Maintworld 3/2020

Maintworld magazine - maintenance & asset management Maintenance and reliability in the pandemic PEOPLE, THE MOST VALUABLE ASSET IN YOUR ORGANIZATION UNITED NATIONS OF AUTOMATION ČSPÚ 20 YEARS OF CZECH INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE

Maintworld magazine - maintenance & asset management
Maintenance and reliability in the pandemic


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3/<strong>2020</strong> www.maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

Maintenance<br />

and reliability<br />

in the pandemic p 8<br />


You need knowledge. Your colleagues need knowledge.<br />

Techniques, solutions, strategy, and the business case - it is all<br />

critical knowledge.<br />

Whether your focus is condition monitoring or the bigger<br />

picture of reliability improvement, our websites, live events,<br />

and worldwide communities provide easy access to the<br />

information you need.<br />

We invite you to be part of MOBIUS CONNECT. With MOBIUS<br />

CONNECT you can...<br />

• Learn and share<br />

• Customize your learning pathway<br />

• Continue your educational journey, live or online<br />

• Engage with industry leaders from around the world<br />

www.mobiusconnect.com<br />

The maintenance and<br />

reliability industry’s<br />

professional network.

Find<br />

Your<br />

Learning<br />

Path<br />

Join thousands of other industry professionals by creating your free<br />

custom profile today at https://mobiusconnect.com/<br />


Turn Your Remote Workers<br />

Into Remote Experts<br />

Now more than ever we need to make our workforce more<br />

efficient, productive, and safe to stay ahead in this current<br />

climate. With Remote Expert, companies with a highly mobile<br />

workforce are able to do just that. Learn how connected field<br />

worker solutions enable organizations to keep more accurate<br />

records of where their workforce are, and at what times, and<br />

allow them to more intelligently schedule worker tasks.<br />

Learn more about this and other digital transformation<br />

solutions by checking out ICONICS’ virtual event:<br />


Automatically Detect Faults<br />

ROI Typically Within 12 to 18 Months<br />

Library of Preconfigured Fault Rules<br />

Rich Visualization and Reporting<br />

Predict, Reduce and Eliminate Downtime<br />

Improve Maintenance Efficiency


People are Key –<br />

Also in the Digital Age<br />


MAINTENANCE IS definitely pushing<br />

through. And the proof is in the pudding,<br />

because the first virtual conference<br />

on digital strategies and new<br />

technologies in maintenance & asset<br />

management, Asset Performance 4.0,<br />

welcomed over 670 participants who<br />

enjoyed more than 100 presentations<br />

and keynotes on the future of maintenance.<br />

In his opening keynote, Knud<br />

Lasse Lueth, CEO of IOT Analytics,<br />

stated that an overwhelming amount<br />

of companies say Industry 4.0 creates<br />

value for them. 78 percent of companies<br />

experimenting with 4.0 technologies see a positive ROI change. But they still<br />

face major challenges. It is no surprise that the main challenge is investing in people,<br />

training and cultural change. In an all-technology era, the human factor still<br />

stays the most important.<br />

This vision is shared by Terrence O’Hanlon of ReliabilityWeb: “You need technology<br />

and processes, but ultimately, you need leadership because everything<br />

depends on the people”, he stated in his keynote, “4.0 technology alone will not get<br />

you reliability, the first step is to empower your workforce.”<br />

I takes two to tango<br />

Where technicians in the past manually inspected machines and manually scheduled<br />

repairs, 4.0 technologies allow us to let machines do the thinking: they can detect<br />

the failures, report them automatically, and, when needed, schedule in a maintenance<br />

intervention automatically. In coming years, we will depend more and<br />

more on Artificial Intelligence to tell us what to do and when to do it. But before<br />

we are there, the algorithms will need to learn from the knowledge and experience<br />

in the head of our technicians and engineers. And the technicians and engineers<br />

will need to learn how to learn from the algorithms.<br />

Huge gap<br />

Research by BEMAS, the Belgian Maintenance Association, with some companies<br />

adopting maintenance and industry 4.0 technology, revealed a huge gap between<br />

what workers and managers should know about AI and their current competency<br />

level.<br />

Covid-19 accelerated the digital revolution, which is having an impact on 4.0,<br />

too. Remote working inspires many companies for having remote monitoring. As<br />

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella put it at Asset performance 4.0: “We have seen two<br />

years’ worth of digital transformation in two months”. The ball of digitalisation is<br />

rolling. If you are active in the field of maintenance, reliability and asset management,<br />

then it is time to step up your digital skills…<br />

6 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

Wim Vancauwenberghe<br />

Maintenance Evangelist.<br />

48<br />

Acoustic<br />

signals are<br />

grouped into three risk<br />

classes depending on their<br />

number, activity, intensity<br />

and location.

IN THIS ISSUE 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

30<br />

Historically,<br />

condition<br />

monitoring of balanced<br />

machine bogie wheel bearings<br />

has been challenging.<br />

=<br />

38<br />

The<br />

best organizations<br />

reduce reactive maintenance<br />

to less than 10 percent of all<br />

work.<br />

8<br />

Maintenance and reliability in the<br />

pandemic<br />

14<br />

ssisting Maintenance Technicians in<br />

Today’s Work Environment<br />

18<br />

22<br />

24<br />

Achieve Greater Efficiencies in<br />

Maintenance Scheduling Automatically<br />

Failures and Diagnostics of<br />

Asynchronous Motors.<br />

People, the Most Valuable Asset<br />

in your Organization<br />

26<br />

28<br />

30<br />

32<br />

Low Rotation Speed Machine<br />

Control Using Ultrasound<br />

Wireless Sensors Can Now Replace<br />

Traditional Systems in Condition<br />

Monitoring<br />

Detection of Bearing Defects on<br />

Balanced Machine Bogies<br />

United Nations of Automation<br />

34<br />

The Skills Gap and the<br />

Covid-19 Impact<br />

38<br />

42<br />

46<br />

48<br />

Reliability and Maintenance (RM)<br />

Management: Are You Doing<br />

the Wrong Things?<br />

Disaggregated Asset Structure<br />

and Taxonomy<br />

ČSPÚ 20 years of Czech<br />

industrial maintenance<br />

Acoustic Emission Testing<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher Omnipress Oy,<br />

Väritehtaankatu 8, 4. kerros, 01300 Vantaa, tel. +358 20 6100, toimitus@omnipress.fi, www.omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas<br />

tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@omnipress.fi, Advertisements Kai Portman, Sales Director, tel. +358 358 44 763 2573, ads@maintworld.com<br />

Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and Change of Address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members tilaajapalvelu@<br />

media.fi Printed by Reusner, www.reusner.ee Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 7


Maintenance and Reliability<br />

in the Pandemic<br />

A well-run maintenance and reliability improvement program must monitor the<br />

economic and competitive environment and adjust accordingly. We must ask<br />

questions such as: can we invest more money or be conservative, is the goal<br />

higher production or cost reduction, and so on. That could never be truer about the<br />

