EPP Europe P2.2020

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11 2020 www.epp-europe.eu<br />


<br />

Gabriela Reckewerth, ASM<br />

Enabling the digital world.<br />

<br />

<br />

COVER<br />

How far can Artificial<br />

Intelligence go?<br />


Trade Shows + Events<br />

electronica 2020 uses<br />

digital platform<br />

PCB + Assembly<br />

Keeping moisture out of<br />

electronic components<br />

10 reasons to switch PCB<br />

cleaning fluids<br />

Expanding control with<br />

X-ray component counter<br />

Test + Quality Assurance<br />

Reliable conformal<br />

coating inspection<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 1

YXLON FF65 CL: World’s Best Resolution 3D<br />

X-Ray Inspection System for Fully Automated<br />

Verification of IC Packaging Defects<br />

- High-speed 3D AXI<br />

- Most precise measurements of defect dimensions<br />

- Reliable check of process conditions<br />

- Fully automated inspection solution with measurement results<br />

www.yxlon.com<br />

2 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


The Smart Factory of the future<br />

The ultimate goal of Artificial Intelligence is for machines to use machine<br />

learning effectively, in order for them to become smarter and more intelligent.<br />

The cover story depicts how far this field of science has come and the<br />

benefits it has on the electronics industry, which include increasing efficiency<br />

and flexibility, while achieving self-optimization processes. Although it<br />

still has a way to go, Artificial Intelligence can be adopted in today’s factory<br />

by enabling the Smart Factory of the future and generating “knowledge”<br />

from “experience.”<br />

Dedicating AI to inspection.<br />

GLOBAL.<br />

AHEAD.<br />


Choosing the right cleaning fluid<br />

As the electronics industry continues to evolve, manufacturers need to adapt<br />

to changes by finding alternatives to their cleaning solutions. It can be a challenge<br />

to find better choices that are more efficient, easy to implement, still<br />

reliable and economical, all while being less hazardous for employees and<br />

the environment. It is also imperative that cleaning performance is maintained<br />

with minimal impact on productivity. Fortunately, there are a number<br />

of solvent alternatives in today’s market that can be even more beneficial.<br />

Making the switch easier.<br />

Power of renewable energy<br />

The electronics industry plays a great part in the renewable energy market,<br />

due to its heavy reliance on the solutions that make it possible to harvest<br />

energy from natural resources. The world depends greatly on water based,<br />

solar based, and wind based renewable energy. Which is why, using the correct<br />

thermal management material, conformal coating or encapsulation<br />

resin is vital for the protection, reliability, and lifetime of energy generation<br />

and harvesting technologies.<br />

Reducing carbon footprint.<br />



Trust the No.1<br />

Ersa’s award-winning and patented<br />

systems for your challenging rework<br />

applications.<br />

HR 500 – Budget oriented:<br />

flexible desoldering, placement and<br />

soldering of SMT components<br />

HR 550 XL – Large and flexible:<br />

guided rework for large boards up<br />

to 530 x 530 mm<br />

HR 600/3 P – Precise:<br />

automatic rework for extremely fine<br />

and small components up to 01005<br />

Source: Carina Zarfelder<br />

Charlene Hesse<br />

Online Editor <strong>EPP</strong> E<br />

HR 600 XL – Big and precise:<br />

automatic rework of complex large<br />

boards up to 625 x 625 mm<br />

www.kurtzersa.com<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 3<br />

Ersa GmbH | Wertheim | info@ersa.com

Contents 11 2020<br />

<strong>Europe</strong>an Magazine for<br />

Production and Test in the<br />

Electronics Industry<br />

Source: Peter Roskothen<br />

24<br />

A change-over to photoimageable solder resists has created<br />

alternative photoinitiators.<br />

Cover Feature<br />

Adopting Artificial Intelligence<br />

based solutions<br />

Today, Artificial Intelligence technology is associated with a variety<br />

of businesses and applications. To help solve the growing<br />

challenges in the SMT industry, it has now also been implemented<br />

into inspection technology. By incorporating learning in the solutions,<br />

AI can be used to prevent measurement errors. Applying<br />

deep learning with AI engines will enable the future of electronics<br />

manufacturing.<br />

Generating knowledge from experience<br />

News + Highlights<br />

6 Enabling the digital world<br />

Interview with Gabriela Reckewerth, ASM<br />

9 Appointment of Senior General Manager<br />

Saki strenghtens Asian operations<br />

10 Inspection system programming<br />

Collaboration with Mentor and Koh Young<br />

10 Improve service accessibility<br />

Viscom creates customer care teams<br />

11 Total customer focus<br />

Kurtz Ersa opens new hall<br />

Source: Aegis USA<br />

40<br />

Factory digitization has opened a need for Artificial Intelligence.<br />

Trade Shows+ Events<br />

12 Virtual electronica 2020<br />

Expanding digital offering<br />

12 Electronics production tradeshow<br />

SMTconnect 2020 goes digital<br />

13 IPC Apex Expo rescheduled<br />

Postponed for 2021<br />

PCB + Assembly Features<br />

20 Improved process yield with dual head dispensing<br />

New level of robustness (ITW EAE)<br />

24 Overcoming PCB production challenge<br />

Using suitable solder resists (Lackwerke Peters)<br />

27 Product-Updates PCB + Assembly<br />

Source: Viscom AG<br />

The S3088 CCI inspection system<br />

offers inspection of transparent<br />

protective coatings.<br />

52<br />

4 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

Source: Koh Young<br />

Momentum® II Printers<br />

14<br />

NEW<br />

Momentum II<br />

Elite and HiE<br />



VALUE<br />

28 Power of renewable sources of energy<br />

Assisting with protection compounds (Electrolube)<br />

32 Product life cycle with flexible automation<br />

Following the TLC methodology (MTEK)<br />

34 Dry run over IC bridge<br />

Moisture sensitivity treatment (Totech)<br />

36 Reasons to use a better PCB cleaning fluid<br />

Finding the right alternative (MicroCare)<br />

38 Expanding control with X-ray component counter<br />

Staying one step ahead (Nordson Dage)<br />

40 Where is artificial intelligence today?<br />

Factory digitization (Aegis Software)<br />

42 Advancing the smart factory<br />

Production with PC-based control (Beckhoff)<br />

45 Product-Updates PCB + Assembly<br />

Introducing the next-generation Momentum II.<br />

A proven printer platform with a fresh look and<br />

innovative new features for improved ease of use,<br />

yield , quality, productivity and versatility.<br />

NEW EdgeLoc II and EdgeLoc+ precision board clamping<br />

NEW Jar paste dispenser for increased productivity<br />

NEW Solder paste temperature and roll height monitoring<br />

NEW Quick release squeegee for faster changeover<br />

NEW Adjustable stencil shelf<br />

NEW Windows 10 OS, upgraded Quickstart GUI function<br />

Test + Quality Assurance Features<br />

52 Providing reliable conformal coating inspection<br />

CCI systems using UV illumination (Viscom)<br />

55 Product-Updates Test + Quality Assurance<br />

Columns<br />

3 Editorial<br />

4 Contents<br />

58 Imprint/List of advertisers<br />

NEW<br />

Momentum II<br />

100 and BTB<br />



VALUE<br />

Learn more at www.itweae.com<br />

A division of Illinois Tools Works<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 5


Enabling the digital world with<br />

integrated smart factory<br />

An automated smart factory has now become more important than<br />

ever before since the spread of Covid-19. Electronic manufacturers<br />

have had to learn how to modify their processes to be more resilient,<br />

by making significant changes to their productions. The <strong>EPP</strong><br />

