Curriculum vitae of Tycho Brahe - Rundetaarn

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Curriculum vitae of Tycho Brahe - Rundetaarn

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Curriculum vitae of Tycho Brahe

Erling Poulsen

1546 Dec. 14 Tycho is born at Knutstorp in Scania in the morning (10.47) as the first-born son of

Otte Brahe and Beate Bille, he had a twin but he was stillborn. The families Brahe and Bille are two of

Denmark’s most influential noble families.

1547 ——— Tycho is „kidnapped“ by his uncle Jørgen from Tosterup, this happens at the same

time as Beate gives birth to her next baby, Steen, and is probably in accordance with an agreement

between his father and uncle; Jørgen and his wife could not have children.

1551 ——— The present castle Knutstorp was completed; this suggests the possibility that

Tycho’s birthplace may have been a nearby small house where the family lived during construction of the

manorhouse.

1553 ——— From this year Tycho receive education at his home (mainly Latin). He lives as an

only child with Jørgen and his wife.

1559 April 19 Tycho is sent to the University of Copenhagen (Rhetoric and Philosophy).

1560 Aug. 21 Around 13:00 (CET) a partial solar eclipse occurs which, depending on the

weather, would have been visible in Copenhagen; whether Tycho saw it we do not know, for he never

mentions it in his writings.

1561 ——- Tycho purchases his first astronomy book, today it is housed in the Kronborg

Library.

1562 Feb. 14 Tycho goes abroad to Leipzig for law studies; he is accompanied by Anders

Sørensen Vedel as his instructor.

1562 Mar. 24 Tycho arrives in Leipzig.

1563 Aug. 17 His first observation in his protocol was of Mars.

1563 Aug. Conjunction between Saturn and Jupiter; Tycho finds mistakes in the tables.

1564 ——- Tycho constructs his first instrument, a radie (a pair of calipers) of wood, he gets

Scultetus to divide the degrees by transversals.


1564 ——- Tycho constructs his first instrument, a radie (a pair of calipers) of wood, he gets

Scultetus to divide the degrees by transversals.

1565 May 17 Jørgen asks Tycho to come home, after a short time Jørgen dies. Jørgen had saved

the king Frederic II from drowning in one of the canals of Copenhagen, Jørgen dies of pneumonia.

1565 May 25 Tycho arrives at Rostock on his way back home. At home the only family member

who encourages his scientific studies is his mother’s brother, Steen Bille.

1566 Apr. 15 Tycho, again able to further his education, visits Wittenberg but because the plague

had broken out in that city, he goes to Rostock instead.

1566 Sep. 9 Sultan Soliman dies.

1566 Oct. Tycho is enrolled at the University of Rostock.

1566 Oct. 28 Tycho predicts that a lunar eclipse means that Sultan Solimans will die (not so

fortunate).

1566 Dec. 10 At an engagement party Tycho comes into a conflict with another Danish nobleman,

Manderup Parsberg (1546-1625), nobody knows about what. According to Laurus, they were

arguing over which one was the best mathematician.

1566 Dec. 29 Tycho loses part of his nose in a duel with Manderup Parsberg.

1567 Apr. 9 Tycho observes a solar eclipse from Rostock. He writes in „Astronomiae

instauratae Progymnasmata“ that it was the first he saw.

1567 May Tycho stays in Denmark this summer.

1568 Jan. 1 Tycho arrives at Rostock. He lives with professor Battus.

1568 Jan. 14 Tycho sends a letter to Johan Ålborg, the first letter known. In the letter he states

that he will move to the college of the law students.

1568 May 14 Tycho receives a promise of a job from the Danish king Frederic II as canon of the

cathedral in Roskilde.

1568 Oct. Tycho arrives at Basel.


1569 Jan. Tycho arrives at Augsburg and begins the construction of his Big Quadrant, he

orders the wooden sphere for his Big Celestial Globe. He works with the brothers Johannes Baptista

and Paul Hainzel, mayor and alderman.

1569 Apr. 15 Tycho begins observations in Augsburg. He begins studies in Alchemy

(Iatrochemistry).

1570 ——- Tycho meets Ramus in Augsburg.

1570 ——- In the spring he meets Philippus Apianus in Inglostat.

1570 Sep. 9 Tycho is in Wittemberg, probably on his way back home.

1571 May 9 Otte Brahe dies, Tycho moves in at Herrevad (until the reformation a monastery),

where his mother’s brother Steen Bille lives.

1572 Nov. 11 In the evening Tycho sees a new star (Supernova) in Cassiopeia; he was not the

first who noticed the star.