situation we face today.<br />


ARP-L<br />

Mobius Institute<br />

IT IS WORTH CONSIDERING two possible<br />

approaches: a conservative approach to<br />

weather the storm, and an aggressive<br />

approach to take advantage of vulnerable<br />

competitors.<br />

A conservative approach<br />

If the plan is to “hunker down and<br />

weather the storm”, then it is important<br />

that the reliability improvement strategy<br />

is adjusted accordingly. The focus<br />

will be on minimizing costs.<br />

Let’s quickly review some opportunities.<br />


If we experience fewer failures, then we<br />

avoid the costs of repairing the equipment:<br />

parts, materials, and overtime<br />

labor.<br />

Pareto analysis can tell you which<br />

items of equipment are costing you the<br />

most. If our Pareto analysis only tells<br />

us which items fail most frequently, that<br />

will be useful, but if we know the costs<br />

associated with each failure, then we<br />

will know exactly which items of equipment<br />

we should focus on.<br />

Once we know which equipment is<br />

the biggest drain on our maintenance<br />

budget, we can investigate why the<br />

equipment is failing, and what we can<br />

do about it. We can implement proactive<br />

steps (lubrication, cleaning, etc.)<br />

we can consider cost-effective reliability<br />

improvement tasks (eliminating the<br />

root cause) and we can ensure we have<br />

condition monitoring and inspections<br />

in place so that we can see the problems<br />

coming.<br />

Equipment failures also impact production<br />

output and potentially safety/<br />

environment, but we will discuss that<br />

separately.<br />


There is a great deal of money tied up in<br />

spares/material inventory and the holding<br />

costs can be a drain on the business.<br />

In many countries/regions the tax<br />

system requires organizations to treat<br />

the inventory as an asset and thus tax<br />

must be paid. If you are holding parts or<br />

materials that have not been fully depreciated<br />

but are no longer required in your<br />

plant then you may be able to sell those<br />

parts, even if it is just for scrap. They may<br />

not be required to be held in inventory for<br />

a few reasons:<br />

• They are too old to be used<br />

• You have changed the design of the<br />

process and those parts/spares will<br />

not be required<br />

• You are holding such a high volume<br />

that a reduction would not have an<br />

impact for a very long time (but you<br />

will need to weigh up the benefits<br />

8 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


of selling those assets versus the<br />

likelihood that you will have to<br />

repurchase them in the future)<br />

It is also important to evaluate where<br />

the inventory is being held, and the<br />

restocking policy.<br />



If you have a clear understanding of the<br />

likelihood of equipment failure and the<br />

lead time available to order the necessary<br />

parts, then you can consider holding<br />

stock with a supplier (i.e. at their<br />

facility and not yours and you do not<br />

pay for them until you need them) and<br />

you can reduce the quantity ordered<br />

when stocks are low. It is unfortunately<br />

common for purchasing departments<br />

to order higher volumes, especially if<br />

there is a volume discount. When times<br />

are tough, it is even more important to<br />

review those decisions.<br />



One key element of this is the requirement<br />

to understand the future demand<br />

for spares and material. If the plant<br />

suffers a high level of reactive maintenance,<br />

then we will need quick access to<br />

the necessary parts and materials which<br />

probably means holding a larger inventory.<br />

Pareto analysis will tell you which<br />

equipment fails most frequently which<br />

helps you to plan which spares must be<br />

held on site. But Pareto analysis is based<br />

on historical data - we are worried<br />

about the future.<br />


With an effective condition monitoring<br />

program, we can see the problems coming<br />

with enough time to order the parts<br />

without having to pay a premium for<br />

the parts or their transportation. Pareto<br />

analysis, criticality analysis, and a clear<br />

understanding of failure modes will<br />

enable us to review whether we have the<br />

appropriate condition monitoring and<br />

inspections in place.<br />

If we can reduce the number of failures<br />

through improved reliability, and<br />

gain an earlier warning of future failures,<br />

we can reduce our inventory and<br />

order fewer replacements when stock<br />

gets low.<br />


Overtime that results from equipment<br />

breakdowns will obviously be reduced if<br />

there are fewer failures, which we have<br />

already discussed. But if you have an<br />

effective condition monitoring program,<br />

and an effective planning and scheduling<br />

system, then you can perform the corrective<br />

maintenance work more efficiently<br />

and avoid the necessity to perform that<br />

work outside of normal hours.<br />


Every organization wants high first pass<br />

quality, but it is especially important<br />

when the organization must reduce its<br />

costs. You must understand the needs<br />

of your business so that you understand<br />

the importance of improving quality. The<br />

costs associated with poor quality can<br />

include:<br />

1. Wasting precious materials if the<br />

product is scrapped<br />

2. Wasting energy (and incurring<br />

overtime labor costs) during<br />

rework or catchup production<br />

3. Regulatory fines and other<br />

potential costs when disposing of<br />

poor-quality product<br />

There are two basic ways to address<br />

this issue. One is to wear an Engineer’s<br />

hat and look at the logic of how quality<br />

is being affected, and the second is to<br />

wear an Journalists’ hat and engage with<br />

people to understand what they have<br />

observed that impacts quality.<br />

Ultimately, we need to perform root<br />

cause analysis to understand what is at<br />

the heart of quality losses so it can understand<br />

what we can do to eliminate them.<br />

WASTE<br />

Every business needs to reduce waste,<br />

but it is especially important when the<br />

focus is on reducing costs. Downtime,<br />

quality losses, inefficiencies, and excess<br />

spares/material inventory are all forms<br />

of waste which we have already discussed.<br />

If you are engaging with operators<br />

and technicians and asking them for<br />

their observations and ideas for improvement,<br />

you will learn about all<br />

forms of waste. If you conduct plant<br />

walk-throughs and you stop and<br />

observe people going about their work,<br />

you will observe many forms of waste.<br />

Your challenge is to assess which cost<br />

the business the most and then set<br />

about eliminating those forms of waste.<br />


Downtime may be more tolerable if<br />

there is reduced demand for the product<br />

being manufactured. If you provide<br />

a service, wastewater treatment for<br />

example, then the requirement to<br />

minimize downtime will not change.<br />

Only you understand your organization.<br />

If reducing downtime is still critically<br />

important, then all the normal goals<br />

apply. Reducing equipment failure and<br />

effective planning and scheduling<br />

(supported by effective condition monitoring)<br />

will help you reduce downtime.<br />

What about safety and the environment?<br />

Safety, environmental protection, and<br />

regulatory compliance apply regardless of<br />

the business conditions, so we must never<br />

lose focus on those critical areas.<br />


A common reaction to the demand to<br />

reduce costs is to cut out all training and<br />

reduce the maintenance department<br />

headcount.<br />

Given that the author runs a training<br />

business, I obviously have a conflict of<br />

10 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


a great opportunity to leap forward and<br />

grab market share. Who knows, maybe<br />

we can become strong enough to acquire<br />

a competitor.<br />

One of the ways to grab market share<br />

is to offer a higher quality product, in<br />

greater volume, at a lower cost.<br />


You must examine what it takes to improve<br />

quality and determine whether you<br />

have any influence over those factors.<br />

We discussed this in the previous section,<br />

although in that case our primary goal<br />

was to reduce costs.<br />


There is a relationship between product<br />

cost and volume. If you reduce your<br />

internal costs in the ways discussed in<br />

the previous section and you can produce<br />

more product, you can reduce the price<br />

of your product or service and still be<br />

profitable. If you reduce the price of your<br />

product or service, and there is additional<br />

demand for that product or service, then<br />

there will be a need to increase your<br />

capacity to deliver on the higher volume.<br />

Equipment reliability is obviously<br />

important when there is a requirement<br />

to increase output. But there are several<br />

factors that ultimately impact on output:<br />




interest, however if people are not<br />

skilled or qualified to perform their<br />

roles they will make mistakes which<br />

will cost the business more money.<br />

The good news is that virtual training,<br />

and elearning, are less expensive<br />

than instructor-led public training.<br />

Reducing headcount is also counterproductive.<br />

You need people to<br />

perform the proactive tasks of cleaning,<br />

lubricating, adjusting, inspecting,<br />

and monitoring equipment condition<br />

in order to avoid future failures.<br />

When you cut the headcount,<br />

not only does impact morale, but the<br />

number of equipment failures will<br />

increase.<br />


There are basically two ways to reduce<br />

costs: cut and slash versus improving<br />

efficiency and reducing waste.<br />

History has told us that the organizations<br />

that cut and slash do not succeed<br />

unless the situation is truly urgent. Improving<br />

efficiency, improving quality<br />

and throughput, and reducing waste in<br />

all its forms (which includes equipment<br />

failures) not only helps an organization<br />

through a crisis but it sets it up for future<br />

success.<br />

An aggressive approach<br />

When the market is down, and your<br />

competitors are struggling, it presents<br />



The OEE is a measure of our ability to<br />

produce the saleable product. An OEE<br />

of 100% means the equipment is always<br />

available, it is able to operate at 100% of<br />

the desired rate, and there are no quality<br />

losses. We have discussed quality but let<br />

us take a quick look at the other factors.<br />

Obviously, reliability affects the<br />

availability. Eliminating the root causes<br />

of failure will increase the reliability of<br />

the equipment. Condition monitoring,<br />

effective planning and scheduling, and<br />

effective spares management ensure that<br />

periods of downtime are minimized.<br />

But there are other factors that affect<br />

availability and production rate:<br />

• We must minimize the number of<br />

minor stoppages. They will not be<br />

recorded officially as “downtime,”<br />

but they still reduce our ability to<br />

produce product. Minor stoppages<br />

may be due to reliability issues,<br />

operator error, and for several other<br />

reasons. You must understand<br />

what those reasons are. Pareto<br />

analysis can help in this regard,<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 11


but only if the length of the delay<br />

and the reason for the delay are<br />

recorded.<br />

• We must minimize changeover<br />

losses. If you use the same equipment<br />

to produce different products,<br />

and there is a delay while<br />

equipment is set up for the new<br />

product run, then it is critically<br />

important to reduce those delays.<br />

The best analogy is the racecar<br />

pit crew. They can change the<br />

tires, refuel, and perform repairs<br />

in a fraction of the time it would<br />

take you or me because they have<br />

streamlined the process and<br />

they are prepared before the car<br />

reaches the pit. We must investigate<br />

how we can achieve optimal<br />

levels of efficiency.<br />

• We must also examine the production<br />

rate, i.e., the number<br />

of widgets per hour. Why is the<br />

equipment unable to operate at<br />

the desired rate? Is it possible<br />

to operate at a higher rate? We<br />

must answer those questions and<br />

address the root causes.<br />

A traditional reliability specialist<br />

might look at these items and believe<br />

that they are outside their sphere of<br />

influence and experience to attempt to<br />

address these issues. The author humbly<br />

disagrees. If you engage with people,<br />

ask for their suggestions and ideas, but<br />

do not wear maintenance/reliability<br />

blinkers, you will find ways to eliminate<br />

waste and increase production output.<br />

If you are smart enough to be involved<br />

with maintenance and reliability, you<br />

will be able to handle any opportunities<br />

for improvement that are revealed.<br />


Plant capacity can be affected by seasonal<br />

factors, limited product demand,<br />

and other factors. But one of the major<br />

contributors to restricted plant capacity<br />

is scheduled maintenance (shutdowns,<br />

turnarounds, and outages).<br />

At one extreme, a plant with poor<br />

reliability, a lack of understanding of<br />

the failure mechanisms and reliability<br />

theory, and ineffective planning, will<br />

suffer frequent long outages.<br />

At the other extreme:<br />

• A plant with higher reliability will<br />

have less work to perform during<br />

the outage and the time between<br />

outages can be extended.<br />

• A plant that understands reliability<br />

theory will utilize condition-based<br />

maintenance and thus<br />

perform less time-based maintenance.<br />

As a result, less work will<br />

be required during the outage.<br />

• A plant with an effective planning<br />

process, with written procedures<br />

for every task, and kitting and<br />

staging, will ensure that the time<br />

during the outage is used efficiently.<br />

• A plant with highly skilled and<br />

motivated maintenance technicians<br />

who have the training<br />

and tools to perform precision<br />

maintenance, will perform the<br />

necessary work correctly the first<br />

time. Rework will not be required,<br />

and infant mortality failures will<br />

be eliminated. The plant will<br />

start up the first time and begin<br />

producing quality products more<br />

quickly.<br />

• And a plant with documented<br />

startup procedures will ensure<br />

the equipment is not stressed<br />

during startup thus eliminating<br />

operator driven infant mortality<br />

failures.<br />


There is a great deal you can do to create<br />

an environment where your company<br />

can reduce the price of its products<br />

or cost of your service.<br />

As described above in the “conservative<br />

approach” section, you can<br />

eliminate failures and waste to reduce<br />

the cost of doing business. It is worth<br />

noting, however, if you increase output<br />

without increasing overhead costs, the<br />

cost-per-unit-product goes down even<br />

before you focus on cost reduction.<br />

What will you do?<br />

You must decide what changes you can<br />

make in the shortest period of time (given<br />

that this is an urgent situation), and<br />

the relative importance of quality versus<br />

output versus cost. The more you<br />

understand about your organization, its<br />

goals, constraints, risks, and opportunities,<br />

the more likely you will be to survive<br />

this difficult period, and potentially<br />

flourish.<br />

12 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>




Leak Detection<br />

Bearing Condition Monitoring<br />

Bearing Lubrication<br />

Steam Traps & Valves<br />

Electrical Inspection<br />


CAT & CAT II Ultrasound Training<br />

Onsite Implementation Training<br />

Application Specific Training<br />


Free support & license-free software<br />

Online Courses<br />

Free access to our Learning Center<br />

(webinars, articles, tutorials)<br />


www.uesystems.com<br />

info@uesystems.com<br />





Senior Director of<br />

Global Marketing,<br />

ICONICS,<br />

melissa@iconics.com<br />

Safety (and Productivity) in Numbers<br />


The working environment for today’s maintenance technicians is tricky. The<br />

COVID-19 pandemic has certainly changed the way that many people perform<br />

their jobs around the world. At the same time, many maintenance technicians<br />

may have found that their workload hasn’t changed too much, or may have<br />

increased due to related factors. In either case, the work still needs to be done<br />

and it’s often reassuring for on-site techs to know, sometimes through modern<br />

technology, that they’re not alone in their responsibilities.<br />

14 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ICONICS (https://iconics.com), a global<br />

automation software developer and member<br />

of the Mitsubishi Electric Group, has<br />

created multiple software tools that can<br />

help maintenance technicians, and other<br />

employees throughout an organization,<br />

remain productive while simultaneously<br />

adhering to current social distancing<br />

requirements. A specific combination of<br />

these solutions; featuring connected field<br />

worker/remote expert capability, IIoT<br />

connectivity, and fault detection and diagnostics<br />

(FDD); is specifically recommended<br />

for those involved with maintenance<br />

management and operations.<br />

Connected Field Worker<br />

/Remote Expert<br />

Since the emergence of the COVID-19<br />

pandemic, many organizations with maintenance<br />

requirements have sought the<br />

right combination of employee collaboration<br />

mixed with required social distancing.<br />

To aid in these efforts, ICONICS has<br />

introduced its CFSWorX connected field<br />

service solution, with integrated remote<br />

expert feature. CFSWorX empowers organizations<br />

to alert the right field worker<br />

to respond to equipment service needs. It<br />





contains a set of digital tools that provide<br />

real-time monitoring of field equipment,<br />

real-time monitoring of service worker<br />

availability and location, and alerts to<br />

field workers when field equipment requires<br />

service.<br />

In addition, CFSWorX can be integrated<br />

with Remote Expert assistance<br />

features. In this challenging time, companies<br />

are embracing video conferencing,<br />

chat, and dispatching of remote experts<br />

to resolve issues and provide support and<br />

collaboration. CFSWorX with Remote<br />

Expert functionality helps to guide field<br />

technicians and customers with live annotations,<br />

as well as utilizes live video<br />

and audio streaming with remote experts<br />

to improve issue resolution and remote<br />

knowledge sharing. This solution can<br />

be used through technicians’ existing<br />

mobile devices, as well as through headmounted<br />

computing devices such as RealWear’s<br />

HMT-1, for instance.<br />

NOTE: ICONICS is offering FREE use of<br />

its CFSWorX solution for the remainder<br />

of <strong>2020</strong> for new applications. Those interested<br />

can inquire about the free trial offer<br />

at https://iconics.com/CFSWorX-free.<br />

IIoT Connectivity<br />

How does IIoT connectivity assist with<br />

these same safety and productivity concerns?<br />

IoT-integrated software can provide<br />

the trusted connection to an organization’s<br />

equipment to provide extensive<br />

remote monitoring and KPI analysis,<br />

which can assist in maintenance task<br />

assignment. Real-time conditions can<br />

be determined off site, which can sometimes<br />

reduce the need for on-site investigation<br />

or determine a reduced number<br />

of required personnel. IoT-connected<br />

software also helps to provide the upto-the-minute<br />

detailed information<br />

that maintenance personnel need when<br />

they are required to be on site. ICONICS<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 15