<strong>Europe</strong> team spoke with Gabriela Reckewerth, the Senior Director<br />

Global Marketing from ASM SMT Solutions, and discussed<br />

how the company has been affected by this year’s uncertainties<br />

and the changes they have noticed since the start of<br />

the pandemic. She further explained their commitment to their<br />

customers, even with the various restrictions set in place and their<br />

thoughts about the future market.<br />

Gabriela Reckewerth, Senior Director Global Marketing, ASM SMT Solutions.<br />

What has the company focused on for 2020?<br />

We continued following our innovation roadmap in 2020 and kept<br />

working on our developments for the integrated smart factory. The<br />

new Release 2020, which we presented in a major livestream event<br />

due to the coronavirus crisis, includes several innovations for our<br />

customers. For example, we introduced a new generation of the Siplace<br />

SX. With new placement heads, an open interface for connecting<br />

specialty feeders from third parties, new station software<br />

and a whole lot more, the Siplace SX has enhanced its position as a<br />

powerful solution for high-mix manufacturing environments even<br />

further. Other releases include the DEK TQ high-volume printer with<br />

more than 8 hours of ‘non-stop production’ and many innovations in<br />

our software solutions. The most important innovation in the software<br />

field is our smart factory suite called ASM Works.<br />

Source: ASM<br />

The pandemic has also posed new challenges regarding the ways in<br />

which we interact with our customers. Thanks to our advanced remote-service<br />

infrastructure, we were able to provide help quickly,<br />

and in most cases without having to even be on-site when something<br />

had gone wrong or the production had to be expanded. Currently,<br />

we are working with our customers to make their manufacturing<br />

and business processes even more resilient. With our knowhow<br />

and as the world’s largest equipment supplier to the electronics<br />

manufacturing industry, we are for many customers the supplier<br />

of choice when it comes to getting reliable support. While<br />

many suppliers were often involved with themselves, we were<br />

much more active and started many support programs for our customers.<br />

For example, with our “Time4Academy” initiative, we<br />

opened up our e-training platform to all customers for several<br />

months so that they could put the production stops during the pandemic<br />

to use by training their employees at no charge. This earned<br />

us a lot of praise from our customers, and the online courses and<br />

webinars at our SMT Centers of Competence were very well attended.<br />

What are the advantages of ASM Works, and how<br />

does it differ from your other software solutions?<br />

To network and integrate a production, you had to purchase, install<br />

and maintain many different software options until now. Projects to<br />

network your electronics production often failed because of software<br />

compatibility problems, which was not only troublesome but<br />

also very expensive.<br />

With our modular software suite of proven ASM software components,<br />

our customers can now build a solid foundation for their integrated<br />

smart factory – one that they can adapt in stages in accordance<br />

with their respective requirements and capabilities.<br />

The ASM Works Core base module provides the architecture that<br />

enables machines to seamless exchange data right away. Even<br />

orders and setups can now be planned for the entire factory, resulting<br />

in optimized shop floor management. And with currently eight<br />

upgrade modules, more smart functionalities can be added at any<br />

time and in any order. Since ASM Works integrates the individual<br />

software components into an overall concept, electronics manufacturers<br />

no longer have to worry about interfaces, compatibilities,<br />

data transfers between lines, or licenses and upgrades. All components<br />

are managed from a single launch pad. General configuration<br />

settings, such as shift calendars or roles and permissions, are administered<br />

centrally and automatically transmitted to the individual<br />

modules. All this makes networking and integration much easier,<br />

faster, and more cost-effective.<br />

6 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


The DEK TQ stands for maximum precision<br />

and industry-leading performance. ASM<br />

now extends the function spectrum of its<br />

high-end high-volume printers even further.<br />

How important do you find smart factory solutions,<br />

especially with the effects of the Covid-19 virus?<br />

Companies that operate in a more connected and integrated<br />

manner have proven to be much more resilient and robust during<br />

the crisis. ASM’s concept of smart operator pools and our remote<br />

support solutions, for example, proved to be extremely helpful in<br />

minimizing personal interactions between employees in accordance<br />

with social distancing rules during the pandemic. Smart operator<br />

pools replace rigid team assignments, and the automatic transmission<br />

of data and information makes it much easier to work under<br />

pandemic conditions. I believe that there will be a huge boost in<br />

digital upgrades and modernizations after the crisis. In addition to<br />

efficiency and quality, companies will increasingly focus on resilience,<br />

a field in which ASM’s concepts for the integrated smart factory<br />

provide ways for making companies better and more robust in<br />

the ‘new normal’.<br />

Source: ASM<br />

Get Your Parts Cleaner, Faster, Safer<br />

Chlorine-Free<br />

Cleaning Fluid<br />

Next Generation Cleaning<br />

High-performance cleaning fluid for vapour degreasers.<br />

Safely cleans fluxes, oils and greases from most<br />

substrates. Contains no chlorinated solvents (TCE,<br />

MeCL, Perc or Trans) for environmental-friendly<br />

performance. Optimized for high-temperature cleaning.<br />

Nonflammable for maximum safety and easy handling.<br />

Excellent replacement for nPB and TCE.<br />

For more info:<br />

MicroCare.com<br />

© 2020 MicroCare. All Rights Reserved. | MicroCare, the MicroCare logo, and Tergo are trademarks or registered trademarks of MicroCare Corporation.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 7


Source: ASM<br />

The ASM Works<br />

software suite paves<br />

the way to the integrated<br />

smart factory.<br />

Where are the most effects of Covid-19 in<br />

business terms (i.e. in which country, but perhaps<br />

also in which segment)?<br />

As a globally active group and technology leader in the field of SMT<br />

production, ASM was already positioned to master the extreme<br />

challenges of the pandemic thanks to its strategic alignment. Partly<br />

because of the unabated strong demand for electronic products,<br />

the crisis has affected us much less than many other industries. The<br />

same applies to the majority of our customers. Of course, every<br />

company has to contend with the new conditions, but many of our<br />

customers have developed creative solutions and are positioned<br />

better than their competitors thanks to their high degree of digitalization<br />

and automation.<br />

The global easing of pandemic-related regulations has an effect as<br />

well. We are seeing significant growth in some major markets.<br />

China is an example of this. There is also a noticeable increase in demand<br />

in Central <strong>Europe</strong>, as evidenced in the utilization of our Center<br />

of Competence in Munich that is operating at full capacity with lots<br />

of visitors and appointment requests.<br />

How does ASM see the developments of the<br />

future? What’s coming? Are there new<br />

developments planned for the company?<br />

ASM’s claim of ‘Enabling the Digital World’ sums up our mission<br />

perfectly. After the pandemic, the need for a sustainable and comprehensive<br />

digital transformation will become even stronger. This<br />

applies to our customers as well as to our own processes. Fortunately,<br />

we are extremely well positioned for this with our innovation<br />

projects and the new solutions we have rolled out in recent years.<br />

What will change, however, is that resilience will be a new dimension<br />

in the customers’ purchasing decisions, also with regard to the<br />

selection of suppliers and the way in which the parties work together.<br />

Which suppliers can I really depend on even in extreme situations?<br />

And which of my suppliers can fully maintain the scope and<br />

quality of their services through modern digital concepts when the<br />

next crisis comes along? These are the new questions that customers<br />

will ask themselves, and we as the world’s largest equipment<br />

supplier and technology leader want to provide the best answers to<br />

them.<br />

Thank you very much for<br />

your time Mrs. Reckewerth.<br />

www.asm-smt.com<br />

What would you convey or suggest to your<br />

customers on how to optimize their production?<br />

Electronics manufacturers should keep transitioning to the integrated<br />

smart factory consistently and forcefully – maybe even accelerate<br />

the process. The pandemic has made it alarmingly clear how<br />

inflexible our old manufacturing concepts are and how quickly they<br />

lead to a dead end. The digital transformation, automation, remote<br />

access capabilities and smart operator concepts in combination<br />

with powerful and flexible machines and solutions make companies<br />

not only more efficient but much more resilient.<br />

The ASM Command Center automates the transmission of tasks and<br />

information to the employees. It makes rigid assignments to lines or tasks<br />

a thing of the past and turns operators into smart operator pools.<br />

Source: ASM<br />

8 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Appointment of Senior General Manager<br />

