO,<br />

Marshall Institute,Inc.<br />

For years, especially in<br />

the United States, we<br />

have seen a widening<br />

gap between the need<br />

for skilled trades and<br />

the inflow of young<br />

candidates to fill the<br />

positions. We have seen<br />

a general bias in our<br />

education system, away<br />

from technical training<br />

and skilled trades, leaning<br />

strongly toward 4 to<br />

6-year degree paths.<br />

WHILE THE 4 TO 6-YEAR degree is clearly<br />

the correct choice for many, for some<br />

unexplainable reason, technical training<br />

has been treated as a lesser alternative<br />

path, if you can’t cut it in the college<br />

degree program. It is a strongly-held<br />

belief that if you wish to succeed in a real<br />

career, you need a Bachelor’s degree or<br />

higher. We need only to look to European<br />

countries, like Germany, to see examples<br />

of skills development paths that<br />

are highly respected as craftsman and<br />

essential for society.<br />

When you consider the role of skilled<br />

trades in society, skilled workers are<br />

responsible for many essential activities,<br />

on which society is dependent to<br />

function. How would a surgeon perform<br />

amazing surgery without an operating<br />

room built by skilled construction workers,<br />

HVAC technicians and electricians,<br />

being maintained by facilities maintenance?<br />

The backup generators, oxygen<br />

generators, filters, elevators, and all<br />

other key equipment are maintained by<br />

skilled trades. The stark reality is that<br />

the highly educated surgeon is required<br />

for the surgery, but all of the infrastructure<br />

around the surgeon is required as<br />

well.<br />

According to NCTAP’s website<br />

(https://nctap.org), a partnership between<br />

local businesses and local community<br />

colleges for skilled trades apprenticeship:<br />

“In most cases, apprentices, due<br />

to their superior education, assume<br />

managerial responsibility early in their<br />

34 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


TRAINING<br />

careers. Not surprisingly, most NCTAP<br />

partner businesses were founded by former<br />

apprentices; some are world leaders<br />

in their field...<br />

DESIGN 85%<br />

MACHINE LEARNING 90%<br />

ELECTRICAL 78%<br />

FABRICATION 93%<br />

ENGINEERING 85%<br />

AUTOMATION 94%”<br />

It turns out that many Plant Managers,<br />

Plant Engineers, Maintenance Managers,<br />

Supervisors, and small business<br />

owners began their careers as skilled<br />

trades, even further expanding their career<br />

opportunities and income potential.<br />

While the college experience is a developmental<br />

experience in many ways,<br />

and we do need accountants, business<br />

leaders, legal counsel, etc. there are other<br />

career choices (skilled trades) that can<br />

lead to equal, if not higher pay, with less<br />

incurred debt. Imagine an opportunity,<br />

whereby your employer pays for your<br />

college degree (associate) instead of<br />

you incurring student loan debt, taking<br />

the same 4 years to complete, earning<br />

$15-$18 per hour during your hands-on<br />

training, resulting in a $40k-$100k year<br />

job, debt-free. I just described an apprenticeship<br />

program.<br />

You would think that students from<br />

high school would be flocking to such a<br />

programs, to the skilled trades, but you<br />

would be wrong. In the Raleigh, N.C. area<br />

there is a program called NCTAP, with<br />

similar programs in Charlotte, N.C. and<br />

Franklin County N.C. But the number of<br />

students that consider this a valid career<br />

choice is relatively small. I attended a<br />

large pharmaceutical plant tour with potential<br />

apprentices on a Saturday, and all<br />

senior leadership was present and pitching<br />

their apprenticeship program. This<br />

shows how important this is to the plant.<br />

The inflow of potential skilled trades<br />

candidates is insufficient to maintain the<br />

workforce required.<br />

If we look at the other end of the spectrum,<br />

many current skilled trades are either<br />

eligible for retirement or soon to be<br />

eligible. According to the labour department,<br />

the average age of skilled trades is<br />

56*. With looming retirement possible<br />

for these skilled trades, the need for a<br />

pool of apprentices to understudy, and<br />

ultimately replace, the retirees is large.<br />

In addition, while this discussion has<br />

been ongoing for several years, Covid-19<br />

has introduced some new twists and<br />

turns to the discussion. First, it is likely<br />

we will see increased retirement from<br />

the aging skilled trades group, due to<br />

Covid-19 exposure risk. If a skilled<br />

trades employee is at higher risk due to<br />

age, underlying health conditions, or<br />

increased exposure at work, this could<br />

accelerate the consideration of an earlier<br />

retirement. Second, Covid-19 has accentuated<br />

the digital skills gap. Very quickly,<br />

almost overnight, large groups of our<br />

society have had to adapt to digital interaction;<br />

working, meeting, learning, and<br />

teaching. This exposes the gaps in digital<br />

literacy. It reveals the fact that many of<br />

us have “fragmented” understanding of<br />

our digital tools. We might be familiar<br />

with our phone or Facebook, but have<br />

no proficiency in Word, Excel, Zoom,<br />

Teams, remote network access, or security,<br />

and lack a comprehensive knowledge<br />

of integrated computer systems. A phone<br />

is no longer just a phone! This lack of<br />

knowledge and the social distancing currently<br />

required increases the frustration<br />

of the daily work routine and exposes a<br />

new, important, skills gap, potentially<br />

leading to accelerated retirement.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 35