IoTWorX IoT software for any edge<br />

device provides the bridge between an<br />

enterprise and ICONICS’ HMI/SCADA,<br />

data analytics, and mobile solutions running<br />

in the cloud. Customers are able to<br />

take advantage of key IoT technologies<br />

including connectivity to digital assets,<br />

secure cloud communications, and builtin<br />

real-time data visualization.<br />

NOTE: ICONICS has announced virtual<br />

machine offers on the Microsoft Azure<br />

Marketplace that contain the complete<br />

installation of GENESIS64, Hyper<br />

Historian, IoTWorX, and AnalytiX®<br />

Suite, currently available for the recently<br />

released version 10.96.1 and previous<br />

version 10.96. Leveraging these virtual<br />

machine offers on Azure accelerates the<br />

onboarding of new projects or lets users<br />

quickly test out new functionality without<br />

lengthy installation times or having to<br />

procure new hardware or equipment from<br />

IT. Visit https://iconics.com/azureoffers<br />

for more info.<br />

Fault Detection and<br />

Diagnostics (FDD)<br />

In tandem with IoTWorX IoT connectivity<br />

integration, ICONICS’ Fault Detection<br />

and Diagnostics (FDD) technology<br />

can help determine whether certain<br />

conditions warrant an on-site technician<br />

in the first place. ICONICS FDDWorX<br />

incorporates algorithms that weigh the<br />

probability of faults and advises management,<br />

operators, and maintenance personnel<br />

of actions to prevent equipment<br />

16 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

failures or excessive use of energy. When<br />

equipment failures occur, the solution<br />

provides automatic guidance to a list of<br />

causes sorted by probability, resulting<br />

in reduced downtime and lower costs to<br />

diagnose and repair.<br />

FDDWorX collects equipment process<br />

data using industry-standard data<br />

collection mechanisms. It can automatically<br />

generate alert notifications and<br />

reports. Operators can use real-time<br />

displays to analyze relevant data such<br />

as the status of equipment operating<br />

outside rules parameters. FDDWorX<br />

helps organizations evolve from a legacy<br />

break-fix maintenance method to a more<br />

proactive one, using insights from data<br />

analyses to make smarter technician<br />

assignments and decisions, including<br />

whether or not to even send personnel<br />

on site at all.<br />

Connections for the Task<br />

at Hand<br />

The successful maintenance departments,<br />

and organizations in general, that<br />

emerge from this global pandemic will be<br />

those that can make rational, data-driven<br />

decisions to safely keep their business<br />

processes up and running. Such decisionmaking<br />

is enabled through vendors such<br />

as ICONICS and through modern software<br />

solutions such as CFSWorX, IoT-<br />

WorX, and FDDWorX. This combination<br />

of software tools can help maintenance<br />

departments triage which job tickets absolutely<br />

require on-site technicians, help<br />

decide which field worker is best to assign<br />

and seamlessly notify that person with<br />

the required details, provide real-time<br />

equipment operational data (as well as<br />

schematics, if necessary) via IIoT connectivity,<br />

and even provide the on-site tech<br />

with connection to a remote coworker<br />

who can apply their own years of expertise<br />

and familiarity to the task at hand.<br />

Maintenance tasks can often seem<br />

like an individual effort, perhaps even<br />

more so during the pandemic. In these<br />

challenging times, through technology<br />

solutions such as those from ICONICS,<br />

it may be reassuring to know that even<br />

when you’re alone on a job, you still have<br />

connections. To see these technologies in<br />

action, check out ICONICS’ virtual event,<br />

Connect <strong>2020</strong>: Digital Transformation<br />

Solutions for a New Normal, streaming<br />

on October 15. Register ahead of time or<br />

view the sessions on demand by visiting<br />



Achieve Greater<br />


info@actenum.com<br />

Efficiencies in Maintenance<br />

Scheduling Automatically<br />

Across a range of industries around the world, Plant<br />

Operations have heavy investments in expensive<br />

machinery that are critical to their success. Meticulous<br />

planned and reactive maintenance of this machinery<br />

and infrastructure is a key component of<br />

continuous and efficient operations. And in today’s<br />

environment, any advantage can mean the difference<br />

between gaining new work and losing a customer.<br />


can lead to decreased efficiencies,<br />

and machine failures can result in unplanned<br />

downtime and lost production,<br />

which can be financially devastating<br />

in today’s competitive market.<br />

Inconsistent maintenance of equipment<br />

can cause not only problems<br />

with production runs but can also<br />

have serious impact on the lifespan of<br />

the equipment.<br />

18 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


Daily Hurdles to Overcome<br />

A maintenance manager’s typical day<br />

involves scheduling required maintenance<br />

work by assigning it to the available<br />

maintenance crews, and other<br />

resources. Over a typical week, a manager<br />

may have to schedule hundreds of<br />

these maintenance activities, some of<br />

which may be critical. But what if the<br />

software used to build and manage the<br />

maintenance schedules is out of date or<br />

unsophisticated? Then there will be a lot<br />

of manual work being done, and because<br />

there is no time to carry out the required<br />

analysis of the schedule, important<br />

questions will go unanswered, like the<br />

ones below:<br />

1. How will maintenance activities<br />

impact production? For example,<br />

will today’s maintenance shutdown<br />

cause a production problem<br />

next week?<br />

2. Can we reduce non-productive<br />

time a little more and still complete<br />

the work on time? How<br />

much money will that save?<br />

3. If we have any medical issues and<br />

crew members are out, what will<br />

be the impact on the schedule?<br />

4. Should I move up any work on<br />

specific equipment to lessen the<br />

impact on the plant production?<br />

5. What’s the best response to unanticipated<br />

events, such as a<br />

breakdown or outage that we can’t<br />

control?<br />

To ensure reliable ongoing production,<br />

maintenance managers need to<br />

have a higher degree of scheduling<br />

automation at their fingertips and use<br />

software’s predictive capabilities to create<br />

an effective and efficient schedule of<br />

maintenance work orders.<br />

Better Maintenance from<br />

Scheduling Software<br />

Today, advanced maintenance scheduling<br />

software—incorporating AI-powered<br />

optimization—effectively addresses the<br />

challenges of scheduling maintenance<br />

activities and provides answers to questions.<br />

Such software enables a maintenance<br />

manager to schedule much more<br />

rapidly and efficiently:<br />

• It empowers management to<br />

determine the best time to take<br />

equipment down for maintenance<br />

• It is sensitive to production requirements<br />

and schedules<br />

• It is aware of production run gaps<br />

and slow downs<br />

• It takes availability of certified and<br />

skilled technicians into account<br />

• It considers the parts and tools required<br />

for each maintenance task<br />

• It links schedules to user-defined<br />

Key Performance Indicators<br />

(KPIs) that may be used for predictive<br />

analysis and to answer<br />






questions<br />

• It enables the creation and evaluation<br />

of schedule scenarios that<br />

may be used to plan for any contingency<br />

The Power of Automation<br />

Maintenance teams are made up of<br />

intelligent individuals. But their time<br />

could be going to waste when it’s spent<br />

on the clerical tasks that keep a maintenance<br />

program going. This means that<br />

the more automation available to build<br />

and manage the maintenance schedule,<br />

the less time the team will waste on<br />

keeping the wheels turning, so they are<br />

free to complete work orders and keep<br />

machinery running smoothly when it’s<br />

needed. That’s where today’s scheduling<br />

software outshines traditional tools.<br />

Modern scheduling software streamlines<br />

the maintenance needed to keep operations<br />

running and eliminates the need<br />

for multiple additional applications<br />

or spreadsheets and time-consuming<br />

manual calculations that are used to assemble<br />

and manage a schedule.<br />

Today’s scheduling software eliminates<br />

the guesswork from manual<br />

processes and ensures that no key steps<br />

are missed. Not only are process errors<br />

eliminated, the manpower that was once<br />

allocated to these repetitive steps can<br />

now be devoted to other aspects of the<br />

plant’s operations. Furthermore, modern<br />

scheduling software presents crucial<br />

information in real time for evaluation,<br />

so management can develop alternative<br />

action plans when necessary to ensure<br />

critical targets are not missed.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 19


Faster and More Flexible<br />

Scheduling software with built-in optimization<br />

capabilities assigns tasks to<br />

the right resources in seconds, tracks<br />

work progress until completion, and<br />

builds history for future reference.<br />

Maintenance managers can instantly<br />

see all open maintenance requests, what<br />

each department is working on, and<br />

the upcoming scheduled maintenance<br />

they need to plan for. Through robust<br />

reporting, stakeholders can access realtime<br />

data and evaluate the status of any<br />

project. And they can allocate workloads<br />

based on work requirements and availability<br />

and adjust intelligently when<br />

there’s a change in one part of the maintenance<br />

schedule.<br />

In addition to eliminating the need<br />

for error-prone manual data entry and<br />

un-auditable collections of spreadsheets<br />

and project files, today’s advanced<br />

scheduling software centralizes equipment<br />

and resource information in a<br />

database, designed to manage all types<br />




of maintenance activities, and it makes<br />

that information available to all team<br />

members involved in operations. Moreover,<br />

today’s scheduling software will<br />

find those activities that can be aligned<br />

so any equipment shutdown period is<br />

minimized. Another significant benefit<br />

of scheduling software is the flexibility<br />

it provides to maintenance managers in<br />

terms of mobility. Maintenance managers<br />

no longer have to be at their desks to<br />

view reports about their plants’ productivity<br />

and progress. Instead, all critical<br />

information is available online, enabling<br />

access anywhere, anytime.<br />

Case Study: Refineries<br />

Refineries present an excellent example<br />

of how scheduling software can enable<br />

better maintenance scheduling and<br />

execution. Intelligent production planning<br />

and scheduling are vital to ensuring<br />

refinery profitability, logistic reliability<br />

and safety at the local and corporate<br />

levels. Refiners must ensure that key<br />

process units are kept running, regulatory<br />

requirements are effectively met,<br />

and systems are responsive and highly<br />

adaptive to changes in feedstock properties.<br />

To maintain competitiveness, oil<br />

refineries are constantly searching for<br />

optimization opportunities to improve<br />

their operations.<br />

Scheduling software is a valuable<br />

decision support tool that provides fast,<br />

accurate and transparent information<br />

on activities, with the flexibility to solve<br />

short-term problems. It enables refineries<br />

to maximize project collaboration<br />

and efficiency, shorten project timeframes,<br />

reduce risk, and achieve predictable<br />

and reliable production. More than<br />

a valuable tool, scheduling software is<br />

an important information system. The<br />

scheduling information, which was previously<br />

restricted to a limited group, is<br />

now democratized within the refinery<br />

and allows for a collaborative effort, and<br />

better, faster responses. It also replaces a<br />

set of non-standard and personal spreadsheets<br />

that can cause confusion. Production<br />

scheduling definitions, data and<br />

information are structured and standardized<br />

allowing for quick comprehension<br />

and best work practices. With one<br />

application for all maintenance activities,<br />

companies can enhance their process<br />

and create new workflows that drive<br />

greater efficiencies and productivity.<br />

Scheduling Empowerment<br />

In today’s environment, maximizing<br />

every minute of operations is critical to<br />

staying ahead. Because of its many efficiency,<br />

safety and accuracy benefits,<br />

production scheduling activity must be<br />

understood as a strategic advantage. By<br />

adopting advanced scheduling software<br />

as part of their digital push, organizations<br />

can automate and schedule maintenance<br />

activities faster, more reliably,<br />

and more accurately. At the end of the<br />

day, it empowers maintenance managers<br />

and their companies to drive operations<br />

forward with confidence.<br />

20 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


Failures and diagnostics<br />

of asynchronous motors<br />


www.adash.com<br />

radim.sglunda@adash.cz<br />

Asynchronous motors<br />

are the most common<br />

type of motors used.<br />

They are known for their<br />

advantages such as low<br />

purchase price, high<br />

efficiency, easy regulation<br />

and simple but robust<br />

construction.<br />

DESPITE THEIR HIGH reliability Asynchronous<br />

motors suffer from some<br />

malfunctions of machine parts. We<br />

can divide failures in an asynchronous<br />

motor into failures of mechanical and<br />

electrical origin, and also on stator, rotor<br />

and bearing failures.<br />

Stator faults<br />

Stator winding faults are majority<br />

problems of stators. The most<br />

common source of faults due to the<br />

winding is broken isolation. Thermal<br />

stress has the greatest impact on the<br />

life and quality of isolation. Another<br />

undesirable effect is the electrical<br />

stress of the transient voltage. In the<br />

case of more and more frequent use<br />

of inverters for soft-start, rectangular<br />

voltage pulses are modulated at<br />

the output of the inverter.<br />

Rotor faults<br />

The rotor of an asynchronous motor<br />

consists of a shaft, insulated sheets<br />

pressed on the shaft that form the rotor<br />

magnetic circuit and windings. Mostly<br />

the winding of the rotor consists of a<br />

cage structure, which is formed by bars,<br />

which are connected at the ends.<br />

Rotor eccentricity (unevenness of<br />

the distance between the rotor and the<br />

stator) is the most common fault, followed<br />

by rotors bars interruption. The<br />

cause of these faults can be the use of<br />

poor quality materials, overloading or<br />

heavy starts. In the case of rotor bars,<br />

the fault may increase the resistance<br />

of the bar, or completely break the bar<br />

electrical circuit. Rotor bars failures<br />

result mainly in engine starting deterioration<br />

and generating parasitic moments.<br />

Also the broken bar causes addi-<br />

22 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>









tional faults in others bars, because the<br />

current in them is bigger due to missing<br />

bar (the broken one) current path.<br />

Bearings faults<br />

All parts of the bearing are subject to<br />

degradation. The cause of bearing failures<br />

can be considered as mechanical<br />

stress during rotational movement and<br />

bearing currents. Mechanical stress<br />

can be caused by poor: installation, assembling,<br />

or using and maintaining.<br />

The bearing currents can be caused by<br />

induction (due to asymmetric electrical<br />

circuit or power supply) and by frequent<br />

voltage changes (caused by power supply<br />

from semiconductor converters).<br />

Bearings faults detection is almost<br />

cover by vibration analysis. All mechanical<br />

(and some electrical) faults<br />

have unique signature in vibration<br />

spectrum of machine and vibration<br />

analysis can recognize them.<br />

Electrical (and some mechanical)<br />

motor faults have unique signature in<br />

frequency spectrum of motor current.<br />

And the MCSA method can recognize<br />

them. The MCSA abbreviation means:<br />

Motor Current Signature Analysis.<br />

In motors with faults, excessive sidebands<br />

are created, which distort the<br />

frequency spectrum. Each fault then<br />

has its specific signature. Individual<br />

defects can be distinguished from each<br />

other according to the amplitude bands<br />

and the frequency.<br />

The basis of this method is to measure<br />

the course of the stator current of<br />

one or more phases in the time domain<br />

(with sufficient resolution) and its subsequent<br />

spectral analysis.<br />

The ADASH VA5Pro vibration<br />

analyzer offers unique possibility of<br />

analyzing vibration and current in one<br />

device. The MCSA module allows you<br />

to do analysis of current signature from<br />

the spectrum - based on your knowledge<br />

and experiences. Or you can use<br />

automatic detection function. It is the<br />

similar idea as ADASH automatic Fault<br />

Source Identification Tool (FASIT) for<br />

vibration analysis. The device can automatically<br />

recognize the main causes of<br />

failures as unbalance, looseness, misalignment<br />

and bearing faults. The MCSA<br />

module of the VA5Pro device is able to<br />

automatically identify rotor and stator<br />

faults, eccentricity and power quality.<br />


THE ADASH founders, Adam Bojko and<br />

Radomir Sglunda first met at the Physical-Technical<br />

Testing Institute in Ostrava<br />

in the late 1980s.<br />

THEIR FIRST JOBS were related to<br />

seismic measurements in coal mines.<br />

That was the first experience of using<br />

a vibration analyser, which supporting<br />

written materials referred to “rotating<br />

machinery analysis”.<br />

FURTHER STUDIES of this topic led to<br />

various side jobs such as modal analysis,<br />

operating deflection shapes, on-site<br />

balancing, vibration analysis etc. while<br />

still working as government employees.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 23