1572 Dec. 16 Tycho receives a letter about the new star, nobody knows from whom.

1573 ——- In the spring he tells Pratentis, professor in Copenhagen, about the new star.

1573 ——- Tycho marries Kirsten Jørgensdatter; because the law did not allow marriages

between nobility and commoners, they were not married in by the church. Maybe they married because

Kirsten was pregnant.

1573 ——- Tycho publishes his book „De nova stella“, which makes him famous all over

Europe.

1573 Oct. 12 Tycho’s daughter Kirstine is born, she dies Sep. 24 - 1576, and is buried in

Mariachurch, Helsingborg.

1573 Dec. 8 Tycho observes a lunar eclipse together with his 17-year old sister Sofie. From the

observation he finds the perigee of the Sun .

1574 ——- The daughter Magdalene is born in Copenhagen, she dies after year 1600.

1574 Sep. 8 Tycho starts giving lectures at the University of Copenhagen.


1575 ——- Tycho goes to Venice; he tries to send astronomers to Egypt.

1575 ——- Tycho visits the son of Reinhold in Saalfeld and examines the manuscripts of

Reinhold [[[the manuscripts in Reinhold’s possession]]]. He is on the way back home.

1575 ——- Tycho helps Anders Sørensen Vedel with the publication of „The Chronicle of

Denmark“ by Saxo.

1575 ——- Tycho visits count Wilhelm of Hessen in late spring. The count was one of the

foremost astronomers of Europe. Then Tycho visits Basel where he plans to settle.

1576 Feb. 10 Tycho receives an annal salary of 500 rdl. from Frederic II.

1576 Feb. 11 Tycho is ordered to meet the king and is offered the island of Ven.

1576 Feb. 14 Tycho sends a letter to Pratensis where he complains about life in Denmark; he

feels uncomfortable with his noble „friends“.

1576 Feb. 22 Tycho visits Ven for the first time.

1576 May Tycho gets a contribution of 400 rdl. from the crown to build a house on Ven.

1576 Jun. 1 Tycho’s friend, Pratentis, dies suddenly in Copenhagen, after his lungs started

hemorrhaging during a lecture.

1576 Aug. 8 The foundation stone of Uraniborg, his castle on Ven is laid..

1576 Dec. 14 First light; Tycho conducts his first observations on Ven (on his birthday).

1577 ——- The Big Quadrant in Augsburg is used for the last time.

1577 ——- Tycho is offered the vice-chancellorship of the University of Copenhagen, but he

refuses.

1577 Jan. 2 His son Klaus is born, he dies on Jan. 8. Tycho never sees him alive.

1577 Apr. 2 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1577 Apr. 12 Christian IV is born, he is the son of Frederic II.

1577 Jul. 1 Tycho casts Christian IV’s horoscope.


1577 Aug. 28 Tycho receives the endowment of Kullen, here he shall maintain a lighthouse.

1577 Sep. 27 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1577 Nov. 13 The big comet of that year is seen from one of the fish ponds on Ven. The comet is

seen for the last time on Jan. 26 - 1578.

1578 Feb. 13 According to a manuscript found in Tycho’s copy of Copernicus „De

revolutionibus ...“ (now in the Vatican Library) it appears that from Feb. 13 to Feb. 17 Tycho develops

his own theory of the universe; he was confident of his system in 1583 according to a remark in „De

mundi aetherei ...“.

1578 ——- At the beginning of this year his assistant Femløse arrives at Ven, he assists Tycho

until 1590.

1578 ——- Tycho makes a map of Ven, using triangulation as one of the first to do so.

1578 Apr. 10 Frederic II orders the farmers of Ven to help Tycho with his constructions on the

island.

1578 Aug. 4 His daughter Sofie is born, she dies after 1640.

1578 Sep. 16 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1579 Feb. 25 Tycho observes a partial solar eclipse from Ven.

1579 Jun. 10 Tycho endows with the Epiphany Chapel in Roskilde.

1580 ——- The observatory of the last great Arabic astronomer Takiyuddin Mehmed is

destroyed in Istanbul by fundamentalists; he was accused of causing the plague.

1580 Jan. 31 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1580 Aug. 20 Frederic II orders his vassal in Landskrona to go to Ven, in order to investigate

complaints from the peasants of too much work.

1580 Oct. 10 Tycho observes a comet and follows it until Nov. 25 and in the morning on Dec.

13.

1581 ——- Tycho begins regular moon observations, from these follows his improved theory

about the Moon.