TRAINING<br />

What can we do to help close the gap?<br />

How can we make a difference? First, we<br />

have a marketing problem. Manufacturing<br />

and skilled trades are not viewed by<br />

our youth as premium career opportunities.<br />

This starts at home, with your children<br />

or grandchildren. We must view<br />

trades as noble, sought after, high paying<br />

professions. Thanks to Covid, we know<br />

that “essential workers” include electricians,<br />

mechanics, plumbers, machinists,<br />

auto technicians… skilled trades!<br />

Next, schools must adopt a positive<br />

message around the skilled trades. High<br />

schools and Community Colleges must<br />

educate teachers and counsellors around<br />

the value of skilled trades. Recently I<br />

was introduced to an apprentice that was<br />

involved in a similar program to NCTAP.<br />

He was apprenticed at work, learning a<br />

trade, and was sent to a local community<br />

SKILLED WORKERS ARE<br />

RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY<br />

ESSENTIAL ACTIVITIES,<br />

ON WHICH SOCIETY IS<br />

DEPENDENT TO FUNCTION.<br />

college by his employer, working on his<br />

associate degree. His college guidance<br />

counsellor challenged him one day “I<br />

know this machinist trade thing is ok<br />

for now, but what are you going to do for<br />

your “real” career?” This is exactly the<br />

wrong message.<br />

Finally, there are opportunities to<br />

engage local and federal governments<br />

to support change. There are currently<br />

(in the U.S.) grants available to help with<br />

training and skills development. While<br />

much focus has been on Covid-19 funding<br />

as of late, there are several acts in<br />

congress to help support skilled worker<br />

development. Due to my involvement<br />

with The Society for Maintenance & Reliability<br />

Professionals (SMRP) I recently<br />

attended a Business Leaders United<br />

(BLU) virtual fly-in to Washington D.C.<br />

The two-day meeting was focused on<br />

discussing, with state representatives,<br />

the need for skilled worker development.<br />

We met with representatives of Senators<br />

around the country to represent how<br />

businesses need this support. I was especially<br />

struck by Senator Virginia Foxx,<br />

of western N.C. She has her doctorate in<br />

education, but has strong passion around<br />

supporting skills development in the U.S.<br />

She shared a story about her brother’s<br />

success, starting as a carpenter. She<br />

shared that he has incredible skill, creativity,<br />

and intelligence, humbly claiming<br />

it was greater than her own intelligence.<br />

It was inspiring to hear a woman of such<br />

amazing accomplishment support skills,<br />

not just in word, but action. Although<br />

Covid-19 issues have been the focus of<br />

legislation in early <strong>2020</strong>, there is pending<br />

legislation designed to help skilled<br />

trades, that if approved would increase<br />

funding for skills development. Proposed<br />

changes to the Pell Grant would<br />

allocate funds not only to higher education,<br />

but to skilled worker development.<br />

The College Transparency Act would<br />

increase visibility of a specific school’s<br />

data on completion and post-college outcomes<br />

of degree programs.<br />

Finally, I would share that one of<br />

the key “aha” moments for me was a<br />

discussion with Senator Burr’s office<br />

on automation, robotics, and artificial<br />

intelligence. We were talking about how<br />

people have feared for years that technology<br />

would eliminate jobs. We were<br />

discussing the increased need for skilled<br />

trades with increased automation. I was<br />

struck with the thought that for all of our<br />

fears regarding automation/industry<br />

4.0 changing our workplace, IT WAS A<br />

VIRUS that caused the most significant,<br />

rapid change to manufacturing in the<br />

last 100 years.<br />

These are certainly challenging times,<br />

but I am confident that we will adapt to<br />

our changing environment, find creative<br />

ways to close the skills gap, and face<br />

whatever challenges lie ahead.<br />

36 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


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ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