People, the Most Valuable<br />

Asset in your Organization<br />

Electrical motors, pumps,<br />

turbines, generators,<br />

blowers, compressors.<br />

The amount of rotating<br />

equipment is huge in<br />

industry.<br />

ALL THESE MACHINES have been designed<br />

with a purpose, but they differ<br />

from each other depending on the application.<br />

There is one thing which all<br />

rotating machinery has in common,<br />

and that thing is people. There is always<br />

people behind each machine, designing,<br />

drawing, calculating, transporting,<br />



Senior reliability<br />

engineer at<br />


installing and maintaining it. Today, we<br />

have many tools to help us to be more<br />

reliable, efficient, and accurate. We have<br />

got fantastic tools such as process simulation<br />

software, 3d printers, laser alignment<br />

tools, and many others. Computers<br />

with high-speed internet connection<br />

provide access to the required information<br />

and communication all around the<br />

world. But despite this, in many cases we<br />

still struggle to achieve reliability. Why<br />

is that?<br />

Take the ownership<br />

My background comes from assembly,<br />

service, and commissioning of gas<br />

compression systems where I gained<br />

experience for more than 20 years. Since<br />

I was involved in the assembly, I got the<br />

chance to learn installation procedures.<br />

I grew up using API 686 from the beginning<br />

and I spent my apprentice life training<br />

those procedures which the company<br />

was following very strongly. And I was<br />

not left on my own until I was certified<br />

24 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


and ready to make my own decisions.<br />

But over the years, I realized I will never<br />

stop training and learning. I was always<br />

learning new installation standards,<br />

specifications, and assembly procedures<br />

such as ISO standards, Norsok standards<br />

or ANSI standards. I quickly found out,<br />

that people who had the knowledge and<br />

proper training were the most efficient<br />

performing their tasks. I learned from<br />

my senior colleagues to take ownership<br />

of assets. Even if the machine belonged<br />

to the organization and I was an external<br />

service technician, I took care of it as<br />

if it were my own. I had the interest in<br />

performing proper assembly and installation<br />

work.<br />

This interest makes you want to learn<br />

more things, see details and creates awareness.<br />

You get to recognize sounds, noises,<br />

and behaviour of the machines. If you<br />

keep your interest in place you will be<br />

able to install the machinery in a proper<br />

way, and you will detect any disturbances<br />

because you will measure and compare. In<br />

the end, the machinery uptime and reliable<br />

operation is what matters.<br />



1. Set up standards for your teams.<br />

2. Train your teams to be able to<br />

perform the required work.<br />

3. Document all your work for future<br />

references.<br />

Empower and motivate your people<br />

to take ownership of their work. Provide<br />

them with the necessary training<br />

to understand the tasks and the consequences.<br />

Allow them enough time<br />

to properly perform their work.<br />

“We are responsible for the decisions<br />

we are making, but also for the<br />

decisions which we ignore.”<br />




Trust your team<br />

Recently, I had the pleasure of talking to<br />

a neurosurgeon. A doctor who performs<br />

brain surgery on a daily basis. We had a<br />

chat and we discussed reliability issues.<br />

I asked him about his reliability strategy.<br />

He gave me an explanation which makes<br />

perfect sense for me. The key in his profession<br />

is to perform only brain surgeries<br />

95% to 100% of the time. No less, no more<br />

and no other surgeries. There are numbers<br />

of patients in his hospital which are<br />

distributed between a number of doctors.<br />

If the number of patients increase, they<br />

will also increase the number of doctors. It<br />

is extremely important to keep the brain<br />

centred and focused, but also the muscle<br />

memory. They are taking important decisions<br />

and within the seconds. And we really<br />

want to them to be reliable.<br />

I perfectly align myself with this philosophy.<br />

As I always said, there are no magic<br />

wands in the industry. With all the amazing<br />

tools and advanced technologies available,<br />

we cannot stop relying on the people.<br />

The people will give value to the tools by<br />

using them properly.<br />

Reveal Your Potential<br />

Get a Reliability and Maintenance Assessment<br />

Call us +1 919-847-8764


Low Rotation Speed<br />

Machine Control Using<br />


The founding principle of<br />

predictive maintenance<br />

could be “better safe<br />

than sorry”. It requires<br />

sound knowledge of the<br />

machines, taking into<br />

account of early signs<br />

and economic realism.<br />


Manager SDT Ultrasound Solutions<br />


based on different technologies that<br />

maintenance departments can use to<br />

assess failure risks, frequency ratio<br />

and severity level.<br />

But it is another matter when it<br />

comes to selecting the right analysis<br />

tools, the right technology and<br />

the right indicators for the early<br />

detection of a failure on a rotating<br />

machine, in particular low-speed machines.<br />

Ultrasonic technology is used<br />

to issue this diagnosis, as it can be<br />

easily and efficiently implemented.<br />

Recently, SDT International took<br />

up this challenge on a rotating machine<br />

with a rotation speed of 8 RPM.<br />

More than a week earlier, the<br />

maintenance department of a<br />

world-renowned company had detected<br />

unusual noise on a strategic<br />

production asset. The sudden stop of<br />

this machine would have led to the<br />

complete shutdown of the production<br />

site. Not to mention the financial cost<br />

of replacing these 4 bearings, the time<br />

required for the procurement of these<br />

specific bearings and the cost of the<br />

maintenance labour.<br />

There was a dual stake here: control<br />

the condition of these bearings<br />

and attempt to detect the origin of<br />

this noise.<br />

A diagnosis could be issued using<br />

the new ultrasonic measuring instrument,<br />

SDT340, and its FOCUS<br />

mode that can generate sampling<br />

frequencies up to 256 K samples<br />

per second.<br />

26 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


The spectrum shows an impact at<br />

the rotation speed (0.139 Hz) of the<br />

shafts of the rotating machine, along<br />

with its harmonics. Sub-harmonic<br />

frequencies can also be observed at<br />

0.5 x the rotation speed, which is a<br />

characteristic spectrum for a rotational<br />

clearance due to friction or<br />

significant impacts. No impact due<br />

to bearing frequencies are observed.<br />

Our diagnosis is confirmed by the<br />

time spectrum.<br />

The time spectrum shows that the<br />

observed impacts are indeed associated<br />

with the rotation speed of the<br />

shafts of the machine at 0.139 Hz, i.e.,<br />

a rotation speed of 8.34 RPM.<br />









In terms of energy, these impacts<br />

are not necessarily constant for<br />

each shaft revolution (time signal<br />

recorded over a period of 2 minutes).<br />

The encountered problem is due<br />

to the wear of the shafts and of the<br />

disks that are mounted onto these<br />

shafts and generate friction.<br />

Now, the maintenance department<br />

knows the origin of the noise<br />

and the condition of the bearings,<br />

which need just to be monitored on<br />

a periodic basis.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 27


Wireless Sensors<br />

Can Now Replace Traditional Systems<br />

in Condition Monitoring<br />

Online condition<br />

monitoring has been<br />

waiting for wireless<br />

solutions for over 10<br />

years. Now with the<br />

latest technology, Nome<br />

has been able to develop<br />

wireless IoT systems to<br />

be competitive with most<br />

wired systems.<br />

MECHANICAL WEAR is inevitable in all<br />

machines and equipment and bearing<br />

failure is one of the most common<br />

faults in industrial machines. Vibration<br />

measurements of rotating machinery are<br />

considered the best method of determining<br />

a machine´s condition. Depending<br />

on the industry one unplanned downtime<br />

can cost from several thousand up<br />

to millions of euros in just one hour. A<br />

single failure prevented is can be enough<br />

to cover years of wireless condition<br />

monitoring costs. In any case, there are<br />

benefits other than direct cost savings.<br />

Keeping track of machine health ensures<br />

good product quality, safe operation,<br />

minimal environmental impact and preserves<br />

assets.<br />

Now with the latest technology Nome<br />

has been able to develop wireless online<br />

systems to be competitive with most<br />

wired systems. Wireless sensors can<br />

measure time signals, waveforms, trend<br />

values, envelopes and surface temperatures.<br />

All saved to a secure cloud storage<br />

or via interfaces to customers internal<br />

systems. To get the most out of online<br />

condition monitoring Nome also offers a<br />

remote analysing service where certified<br />

professionals can analyse the results.<br />

Why Wireless Technology is<br />

Now the Way to Go?<br />

With thousands of wired accelerometer<br />

installations we have experienced wiring<br />

to be the most time consuming and<br />

many times even the most expensive<br />

part of online condition monitoring<br />

system installation. Moreover, wired<br />

systems are often exposed to electrical<br />

interferences. In many cases there is no<br />

sense to start building up an online condition<br />

monitoring system for only a few<br />

critical machines, while start-up costs<br />

get very high per measurement point.<br />

Often there is not enough down time<br />

to perform the installations for wired<br />

systems.<br />

Condition monitoring has been waiting<br />

for wireless systems for more than 10<br />

years. Nome took part in testing wireless<br />

systems already in 2010. Back then the<br />

problem was high power consumption<br />

of vibration sensors and wireless data<br />

transfer. Good quality vibration measurement<br />

requires sample rates close<br />

to 10 kHz and with a signal length of<br />

3 - 5 seconds. Vibration signal analysis<br />

requires the time signal to be available<br />

for analysis. This means high power<br />

consumption on both measurements<br />

and data transmission. When comparing<br />

to example temperature measurement<br />

one good quality vibration time signal<br />

can include 30 000 samples when one<br />

sample temperature data with 60 second<br />

sample rate requires 30 000 samples in<br />

approximately 20 days (30000 / (60*24).<br />

That is why vibration measurements<br />

require the best sensor and data transmission<br />

techniques. Optimising the<br />

power consumption engineers need to<br />

compromise. When these optimizations<br />

are done compromising the data quality<br />

in measurements or analysis the whole<br />

idea why measurements are done is lost.<br />

Nome has solved the problem with<br />

power consumption by combining BLE5<br />

and LPWAN data transfer technologies.<br />

These are two extremely low power<br />

technologies and they are most suitable<br />

for IoT sensors. LPWAN can also<br />

penetrate walls and other barriers more<br />

easily. Machines run inside thick walls,<br />

28 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


ships, and other structures so this can be<br />

a crucial factor when thinking of using<br />

wireless systems for condition monitoring.<br />

LPWAN technology with implementations<br />

is coming along with the new 5G<br />

networks. This gives even more reasons<br />

to utilize the technology.<br />

Wireless technology is also suitable<br />

for Artificial Intelligence. AI can open<br />

whole new ways on how machine maintenance<br />

and condition monitoring is<br />

executed. The technology already exists<br />

but there hasn’t been a sensible way to<br />

collect enough data for AI until now.<br />

Now with the right algorithms and accurate<br />

sensors machine learning is possible<br />

for condition monitoring. The AI could<br />

learn the behaviour of each individual<br />

machine and compare it to other similar<br />

machines. This reduces the time needed<br />

to analyse results by personnel. In<br />

other words, artificial Intelligence could<br />

replace humans in vibration measurements.<br />

The time saved from basic measurements<br />

can be harnessed for more<br />

complicated work such as problem solving<br />

or special measurements.<br />

Benefits of Wireless Condition<br />

Monitoring in Short:<br />

• Reduction of unplanned failures<br />

• Reduced overall maintenance<br />

costs<br />

• Increased asset life<br />

• Improved equipment performance<br />

- Key Performance Indicators<br />

(KPIs)<br />

• Reduction/elimination of collateral<br />

damages<br />

• Prioritized and planned maintenance<br />

actions<br />

• Increased efficiency of maintenance<br />

management<br />

• Avoiding opening up of equipment<br />

at fixed intervals<br />

• Reduced environmental impact<br />

• Savings from route measurement<br />

costs<br />

• Savings from startup costs<br />

• Daily monitoring<br />

• Almost immune to electrical disturbances<br />

• Remote data collection, analysis<br />

and reports<br />

• Can be installed by own staff<br />

Wireless nmas Chess Condition<br />

Monitoring System<br />

nmas (nome monitoring and analysing<br />

system) Chess is most suitable for machines<br />

that have no previous monitoring<br />

system or old systems that are outdated.<br />

Connection to the analysing database is<br />

established automatically and the installation<br />

can be done by anyone. Warning<br />

and alarm limits and threshold levels can<br />

be adjusted with an Android application<br />

to suit individual machines and needs.<br />

nmas Chess is the world’s first wireless<br />





condition monitoring system to utilize<br />

LPWAN network. Multiple sensors can be<br />

connected via BLE 5 to the router which<br />

transfers information to cloud service using<br />

LTE-M network. This results in a system<br />

that is ready for the future needs without<br />

sacrificing any functional quality or battery<br />

life.<br />

Simple steps for installing nmas<br />

Chess system:<br />

1. Mount the sensor using M8 thread,<br />

magnetic base or adhesive.<br />

2. Mount the router to a suitable distance<br />

and power with USB cable provided.<br />

3. Install the application and configure<br />

the sensor to suit your needs.<br />

The system features:<br />

• wide frequency range 0 – 10 000Hz<br />

• 24-bit resolution<br />

• Highly developed analysing software<br />

with browser access<br />

• Remote analysing service<br />

• Android app<br />

• Cloud storage<br />

Nome has also developed the system to be<br />

suitable for OEM. Thresholds, warning limits,<br />

alerts, data interface and even the design<br />

can be customized to meet the needs of different<br />

manufacturers. By offering an online<br />

condition monitoring service, manufacturers<br />

can add significant value to their products.<br />

Sensors can also deliver valuable usage<br />

information to manufacturers. This data can<br />

be used when improving warranty policies,<br />

developing new products or offering new<br />

services to customers. The system is easy to<br />

send with the machine to the customer.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 29