Saki Corporation, an innovator in the field of<br />

automated optical and X-ray inspection<br />

equipment, announces the expansion of its<br />

global sales organization with the creation of<br />

an Asia Sales Department that covers the entire<br />

Asia-Pacific area including China, South<br />

Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India. Headed<br />

by Mr. Katsuhiro Eddie Ichiyama, recently appointed<br />

Senior General Manager of the regional<br />

headquarters in Singapore, this regional<br />

organization will support customers‘<br />

production of highest quality products with<br />

the company’s high precision inspection<br />

equipment and autonomous process inspection<br />

system.<br />

In his new role, Mr. Ichiyama assumes responsibility<br />

for sales, application support, service,<br />

and operations in the wider Asian region<br />

excluding Japan, providing customers<br />

with access to Saki‘s total M2M solution: 3D<br />

solder printing automated inspection system<br />

(SPI), 2D/3D automated visual inspection<br />

system (AOI), X-ray automated inspection<br />

system (AXI) and their system software li-<br />

neup.<br />

Mr. Ichiyama is relocating to Singapore from<br />

<strong>Europe</strong> where, as regional General Manager<br />

since the founding of Saki‘s <strong>Europe</strong>an subsidiary<br />

Saki <strong>Europe</strong> GmbH, he has been instrumental<br />

in successfully driving business<br />

growth in the <strong>Europe</strong>an region. With the<br />

company’s high-quality inspection systems,<br />

he has contributed to the quality assurance<br />

process for quality-conscious customers<br />

from diverse industries including the power<br />

semiconductor industry.<br />

Katsuhiro Eddie Ichiyama comments:<br />

“Against the backdrop of the current Covid-19<br />

pandemic, expectations for ‘connected’ technology<br />

in many areas have risen sharply, and<br />

the absolute quality of communication infrastructure<br />

has become a real challenge. At the<br />

same time, there is a growing need to optimize<br />

labor resources with a rise in demand<br />

for automated production solutions at our<br />

customers’ manufacturing sites. Saki offers a<br />

wide range of solutions that improve the efficiency<br />

and productivity of production lines<br />

Mr. Katsuhiro Eddie Ichiyama has recently been appointed<br />

to Senior General Manager of the regional<br />

headquarters in Singapore.<br />

with our automated inspection system that<br />

solve the problems our customers are facing,<br />

particularly those who have transferred production<br />

from China, South Korea, Japan, <strong>Europe</strong><br />

and America to alternative Asian manufacturing<br />

sites.”<br />

www.sakiglobal.com<br />

Source: Saki Corporation<br />

Solutions for Electronic Assemblies and Systems<br />

Manufacturing together<br />

Meet the electronics manufacturing community at the SMTconnect and make contacts<br />

with international decision-makers from industries such as industrial electronics, medical<br />

electronics and automotive.<br />

Present your products and services and prepare business deals, for example at the special<br />