CHRISTER IDHAMMAR<br />

HE IS THE FOUNDER OF IDCON INC<br />

and an internationally recognized<br />

expert in Reliability and Maintenance<br />

Management. He is one the Top 50<br />

influencers in the Pulp and Paper<br />

industry and is the author of two<br />

books and hundreds of published<br />

articles. His latest book: “Knocking<br />

Bolts: Six Decades in the Reliability<br />

and Maintenance Management Arena”<br />

details his life in industry.<br />

Reliability and<br />

Maintenance (RM)<br />

Management<br />

Are You Doing the Wrong Things?<br />

CHRISTER IDHAMMAR, Reliability<br />

and Maintenance Management Expert<br />

and Founder of IDCON INC<br />

In this article, I will discuss<br />

the five most common<br />

wrong things to do in<br />

Reliability and Maintenance<br />

(RM) Management.<br />

I HAVE BEEN IN THE INDUSTRIAL<br />

OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE<br />

MANAGEMENT BUSINESS ARENA for six<br />

decades. For the past four decades, I have<br />

been preaching that it is more important<br />

to first do the right things, and then do<br />

them right. In my view, leadership and<br />

management decide on the right things.<br />

When you have decided on the right<br />

things to do and documented and communicated<br />

these to your organization,<br />

you have completed an important part of<br />

38 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

your strategy. The next step would be to<br />

involve your organization in implementing<br />

each element of the RM strategy by<br />

doing the right things right.<br />

Most organizations I work with are<br />

doing the right things, but many do not<br />

execute all the elements of their strategy<br />

well. Some do the wrong things. I will<br />

elaborate on what I believe are the top<br />

5 wrong things to do.<br />

1. Using Wrench Time as a<br />

Performance Indicator<br />

“Wrench time” or “hands-on-tools time”<br />

is a decades-old philosophy focusing on<br />

measuring if craftspeople are busy or<br />

not, with tools in their hands. Even if you<br />

have another definition of wrench time,<br />

it is not the right thing to do and here are<br />

the reasons why:<br />

1. Busy people are not necessarily productive<br />

unless they are working on the<br />

right things. More importantly, people<br />

do not like to be "spied" on, so this<br />

measurement will not be received well<br />

by the tradespeople - the most important<br />

people to motivate. In a modern<br />

plant with a good maintenance organization<br />

having the time to think, finding<br />

solutions to problems and implementing<br />

improvements is more important<br />

than just keeping people busy.<br />

2. It drives the wrong behaviour. To increase<br />

the wrench time, people might<br />

take more time to do a repair, pretend<br />

to be busy, or hide so you cannot<br />

measure, etc.<br />

3. It is a violation of what Deming said<br />

many years ago and it still holds true.<br />

“People cannot be more efficient than


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

the system they work in allows<br />

them to be.” Ask any tradesperson<br />

why they are not busy and they will<br />

answer, “They [management] do<br />

not plan and schedule work well<br />

here, and because of that we are<br />

very reactive, have to find scope of<br />

work, get parts and tools, etc.”.<br />

4. For daily work you might have<br />

more wrench time if you have a lot<br />

of breakdowns. I agree that during<br />

a shutdown people should be busy<br />

doing the right thing safely and correctly<br />

with the right tools and spare<br />

parts/material. What some call<br />

wrench time will be higher and that<br />

is because shutdown work is better<br />

planned and scheduled!<br />

So, what do you measure instead? The<br />

answer is that you plan, schedule and<br />

communicate. Measure planned jobs in<br />

schedules, schedule compliance and jobs<br />

added to schedules.Then find what you<br />

can improve. You'll probably find that you<br />

can improve how priorities are used. Are<br />

they emotional or based on true importance?<br />

Maybe you'll find that schedules<br />

are not frozen in advance and that it's too<br />

easy to add jobs for the same day. Improve<br />

where you have gaps in the planning and<br />

scheduling process. Doing this ensures the<br />

right people will safely do the right work<br />

more efficiently.<br />

MOST ORGANIZATIONS ARE DOING THE RIGHT THINGS,<br />

BUT NOT MANY EXECUTE ALL OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE<br />

STRATEGY WELL.<br />

2. Put All Maintenance<br />

People on Shift<br />

I do not believe this is the right thing to do.<br />

It often happens when the maintenance<br />

organization reports to operations. They<br />

might want to have maintenance coverage<br />

24/7 because they have experienced many<br />

breakdowns. Why do I think this is the<br />

wrong thing to do?<br />

1. Maintenance work will become<br />

very reactive because it will be complicated<br />

to plan and schedule work.<br />

2. Communication between maintenance<br />

employees will be difficult.<br />

3. Getting maintenance people together<br />

for training and information<br />

sessions is difficult.<br />

The best organizations I have worked<br />

with have a good call-in process and no,<br />

or very few, maintenance people on shift.<br />

Instead of reacting to a high volume of urgent<br />

maintenance work and putting more<br />

maintenance people on shift, their strategy<br />

has been to improve Preventive Maintenance<br />

(PM) and Root Cause Problem<br />

Elimination (RCPE), reduce urgent work,<br />

plan and schedule better, teach opera-<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 39