Detection of bearing<br />

defects on balanced<br />

machine bogies<br />

Historically, condition<br />

monitoring of balanced<br />

machine bogie wheel<br />

bearings has been challenging,<br />

due to the very<br />

slow speed rotation and<br />

furthermore, in most<br />

cases, the variable speed<br />

adds even further complication.<br />


CMRP<br />

adrianm@uesystems.com<br />

WE WILL BE EXPLAINING how these specific<br />

assets were successfully monitored<br />

at a mining company, using an ultrasound<br />

inspection instrument.<br />

Within this mining company, the<br />

coastal operations had many examples<br />

of failed bogie wheel bearings and, in<br />

each case, there was a great potential<br />

for subsequent damage to the shaft or<br />

the bearing bores in the bogie housing,<br />

which would add even more to the rebuild<br />

costs.<br />

Thus, the maintenance team was<br />

working through multiple failures on<br />

the CLB Stacker long travel bogies. Led<br />

by the balanced machine specialist, the<br />

team built historical maps including rebuild<br />

vendors and the use of OEM spares.<br />

A study of SAP data for 16 of the 37<br />

stackers in this company, across different<br />

sites, revealed an incredible $3,491,146<br />

in maintenance costs, directly related to<br />

bogie bearing failure, not to mention the<br />

additional unscheduled time loss, also<br />

important to consider.<br />



Next, a team of experts was asked to assist<br />

in this matter with identifying bearing<br />

defects using ultrasound technology,<br />

which is a proven technic to identify<br />

early bearing failures, especially when it<br />

comes to slow speed bearings.<br />

A survey was conducted with an<br />

Ultraprobe 15.000 ultrasound inspection<br />

instrument, and an identified bogie<br />

set was removed and sent for strip and<br />

assessment, after the ultrasonic instrument<br />

showed signs of bearing damage<br />

– which could be perceived by the sound<br />

quality heard & confirmed after a sound<br />

spectrum analysis of the recorded ultrasounds.<br />

30 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


This is a screenshot taken from the Spectralyzer<br />

software (for sound analysis),<br />

time series view. The peaks clearly point<br />

to a damaged bearing, since a healthy<br />

bearing will present a very uniform<br />

wave, without any peaks in amplitude.<br />

In this case, we can clearly see peaks<br />

in amplitude, representing harmonics<br />

equally distanced. This is an obvious sign<br />

of bearing damage.<br />

Stacker 13 Bogie#2 – Prior to removal<br />

Again, when performing sound analysis, we can find evidence of bearing damage. A<br />

bearing in good condition would be uniform on the time series view. But in this case we<br />

see again peaks in amplitude, corresponding to impact points or increased friction.<br />






Stacker 6P Bogie#4 – Post workshop strip.<br />

As diagnosed using spectrum sound<br />

analysis, the raceway is displaying<br />

spalling damage.<br />

Stacker 13 Bogie#2 – Post workshop strip<br />

As we can see, during strip and assessment,<br />

in both cases, severe spalling was<br />

found on the raceways.<br />

Stacker 6P Bogie#4<br />

– Sound Spectrum<br />

Prior to Removal<br />


Whilst the detection of defects in these<br />

bearings is certainly possible through<br />

diligent inspections such as the daily<br />

rounds, categorising severity is extremely<br />

difficult, if not impossible.<br />

This can be achieved by using an<br />

ultrasound inspection instrument with<br />

sound recording capabilities. This will<br />

allow maintenance teams to load the file<br />

on a sound spectrum analysis and identify<br />

issues in an early stage, quick and<br />

easily, even in very slow speed bearings.<br />

It is important to note that, while<br />

bearings rolling at a medium/high speed<br />

can normally be monitored by relying on<br />

dB levels and verifying them against a dB<br />

baseline, this is not always the case with<br />

slow speed bearings. Since slow speed<br />

bearings, in many cases, will not produce<br />

enough energy to show a relevant dB<br />

increase, it is necessary to rely on the<br />

sound quality and posterior sound spectrum<br />

analysis. That is how issues can<br />

be identified when using ultrasound for<br />

slow speed bearing monitoring.<br />

And because ultrasound surveys are<br />

easy and quick to conduct, they can be<br />

performed in relatively short intervals<br />

of time.<br />

Given the history of this particular<br />

case study, the point of failure detection<br />

was between 6 and 12 months from the<br />

scheduled change out. Therefore, an ultrasound<br />

survey frequency of 3 months<br />

could be considered appropriate for<br />

stackers, and of 6 months for reclaimers<br />

and ship loaders (given their lower duty<br />

cycle). The recommendation to extend<br />

the surveying of balanced machine bogie<br />

bearings across the coastal fleet at the<br />

above intervals would allow the company<br />

to potentially save millions in maintenance<br />

costs, as we seen before. A clear<br />

case where predictive maintenance,<br />

using a technology such as ultrasound,<br />

clearly pays off.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 31


United Nations of Automation<br />

The OPC Foundation will continue to<br />

expand its role as the “United Nations<br />

of Automation” - the foundation where<br />

different organizations work together<br />

to standardize and harmonize.<br />


President,<br />



Foundation in 1996 was to create a communication<br />

standard based on the Microsoft COM/DCOM architecture<br />

of that time – “OLE for Process-Control” – was thus<br />

established as the de-facto standard “of the last mile” for<br />

controllers.<br />

The new architecture OPC Unified Architecture “OPC<br />

UA” is much more than just an operating system independent,<br />

neutral platform for data communication: OPC<br />

UA is the so-called Lego building block for the standardization<br />

of data and interfaces and their secure exchange<br />

scaling from the sensor to the cloud (and back) – including<br />

discovery of devices, onboarding and more. The<br />

milestones consisted of the definition from 2003 to 2006,<br />

the validation of the technology and publication of the<br />

core functionality in 2008, followed by the international<br />

standardization as IEC 62541 standard in 2011. First<br />

products were available on the market in 2007 and these<br />

are stably addressable via today’s OPC UA clients – there<br />

was no break in the technology.<br />

OPC UA will probably never be “complete” as the<br />

framework is constantly being expanded: In 2018, the<br />

first major expansion to the existing client/server communication<br />

model with a publish/subscribe communication<br />

model (PubSub) was released – in addition to other<br />

deployment scenarios such as distribution in broadcast,<br />

integration in smaller devices, communication to the<br />

cloud via MQTT or AMQP, this was also an important<br />



32 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>

step as preparation for use at the field level: PubSub initially<br />

enables a high-performance controller-to-controller<br />

communication in order to connect devices of different<br />

eco-systems horizontally with a neutral approach.<br />

“Holistic approach blurs the boundaries of<br />

process and factory automation”<br />

The OPC Foundation Initiative “Field Level Communication”<br />

(FLC), newly founded in November 2018, has larger<br />

goals than the reduction to “OPC UA with TSN for the<br />

factory”. The harmonization of requirements from process<br />

and factory automation will result in common device<br />

services: Device management, firmware updates, OOE<br />

data, power management, MES services or even common<br />

data types will blur the boundaries of process and factory<br />

automation in device handling - of course, special technological<br />

requirements will remain. The work is already advanced,<br />

OPC Safety and OPC Motion are currently being<br />

developed and can be used in the future - with an optionally<br />

switchable TSN if determinism is required.<br />

The OPC Foundation has joined the Ethernet APL<br />

initiative: In process automation “OPC UA over APL/<br />

SPE” will be established as the successor of the current<br />

de facto Hart standard and will gradually be installed as a<br />

new solution - initially only as a “second diagnostic channel”<br />

(NOA channel) but increasingly also in the first data<br />

channel.<br />

In the long term of two decades, the number of fieldbus<br />

systems will be reduced to a maximum of the “Big 5”<br />

including OPC UA. Many products of the future will be<br />

hybrid products that will have integrated the OPC UA solution<br />

in addition to the established technology - like cars<br />

that have electric drives for different scenarios in addition<br />

to conventional combustion engines.<br />

The trend towards data and interfaces being standardized<br />

as far as technically possible at the data source will<br />

continue – if feasible directly in the device and sensor:<br />

A flow meter will provide standardized “OPC UA flow<br />

measurement data” as soon as the APL cable is plugged<br />

in. Otherwise, other transmission techniques will remain<br />

for special scenarios, to become interoperable via OPC UA<br />

gateway at the appropriate point.<br />

However, I am concerned about the large number of<br />

“user organizations” that have been started, often with<br />

a promising “Open” in their name. More and more new<br />

organizations often take care of the same tasks. The key<br />

to the future is not to initiate new organizations - but the<br />

much closer cooperation of existing organizations. Just<br />

as the climate challenge cannot be solved by individual<br />

states, but only by the community of states - so it is in automation.<br />

The OPC Foundation currently cooperates with other<br />

organizations in more than 55 initiatives - as “United<br />

Nations of Automation” – in order to fulfil the vision of a<br />

Plug&Produce solution with an open, uniform, secure and<br />

standards-based IIoT communication solution - from the<br />

sensor through all levels to the cloud with all the requirements<br />

of industrial automation. The challenge of the OPC<br />

Foundation in the next decade is to channel the global<br />

“OPC UA movement” and structure the many activities.<br />

The goal is a plug&play of standardized information.


The Skills Gap and<br />

the Covid 19 Impact<br />


President/ CEO,<br />

Marshall Institute,Inc.<br />

For years, especially in<br />

the United States, we<br />

have seen a widening<br />

gap between the need<br />

for skilled trades and<br />

the inflow of young<br />

candidates to fill the<br />

positions. We have seen<br />

a general bias in our<br />

education system, away<br />

from technical training<br />

and skilled trades, leaning<br />

strongly toward 4 to<br />

6-year degree paths.<br />

WHILE THE 4 TO 6-YEAR degree is clearly<br />

the correct choice for many, for some<br />

unexplainable reason, technical training<br />

has been treated as a lesser alternative<br />

path, if you can’t cut it in the college<br />

degree program. It is a strongly-held<br />

belief that if you wish to succeed in a real<br />

career, you need a Bachelor’s degree or<br />

higher. We need only to look to European<br />

countries, like Germany, to see examples<br />

of skills development paths that<br />

are highly respected as craftsman and<br />

essential for society.<br />

When you consider the role of skilled<br />

trades in society, skilled workers are<br />

responsible for many essential activities,<br />

on which society is dependent to<br />

function. How would a surgeon perform<br />

amazing surgery without an operating<br />

room built by skilled construction workers,<br />

HVAC technicians and electricians,<br />

being maintained by facilities maintenance?<br />

The backup generators, oxygen<br />

generators, filters, elevators, and all<br />

other key equipment are maintained by<br />

skilled trades. The stark reality is that<br />

the highly educated surgeon is required<br />

for the surgery, but all of the infrastructure<br />

around the surgeon is required as<br />

well.<br />

According to NCTAP’s website<br />

(https://nctap.org), a partnership between<br />

local businesses and local community<br />

colleges for skilled trades apprenticeship:<br />

“In most cases, apprentices, due<br />

to their superior education, assume<br />

managerial responsibility early in their<br />

34 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


careers. Not surprisingly, most NCTAP<br />

partner businesses were founded by former<br />

apprentices; some are world leaders<br />

in their field...<br />

DESIGN 85%<br />


ELECTRICAL 78%<br />



AUTOMATION 94%”<br />

It turns out that many Plant Managers,<br />

Plant Engineers, Maintenance Managers,<br />

Supervisors, and small business<br />

owners began their careers as skilled<br />

trades, even further expanding their career<br />

opportunities and income potential.<br />

While the college experience is a developmental<br />

experience in many ways,<br />

and we do need accountants, business<br />

leaders, legal counsel, etc. there are other<br />

career choices (skilled trades) that can<br />

lead to equal, if not higher pay, with less<br />

incurred debt. Imagine an opportunity,<br />

whereby your employer pays for your<br />

college degree (associate) instead of<br />

you incurring student loan debt, taking<br />

the same 4 years to complete, earning<br />

$15-$18 per hour during your hands-on<br />

training, resulting in a $40k-$100k year<br />

job, debt-free. I just described an apprenticeship<br />

program.<br />

You would think that students from<br />

high school would be flocking to such a<br />

programs, to the skilled trades, but you<br />

would be wrong. In the Raleigh, N.C. area<br />

there is a program called NCTAP, with<br />

similar programs in Charlotte, N.C. and<br />

Franklin County N.C. But the number of<br />

students that consider this a valid career<br />

choice is relatively small. I attended a<br />

large pharmaceutical plant tour with potential<br />

apprentices on a Saturday, and all<br />

senior leadership was present and pitching<br />

their apprenticeship program. This<br />

shows how important this is to the plant.<br />

The inflow of potential skilled trades<br />

candidates is insufficient to maintain the<br />

workforce required.<br />

If we look at the other end of the spectrum,<br />

many current skilled trades are either<br />

eligible for retirement or soon to be<br />

eligible. According to the labour department,<br />

the average age of skilled trades is<br />

56*. With looming retirement possible<br />

for these skilled trades, the need for a<br />

pool of apprentices to understudy, and<br />

ultimately replace, the retirees is large.<br />

In addition, while this discussion has<br />

been ongoing for several years, Covid-19<br />

has introduced some new twists and<br />

turns to the discussion. First, it is likely<br />

we will see increased retirement from<br />

the aging skilled trades group, due to<br />

Covid-19 exposure risk. If a skilled<br />

trades employee is at higher risk due to<br />

age, underlying health conditions, or<br />

increased exposure at work, this could<br />

accelerate the consideration of an earlier<br />

retirement. Second, Covid-19 has accentuated<br />

the digital skills gap. Very quickly,<br />

almost overnight, large groups of our<br />

society have had to adapt to digital interaction;<br />

working, meeting, learning, and<br />

teaching. This exposes the gaps in digital<br />

literacy. It reveals the fact that many of<br />

us have “fragmented” understanding of<br />

our digital tools. We might be familiar<br />

with our phone or Facebook, but have<br />

no proficiency in Word, Excel, Zoom,<br />

Teams, remote network access, or security,<br />

and lack a comprehensive knowledge<br />

of integrated computer systems. A phone<br />

is no longer just a phone! This lack of<br />

knowledge and the social distancing currently<br />

required increases the frustration<br />

of the daily work routine and exposes a<br />

new, important, skills gap, potentially<br />

leading to accelerated retirement.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 35