1581 Jan. The king makes new rules to solve the problems between Tycho and the peasants

of Ven.

1581 Jan. 19 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1581 Jul. 16 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1581 Aug. 28 His son Tyge is born, he dies Sep. 2, 1627, he was married to a Polish

noblewoman.

1581 Oct. Uraniborg is finished and Tycho’s family moves in.

1582 ——- Frederic II promulgates a new law for the church; from now on weddings are a

matter of the church.

1582 Feb. 1 Johannes Stephanus arrives for the first time on Ven.

1582 May Tycho observes a comet.

1582 Oct. 1 From this day his scientists begin keeping a meteorological diary for Ven, until Apr.

22 - 1597.

1583 ——- Tycho’s son Jørgen is born at Knudstorp, he dies in 1640.

1584 ——- Tycho begins the construction of his observatory Stjerneborg.

1584 ——- His assistant Morsing is sent to Frauenburg to measure the polar-latitude of

Copernicus’ observatory.

1584 Apr. 30 Tycho observes a partial solar eclipse from Ven.

1584 Jun. During the summer Tycho builds his own printing press.

1584 Jul. 15 Tycho writes in a letter to Johannes Major that he prefers the Gregorian calendar.

(At that time, Protestants were resisting its introduction.)

1584 Nov. 7 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1585 ——- In a letter from Frederic II the king tells Tycho about plans to make a map of all of

Denmark by help of triangulation. This was not done until after 1760.


1586 Mar. Femløse brings the count of Hessen a letter concerning the comet from the fall of

1585.

1586 Apr. Count Wilhelm brags in a letter about his watch, ± 1 min/day.

1586 Jun. 27 The queen Sofia visits Ven.

1586 Aug. 23 The queen visits Ven again, this time with many followers.

1587 ——- „The Book of the Comet“ is finnished.

1588 Apr. 4 Frederic II dies.

1589 ——- Kristen Sørensen Langberg (Longomontanus) arrives in Ven as an assistant.

1589 Mar. Tycho is allowed to use a ring of stones (The Watermill Tower, one of the towers in

the town wall) in Copenhagen as an Observatory.

1589 Nov. 1 In a letter to Hagecius, Tycho says that comets do not necessarily have to move in

circles, you find the same in „The Book of the Comet“.

1590 ——- Tycho begins the construction of his papermill.

1590 Feb. Tycho observes a low intensity comet from Ven.

1590 Mar. 20 Jacob VI of Scotland visits Ven from 8 morning to 3 in the afternoon.

1590 Jul. 21 Tycho observes a partial solar eclipse from Ven.

1590 Aug. 1 The mathematician Christoffer Rohtmann visits Ven, he leaves on Sep. 1.

1590 Dec. 30 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1591 ——- What until now has been gathered in the meteorological diary is published.

1591 ——- Vedel publishes his Danish folksongs.

1591 Apr. In a letter to the count of Hessen, Tycho complains over his conditions in Denmark.


1591 Jun. 9 The Mars opposition is observed from Ven.

1591 Jul. 10 Tycho observes a partial solar eclipse from Ven.

1592 Jul. 3 Christian IV visits Ven, Tycho suggests that he shall give lessons in navigation, and

the king receives a mechanical planetarium.

1592 Nov. 17 In a letter from the king Tycho is told to behave better to inferiors.

1593 Aug. 1 Tycho is ordered to maintain the Epiphany Chapel in Roskilde, he has not done

that.

1594 Sep. 4 Tycho receives again order to maintain the Chapel, but it does not help.

1594 Oct. 20 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1595 Feb. 17 Tengnagel arrives at Ven.

1595 Apr. 14 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1595 Sep. 23 Tycho observes a partial solar eclipse from Ven.

1595 Oct. 8 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Ven.

1595 ——- In the winter 95-96 Blaeu visits Ven, he is making maps.

1596 ——- The book with the letters to/from the count of Hessen is published on Uraniborg.

1596 Jul. A comet is observed from Ven.

1596 Aug. 29 Christian IV is crowned in Copenhagen, Tycho is a guest.

1597 Feb. 22 In a letter to Rantzau Tycho agrees to the Gregorian calender. He proposes a

cipher for exchanging alchemic knowledge.

1597 Mar. 15 Tycho’s last observation from Ven.

1597 Mar. 18 His 500 rdl. stipend is stopped.


1597 Mar. 21 All books on Ven are now registered.

1597 Mar. 29 Tycho leaves Ven and moves to Copenhagen (Farvergården).

1597 Apr. 4 Christian Friis and Axel Brahe go to Ven to look at complaints and a commission is

established to investigate Tycho’s leadership.