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

tors to do some maintenance work and<br />

gradually reduce maintenance people on<br />

shift to move them to day shift.<br />

3. Use New Technology Before<br />

you are Ready for it<br />

I am all for new technologies and have<br />

introduced many while working with<br />

plants worldwide. It was easy to get<br />

people interested and even enthusiastic<br />

about new technology, but how to use<br />

it efficiently was more difficult. As an<br />

example, I worked with a plant who<br />

purchased an SPM instrument, it was<br />

challenging for them to set up a round to<br />

do measurements and then have people<br />

execute the rounds on a regular basis.<br />

Sometimes it could be more difficult to<br />

make sure action would be taken on all<br />

bearings in alarm level, so many still ran<br />

to breakdown. I am sure similar challenges<br />

are true today and perhaps even<br />

more so.<br />

Many young engineers entering the<br />

field of industrial maintenance have all<br />

been introduced to a flood of good new<br />

technologies in their education and<br />

conferences. The “people” part of using<br />

all these technologies is not included in<br />

the training, so it is understandable that<br />

they will focus more attention on the introduction<br />

of the new technologies than<br />

on people and processes.<br />

Most "new" technologies, including<br />

data collection, are used to "learn" about<br />

equipment to detect failures and failure<br />

patterns at an earlier stage than existing<br />

technology. It will improve reliability,<br />

but only if all the information can be<br />

channeled into the work management<br />

system so failures will be repaired before<br />

a breakdown. Imagine how this will<br />

work if a technology like this is introduced<br />

in a reactive maintenance organization.<br />

I can tell you the system will be<br />

overloaded with work requests, and with<br />

limited resources the risk is that not<br />

much will improve.<br />

The best organizations improve the<br />

basic work management system and reduce<br />

reactive maintenance to less than<br />

10% of all work before introducing new<br />

technology. They use the technology<br />

they are ready for.<br />

It might be in place to reiterate what<br />

Bill Gates said many years ago:<br />

“The first rule of technology used in a business is that automation<br />

[new technology] applied to an efficient operation will magnify<br />

the efficiency. The second is that automation [new technology]<br />

applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency.”<br />

Bill Gates<br />

40 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

4. Decentralize Maintenance<br />

to Report to Operations<br />

A common wrong thing to do is to decentralize<br />

a maintenance organization<br />

so they report to operations.<br />

The justifications to do this include:<br />

• Maintenance personnel will<br />

develop more ownership of the<br />

operations area.<br />

• Maintenance will achieve a<br />

closer working relationship with<br />

operations.<br />

• There will be fewer managers<br />

(which saves money).<br />

I have worked with many organizations<br />

that used these justifications to<br />

decentralize maintenance. Many did<br />

it in an effort to save money. Here are<br />

some reasons, in my experience, why it<br />

doesn't work.<br />

First, if your basic maintenance<br />

practices (Planning and Scheduling,<br />

Preventive Maintenance, Stores, Technical<br />

database) are not instituted as<br />

a way of life, do not make this move!<br />

Why? It leads to many poorly performing<br />

maintenance organizations rather<br />

than having just one poorly performing<br />

maintenance organization. On top of<br />

this, you will expect several managers,<br />

most who are inexperienced in reliability<br />

and maintenance management, to<br />

implement and/or improve these maintenance<br />

basics. A lack of time, interest,<br />

willingness, knowledge of maintenance<br />

management or a combination of these<br />

could cause the following (usually in six<br />

to nine months):<br />

• More maintenance people on<br />

shift because it feels more secure<br />

that way. One consequence is<br />

that operators will request a lot<br />

of “honey do” jobs.<br />

• More maintenance people will be<br />

stationed in areas to be available<br />

and ready to react to problems<br />

because this leads to faster repairs<br />

of problems.<br />

• Work requests will not be entered<br />

into computer system<br />

because it is easier and more convenient<br />

to just call people.<br />

• It will become more difficult to<br />

move people between departments<br />

for shutdowns.<br />

• Overtime and contractor hours<br />

will start increasing even though<br />

there are more people on shift.<br />

• Backlog will start to go up.<br />

• You lose equipment history.<br />

• Equipment reliability starts<br />

declining. At this point the total<br />

maintenance cost has gone up,<br />

but operations managers might<br />

not see the whole picture.<br />

There are additional typical phenomena<br />

to be observed and sometimes<br />

actions to improve the situation do<br />

not happen. This is often because the<br />

manager(s) who initiated the change<br />

refuse to see or admit that it was a mistake.<br />

Often it takes up to three years,<br />

or an earlier change of management,<br />

before someone with enough clout in<br />

the organization realizes that maintenance<br />

is out of control and you need to<br />

reinstitute the practices you used to<br />

have. The fact is that many organizations<br />

can repeat the above-mentioned<br />

cycle many times over a ten to fifteen<br />

years period. Well, it keeps consultants<br />

like me in business!<br />

I am not in favour of handing over<br />

maintenance to operations. I have<br />

seen too many situations such as described<br />

above and no examples of sustainable<br />

improvement from handing<br />

over maintenance to operations.<br />

It is not possible to say which maintenance<br />

organization structure is best<br />

for everyone as it depends on size of<br />

organization, skill levels, geographic<br />

location, how well the basic processes<br />

are instituted, etc.<br />

The majority of the most successful<br />

organizations I have worked with have<br />

had maintenance resources designated<br />

to each production area that report<br />

to a central maintenance organization.<br />

5. Confusing the Holistic<br />

Reliability and Maintenance<br />

System with Tools<br />

There are many excellent tools and<br />

supporting processes that a plant can<br />

leverage to enhance performance of<br />

a holistic reliability and maintenance<br />

system. The holistic reliability and<br />

maintenance system centres around<br />

work management and includes processes<br />

for Preventive Maintenance,<br />

Prioritization, Planning, Scheduling,<br />

Bill of Materials, interface with Stores<br />

and Root Cause Problem Elimination.<br />

Most organizations have gone<br />

through a multitude of improvement<br />

programs over time. Many of these initiatives<br />

aren’t completed or sustained.<br />

In many cases, if a new tool is introduced,<br />

people tend to think of it as<br />

just another “program of the month.”<br />

Thus, it is crucial to explain how any<br />

new tool fits into a holistic reliability<br />

and maintenance system, and that,<br />

just like safety, performance indicators<br />

for reliability and maintenance<br />

performance will continue to be reinforced<br />

to drive continuous improvements.<br />

Some common tools/processes<br />

include:<br />

• Computerized Maintenance<br />

Management System (CMMS)<br />

Without a CMMS, it is virtually<br />

impossible to efficiently manage<br />

reliability and maintenance in<br />

today’s plants and facilities.<br />

• Single Minute Exchange of Die<br />

(SMED)<br />

Used to develop standard job<br />

plans, SMED separates what is to<br />

be done before, during, and after<br />

a job is completed.<br />

• Reliability Cantered Maintenance<br />

(RCM)<br />

This is a tool, NOT a complete<br />

system. RCM methodology can<br />

help determine the right PM<br />

tasks and frequency for components<br />

in complex systems.<br />

• Kaizen<br />

Referencing the Japanese word<br />

for “continuous improvement,”<br />

a kaizen event can focus on one<br />

task to improve.<br />

• Six Sigma<br />

Leveraged to improve the quality<br />

of the output of a process, Six<br />

Sigma identifies and removes the<br />

causes of defects and minimizes<br />

variability in manufacturing and<br />

business processes. It uses a set<br />

of quality-management methods,<br />

mainly empirical, statistical<br />

methods. Every Six Sigma project<br />

follows a defined sequence of<br />

steps and has specific value targets<br />

i.e. to reduce failure rate, reduce<br />

shutdown time, and prolong<br />

electric motor life, among others.<br />

• Five S<br />

Short for “sort, set in order,<br />

shine, standardize, and sustain,”<br />

the Five S method can be used<br />

to organize a workshop, stores,<br />

workplace, and the like.<br />

All of these tools are great, but again,<br />

explain to your organization that these<br />

are tools you might want to use to enhance<br />

the outcome of the holistic reliability<br />

and maintenance management<br />

system.<br />

Never stop improving the basics!<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 41