What can we do to help close the gap?<br />

How can we make a difference? First, we<br />

have a marketing problem. Manufacturing<br />

and skilled trades are not viewed by<br />

our youth as premium career opportunities.<br />

This starts at home, with your children<br />

or grandchildren. We must view<br />

trades as noble, sought after, high paying<br />

professions. Thanks to Covid, we know<br />

that “essential workers” include electricians,<br />

mechanics, plumbers, machinists,<br />

auto technicians… skilled trades!<br />

Next, schools must adopt a positive<br />

message around the skilled trades. High<br />

schools and Community Colleges must<br />

educate teachers and counsellors around<br />

the value of skilled trades. Recently I<br />

was introduced to an apprentice that was<br />

involved in a similar program to NCTAP.<br />

He was apprenticed at work, learning a<br />

trade, and was sent to a local community<br />






college by his employer, working on his<br />

associate degree. His college guidance<br />

counsellor challenged him one day “I<br />

know this machinist trade thing is ok<br />

for now, but what are you going to do for<br />

your “real” career?” This is exactly the<br />

wrong message.<br />

Finally, there are opportunities to<br />

engage local and federal governments<br />

to support change. There are currently<br />

(in the U.S.) grants available to help with<br />

training and skills development. While<br />

much focus has been on Covid-19 funding<br />

as of late, there are several acts in<br />

congress to help support skilled worker<br />

development. Due to my involvement<br />

with The Society for Maintenance & Reliability<br />

Professionals (SMRP) I recently<br />

attended a Business Leaders United<br />

(BLU) virtual fly-in to Washington D.C.<br />

The two-day meeting was focused on<br />

discussing, with state representatives,<br />

the need for skilled worker development.<br />

We met with representatives of Senators<br />

around the country to represent how<br />

businesses need this support. I was especially<br />

struck by Senator Virginia Foxx,<br />

of western N.C. She has her doctorate in<br />

education, but has strong passion around<br />

supporting skills development in the U.S.<br />

She shared a story about her brother’s<br />

success, starting as a carpenter. She<br />

shared that he has incredible skill, creativity,<br />

and intelligence, humbly claiming<br />

it was greater than her own intelligence.<br />

It was inspiring to hear a woman of such<br />

amazing accomplishment support skills,<br />

not just in word, but action. Although<br />

Covid-19 issues have been the focus of<br />

legislation in early <strong>2020</strong>, there is pending<br />

legislation designed to help skilled<br />

trades, that if approved would increase<br />

funding for skills development. Proposed<br />

changes to the Pell Grant would<br />

allocate funds not only to higher education,<br />

but to skilled worker development.<br />

The College Transparency Act would<br />

increase visibility of a specific school’s<br />

data on completion and post-college outcomes<br />

of degree programs.<br />

Finally, I would share that one of<br />

the key “aha” moments for me was a<br />

discussion with Senator Burr’s office<br />

on automation, robotics, and artificial<br />

intelligence. We were talking about how<br />

people have feared for years that technology<br />

would eliminate jobs. We were<br />

discussing the increased need for skilled<br />

trades with increased automation. I was<br />

struck with the thought that for all of our<br />

fears regarding automation/industry<br />

4.0 changing our workplace, IT WAS A<br />

VIRUS that caused the most significant,<br />

rapid change to manufacturing in the<br />

last 100 years.<br />

These are certainly challenging times,<br />

but I am confident that we will adapt to<br />

our changing environment, find creative<br />

ways to close the skills gap, and face<br />

whatever challenges lie ahead.<br />

36 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>

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and an internationally recognized<br />

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books and hundreds of published<br />

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Reliability and<br />

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Are You Doing the Wrong Things?<br />

CHRISTER IDHAMMAR, Reliability<br />

and Maintenance Management Expert<br />

and Founder of IDCON INC<br />

In this article, I will discuss<br />

the five most common<br />

wrong things to do in<br />

Reliability and Maintenance<br />

(RM) Management.<br />




decades. For the past four decades, I have<br />

been preaching that it is more important<br />

to first do the right things, and then do<br />

them right. In my view, leadership and<br />

management decide on the right things.<br />

When you have decided on the right<br />

things to do and documented and communicated<br />

these to your organization,<br />

you have completed an important part of<br />

38 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong><br />

your strategy. The next step would be to<br />

involve your organization in implementing<br />

each element of the RM strategy by<br />

doing the right things right.<br />

Most organizations I work with are<br />

doing the right things, but many do not<br />

execute all the elements of their strategy<br />

well. Some do the wrong things. I will<br />

elaborate on what I believe are the top<br />

5 wrong things to do.<br />

1. Using Wrench Time as a<br />

Performance Indicator<br />

“Wrench time” or “hands-on-tools time”<br />

is a decades-old philosophy focusing on<br />

measuring if craftspeople are busy or<br />

not, with tools in their hands. Even if you<br />

have another definition of wrench time,<br />

it is not the right thing to do and here are<br />

the reasons why:<br />

1. Busy people are not necessarily productive<br />

unless they are working on the<br />

right things. More importantly, people<br />

do not like to be "spied" on, so this<br />

measurement will not be received well<br />

by the tradespeople - the most important<br />

people to motivate. In a modern<br />

plant with a good maintenance organization<br />

having the time to think, finding<br />

solutions to problems and implementing<br />

improvements is more important<br />

than just keeping people busy.<br />

2. It drives the wrong behaviour. To increase<br />

the wrench time, people might<br />

take more time to do a repair, pretend<br />

to be busy, or hide so you cannot<br />

measure, etc.<br />

3. It is a violation of what Deming said<br />

many years ago and it still holds true.<br />

“People cannot be more efficient than


the system they work in allows<br />

them to be.” Ask any tradesperson<br />

why they are not busy and they will<br />

answer, “They [management] do<br />

not plan and schedule work well<br />

here, and because of that we are<br />

very reactive, have to find scope of<br />

work, get parts and tools, etc.”.<br />

4. For daily work you might have<br />

more wrench time if you have a lot<br />

of breakdowns. I agree that during<br />

a shutdown people should be busy<br />

doing the right thing safely and correctly<br />

with the right tools and spare<br />

parts/material. What some call<br />

wrench time will be higher and that<br />

is because shutdown work is better<br />

planned and scheduled!<br />

So, what do you measure instead? The<br />

answer is that you plan, schedule and<br />

communicate. Measure planned jobs in<br />

schedules, schedule compliance and jobs<br />

added to schedules.Then find what you<br />

can improve. You'll probably find that you<br />

can improve how priorities are used. Are<br />

they emotional or based on true importance?<br />

Maybe you'll find that schedules<br />

are not frozen in advance and that it's too<br />

easy to add jobs for the same day. Improve<br />

where you have gaps in the planning and<br />

scheduling process. Doing this ensures the<br />

right people will safely do the right work<br />

more efficiently.<br />




2. Put All Maintenance<br />

People on Shift<br />

I do not believe this is the right thing to do.<br />

It often happens when the maintenance<br />

organization reports to operations. They<br />

might want to have maintenance coverage<br />

24/7 because they have experienced many<br />

breakdowns. Why do I think this is the<br />

wrong thing to do?<br />

1. Maintenance work will become<br />

very reactive because it will be complicated<br />

to plan and schedule work.<br />

2. Communication between maintenance<br />

employees will be difficult.<br />

3. Getting maintenance people together<br />

for training and information<br />

sessions is difficult.<br />

The best organizations I have worked<br />

with have a good call-in process and no,<br />

or very few, maintenance people on shift.<br />

Instead of reacting to a high volume of urgent<br />

maintenance work and putting more<br />

maintenance people on shift, their strategy<br />

has been to improve Preventive Maintenance<br />

(PM) and Root Cause Problem<br />

Elimination (RCPE), reduce urgent work,<br />

plan and schedule better, teach opera-<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 39