showcase areas EMS Park or PCB meets Components.<br />

Nuremberg, 4 – 6 May 2021<br />

# smtconnect<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 9


Collaboration with Mentor and Koh Young<br />

Koh Young announces it has joined forces<br />

with Mentor, a Siemens business, to deliver<br />

an enhanced programming solution, which<br />

will benefit the printed circuit board assembly<br />

market. Building on the AI-powered<br />

Koh Young Auto Programming software<br />

(KAP), Mentor integrated its Valor Process<br />

Preparation Software to further simplify<br />

Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) programming<br />

and reduce production costs by saving<br />

time through the implementation of Mentor’s<br />

Open Product Model.<br />

“The synergy between our companies has<br />

resulted in an outstanding solution that is designed<br />

to help reduce time to market and improve<br />

production quality across the line,” said<br />

Mr. JD Shin, Chief Sales Office for Koh Young<br />

Technology. “We are especially excited about<br />

this particular collaboration with Mentor because<br />

it was in direct response to the voice<br />

of the customer. The partnership highlights<br />

the benefits customers can realize when two<br />

suppliers work together towards a common<br />

goal. It was a win-win for everyone.”<br />

The enhanced software eliminates the need<br />

for CAD and Gerber files, which saves time<br />

as the programmer no longer needs to locate,<br />

upload, and manipulate these product<br />

files. The new solution reduces programming<br />

time by blending several elements together<br />

that automatically creates the necessary AOI<br />

Building on the Koh Young Auto Programming<br />

software (KAP), Mentor integrated its Valor Process<br />

Preparation Software to further simplify Automated<br />

Optical Inspection (AOI) programming<br />

programming files.<br />

One of the elements Koh Young integrated<br />

from Mentor includes the Valor Open Product<br />

Model (OPM). Introduced in 2018, OPM is an<br />

open data assembly format structured in<br />

XML, which focuses on the printed circuit<br />

board assembly model (PCBA) and the associated<br />

manufacturing process plan. OPM<br />

is a solution for the open exchange of process<br />

engineering information between disparate<br />

machines and processes. In the same<br />

way that ODB++ works for design data,<br />

OPM is the answer to the need for flexibility<br />

that Smart Industry 4.0 factories demand.<br />

A second element that is now part of the<br />

software is the extensive Valor Parts Library<br />

(VPL) database. Comprised of over 35 million<br />

component manufacturers part numbers and<br />

package geometry definitions, Valor Process<br />

Preparation software uses this information to<br />

fully automate the creation of new parts and<br />

packages for use in inspection systems and<br />

mounters using its “Auto-Generation” rule<br />

methodology.<br />

Combining a single assembly format file output<br />

like OPM and a standardized machine<br />

package library from VPL, the manufacturer<br />

minimizes program variations between machines<br />

like inspection systems and component<br />

mounters. This improved programming<br />

approach can eliminate human error and variation,<br />

while significantly reducing NPI programming<br />

time. Additionally, OPM is generalized<br />

so it is interoperable among various systems<br />

and easily enables moving production<br />

between lines and—more importantly—factories<br />

across the world.<br />

“This joint programming project was just the<br />

first step in an expanded collaboration to improve<br />

the PCBA manufacturing experience<br />

for our customer,” said Mr. Rick Esposito, Director<br />

of Valor’s Processing Engineering<br />

Product Line. “When industry leaders collaborate,<br />

remarkable solutions result. We are excited<br />

about this relationship and the future<br />

together.”<br />

www.kohyoung.com; www.mentor.com<br />

Source: Koh Young<br />

Customer care teams ensures intensive support<br />

Viscom has reorganized its customer service for<br />

<strong>Europe</strong>an customers and established new customer<br />

care teams.<br />

Viscom has reorganized its interfaces to the<br />

company‘s <strong>Europe</strong>an customers as of July<br />

2020. With the reorganization, the market<br />

and technology leader for inspection solutions<br />

intends to enhance its customer focus<br />

and improve service accessibility even<br />

further. The establishment of customer care<br />

teams for each product area will ensure the<br />

achievement of these objectives. The newly<br />

Source: Viscom AG<br />

created teams support and assist Viscom‘s<br />

customers in their selection of the right inspection<br />

solutions as well as in the purchase,<br />

commissioning, training and maintenance of<br />

these. This will reduce processing times and<br />

enable the comprehensive, precisely tailored<br />

implementation of customer-specific requirements.<br />

These new customer care teams are<br />

composed of specialists from the areas of<br />

AOI, AXI, MXI, wire bond inspection, SPI,<br />

CCI and various applications such as battery<br />

inspection, 5G, e-mobility and consumer<br />

electronics. They are responsible for technical<br />

sales, project management, applications,<br />

maintenance and repair as well as the hotline,<br />

and provide competent, targeted support<br />

to customers throughout the entire<br />

product life cycle. The newly created customer<br />

care teams are replacing the previous divisions<br />

such as SP and NP with a streamlined,<br />

service-oriented and sustainably successful<br />

organization.<br />

The central sales organization also includes<br />

direct sales, key account management and<br />

regional collaboration with the <strong>Europe</strong>an<br />

sales representatives, who will remain the<br />

primary contacts for the customers. In providing<br />

professional customer support, the<br />

customer care teams will also access the expertise<br />

of our specialists in the central service<br />

and product development departments.<br />

„This realignment took place as a second<br />

step following the earlier successful reorganization<br />

of our product and software development<br />

division, which is working at full speed<br />

on various innovations to ensure that Viscom<br />

continues to inspire with its advanced inspection<br />

solutions delivering the highest<br />

level of quality. By charting this course, we<br />

can ensure powerful and professional collaboration<br />

at all levels,“ said Carsten Salewski,<br />

Head of Sales, Marketing and International<br />

Business.<br />

www.viscom.com<br />

10 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Inauguration of production and administration hall<br />