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

ALEXIS LÁREZ<br />

ALCÁZAREZ, CMRP,<br />

Technical Director at<br />

Enova Group, Speaker<br />

and Senior Consultant<br />

Asset Management,<br />

Maintenance and Reliability<br />

Disaggregated Asset Structure and Taxonomy<br />

The adequate management of the life cycle of an organization's assets is a<br />

fundamental element to guarantee that it can generate value through its assets, and<br />

that they can contribute in a sustained way to the achievement of the objectives in<br />

order to reach the profitability levels established by the direction.<br />

HAVING SAID THAT, it is important to<br />

mention that establishing a robust base<br />

that sets the standard and facilitates<br />

the management of the organization's<br />

assets in an agile manner is an excellent<br />

starting point. Therefore, establishing a<br />

clear disaggregated asset structure and<br />

an adequate taxonomy from the early<br />

stages of the life cycle will facilitate the<br />

handling and management of information<br />

on these assets, contributing to the<br />

management of risks (ISO 31000) during<br />

the entire life cycle.<br />

The management of the risks inherent<br />

to the assets is part of those key processes<br />

on which the organizations must direct<br />

their efforts, so, making it one of the differentiating<br />

elements, allowing them<br />

three great benefits; sustainability, competitiveness<br />

in the market and finally to<br />

generate the value (to make profitable)<br />

the actions carried out on the assets.<br />

The adequate management of the<br />

risks associated with the assets is<br />

decisive for making the best decisions<br />

from the point of view of maintenance:<br />

Establishment of policy, definition of<br />

strategies, development of plans, determination<br />

of quantities and types of spare<br />

parts to be kept in stock and development<br />

of staff skills, among others.<br />

Therefore, this article seeks to establish<br />

some guidelines to carry out an<br />

adequate disaggregated structure of<br />

assets and their correct taxonomy that<br />

facilitates the management of life cycle<br />

information.<br />

DISAGGREGATED ASSET STRUCTURE<br />

AND TAXONOMY<br />

Asset taxonomy is defined according to<br />

ISO 14224(2016) as the systematic classification<br />

of assets into generic groups<br />

based on possible common factors in<br />

various systems. On the other hand<br />

(Crespo, et al.2016), it is claimed that the<br />

physical structure is the most intuitive<br />

way to observe the reality of the system.<br />

In the physical structure the system<br />

belongs to the plant, an installation,<br />

an industry, etc., and has different subsystems<br />

and components.<br />

There is an additional point of great<br />

importance, as he states (Ciliberty,<br />

2014), that there is that a clear disaggregated<br />

asset structure which facilitates<br />

the management of the information<br />

system (EAM / ERP) associated with<br />

the assets, representing the systems in<br />

assets, the subunits of assets and their<br />

components through maps. This clear<br />

hierarchy of classification and functional<br />

locations within the organization facilitates<br />

the management of maintenance<br />

information and also provides multilevel<br />

fault reports.<br />

Therefore, establishing a clear and<br />

ordered taxonomy of the assets, allows<br />

to obtain a description of the limits and<br />

border of these within the systems, and<br />

it is essential for effect, to obtain the<br />

necessary information, as well as for the<br />

analysis of the data of the maintenance<br />

and the reliability in any type of industries,<br />

plants or intensive organization<br />

42 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

in assets. In addition, it facilitates communication<br />

and interaction between all<br />

enabling areas and those who exercise<br />

actions on assets that can impact the<br />

generation of value of the organization.<br />

Additionally, in requirement 7.5.<br />

Information required for Asset Management,<br />

the standard (ISO 55001,2014),<br />

states the following:<br />

• “The organization must determine:<br />

• The attribute requirements of the<br />

identified information;<br />

• The quality requirements of the<br />

identified information;<br />

• How and when to collect, analyse<br />

and evaluate the information”.<br />

The organization must specify, implement,<br />

and maintain processes to manage<br />

its assets information;<br />

It can be stated then, that seen from<br />

this perspective, the correct identification<br />

and registration of assets is one of<br />

the first and fundamental actions that<br />

any asset-intensive organization can<br />

undertake, since in this way the necessary<br />

information can be obtained and<br />

documented to answer the following<br />

questions:<br />

1. What is my organization's asset<br />

inventory?<br />

2. What is the current status of my<br />

assets?<br />

3. Where are they located?<br />

4. What type of interventions, types<br />

of maintenance and costs are associated<br />

with the assets?<br />

5. Is it possible to establish replacement<br />

strategies for the assets?<br />

In addition (Kleinhammer,2014), states<br />

that this taxonomy, or mode of classification<br />

and identification, is influenced<br />

by the data analysis protocols used to<br />

derive aggregate reliability performance<br />

parameters based on similar equipment<br />

types and failure modes from multiple<br />

data sources.<br />

From this point of view, it means that<br />

an adequate taxonomy has a positive<br />

impact on the collection of data and storage<br />

of the information necessary for the<br />

management of the information of the<br />

life cycle of the assets.<br />

Therefore, it is possible to say that<br />

taxonomy allows for the establishment<br />

of a hierarchical structure based on factors<br />

possibly common to several of the<br />

assets such as (location, use, subdivision<br />

of asset, etc.), as shown in figure.1,<br />

according to ISO 14224,2016.<br />

BENEFITS AND INTERRELATIONS OF THE<br />

TAXONOMY WITH THE DIFFERENT EN-<br />

ABLING AREAS OF THE ORGANIZATION<br />

An adequate taxonomy of assets allows<br />

to obtain some competitive advantages,<br />

related to the facility of interaction and<br />

fluidity of the information. it is necessary<br />

to clarify that this will be fulfilled, as<br />

long as the information documented and<br />

registered is reliable and of quality; some<br />

of the areas of the organization that will<br />

benefit from it are the following:<br />

Planning and Scheduling<br />

Management and administration of<br />

maintenance activities (work orders,<br />

requests for services and purchases),<br />

cost management, cataloguing of spare<br />

parts, management of indicators, KPI,<br />

history of interventions, etc<br />

Maintenance and Reliability Engineering<br />

Optimization of maintenance plans<br />

through the use of methodologies such<br />

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ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

Figure 1. Taxonomy<br />

classification with<br />

taxonomic levels.<br />

ISO 14224,2016<br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1 Industry<br />