tors to do some maintenance work and<br />

gradually reduce maintenance people on<br />

shift to move them to day shift.<br />

3. Use New Technology Before<br />

you are Ready for it<br />

I am all for new technologies and have<br />

introduced many while working with<br />

plants worldwide. It was easy to get<br />

people interested and even enthusiastic<br />

about new technology, but how to use<br />

it efficiently was more difficult. As an<br />

example, I worked with a plant who<br />

purchased an SPM instrument, it was<br />

challenging for them to set up a round to<br />

do measurements and then have people<br />

execute the rounds on a regular basis.<br />

Sometimes it could be more difficult to<br />

make sure action would be taken on all<br />

bearings in alarm level, so many still ran<br />

to breakdown. I am sure similar challenges<br />

are true today and perhaps even<br />

more so.<br />

Many young engineers entering the<br />

field of industrial maintenance have all<br />

been introduced to a flood of good new<br />

technologies in their education and<br />

conferences. The “people” part of using<br />

all these technologies is not included in<br />

the training, so it is understandable that<br />

they will focus more attention on the introduction<br />

of the new technologies than<br />

on people and processes.<br />

Most "new" technologies, including<br />

data collection, are used to "learn" about<br />

equipment to detect failures and failure<br />

patterns at an earlier stage than existing<br />

technology. It will improve reliability,<br />

but only if all the information can be<br />

channeled into the work management<br />

system so failures will be repaired before<br />

a breakdown. Imagine how this will<br />

work if a technology like this is introduced<br />

in a reactive maintenance organization.<br />

I can tell you the system will be<br />

overloaded with work requests, and with<br />

limited resources the risk is that not<br />

much will improve.<br />

The best organizations improve the<br />

basic work management system and reduce<br />

reactive maintenance to less than<br />

10% of all work before introducing new<br />

technology. They use the technology<br />

they are ready for.<br />

It might be in place to reiterate what<br />

Bill Gates said many years ago:<br />

“The first rule of technology used in a business is that automation<br />

[new technology] applied to an efficient operation will magnify<br />

the efficiency. The second is that automation [new technology]<br />

applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency.”<br />

Bill Gates<br />

40 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


4. Decentralize Maintenance<br />

to Report to Operations<br />

A common wrong thing to do is to decentralize<br />

a maintenance organization<br />

so they report to operations.<br />

The justifications to do this include:<br />

• Maintenance personnel will<br />

develop more ownership of the<br />

operations area.<br />

• Maintenance will achieve a<br />

closer working relationship with<br />

operations.<br />

• There will be fewer managers<br />

(which saves money).<br />

I have worked with many organizations<br />

that used these justifications to<br />

decentralize maintenance. Many did<br />

it in an effort to save money. Here are<br />

some reasons, in my experience, why it<br />

doesn't work.<br />

First, if your basic maintenance<br />

practices (Planning and Scheduling,<br />

Preventive Maintenance, Stores, Technical<br />

database) are not instituted as<br />

a way of life, do not make this move!<br />

Why? It leads to many poorly performing<br />

maintenance organizations rather<br />

than having just one poorly performing<br />

maintenance organization. On top of<br />

this, you will expect several managers,<br />

most who are inexperienced in reliability<br />

and maintenance management, to<br />

implement and/or improve these maintenance<br />

basics. A lack of time, interest,<br />

willingness, knowledge of maintenance<br />

management or a combination of these<br />

could cause the following (usually in six<br />

to nine months):<br />

• More maintenance people on<br />

shift because it feels more secure<br />

that way. One consequence is<br />

that operators will request a lot<br />

of “honey do” jobs.<br />

• More maintenance people will be<br />

stationed in areas to be available<br />

and ready to react to problems<br />

because this leads to faster repairs<br />

of problems.<br />

• Work requests will not be entered<br />

into computer system<br />

because it is easier and more convenient<br />

to just call people.<br />

• It will become more difficult to<br />

move people between departments<br />

for shutdowns.<br />

• Overtime and contractor hours<br />

will start increasing even though<br />

there are more people on shift.<br />

• Backlog will start to go up.<br />

• You lose equipment history.<br />

• Equipment reliability starts<br />

declining. At this point the total<br />

maintenance cost has gone up,<br />

but operations managers might<br />

not see the whole picture.<br />

There are additional typical phenomena<br />

to be observed and sometimes<br />

actions to improve the situation do<br />

not happen. This is often because the<br />

manager(s) who initiated the change<br />

refuse to see or admit that it was a mistake.<br />

Often it takes up to three years,<br />

or an earlier change of management,<br />

before someone with enough clout in<br />

the organization realizes that maintenance<br />

is out of control and you need to<br />

reinstitute the practices you used to<br />

have. The fact is that many organizations<br />

can repeat the above-mentioned<br />

cycle many times over a ten to fifteen<br />

years period. Well, it keeps consultants<br />

like me in business!<br />

I am not in favour of handing over<br />

maintenance to operations. I have<br />

seen too many situations such as described<br />

above and no examples of sustainable<br />

improvement from handing<br />

over maintenance to operations.<br />

It is not possible to say which maintenance<br />

organization structure is best<br />

for everyone as it depends on size of<br />

organization, skill levels, geographic<br />

location, how well the basic processes<br />

are instituted, etc.<br />

The majority of the most successful<br />

organizations I have worked with have<br />

had maintenance resources designated<br />

to each production area that report<br />

to a central maintenance organization.<br />

5. Confusing the Holistic<br />

Reliability and Maintenance<br />

System with Tools<br />

There are many excellent tools and<br />

supporting processes that a plant can<br />

leverage to enhance performance of<br />

a holistic reliability and maintenance<br />

system. The holistic reliability and<br />

maintenance system centres around<br />

work management and includes processes<br />

for Preventive Maintenance,<br />

Prioritization, Planning, Scheduling,<br />

Bill of Materials, interface with Stores<br />

and Root Cause Problem Elimination.<br />

Most organizations have gone<br />

through a multitude of improvement<br />

programs over time. Many of these initiatives<br />

aren’t completed or sustained.<br />

In many cases, if a new tool is introduced,<br />

people tend to think of it as<br />

just another “program of the month.”<br />

Thus, it is crucial to explain how any<br />

new tool fits into a holistic reliability<br />

and maintenance system, and that,<br />

just like safety, performance indicators<br />

for reliability and maintenance<br />

performance will continue to be reinforced<br />

to drive continuous improvements.<br />

Some common tools/processes<br />

include:<br />

• Computerized Maintenance<br />

Management System (CMMS)<br />

Without a CMMS, it is virtually<br />

impossible to efficiently manage<br />

reliability and maintenance in<br />

today’s plants and facilities.<br />

• Single Minute Exchange of Die<br />

(SMED)<br />

Used to develop standard job<br />

plans, SMED separates what is to<br />

be done before, during, and after<br />

a job is completed.<br />

• Reliability Cantered Maintenance<br />

(RCM)<br />

This is a tool, NOT a complete<br />

system. RCM methodology can<br />

help determine the right PM<br />

tasks and frequency for components<br />

in complex systems.<br />

• Kaizen<br />

Referencing the Japanese word<br />

for “continuous improvement,”<br />

a kaizen event can focus on one<br />

task to improve.<br />

• Six Sigma<br />

Leveraged to improve the quality<br />

of the output of a process, Six<br />

Sigma identifies and removes the<br />

causes of defects and minimizes<br />

variability in manufacturing and<br />

business processes. It uses a set<br />

of quality-management methods,<br />

mainly empirical, statistical<br />

methods. Every Six Sigma project<br />

follows a defined sequence of<br />

steps and has specific value targets<br />

i.e. to reduce failure rate, reduce<br />

shutdown time, and prolong<br />

electric motor life, among others.<br />

• Five S<br />

Short for “sort, set in order,<br />

shine, standardize, and sustain,”<br />

the Five S method can be used<br />

to organize a workshop, stores,<br />

workplace, and the like.<br />

All of these tools are great, but again,<br />

explain to your organization that these<br />

are tools you might want to use to enhance<br />

the outcome of the holistic reliability<br />

and maintenance management<br />

system.<br />

Never stop improving the basics!<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 41




Technical Director at<br />

Enova Group, Speaker<br />

and Senior Consultant<br />

Asset Management,<br />

Maintenance and Reliability<br />

Disaggregated Asset Structure and Taxonomy<br />

The adequate management of the life cycle of an organization's assets is a<br />

fundamental element to guarantee that it can generate value through its assets, and<br />

that they can contribute in a sustained way to the achievement of the objectives in<br />

order to reach the profitability levels established by the direction.<br />

HAVING SAID THAT, it is important to<br />

mention that establishing a robust base<br />

that sets the standard and facilitates<br />

the management of the organization's<br />

assets in an agile manner is an excellent<br />

starting point. Therefore, establishing a<br />

clear disaggregated asset structure and<br />

an adequate taxonomy from the early<br />

stages of the life cycle will facilitate the<br />

handling and management of information<br />

on these assets, contributing to the<br />

management of risks (ISO 31000) during<br />

the entire life cycle.<br />

The management of the risks inherent<br />

to the assets is part of those key processes<br />

on which the organizations must direct<br />

their efforts, so, making it one of the differentiating<br />

elements, allowing them<br />

three great benefits; sustainability, competitiveness<br />

in the market and finally to<br />

generate the value (to make profitable)<br />

the actions carried out on the assets.<br />

The adequate management of the<br />

risks associated with the assets is<br />

decisive for making the best decisions<br />

from the point of view of maintenance:<br />

Establishment of policy, definition of<br />

strategies, development of plans, determination<br />

of quantities and types of spare<br />

parts to be kept in stock and development<br />

of staff skills, among others.<br />

Therefore, this article seeks to establish<br />

some guidelines to carry out an<br />

adequate disaggregated structure of<br />

assets and their correct taxonomy that<br />

facilitates the management of life cycle<br />

information.<br />



Asset taxonomy is defined according to<br />

ISO 14224(2016) as the systematic classification<br />

of assets into generic groups<br />

based on possible common factors in<br />

various systems. On the other hand<br />

(Crespo, et al.2016), it is claimed that the<br />

physical structure is the most intuitive<br />

way to observe the reality of the system.<br />

In the physical structure the system<br />

belongs to the plant, an installation,<br />

an industry, etc., and has different subsystems<br />

and components.<br />

There is an additional point of great<br />

importance, as he states (Ciliberty,<br />

2014), that there is that a clear disaggregated<br />

asset structure which facilitates<br />

the management of the information<br />

system (EAM / ERP) associated with<br />

the assets, representing the systems in<br />

assets, the subunits of assets and their<br />

components through maps. This clear<br />

hierarchy of classification and functional<br />

locations within the organization facilitates<br />

the management of maintenance<br />

information and also provides multilevel<br />

fault reports.<br />

Therefore, establishing a clear and<br />

ordered taxonomy of the assets, allows<br />

to obtain a description of the limits and<br />

border of these within the systems, and<br />

it is essential for effect, to obtain the<br />

necessary information, as well as for the<br />

analysis of the data of the maintenance<br />

and the reliability in any type of industries,<br />

plants or intensive organization<br />

42 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


in assets. In addition, it facilitates communication<br />

and interaction between all<br />

enabling areas and those who exercise<br />

actions on assets that can impact the<br />

generation of value of the organization.<br />

Additionally, in requirement 7.5.<br />

Information required for Asset Management,<br />

the standard (ISO 55001,2014),<br />

states the following:<br />

• “The organization must determine:<br />

• The attribute requirements of the<br />

identified information;<br />

• The quality requirements of the<br />

identified information;<br />

• How and when to collect, analyse<br />

and evaluate the information”.<br />

The organization must specify, implement,<br />

and maintain processes to manage<br />

its assets information;<br />

It can be stated then, that seen from<br />

this perspective, the correct identification<br />

and registration of assets is one of<br />

the first and fundamental actions that<br />

any asset-intensive organization can<br />

undertake, since in this way the necessary<br />

information can be obtained and<br />

documented to answer the following<br />

questions:<br />

1. What is my organization's asset<br />

inventory?<br />

2. What is the current status of my<br />

assets?<br />

3. Where are they located?<br />

4. What type of interventions, types<br />

of maintenance and costs are associated<br />

with the assets?<br />

5. Is it possible to establish replacement<br />

strategies for the assets?<br />

In addition (Kleinhammer,2014), states<br />

that this taxonomy, or mode of classification<br />

and identification, is influenced<br />

by the data analysis protocols used to<br />

derive aggregate reliability performance<br />

parameters based on similar equipment<br />

types and failure modes from multiple<br />

data sources.<br />

From this point of view, it means that<br />

an adequate taxonomy has a positive<br />

impact on the collection of data and storage<br />

of the information necessary for the<br />

management of the information of the<br />

life cycle of the assets.<br />

Therefore, it is possible to say that<br />

taxonomy allows for the establishment<br />

of a hierarchical structure based on factors<br />

possibly common to several of the<br />

assets such as (location, use, subdivision<br />

of asset, etc.), as shown in figure.1,<br />

according to ISO 14224,2016.<br />




An adequate taxonomy of assets allows<br />

to obtain some competitive advantages,<br />

related to the facility of interaction and<br />

fluidity of the information. it is necessary<br />

to clarify that this will be fulfilled, as<br />

long as the information documented and<br />

registered is reliable and of quality; some<br />

of the areas of the organization that will<br />

benefit from it are the following:<br />

Planning and Scheduling<br />

Management and administration of<br />

maintenance activities (work orders,<br />

requests for services and purchases),<br />

cost management, cataloguing of spare<br />

parts, management of indicators, KPI,<br />

history of interventions, etc<br />

Maintenance and Reliability Engineering<br />

Optimization of maintenance plans<br />

through the use of methodologies such<br />

as RCM, FMECA, RBI, statistical loss<br />

analysis, root cause analysis, use of<br />



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Figure 1. Taxonomy<br />

classification with<br />

taxonomic levels.<br />

ISO 14224,2016<br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1 Industry<br />

Business<br />

category<br />

Installation<br />

Plant/Unit<br />

Section/System<br />

Equipment unit<br />

Subunit<br />

Component/Maintainable Item<br />

Part<br />

Equipment subdivision Use/location<br />

Installation<br />

Plant/unit 1 Plant/unit 2 Plant/unit 3<br />

System 1 System 2<br />

Sub System 1 Sub System 2<br />

Equipment unit<br />

Maintainable Item<br />

Figure 2. Disaggregated asset structure<br />

historical information for reliability<br />

simulations (RAM), establish asset<br />

replacement strategies.<br />

Execution of Maintenance<br />

Work Order deliveries, field notification<br />

generation, Work Order feedback<br />

Segmentation by assets the costs associated<br />

with maintenance.<br />

Operations<br />

Generation of Work Order requests by<br />

the user (operators), direct interaction<br />

with maintenance, unique identification<br />

for each active<br />

Finance<br />

Support in the financial management of<br />

the life cycle costs of assets: IAS 16, IAS<br />

36 (Revaluation of assets, etc.), divestitures,<br />

obsolescence, etc.<br />



• Asset Drawings and Systems<br />

Layout<br />

• Manufacturers Manual<br />

• Technical Specification Sheets<br />

• P&ID<br />

• Photos and videos of equipment<br />

in the field<br />

• Other sources of information.<br />

It is important to point out that the<br />

taxonomic identification of the assets is<br />

normally defined by the organizations.<br />

On the other hand, the ISO 14224-2016<br />

standard provides a reference framework<br />

for the assignment of unique codes<br />

for each asset within the management<br />

system, and this can be applied to different<br />

types of industries. That this type of<br />

taxonomic structure however, does not<br />

apply to the electricity generation industry<br />

that generally uses the KKS system.<br />



It is important to point out that in consulting<br />

processes carried out by our organization,<br />

we have had the opportunity<br />

to find organizations that have their processes<br />

of disaggregation of assets thoroughly<br />

documented and clear. However,<br />

we have found many organizations that<br />

classify maintainable parts or re-changes<br />

(bearings) as an asset; this can be considered<br />

a conceptual error, since this<br />

distorts the information to be recorded<br />

within the information system for the<br />

purpose of further analysis.<br />

While it is true that there are some<br />

particular criteria, depending on the<br />

type of organization, especially for those<br />

changeable parts that have a high impact<br />

on costs and a special process of manufacture,<br />

these are usually considered as<br />

assets. As an example, we can mention, a<br />

turbine blade.<br />

In the figure. 2. We share a disaggregated<br />

asset structure up to level 6.<br />

The different levels of the asset structure<br />

or how far to disaggregate the organization's<br />

assets will depend largely on the<br />

size of the organization and how easily<br />

the associated information is managed.<br />

The appropriate disaggregated structure<br />

of the asset facilitates the interaction<br />

and fluidity of the information<br />

needed to control and monitor the asset<br />

maintenance management, provided the<br />

information documented and recorded is<br />

reliable and of good quality.<br />


A clear and adequate disaggregated<br />

structure of the organization's assets and<br />

their correct identification (Taxonomy),<br />

according to international standards, is<br />

the fundamental principle of a system<br />

for the asset information management.<br />

The correct allocation of costs associated<br />

with the life cycle of assets is fundamental<br />

to establish strategies for asset<br />

replacement.<br />

An adequate structure disaggregates<br />

assets, facilitates the implementation of<br />

reliability tools and contributes to improve<br />

the control of data and information<br />

of the equipment.<br />

It is necessary to establish an adequate<br />

hierarchy of assets from the early<br />

stages of the project as part of reliability<br />

tools that allow managing the information<br />

of the assets to increase their useful<br />

life.<br />


Ciliberti, V. A. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 2014/0214801 A1. South Ben,IN: U.S. System and method for enterprise asset management and failure reporting..<br />