In the “Gold” room, CEO Rainer Kurtz welcomed<br />

around 60 guests from politics and<br />

business as well as shareholders and employees<br />

of the company to the inauguration<br />

ceremony of the new production and administration<br />

building in Bestenheid. After around<br />

24 months of construction and furnishing,<br />

the new building, which offers around<br />

4,500 m 2 of space, was officially opened.<br />

In the new hall, mainly selective and wave<br />

soldering machines, stencil printers and reflow<br />

systems are assembled on two lines.<br />

The company thus offers its customers from<br />

the international electronics industry an extensive<br />

product and service package for their<br />

electronics production. As a technology provider<br />

for many sustainable products, Kurtz<br />

Ersa supports its customers with tailor-made<br />

complete solutions, especially in the field of<br />

megatrends such as electromobility and 5G<br />

communication.<br />

In his speech, Rainer Kurtz informed the<br />

guests about the development of Ersa GmbH,<br />

which has been based in Bestenheid since<br />

1961 and has developed rapidly over the past<br />

25 years. Kurtz was confident about the current<br />

situation and gave an optimistic outlook:<br />

“We see strong long-term growth prospects<br />

for Ersa and are pleased that we were even<br />

able to acquire another site here. We stand by<br />

the Bestenheid site,” he emphasized.<br />

Ralph Knecht, Managing Director of Ersa<br />

GmbH, thanked the shareholders for the investments<br />

made and emphasized the high<br />

level of customer proximity as an important<br />

factor in the company´s success. “When<br />

planning the building and optimizing the processes,<br />

the customer was always the focus<br />

of attention. The new building will enable<br />

even shorter delivery times while maintaining<br />

the same high quality and will also provide<br />

a customer center for conferences and<br />

machine acceptance tests.” In his speech, he<br />

also referred to the new cycle production in<br />

the assembly area and emphasized the great<br />

importance of Industry 4.0 processes for<br />

their production system. “In 2021, Ersa<br />

GmbH will celebrate its 100 th anniversary.<br />

The cutting of the ribbon for the inauguration:<br />

Kurtz (CEO), Knecht (Managing Director Ersa GmbH),<br />

Herrera Torrez (Lord Mayor), Menig (architect) and<br />

Leidig (general contractor).<br />

The new hall is a sustainable investment with<br />

which we will celebrate 100 years of Ersa<br />

next year,” concluded Ralph Knecht.<br />

Markus Herrera Torrez, Lord Mayor of Wertheim,<br />

also attended the event and congratulated<br />

on the completion of the hall. “Despite<br />

difficult times, you were able to implement<br />

your ambitious project according to plan and<br />

meet the deadline – congratulations on this<br />

precision landing! The inauguration was concluded<br />

with the handover of a symbolic key<br />

from Rainer Kurtz to Ralph Knecht and the<br />

cutting of a ribbon together.<br />

www.kurtzersa.de<br />

Source: Kurtz Ersa<br />

<br />

<br />

‹ 3D measurement capability at<br />

the highest state of the art<br />

‹ Side-View camera solutions<br />

for expanded inspection<br />

capabilities<br />

‹ Auto programming based on<br />

<br />

Koh Young <strong>Europe</strong> GmbH<br />

Industriegebiet Süd E4<br />

63755 Alzenau<br />

Tel. +49 (0)6188 9935663<br />

E-mail: europe@kohyoung.com<br />

www.kohyoung.com<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 11


electronica 2020 tradeshow to be held digitally<br />

The tradeshow will take place digitally this year,<br />

from November 10–13, 2020.<br />

Messe München will organize the trade fair<br />

and conference for electronics as a virtual<br />

event, from November 10 th to the 13 th . The<br />

current travel restrictions in <strong>Europe</strong> have<br />

required a re-thinking of planning. The digital<br />

format for the tradeshow in November will<br />

give exhibitors the opportunity to book digital<br />

trade fair booths. electronica virtual will also<br />

provide all customers additional ways to interact<br />

and network. A large portion of the<br />

conference and supporting program will also<br />

be available digitally.<br />

Digital platform<br />

Source: Messe München<br />

New developments related to the coronavirus<br />

pandemic prompted Messe München to<br />

decide to hold electronica as a virtual event<br />

this year. In light of travel restrictions that<br />

have been imposed by a large number of visitor<br />

and exhibitor countries, the show would<br />

have lost its character if it had been held as<br />

an in-person event in November. Falk Senger,<br />

Managing Director of Messe München, said:<br />

“Even though an in-person trade fair could<br />

have been conducted with the help of our<br />

safety and hygiene concept, the latest developments<br />

related to travel restrictions in many<br />

countries forced us to rethink our plans. We<br />

are adapting these plans to this dynamic situation<br />

and are now focusing solely on our virtual<br />

format. International exhibitors and visitors<br />

are the heart of electronica. In light of<br />

current Covid-19 conditions, we would not<br />

have been able to meet the expectations<br />

with an in-person trade fair.”<br />

Kurt Sievers, the CEO of NXP Semiconductors<br />

and the Chairman of the electronica Advisory<br />

Board, added: “After reevaluating the<br />

situation, I consider the decision of Messe<br />

München to be very appropriate and responsible.<br />

We are pleased that, with electronica<br />

virtual, a concept is now offered for 2020 that<br />

allows exhibitors to reach their international<br />

customers, even in the continuing difficult<br />

pandemic period. Via this digital platform, exhibitors<br />

can present their innovations, learn<br />

about industry trends and efficiently network<br />

with customers and suppliers.”<br />

Christoph Stoppok, the Head of Components,<br />

Mobility & Systems at the German<br />

Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’ Association,<br />

said: “The electronics industry and<br />

the solutions it provides are one of the major<br />

driving forces behind digitalization. Let’s put<br />

the industry’s ingenuity to use and get together<br />

this year at a virtual fair. This is exactly<br />

the right time to foster a dialogue in the industry<br />

and generate economic momentum<br />

once again.”<br />

Virtual product presentations<br />

The virtual format of electronica will provide<br />

the electronics industry with a platform for<br />

global industry discussions this November.<br />

Its opportunities will include virtual trade fair<br />

booths, which will enable exhibitors to continue<br />

to communicate with their international<br />

customers and sell them on their products<br />

and solutions. The virtual event will be complemented<br />

by a digital conference and supporting<br />

program. Individual talks and panel<br />

discussions on trend topics like the automotive<br />

industry, embedded systems, IIoT, 5G,<br />

medical electronics and smart energy will be<br />

available online.<br />

www.messe-muenchen.de<br />

SMTconnect 2020 goes digital<br />

The digital version of the SMTconnect took<br />

place this year from 28 – 29 July 2020. Over<br />

1,200 participants from the field of electronics<br />

production took advantage of the opportunity<br />

to participate in the varied program<br />

and enjoy expert dialogue.<br />

With an offering for the international community,<br />

which included several high-quality presentations<br />

on the current situation of the industry,<br />

attendees were also able to benefit<br />

from fruitful group discussion. Several representatives<br />

from renowned companies, such<br />

as the Zollner Elektronik AG, the Katek Group<br />

and the Celonis SE, joined the exchange and<br />

shared their own views on how far Covid-19<br />

is set to accelerate digital transformation<br />

within the EMS sector.<br />

Relevant topics such as sustainable manufacturing<br />

and the circular economy formed a<br />

further highlight in the program. Experts were<br />

brought from the field of electronics manufacturing<br />

together where they talked about<br />

Source: Mesago<br />

Petra Haarburger<br />

(President, Mesago<br />

Messe Frankfurt GmbH)<br />

and René Travnicek<br />

(Host) opened this year‘s<br />

digital tradeshow.<br />

the implementation of 5G and its importance<br />

for different key industries. The annual expert<br />

exchange would not have been complete<br />

without a look to the future and participants<br />

had the opportunity to discuss advanced and<br />

emerging trends in the sector, as well as how<br />

electronics manufacturing is continuing to<br />

drive the fourth industrial revolution.<br />

“For me, the lectures were very well conceived<br />

both in their relevance to the electronics<br />

manufacturing industry and in their diversity.<br />

I would like to thank all those involved<br />

for the opportunity of participating in the digital<br />

trade fair”, commented Denny Bartels,<br />

Manager Planning Process, Tonfunk GmbH.<br />

The recordings of the lectures and discussions<br />

will be provided free of charge by<br />

mid-August.<br />

The next SMTconnect will take place as<br />

usual from 4 – 6 May 2021 in Nuremberg.<br />

www.smtconnect.com<br />

12 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


IPC Apex Expo 2021 has been rescheduled<br />

With health and safety top of mind for all IPC<br />

Apex Expo exhibitors, attendees, staff and<br />

business partners, IPC has made the critical<br />

decision to move the 2021 event to March,<br />

due to ongoing concerns with Covid-19. Originally<br />

scheduled for end of January, it will<br />

now be held March 6–11, 2021 at the San<br />

Diego Convention Center in San Diego, California.<br />

This will be an in-person event with<br />

options for virtual exhibition.<br />

“We didn’t consider the decision to move<br />

Apex Expo to March, lightly,” said John Mitchell,<br />

IPC president and CEO. “When events<br />

staff became aware of open dates in March<br />

at the convention center, we reached out to<br />

exhibitors and prospective attendees and<br />

asked for their input. Feedback from those<br />

we surveyed indicated a strong desire for a<br />

rescheduled in-person event as opposed to a<br />

virtual one.”<br />

Mitchell added, “IPC will implement several<br />

infection control and prevention guidelines<br />

for IPC Apex Expo 2021, including social dis-<br />

tancing protocols, face mask requirements<br />

and daily temperature checks and other<br />

screening measures. We will ensure our<br />

plans follow the recommendations of public<br />

health experts and standards set by the federal,<br />

state and local governments. And, as<br />

safety guidelines and measures evolve, we<br />

will communicate these details as soon as<br />

they become available.”<br />

Source: <strong>EPP</strong> <strong>Europe</strong><br />

Now taking place in<br />

March 2021, IPC Apex<br />

Expo will be an in-person<br />

event with options<br />

for virtual exhibition.<br />

In addition to IPC’s safety protocols, the San<br />

Diego Convention Center (SDCC) will implement<br />

a program of stringent processes for<br />

cleaning, disinfection, and infectious disease<br />

prevention under its Global BAC STAR facility<br />

accreditation. Registration will open early-October.<br />

www.ipcapexexpo.org<br />

REHM<br />




Years<br />

Best performance in every<br />

production environment with the<br />

Condenso series!<br />

CondensoX is perfect for handling large or highmass<br />

boards in a stable process atmosphere.<br />

In order to improve control of the condensation<br />

phase, Rehm has developed a patented injection<br />

principle that allows the soldering procedure to be<br />

individually regulated.<br />

The new CondensoXS smart ensures high process<br />

stability and optimum throughput.<br />

CondensoXS smart<br />

Condensation Soldering<br />

www.rehm-group.com<br />

Anzeige_<strong>EPP</strong>_Condenso_30Years.indd 1 22.09.2020 11:54:56<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 13

COVER<br />

Enabling the Smart Factory of the future<br />

Artificial Intelligence:<br />

How far can you go?<br />

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a buzzword often used in association with business and industrial technologies.<br />

In recent times, it has demonstrated promising potential across a variety of industries, from<br />

self-driving cars to virtual doctors. All of which, though, have been limited exclusively to the human<br />

world. However, it has far-reaching applications within the manufacturing sector too. By using the<br />

right mixture of AI technologies, manufacturers can boost their efficiency, improve flexibility, speed<br />

up processes, and even achieve self-optimizing processes. The SMT industry is no exception, which<br />

is currently facing a chronic shortage of skilled labor. While leading organizations such as IPC and<br />

SMTA are trying to address the challenge with education programs and training initiatives, it is still<br />

not enough due to lack of consideration of realities. Equipment providers like Koh Young are enabling<br />

the Smart Factory of the future by adopting AI to generate “knowledge” from “experience.”<br />

14 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

COVER<br />

The machine-to-machine (M2M) communications,<br />

guided in part by Industry 4.0, are quickly changing<br />

the manufacturing process by aggregating process data<br />

such as first pass yield and throughput. Koh Young is<br />

strengthening its large-scale datasets using the highest<br />

quality data captured through its 3D metrology expertise,<br />

then the AI algorithms necessary for smarter manufacturing<br />

processes are trained by utilizing the datasets. As<br />

part of this mission, Koh Young is dedicated to adapting<br />

AI technologies to inspection technology across a multitude<br />

of developments.<br />

What is AI?<br />

Artificial Intelligence is a multidisciplinary field of science<br />

where the goal is to create intelligent machines by making<br />

things “smarter”. Historical applications of this goal include<br />

natural language processing and translation, visual<br />

perception, pattern recognition, and decision making, but<br />

the number and complexity of applications have been<br />

quickly expanding. Out of all the advancements researchers<br />

have made, the current driver of the AI inflection<br />

point is thanks to major advances in deep learning.<br />

Source: Koh Young<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 15

COVER<br />

Source: Koh Young<br />

Koh Young KSMART solution.<br />

Deep Learning, which is a subset of machine learning, is an algorithm<br />

with a hierarchy of “deep layers” of large neural networks fed<br />

by data without feature engineering. The company is also applying<br />

deep learning with its AI engine, solving problems that are difficult<br />

for experts to model. From practical solutions like Koh Young Auto<br />

Programming (KAP) and Koh Young Process Optimizer (KPO) to improvements<br />

in measurement quality and inspection accuracy, the<br />

company has been utilizing AI to meet the rising difficulty in the<br />

SMT industry through its KSMART solution.<br />

Value of accurate 3D Data<br />

Data is the most crucial element of the success of the AI solutions.<br />

Deep learning effectiveness is linked to the quality and quantity of<br />

the input data to address many different requirements from a numerous<br />

number of fields. The use of AI to provide smarter inspection<br />

systems has been desired by every inspection provider. However,<br />

it has been difficult to realize due to the limitations of 2D imaging,<br />

which was the de facto standard for the past 25 years. Not<br />

only is it difficult for 2D Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) systems<br />