Business<br />

category<br />

Installation<br />

Plant/Unit<br />

Section/System<br />

Equipment unit<br />

Subunit<br />

Component/Maintainable Item<br />

Part<br />

Equipment subdivision Use/location<br />

Installation<br />

Plant/unit 1 Plant/unit 2 Plant/unit 3<br />

System 1 System 2<br />

Sub System 1 Sub System 2<br />

Equipment unit<br />

Maintainable Item<br />

Figure 2. Disaggregated asset structure<br />

historical information for reliability<br />

simulations (RAM), establish asset<br />

replacement strategies.<br />

Execution of Maintenance<br />

Work Order deliveries, field notification<br />

generation, Work Order feedback<br />

Segmentation by assets the costs associated<br />

with maintenance.<br />

Operations<br />

Generation of Work Order requests by<br />

the user (operators), direct interaction<br />

with maintenance, unique identification<br />

for each active<br />

Finance<br />

Support in the financial management of<br />

the life cycle costs of assets: IAS 16, IAS<br />

36 (Revaluation of assets, etc.), divestitures,<br />

obsolescence, etc.<br />

WHERE DO I GET THE INFORMATION FOR<br />

PROPER REGISTRATION?<br />

• Asset Drawings and Systems<br />

Layout<br />

• Manufacturers Manual<br />

• Technical Specification Sheets<br />

• P&ID<br />

• Photos and videos of equipment<br />

in the field<br />

• Other sources of information.<br />

It is important to point out that the<br />

taxonomic identification of the assets is<br />

normally defined by the organizations.<br />

On the other hand, the ISO 14224-2016<br />

standard provides a reference framework<br />

for the assignment of unique codes<br />

for each asset within the management<br />

system, and this can be applied to different<br />

types of industries. That this type of<br />

taxonomic structure however, does not<br />

apply to the electricity generation industry<br />

that generally uses the KKS system.<br />

HOW FAR TO DISAGGREGATE THE ASSET<br />

STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION?<br />

It is important to point out that in consulting<br />

processes carried out by our organization,<br />

we have had the opportunity<br />

to find organizations that have their processes<br />

of disaggregation of assets thoroughly<br />

documented and clear. However,<br />

we have found many organizations that<br />

classify maintainable parts or re-changes<br />

(bearings) as an asset; this can be considered<br />

a conceptual error, since this<br />

distorts the information to be recorded<br />

within the information system for the<br />

purpose of further analysis.<br />

While it is true that there are some<br />

particular criteria, depending on the<br />

type of organization, especially for those<br />

changeable parts that have a high impact<br />

on costs and a special process of manufacture,<br />

these are usually considered as<br />

assets. As an example, we can mention, a<br />

turbine blade.<br />

In the figure. 2. We share a disaggregated<br />

asset structure up to level 6.<br />

The different levels of the asset structure<br />

or how far to disaggregate the organization's<br />

assets will depend largely on the<br />

size of the organization and how easily<br />

the associated information is managed.<br />

The appropriate disaggregated structure<br />

of the asset facilitates the interaction<br />

and fluidity of the information<br />

needed to control and monitor the asset<br />

maintenance management, provided the<br />

information documented and recorded is<br />

reliable and of good quality.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

A clear and adequate disaggregated<br />

structure of the organization's assets and<br />

their correct identification (Taxonomy),<br />

according to international standards, is<br />

the fundamental principle of a system<br />

for the asset information management.<br />

The correct allocation of costs associated<br />

with the life cycle of assets is fundamental<br />

to establish strategies for asset<br />

replacement.<br />

An adequate structure disaggregates<br />

assets, facilitates the implementation of<br />

reliability tools and contributes to improve<br />

the control of data and information<br />

of the equipment.<br />

It is necessary to establish an adequate<br />

hierarchy of assets from the early<br />

stages of the project as part of reliability<br />

tools that allow managing the information<br />

of the assets to increase their useful<br />

life.<br />

BIBLIOGRAPHY<br />

Ciliberti, V. A. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 2014/0214801 A1. South Ben,IN: U.S. System and method for enterprise asset management and failure reporting..<br />

Guillén, A. J., Crespo, A., Gómez, J. F., & Sanz, M. D. (2016). A framework for effective management of condition based maintenance programs in the context<br />

of industrial development of E-Maintenance strategies. Computers in Industry, 82, 170-185.<br />

Kleinhammer, R. K., & Kahn, J. C. (2014). Constructing the Best Reliability Data for the Job.<br />

ISO 55001:2014 Asset Management. Management systems - RequirementsThe British Standards Institution. 2014<br />

ISO 14224, 2016. Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment. Swit<br />

44 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


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EVENT<br />

ČSPÚ 20 Years of Czech<br />

Industrial Maintenance<br />

prof. ING. VÁCLAV<br />

LEGÁT, DRSC.<br />

Honorary chairman of<br />

the Czech Maintenance<br />

Society<br />

ING. JAN HROCH<br />

Executive director of<br />

the Czech Maintenance<br />

Society<br />

In <strong>2020</strong>, in the same year of European Federation<br />

of National Maintenance Societies (EFNMS) 50th<br />

anniversary, the Czech Maintenance Society (ČSPÚ),<br />

member of EFNMS since 2001, is celebrating 20 years<br />

of existence.<br />

20 years of Czech industrial<br />

maintenance<br />

ČSPÚ was established in 2000 and has<br />

been active in the field of maintenance<br />

continuously for the past 20 years. It<br />

is an independent, non-for-profit and<br />

non-political organisation, that brings<br />

together individuals, institutions and<br />

industrial companies interested in the<br />

development of integrated management<br />

of fixed assets, mainly focusing<br />

on industrial asset and facility management<br />

and management and engineering<br />

of maintenance.<br />

46 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


EVENT<br />

Annual conferences organized by ČSPÚ in Liblice Chateaux attended by ca 130 participants.<br />