1597 Apr. 22 The vicar on Ven is sacked.

1597 Jun. 1 Tycho writes a recommendation for Longomontanus who is going to study in

Germany.

1597 Jun. 2 The professor in mathematics Thomas Fincke reports that the instruments on Ven

are of no use.

1597 Jun. Tycho is not allowed to observe from The Watermill Tower and is not allowed to

perform chemical experiments in his house in Farvergade.

1597 Jun. 2 Tycho leaves Copenhagen and goes to Rostock.

1597 Jun. 10 Tycho is removed from his job at Epiphany Chapel in Roskilde.

1597 Jul. 10 Tycho’s famous letter to the king Christian IV is sent from Rostock.

1597 Aug. 24 Chr. IV answers the letter, he will not let Tycho return to Denmark.

1597 Sep. Tycho leaves Rostock, where there is plague, he travels to Wandsbæk.

1597 Oct. 20 Tycho starts his observations in Wandsbæk, here he writes his famous elegy.

1597 Nov. Tycho receives an answer from the king. dated Oct. 8.

1597 Dec. 15 Kepler writes a letter to Tycho about his book, Mysterium Cosmographicum.

1597 Dec. 31 Tycho writes his preface to emperor Rudolf II in his book, Mecanica.

1598 ——- Mecanica is published.

1598 10/2 Tycho observes a total lunar eclipse from Wandsbæk.


1598 Apr. Tycho answers (rather critically) the letter from Kepler.

1598 May Tycho’s star catalogue is published with the possitions of 1004 stars.

1598 ——- Tycho sends an embittered letter to Niels Krag about his treatment in Denmark.

1598 Oct. Tycho leaves Wandsbæk.

1598 Dec. 4 Tycho arrives at Wittenberg, he lives at professor Jessenius’ house.

1599 Jan. 31 At an observation of a lunar eclipse Tycho discovers that his theory for the

movement of the Moon is wrong, the eclipse starts 24 minutes before his calculations. He improves his

theory.

1599 Mar. 21 Tycho sends a letter to Longomontanus in which he reports his revised theory.

1599 Jun. Tycho is offered shelter in Bohemia, here he obtains residence on the castle

Benatký. The castle was recently bought by the emperor Rudolf II.

1599 Jun. 14 Tycho leaves Wittenberg and moves to Bohemia.

1599 Jul. 22 Tycho observes a solar eclipse from Prague.

1599 Aug. 20 Tycho moves in at Benatký 40 km NE of Prague.

1599 Oct. Tycho receives a letter from Eske Bille where he is told that his house in Farvergade,

Copenhagen, can not be sold.

1600 Jan. 20 From one of his letters it appears that the emperor has asked for some piece of

astrological advice.

1600 Feb. 3 Kepler arrives at Benatký.

1600 Jul. 10 Tycho observes a solar eclipse from Benatký.

1600 Jul. Tycho leaves Benatký and moves to Prague.

1600 Jul. Longomontanus arrives at Prague, he works with the moon theory. He brings the

rest of Tycho’s instruments with him.


1600 Oct. The emperor Rudolf II shows the first signs of his mental disease (syphilis ?).

1600 Nov. 10 All of the instruments (28) have arrived in Prague.

1601 Feb. 25 Tycho moves to the palace of Curtius in Prague, rented by the emperor. The

instruments are also moved to the palace.

1601 Apr. Tycho writes in a letter that all of the instruments are in the palace.

1601 Jul. Kepler is given the assignment to calculate the Rudolfian Tables.

1601 Jul. 17 His daughter Elisabeth is married to Tengnagel in Prague.

1601 Jul. 24 Tycho receives his last letter from Ulrik of Meklenburg.

1601 Oct. 11 Tycho’s last observation.

1601 Oct. 13 During a banquet hosted by Peter Vok von Rosenberg Tycho falls ill, probably due

to poisoning or acute prostatitis.

1601 Oct. 24 Tycho dies of ureamia (urine in the blood, seen at some poisonings with heavy

metals; mercury was found in his beard taken only a couple of days before he died) between 9 and 10

in the morning.

1601 Oct. 28 The emperor purchases all the instruments from Tycho’s widow Kirsten.

1601 Nov. 4 Tycho is buried in the Teyn-church in Prague.

1604 ——- Kirsten dies of dropsy and is buried beside her husband.

1671 Sep. The French astronomer Picard and the Danish astronomer Ole Rømer find the

longitude of Ven, they stay on the island until the end of November.

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