Guillén, A. J., Crespo, A., Gómez, J. F., & Sanz, M. D. (2016). A framework for effective management of condition based maintenance programs in the context<br />

of industrial development of E-Maintenance strategies. Computers in Industry, 82, 170-185.<br />

Kleinhammer, R. K., & Kahn, J. C. (2014). Constructing the Best Reliability Data for the Job.<br />

ISO 55001:2014 Asset Management. Management systems - RequirementsThe British Standards Institution. 2014<br />

ISO 14224, 2016. Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment. Swit<br />

44 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>

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OPCF_Anz_P&A Fachmedien_210x275_lay02.indd 1 15.07.20 11:48

EVENT<br />

ČSPÚ 20 Years of Czech<br />

Industrial Maintenance<br />

prof. ING. VÁCLAV<br />

LEGÁT, DRSC.<br />

Honorary chairman of<br />

the Czech Maintenance<br />

Society<br />


Executive director of<br />

the Czech Maintenance<br />

Society<br />

In <strong>2020</strong>, in the same year of European Federation<br />

of National Maintenance Societies (EFNMS) 50th<br />

anniversary, the Czech Maintenance Society (ČSPÚ),<br />

member of EFNMS since 2001, is celebrating 20 years<br />

of existence.<br />

20 years of Czech industrial<br />

maintenance<br />

ČSPÚ was established in 2000 and has<br />

been active in the field of maintenance<br />

continuously for the past 20 years. It<br />

is an independent, non-for-profit and<br />

non-political organisation, that brings<br />

together individuals, institutions and<br />

industrial companies interested in the<br />

development of integrated management<br />

of fixed assets, mainly focusing<br />

on industrial asset and facility management<br />

and management and engineering<br />

of maintenance.<br />

46 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>

EVENT<br />

Annual conferences organized by ČSPÚ in Liblice Chateaux attended by ca 130 participants.<br />

The mission of ČSPÚ is the development,<br />

acquisition and dissemination<br />

of new knowledge in the field of asset<br />

management and maintenance engineering<br />

to satisfy the professional<br />

needs of its members, to support organizations<br />

in achieving success in<br />

maintenance and improvement of asset<br />

management and maintenance and operation<br />

of their production equipment.<br />

ČSPÚ has more than 60 individual<br />

and more than 50 collective members<br />

(companies and other organizations).<br />

Any person or organization that is<br />

interested in working in the field of<br />

maintenance is welcome to become<br />

the member. ČSPÚ is governed by<br />

an eleven-member board, headed by<br />

the chairman and executive director,<br />

and its activities are controlled by a<br />

three-member supervisory board. The<br />

supreme body of the CSPU is the General<br />

Assembly – very much like in the<br />

EFNMS.<br />

ČSPÚ is partnered with Czech<br />

Automotive industry association (AutoSAP),<br />

Chemical industry association<br />

ČR (SCHP ČR) and National Center<br />

of Industry 4.0 (NCP 4.0) and is also<br />

a member (as mentioned above) of<br />

the European Federation of National<br />

Maintenance Societies (EFNMS) and<br />

the Chamber of Commerce of the Czech<br />

Republic.<br />

While ČSPÚ has a number of activities,<br />

it focuses mainly on:<br />

1. Bringing together professionals<br />

and organizations in the field of<br />

maintenance<br />

2. Organizing maintenance conferences.<br />

(twice per year)<br />

3. Organizing a providing training<br />

in maintenance (it offers certification<br />

of Maintenance Manager,<br />

Maintenance Technician, Master<br />

of Maintenance)<br />

4. Performing audits and analysis of<br />

maintenance management and<br />

also providing consultancy in<br />

general<br />

5. Contributing to maintenance research<br />

Bringing people together<br />

The two key events, that ČSPÚ annually<br />

organizes, are traditional industrial conferences<br />

– „International conference<br />

of Maintenance“ and „Maintenance<br />

for TOP Managers“, both with ca 130<br />

participants. ČSPÚ organizes the conference<br />

since 2003 with a great success.<br />

The conference is sponsored annually<br />

by the Ministry of industry and trade of<br />

the Czech Republic or the Association<br />

of industry and transport and among its<br />

general partners, is also the EFNMS.<br />

Educating and<br />

knowledge-sharing<br />

ČSPÚ offers complex training and education<br />

of maintenance personnel according<br />

to EN 15628:2015 Qualification of<br />

maintenance personnel and aligned with<br />

the recommendations of EFNMS.<br />

The offered education programs are<br />

divided into 3 levels and provided as lifelong<br />

learning mainly for professionals<br />

from industry:<br />

• Maintenance Manager (160 study<br />

hours, 20 tuition days, with final<br />

thesis)<br />

• Maintenance Technician Specialist<br />

(96 study hours, 12 tuition days)<br />

• Maintenance Supervisor (64 study<br />

hours, 8 tuition days)<br />

The courses have been finished by more<br />

than 600 graduates, 127 of them with<br />

professional certificates.<br />

The target audience of the education<br />

program are maintenance managers,<br />

asset managers, facility managers,<br />

maintenance managers, chief mechanics,<br />

TPM facilitators, maintenance engineers<br />

and planners, maintenance technicians,<br />

mechanics, specialists, foremen etc. with<br />

university or high school education.<br />

The aim of the course is to familiarize<br />

the course participants with the basic<br />

requirements of asset management in<br />

general and machinery in particular, including<br />

all aspects of maintenance management,<br />

execution as well as practical<br />

techniques. The course makes use of real<br />

case studies and teach its participants<br />

with help of practical examples. Finally,<br />

emphasis is placed on the application of<br />

the principles of economic thinking in<br />

maintenance management.<br />

3/<strong>2020</strong> maintworld 47


Acoustic emission testing<br />

How to listen to pressure equipment<br />

Pressure equipment maintenance activities in chemical plants need to comply<br />

with statutory inspection intervals and ensure regular condition monitoring. TÜV<br />

SÜD shows how this can be done cost-effectively using acoustic emission testing<br />

(AT), a procedure which also benefits predictive maintenance.<br />

DIPL.-ING. KLAUS MICHAEL FISCHER, Innovation Manager & Technical Director for Fire and Explosion Prevention, TÜV SÜD Chemie Service GmbH<br />

DIPL.-ING. LEVENT SAHIN, Manager Acoustic Emission Testing, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH,<br />

DIPL.-ING. HERMANN SCHUBERT, Head of Digital and Continuous Inspection, TÜV SÜD Chemie Service GmbH<br />


goods such as medicinal products and sanitation articles or<br />

is involved in their supply chains and has thus also played a<br />

special role in the coronavirus pandemic. As a basic rule, detailed<br />

information about a component facilitates the planning<br />

of servicing and maintenance. This fact also benefits users of<br />

acoustic emission testing (AT), a particularly sophisticated<br />

digital test method. A column at a refinery is one possible use<br />

case. The column at the refinery is a large-sized vessel used in<br />

process engineering. The high, slim columns contain numerous<br />

installations and valve trays and predominate in the typical<br />

appearance of a chemical plant. They are used to break down<br />

mixtures into their constituent components.<br />

Large-sized columns at a refinery<br />

In the case on hand, the large-sized column was to be checked<br />

using AT instead of interior inspection, i e. examination from<br />

the inside. This involved the advantages that the system did<br />

not have to be taken out of service and the column did not need<br />

to be cleaned for inspection. Further, the method did not require<br />

any actions to ensure occupational health and safety or<br />

incur costs caused by the shutdown of the plant.<br />

Key data of the vessel:<br />

• Material: Fine-grain structural steel (P 355 NH)<br />

• Service period: 14 years to date<br />

• Height: 74.3 metres<br />

Acoustic Emission Testing (AET)<br />

of pressure equipment: reliable<br />

statements during operation<br />

(Source: TÜV SÜD)<br />






http://www.tuvsud.com<br />

48 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>


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• Diameter: 4.44 metres<br />

• Volume 1,160 m 3<br />

• Wall thickness: Between 22 and 26 millimetres<br />

Proceeding according to a layout plan, TÜV SÜD Industrie<br />

Service distributed 88 piezoelectric sensors across the outside<br />

wall of the scaffolded column. The number of sensors was<br />

sufficient to ensure easy and reliable inspection of the entire<br />

structure, including its complex geometries and poorly accessible<br />

installations. To be able to affix the sensors directly to the<br />

metal using a couplant, the experts had temporarily removed<br />

20 square centimetres of insulation at the points at which the<br />

sensors were affixed.<br />

Equipment under test pressure<br />

The test pressure required for AT – which must be at least 1.1<br />

times the maximum service pressure – was controlled by the<br />

plant manager via the control centre using the fluid in the vessel.<br />

In this case, the online AT process took around 12 hours.<br />

AT analyses acoustic ultrasonic waves at high frequencies inaudible<br />

to the human ear.<br />

These waves are caused when active defects, such as cracks<br />

in the material, expand minimally under the applied pressure.<br />

The resulting sudden mechanical motions set their environment<br />

into vibration, resulting in a transient elastic acoustic<br />

wave. This wave propagates from its point of origin to the sensor’s<br />

piezoelectric crystal, which transforms it into electric<br />

signals. The signals are then presented graphically by a test<br />

computer and interpreted by experienced test engineers.<br />

This method enables discontinuities to be identified in the<br />

steel structure before they can cause critical states. In most<br />

cases, AT enables far more accurate statements to be made<br />

than conventional visual examinations or pressure tests. This<br />

also applies to the assessment of non-critical inhomogeneities<br />

or microcracking that do not propagate in operation and can<br />

thus be left unchanged. In the case discussed here, TÜV SÜD<br />

recommended subsequent dedicated inspection of some spots<br />

on welds using the UT phased-array method.<br />

Assessment of signals<br />

Acoustic signals are grouped into three risk classes depending<br />

on their number, activity, intensity and location (Table 1). This<br />

categorisation allows for better planning and prioritisation of<br />

any follow-up actions that may be necessary. Ideally, the plant<br />

manager works with the inspection organisation to document<br />

the quantitative criteria of assessment before the actual inspection.<br />

Background information on health and safety<br />

in the use of work equipment<br />

Legal regulations require pressure vessels, piping and other<br />

pressurised plant components to undergo periodic technical<br />

inspection (PTI). The relevant requirements are laid down<br />

in the German Regulation on Health and Safety in the Use of<br />

Work Equipment (BetrSichV), which targets all employers.<br />

PTI focuses not only on the leak-tightness of pressure equipment,<br />

but also on possible cracking or corrosive attacks on<br />

walls. Generally, PTI requires examination of the pressure<br />

equipment from the inside. According to the German BetrSichV,<br />

employers (previously pressure-equipment operators)<br />

are permitted to use alternative non-destructive test methods<br />

such as AT or the UT phased-array method for this purpose,<br />

provided an authorised inspection agency (AIA) confirms that<br />

the assessment of plant safety delivered by the test concept is<br />

of equivalent quality.<br />

Applicable standards<br />

DIN EN 13554 lays down the general approach to AT. The harmonised<br />

standard DIN EN 14584 governs the test method for<br />

metallic pressure equipment using proof testing with planar<br />

location of acoustic emission sources. According to DIN EN<br />

ISO 9712, testing must be performed by qualified and certified<br />

personnel. DIN EN 13477-2 describes the requirements to be<br />

fulfilled by test equipment, which also needs to undergo regular<br />

verification of its operating characteristics.<br />

Outlook: digital monitoring –<br />

continuous monitoring<br />

Recent years have seen exponential growth in computing<br />

power, which has also benefited AT. Faster processors and<br />

user-friendly software produce real-time visualisation of several<br />

hundreds of localisations per second. The speed at which<br />

equipment can detect and analyse potential inhomogeneities<br />

or anomalies has increased a thousandfold. Owing to its high<br />

level of maturity and real-time capability, AT can also be used<br />

for in-service monitoring of plants and systems. It supplies<br />

data which are of fundamental importance for forward planning<br />

of maintenance and turnaround intervals. This information<br />

can also be transferred via data network (also as a cloud<br />

solution). Rounded off and complemented by a separate online<br />

NDT method (continuous monitoring), these non-destructive<br />

test methods may be used for applications such as monitoring<br />

of the wall thickness of vessels by UT – information that can<br />

likewise be realised via remote data transmission.<br />

Classification Assessment Method and actions<br />

Class 1 Insignificant source No actions required<br />

Class 2 Active source Visual examination or other subsequent inspection and evaluation<br />

Class 3 Highly active source Test interruption or termination, pressure relief, visual<br />

examination, other subsequent inspections and evaluation prior to<br />

the return to service.<br />

Table 1: Clarification of signals and actions<br />

50 maintworld 3/<strong>2020</strong>





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