The mission of ČSPÚ is the development,<br />

acquisition and dissemination<br />

of new knowledge in the field of asset<br />

management and maintenance engineering<br />

to satisfy the professional<br />

needs of its members, to support organizations<br />

in achieving success in<br />

maintenance and improvement of asset<br />

management and maintenance and operation<br />

of their production equipment.<br />

ČSPÚ has more than 60 individual<br />

and more than 50 collective members<br />

(companies and other organizations).<br />

Any person or organization that is<br />

interested in working in the field of<br />

maintenance is welcome to become<br />

the member. ČSPÚ is governed by<br />

an eleven-member board, headed by<br />

the chairman and executive director,<br />

and its activities are controlled by a<br />

three-member supervisory board. The<br />

supreme body of the CSPU is the General<br />

Assembly – very much like in the<br />

EFNMS.<br />

ČSPÚ is partnered with Czech<br />

Automotive industry association (AutoSAP),<br />

Chemical industry association<br />

ČR (SCHP ČR) and National Center<br />

of Industry 4.0 (NCP 4.0) and is also<br />

a member (as mentioned above) of<br />

the European Federation of National<br />

Maintenance Societies (EFNMS) and<br />

the Chamber of Commerce of the Czech<br />

Republic.<br />

While ČSPÚ has a number of activities,<br />

it focuses mainly on:<br />

1. Bringing together professionals<br />

and organizations in the field of<br />

maintenance<br />

2. Organizing maintenance conferences.<br />

(twice per year)<br />

3. Organizing a providing training<br />

in maintenance (it offers certification<br />

of Maintenance Manager,<br />

Maintenance Technician, Master<br />

of Maintenance)<br />

4. Performing audits and analysis of<br />

maintenance management and<br />

also providing consultancy in<br />

general<br />

5. Contributing to maintenance research<br />

Bringing people together<br />

The two key events, that ČSPÚ annually<br />

organizes, are traditional industrial conferences<br />

– „International conference<br />

of Maintenance“ and „Maintenance<br />

for TOP Managers“, both with ca 130<br />

participants. ČSPÚ organizes the conference<br />

since 2003 with a great success.<br />

The conference is sponsored annually<br />

by the Ministry of industry and trade of<br />

the Czech Republic or the Association<br />

of industry and transport and among its<br />

general partners, is also the EFNMS.<br />

Educating and<br />

knowledge-sharing<br />

ČSPÚ offers complex training and education<br />

of maintenance personnel according<br />

to EN 15628:2015 Qualification of<br />

maintenance personnel and aligned with<br />

the recommendations of EFNMS.<br />

The offered education programs are<br />

divided into 3 levels and provided as lifelong<br />

learning mainly for professionals<br />

from industry:<br />

• Maintenance Manager (160 study<br />

hours, 20 tuition days, with final<br />

thesis)<br />

• Maintenance Technician Specialist<br />

(96 study hours, 12 tuition days)<br />

• Maintenance Supervisor (64 study<br />

hours, 8 tuition days)<br />

The courses have been finished by more<br />

than 600 graduates, 127 of them with<br />

professional certificates.<br />

The target audience of the education<br />

program are maintenance managers,<br />

asset managers, facility managers,<br />

maintenance managers, chief mechanics,<br />

TPM facilitators, maintenance engineers<br />

and planners, maintenance technicians,<br />

mechanics, specialists, foremen etc. with<br />

university or high school education.<br />

The aim of the course is to familiarize<br />

the course participants with the basic<br />

requirements of asset management in<br />

general and machinery in particular, including<br />

all aspects of maintenance management,<br />

execution as well as practical<br />

techniques. The course makes use of real<br />

case studies and teach its participants<br />

with help of practical examples. Finally,<br />

emphasis is placed on the application of<br />

the principles of economic thinking in<br />

maintenance management.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 47


ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

Acoustic emission testing<br />

How to listen to pressure equipment<br />

Pressure equipment maintenance activities in chemical plants need to comply<br />

with statutory inspection intervals and ensure regular condition monitoring. TÜV<br />

SÜD shows how this can be done cost-effectively using acoustic emission testing<br />

(AT), a procedure which also benefits predictive maintenance.<br />

DIPL.-ING. KLAUS MICHAEL FISCHER, Innovation Manager & Technical Director for Fire and Explosion Prevention, TÜV SÜD Chemie Service GmbH<br />

DIPL.-ING. LEVENT SAHIN, Manager Acoustic Emission Testing, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH,<br />

DIPL.-ING. HERMANN SCHUBERT, Head of Digital and Continuous Inspection, TÜV SÜD Chemie Service GmbH<br />

THE CHEMICAL-PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY delivers essential<br />