Source: Koh Young<br />

The inspection machines can be the “sensors”.<br />

16 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

COVER<br />

to identify defects on curved and reflective solder joint, 2D AOI systems<br />

cannot generate reliable data. Every aspect of 2D inspection<br />

relies on 2D features like contrast; thus, it is extremely challenging<br />

to correlate with to the quantitative measurement of 3D objects.<br />

The company, however, measures the 3D information of the components<br />

and solder joints. Their AOIs offer the most valuable and reliable<br />

measurement data, so they become the most reliable “sensor”<br />

on the line. The validity of 3D data is guaranteed as the company<br />

uses 3D technology for all components types to extract the<br />

exact body dimensions, unlike other system that use “blob detection”,<br />

which may be susceptible to external factors like board warpage<br />

and component proximity. The combination of measurement<br />

and process data piles collected from its SPI and AOI systems, as<br />

well as from printers and mounters, allows Koh Young to deliver advanced<br />

AI features with reliable “big data”. Indeed, the quality of<br />

data is more important than the quantity of data to create effective<br />

and reliable solutions with high value proposition.<br />

Source: Koh Young<br />

3D measurement Improvement<br />

with Koh Young AI engine.<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Künstliche Intelligenz und die damit verbundenen Vorteile helfen<br />

der Fertigungsindustrie, Herausforderungen wie Kostenminimierung<br />

oder dem Mangel an qualifizierten Arbeitskräften entgegenzutreten.<br />

Die Titelstory zeigt, wie der Einsatz KI-basierter Lösungen<br />

die Zukunft der Elektronikfertigung ermöglicht.<br />

Résumé<br />

L’intelligence artificielle et les avantages qui y sont associés aident<br />

l’industrie manufacturière à relever des défis tels que la réduction<br />

des coûts au minimum ou l’absence de main d’œuvre qualifiée.<br />

L’article à la une montre comment l’utilisation de solutions basées<br />

sur l’IA rend possible l’avenir de la production électronique.<br />

Резюме<br />

Искусственный интеллект и связанные с ним преимущества<br />

помогают промышленному производству решать такие<br />

задачи, как минимизация затрат или нехватка<br />

квалифицированных рабочих. На титульной странице статьи<br />

рассматривается, как использование решений на основе<br />

искусственного интеллекта обеспечивает будущее<br />

производства электроники.<br />

Measurement getting ever more accurate<br />

So how does Koh Young use AI? It all begins with solving inspection<br />

challenges of SMT assemblies. The solder and components on finished<br />

boards have many specular surfaces, which will reflect some<br />

light back to camera, while creating strong inter-reflection with<br />

other lighting reflections. Since some of the reflected light does not<br />

reach the camera, they generate false signals which may cause<br />

measurement value errors. This specular reflection issue is becoming<br />

more troublesome, in relation with increasing board density and<br />

decreased component spacing.<br />

The company uses AI to prevent measurement errors by incorporating<br />

learning in the product. The hybrid fusion of an analytic approach<br />

which utilizes a mathematical measurement model and AI which is<br />

used for learning abnormal symptoms from the combination of<br />

good and bad measurement data, allows Koh Young to detect and<br />

eliminate abnormal measurements, which reduces false calls and<br />

escapes. Through the hybrid fusion approach, the measurement accuracy<br />

only gets better against many different challenges.<br />

Share knowledge between lines<br />

Another area where the company has been proactively applying AI<br />

is with AOI programming. With the help of deep learning methods<br />

using true 3D data, the assignment of components on a PCB is<br />

gradually becoming autonomous. The Koh Young AI-powered Auto<br />

Programming (KAP) system proposes the recommended inspection<br />

conditions based on 3D measured data, which not only simplifies inspection<br />

condition programming, but also makes it faster and more<br />

consistent with the best mapping conditions.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 17

COVER<br />

Koh Young Automatic<br />

Programming (KAP)<br />

solution.<br />

KAP reduces job preparation by up to 70 percent, which makes it an<br />

ideal solution for high-mix, low-volume or time-sensitive applications.<br />

Moreover, their prediction and decomposition engine<br />

allows components to be categorized by lead count, component<br />

type, measurement score, and more. These elements further help<br />

cleaning, parsing, enriching, and shaping the data, which plays a<br />

major role in AI empowerment. Going further, the company will apply<br />

AI for pad grouping and inspection condition tuning, while incrementally<br />

learning new packages at new sites.<br />

KPO Smart Factory solution.<br />

Source: Koh Young<br />

18 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

COVER<br />

Source: Koh Young<br />

Improve yield and process optimization<br />

With increasing component miniaturization, improving inspection<br />

quality, and increasing inspection system throughput programming<br />

is paramount in the manufacturing industry. These needs are increasingly<br />

fulfilled with more computational power, which then<br />

yields even better inspection solutions. AI implies that such improvements<br />

can be fulfilled quicker with machines that continuously<br />

learn to solve new problems. However, the main challenge is complete<br />

end-to-end optimization. Harnessing the power of its own AI<br />

solution, the company has developed Koh Young Process Optimizer<br />

(KPO) solution.<br />

KPO is the company’s smart factory solution driven by AI to control<br />

and optimize the printing and mounting operations. KPO heavily<br />

relies on accurate 3D measurements data and error detection from<br />

SPI and AOI machines, which sets the stage for smart factory solutions.<br />

The KPO printing solution includes three interlinking modules that<br />

exercise complex algorithms to develop closed-loop print process<br />

recommendations, which are namely Printer Diagnosis Manager<br />

(PDM), Printer Advisor Manager (PAM), and Printer Optimizer Manager<br />

(POM). The enhanced AI engine actively optimizes the printing<br />

process by combining real-time printing and SPI measurement data.<br />

PAM automatically performs DOEs designed to perform a detailed<br />

SPI result analysis using advanced diagnostic algorithms and noise<br />

filtering models, and then recommends the ideal print parameters.<br />

PDM uses multiple anomaly detection algorithms to actively optimize<br />

the print process and further reduce false calls. The final module,<br />

called POM, uses the Koh Young adaptive learning engine to<br />

generate models and fine-tune process parameters. While each<br />

module provides inherent standalone process benefits, the combined<br />

power of the three modules ensures the highest process reliability<br />

and production flexibility while reducing dedicated resources<br />

and expertise.<br />

The KPO mounting solution includes three modules called mounter<br />

advisor, mounter diagnosis, and mounter optimizer. Mounter advisor<br />

studies and analyzes the offset distribution of the major mounter<br />

elements and differentiates these offsets from the component offsets<br />

measured by the pre-reflow AOI system. The system will automatically<br />

identify mechanical and software mounter failures, as well<br />

as the root cause(s). The mounter diagnosis and mounter optimizer<br />

modules are currently being developed in collaboration with our<br />

mounter partners. These solutions will recommend ideal component<br />

placement positions by utilizing SPI, pre-reflow AOI, and postreflow<br />

AOI data, all the while automatically notifying technicians and<br />

engineers about mounter issues in real-time during production.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Artificial intelligence and its associated benefits will help advance<br />