goods such as medicinal products and sanitation articles or<br />

is involved in their supply chains and has thus also played a<br />

special role in the coronavirus pandemic. As a basic rule, detailed<br />

information about a component facilitates the planning<br />

of servicing and maintenance. This fact also benefits users of<br />

acoustic emission testing (AT), a particularly sophisticated<br />

digital test method. A column at a refinery is one possible use<br />

case. The column at the refinery is a large-sized vessel used in<br />

process engineering. The high, slim columns contain numerous<br />

installations and valve trays and predominate in the typical<br />

appearance of a chemical plant. They are used to break down<br />

mixtures into their constituent components.<br />

Large-sized columns at a refinery<br />

In the case on hand, the large-sized column was to be checked<br />

using AT instead of interior inspection, i e. examination from<br />

the inside. This involved the advantages that the system did<br />

not have to be taken out of service and the column did not need<br />

to be cleaned for inspection. Further, the method did not require<br />

any actions to ensure occupational health and safety or<br />

incur costs caused by the shutdown of the plant.<br />

Key data of the vessel:<br />

• Material: Fine-grain structural steel (P 355 NH)<br />

• Service period: 14 years to date<br />

• Height: 74.3 metres<br />

Acoustic Emission Testing (AET)<br />

of pressure equipment: reliable<br />

statements during operation<br />

(Source: TÜV SÜD)<br />

LEGAL REGULATIONS REQUIRE<br />

PRESSURE VESSELS, PIPING AND<br />

OTHER PRESSURISED PLANT<br />

COMPONENTS TO UNDERGO PERIODIC<br />

TECHNICAL INSPECTION (PTI).<br />

http://www.tuvsud.com<br />

48 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


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ASSET MANAGEMENT<br />

• Diameter: 4.44 metres<br />

• Volume 1,160 m 3<br />

• Wall thickness: Between 22 and 26 millimetres<br />

Proceeding according to a layout plan, TÜV SÜD Industrie<br />

Service distributed 88 piezoelectric sensors across the outside<br />

wall of the scaffolded column. The number of sensors was<br />

sufficient to ensure easy and reliable inspection of the entire<br />

structure, including its complex geometries and poorly accessible<br />

installations. To be able to affix the sensors directly to the<br />

metal using a couplant, the experts had temporarily removed<br />

20 square centimetres of insulation at the points at which the<br />

sensors were affixed.<br />

Equipment under test pressure<br />

The test pressure required for AT – which must be at least 1.1<br />

times the maximum service pressure – was controlled by the<br />

plant manager via the control centre using the fluid in the vessel.<br />

In this case, the online AT process took around 12 hours.<br />

AT analyses acoustic ultrasonic waves at high frequencies inaudible<br />

to the human ear.<br />

These waves are caused when active defects, such as cracks<br />

in the material, expand minimally under the applied pressure.<br />

The resulting sudden mechanical motions set their environment<br />

into vibration, resulting in a transient elastic acoustic<br />

wave. This wave propagates from its point of origin to the sensor’s<br />

piezoelectric crystal, which transforms it into electric<br />

signals. The signals are then presented graphically by a test<br />

computer and interpreted by experienced test engineers.<br />

This method enables discontinuities to be identified in the<br />

steel structure before they can cause critical states. In most<br />

cases, AT enables far more accurate statements to be made<br />

than conventional visual examinations or pressure tests. This<br />

also applies to the assessment of non-critical inhomogeneities<br />

or microcracking that do not propagate in operation and can<br />

thus be left unchanged. In the case discussed here, TÜV SÜD<br />

recommended subsequent dedicated inspection of some spots<br />

on welds using the UT phased-array method.<br />

Assessment of signals<br />

Acoustic signals are grouped into three risk classes depending<br />

on their number, activity, intensity and location (Table 1). This<br />

categorisation allows for better planning and prioritisation of<br />

any follow-up actions that may be necessary. Ideally, the plant<br />

manager works with the inspection organisation to document<br />

the quantitative criteria of assessment before the actual inspection.<br />

Background information on health and safety<br />

in the use of work equipment<br />

Legal regulations require pressure vessels, piping and other<br />

pressurised plant components to undergo periodic technical<br />

inspection (PTI). The relevant requirements are laid down<br />

in the German Regulation on Health and Safety in the Use of<br />

Work Equipment (BetrSichV), which targets all employers.<br />

PTI focuses not only on the leak-tightness of pressure equipment,<br />

but also on possible cracking or corrosive attacks on<br />

walls. Generally, PTI requires examination of the pressure<br />

equipment from the inside. According to the German BetrSichV,<br />

employers (previously pressure-equipment operators)<br />

are permitted to use alternative non-destructive test methods<br />

such as AT or the UT phased-array method for this purpose,<br />

provided an authorised inspection agency (AIA) confirms that<br />

the assessment of plant safety delivered by the test concept is<br />

of equivalent quality.<br />

Applicable standards<br />

DIN EN 13554 lays down the general approach to AT. The harmonised<br />

standard DIN EN 14584 governs the test method for<br />

metallic pressure equipment using proof testing with planar<br />

location of acoustic emission sources. According to DIN EN<br />

ISO 9712, testing must be performed by qualified and certified<br />

personnel. DIN EN 13477-2 describes the requirements to be<br />

fulfilled by test equipment, which also needs to undergo regular<br />

verification of its operating characteristics.<br />

Outlook: digital monitoring –<br />

continuous monitoring<br />

Recent years have seen exponential growth in computing<br />

power, which has also benefited AT. Faster processors and<br />

user-friendly software produce real-time visualisation of several<br />

hundreds of localisations per second. The speed at which<br />

equipment can detect and analyse potential inhomogeneities<br />

or anomalies has increased a thousandfold. Owing to its high<br />

level of maturity and real-time capability, AT can also be used<br />

for in-service monitoring of plants and systems. It supplies<br />

data which are of fundamental importance for forward planning<br />

of maintenance and turnaround intervals. This information<br />

can also be transferred via data network (also as a cloud<br />

solution). Rounded off and complemented by a separate online<br />

NDT method (continuous monitoring), these non-destructive<br />

test methods may be used for applications such as monitoring<br />

of the wall thickness of vessels by UT – information that can<br />

likewise be realised via remote data transmission.<br />

Classification Assessment Method and actions<br />

Class 1 Insignificant source No actions required<br />

Class 2 Active source Visual examination or other subsequent inspection and evaluation<br />

Class 3 Highly active source Test interruption or termination, pressure relief, visual<br />

examination, other subsequent inspections and evaluation prior to<br />

the return to service.<br />

Table 1: Clarification of signals and actions<br />

50 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


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