the manufacturing industry confront challenges like the lack of skilled<br />

manpower and cost of minimization. Koh Young is focusing on<br />

using an AI-based solution as the primary vehicle to enable the future<br />

of electronics manufacturing.<br />

As the inspection market and technology leader, the company is<br />

using its AI solutions to achieve its vision with a focus on next-generation<br />

cooperative efforts that expand process capabilities and factory<br />

performance. To realize this plan, Koh Young has established<br />

three additional R&D centers to generate a quantum leap in technological<br />

leadership and competitiveness. The company can apply its<br />

AI solution to its current areas of expertise while paving the way<br />

into new markets and industries beyond SMT.<br />

www.kohyoung.com<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 19


Bringing new level of robustness<br />

Improved process yield with<br />

dynamic “real-time” dual head<br />

dispensing<br />

Automated high-speed fluid dispensing systems are used to dispense complex patterns onto the substrate with high<br />

accuracy and long-term repeatable performance. When it comes to PCB assembly, panelization has been a good manufacturing<br />

tool, which has been referred to as grouping of PCBs into a single panel array. In high volume, PCB manufacturers<br />

use panelization for higher throughput. In low PCB manufacturing, panelization might not be required, due to more<br />

expenditure required to resolve design restrictions on thickness and space between individual PCBs. In this scenario,<br />

customers usually prefer individual PCBs in a carrier tray like a Jedec tray. All these scenarios can be covered through<br />

dual dispenser valves simultaneously dispensing side by side, having either identical substrates laid out as individual<br />

pieces or in a single PCB panel.<br />

Sunny Agarwal, Applications Engineer, ITW EAE<br />

Standard fluid dispensing systems involve a dispenser valve<br />

mounted to the XY gantry, which is movable to dispense patterns<br />

at desired locations onto the substrate, and is positioned in<br />

horizontal XY plane, through the conveyor system. Dispenser valve<br />

can be positioned in the three-dimensional space, dependent upon<br />

the component’s orientation on the substrate. The gantry system is<br />

driven through a drive mechanism and controlled through a motion<br />

control system. To dispense a pattern, the controller determines the<br />

location and orientation of each substrate through a camera system<br />

mounted on the gantry system itself.<br />

The camera system does the vision capture of reference points or fiducials<br />

located on top of the substrate, through a pre-programmed<br />

path set in the dispense process program. Captured vision images<br />

of the reference points determine the location of the substrate, in<br />

the XY coordinate plane. Height sensing is performed through a<br />

height sensing laser, mounted on the gantry, to determine the dispenser<br />

valve needle tip position from the substrate. The motion controller<br />

then positions the dispenser valve at the XY programmed location,<br />

followed with the dispenser valve needle tip coming down to<br />

the programmed dispense gap from the substrate. At this point, the<br />

dispenser valve starts dispensing a pre-programmed fluid pattern<br />

onto the substrate.<br />

Advances in dual head dispensing<br />

To optimize the line throughput, dual dispenser valves pitched at a<br />

desired distance are used to dispense identical substrates synchronously.<br />

If PCBs are panelized in a single processing panel then<br />

all the PCBs must be rotated in the horizontal XY plane. First and<br />

second substrate alignment can be found through global reference<br />

points or fiducials located on the body of the panel. Existing dual<br />

dispensing methods automatically realigns patterns to make a onetime<br />

automated adjustment of valve 2 relative to valve 1 prior to dispensing,<br />

and only considers the global skew. Therefore, both identical<br />

PCBs get dispensed synchronously, based on global skewness.<br />

Dual head dispensing has been driving on a single Z-axis to dispense<br />

identical patterns with each dispenser valve synchronously.<br />

Most of the existing techniques only considers the lateral shift of<br />

the second identical pattern in either X or Y direction but not the<br />

part-to-part rotation. Lateral shift is generally considered with the<br />

fixed micrometer adjustment on either X/Y or both directions on the<br />

mounted dispenser valves, prior to dispensing operation.<br />

Conventional dual dispensing methods do not incorporate the dynamic<br />

real time adjustment of both heads during active dispensing<br />

onto the identical substrates. If parts are skewed to each other in a<br />

tray and only global skewness is considered, then the dispense pattern<br />

gets misaligned. Only global fiducials are captured which defines<br />

the global alignment of the tray/board leaving behind the part<br />

to part rotation of individual parts in the tray. For part to part rotation,<br />

movable gantry system is required to capture the local fiducials or<br />

reference points through the camera vision system for each individual<br />

PCB. Parts can be locally skewed due to improper tooling or substrate<br />

sized smaller than the carrier pocket tray where the part is<br />

Synchronous dispensing based on global skew.<br />

Source: ITW EAE<br />

Synchronous dispensing during different scenarios.<br />

Source: ITW EAE<br />

20 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Process capability in synchronous mode with mini XY drive system<br />

Head type<br />

Pattern orientation<br />

Left<br />

180°<br />

Right<br />

180°<br />

Left<br />

0°<br />

Right<br />

0°<br />

Standard deviation, millimeters<br />

X Position<br />

Y Position<br />

0.0077<br />

0.0083<br />

Cpk value<br />

0.0075<br />

0.0055<br />

0.0079<br />

0.0055<br />

0.0062<br />

0.0064<br />

X Position<br />

2.02 2.01 2.08 2.24<br />

also includes a second linear drive motor<br />

assembly configured to move the second<br />

bracket along the first bracket. The second<br />

linear drive motor assembly includes a ball<br />

screw driven linear actuator, which is<br />

driven by a mechanically coupled motor.<br />

For each of the first dispensing unit and the<br />

second dispensing unit, the automatic adjustment<br />

assembly also include a Z drive<br />

mechanism configured to support and<br />

lower the dispensing unit when performing<br />

a dispense operation with the first dispensing<br />

unit.<br />

Y Position<br />

1.84<br />

2.54<br />

seated. Therefore, conventional dispensing methods are uncapable<br />

of active correction, to consider the skew angle and scale factor locally.<br />

Scale factor is based on where the gantry vision system finds<br />

the fiducials or reference points in comparison to the programmed<br />

locations in the process program. Mounting each dispenser valve on<br />

an individual Z-axis drive system provides the capability to compensate<br />

for part-to-part rotation through the local reference points or fiducials.<br />

Part to part rotation considers the skew factor and scale factor<br />

for each individual PCB.<br />

The machine gantry system is configured to provide movement in<br />

XY direction with the first dispenser valve coupled to the gantry for<br />

dispensing. A second dispenser valve is coupled to the gantry<br />

through the automatic adjustment mini drive system to drive the<br />

second dispenser valve for dispensing. A mini XY drive system is<br />

mounted and configured onto the second Z-axis to move the second<br />

dispenser valve in XY direction, to manipulate spacing between<br />

the first and second dispenser valves. A controller controls a dispense<br />

operation of the first dispensing valve on the first electronic<br />

substrate pattern and a dispense operation of the second dispensing<br />

valve on the second electronic substrate pattern.<br />

The mini drive system includes a linear bearing secured to the gantry<br />

and mounting block, configured to ride along the linear bearing,<br />

and coupled to the second dispensing valve. The automatic adjustment<br />

mechanism includes a first linear drive motor assembly configured<br />

to move the mounting block along the linear bearing. The first<br />

linear drive motor assembly includes a ball screw driven linear actuator,<br />

which is driven by a mechanically coupled motor. The automatic<br />

adjustment mechanism further includes a first bracket secured<br />

to the mounting block, the first bracket extending in a direction<br />

perpendicular to a direction of the linear bearing, and a second<br />

bracket secured to the second dispenser valve and configured to<br />

ride along the first bracket. The automatic adjustment mechanism<br />

2.61<br />

2.59 Technological advantages<br />

Multiple independent dispensing systems<br />

are sometimes used to increase the production<br />

of dispense operations. This solution is often expensive,<br />

requiring multiple machines, additional manufacturing space and in<br />

some cases multiple machine operators. In typical operations,<br />

manufacturing floor space is both limited and expensive. It is therefore<br />

desirable to reduce the „footprint“ of each manufacturing system<br />

on the manufacturing floor and to reduce the number of separate<br />

machines that need to be operated and maintained.<br />

For some applications, multiple instances of the same circuit pattern<br />

are fabricated on a common substrate. A common example is a<br />

circuit pattern for a cell phone, wherein four or more patterns may<br />

be disposed on a single substrate. In such cases, there is often a<br />

fixed and uniform offset between the multiple instances of the circuit<br />

patterns, which may be disposed on a common substrate and<br />

separated from one another after completion, along the perforations.<br />

Furthermore, it is known in the industry that a dispensing<br />

system with multiple dispensing units or pumps may be utilized to<br />

increase throughput. In such systems, the offset distance between<br />

the multiple dispensing pumps may be adjusted to be substantially<br />

the same as the offset distance between the multiple circuit distances.<br />

If the accuracy of this offset adjustment is within the accuracy<br />

requirements of the resultant dispense pattern, then the<br />

multiple dispensing pumps can be positioned simultaneously by a<br />

single X, Y, Z gantry and operated simultaneously.<br />

Experimental set-up and analysis<br />

The main objective of this research is to conduct a detailed study to<br />

match the positional accuracy of the fixed right dispenser valve to<br />

the left dispenser valve mounted on the mini XY drive system, along<br />

with good dot and line dispense quality. The study involves the use<br />

of a high-speed dispensing system with a pneumatic jet pump installed,<br />

which can currently dispense material in a repeatable<br />

manner without affecting the dispense quality.<br />

Source: ITW EAE<br />

Source: ITW EAE<br />

Source: ITW EAE<br />

Source: ITW EAE<br />

Glass plate jig for dot positional accuracy.<br />

Glass accuracy plate for line<br />

positional accuracy.<br />

Line Positional Accuracy<br />

measurement on metrology tool.<br />

Process capability report for six runs of line<br />

positional accuracy.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 21


Source: ITW EAE<br />

Dispense quality<br />

for both heads in<br />

synchronous mode.<br />

It begins at a point of performing the experiment on a pneumatic jet<br />

pump. A nozzle heater was used to maintain the fluid temperature<br />

equivalent to ambient temperature conditions. It concludes by running<br />

the experimental run to determine the dot and line positional<br />

accuracy to confirm the robustness of the mini XY drive system<br />

with minimal effect on dispense quality. This involves the use of<br />

glass jig plates to perform the dot and line positional accuracy tests.<br />

Dot positional accuracy<br />

Dot positional accuracy is measured as the difference between the<br />

commanded position and the actual dispensed position for each individual<br />

dot, through dispensing an array of dots. Positional accuracy<br />

also defines whether the dot can shoot vertically or not (i.e.,<br />

downwards) from the needle tip onto the substrate. From the customer’s<br />

point of view for field engineering applications, the dispensing<br />

should allow for certain dot characteristics, such as good shaped<br />

circular dots with good positional accuracy. Measurement of dispensed<br />

dots on the glass jig are performed with the optical measuring<br />

machine, through back lighting to measure the shift in XY direction.<br />

Each head needs to dispense 84 dots for each orientation type.<br />

The orientation type displayed, resembles the smartphone manufacturing<br />

board, which generally has patterns oriented either at 0 degree<br />

or 180 degrees. Height sensing is performed on the glass to<br />

ensure correct dispense height from the glass jig top surface. Each<br />

Process capability for line positional accuracy<br />

Run<br />

Head<br />

Cpk<br />

Cp<br />

Cpu<br />

Cpl<br />

Target, mm<br />

Avg, mm<br />

STDEV, mm<br />

Max, mm<br />

Min, mm<br />

Range, mm<br />

USL<br />

1<br />

Left / Right<br />

2.10 / 2.94<br />

2.28 / 2.95<br />

2.10 / 2.96<br />

2.47 / 2.94<br />

0.750 / 0.750<br />

0.754 / 0.750<br />

0.007 / 0.006<br />

0.776 / 0.765<br />

0.743 / 0.739<br />

0.032 / 0.026<br />

0.8008 mm<br />

2<br />

Left / Right<br />

1.83 / 2.52<br />

2.05 / 2.58<br />

1.83 / 2.52<br />

2.26 / 2.63<br />

0.750 / 0.750<br />

0.755 / 0.751<br />

0.008 / 0.007<br />

0.767 / 0.765<br />

0.742 / 0.739<br />

0.025 / 0.026<br />

3<br />

Left / Right<br />

1.74 / 3.03<br />

1.92 / 3.18<br />

1.74 / 3.03<br />

2.10 / 3.32<br />

0.750 / 0.750<br />

0.755 / 0.752<br />

0.009 / 0.005<br />

0.769 / 0.763<br />

0.741 / 0.738<br />

0.028 / 0.025<br />

LSL<br />

4<br />

Left / Right<br />

1.78 / 4.24<br />

2.02 / 4.38<br />

1.78 / 4.24<br />

2.26 / 4.51<br />

0.750 / 0.750<br />

0.756 / 0.752<br />

0.008 / 0.004<br />

0.768 / 0.758<br />

0.741 / 0.740<br />

0.027 / 0.018<br />

pattern is rotated either clockwise or counterclockwise by 2 degrees<br />

to prove the left head dispense accuracy is equivalent to the<br />

right head in real synchronous mode dispensing.<br />

Process capability index, Cpk measures how close the process is to<br />

the target and how consistent the process is around its average performance.<br />

An operator may be performing with minimum variation,<br />

but he/she can be away from his/her target towards one of the<br />

specification limits, which indicates lower Cpk, whereas Cp will be<br />

high. For both the shifts, high value of Cp and low value of Cpk indicate<br />

that the process has a centering problem. A generally accepted<br />

minimum value for the indices is 1.33 according to industry guidelines<br />

to determine whether the process is capable or not. Process<br />

capability is determined for ± 50 microns specification limits at ± 3<br />

sigma capability. Cpk values are also much higher than the industry<br />

acceptable standard for both heads in real time dynamic dispensing<br />

in synchronous mode.<br />

Line positional accuracy<br />

Line positional accuracy is measured as the shift between the commanded<br />

location of the programmed line to the actual dispensed<br />

line. Line comprises of series of dots stacked together at a correct<br />

spacing and align properly to form a straight and non-scalloped line.<br />

Once the dots touch each other, the boundary is scalloped but the<br />

dots are compressed further, and fluid takes the shortest path to<br />

the deepest scallop, to form a perfectly<br />

straight line. The closer the<br />

dispense valve is to the substrate,<br />

the better the line quality.<br />

0.6992 mm<br />

Experimental test was performed<br />

5<br />

Left / Right<br />

1.75 / 2.86<br />

1.95 / 2.90<br />

1.75 / 2.86<br />

2.14 / 2.94<br />

0.750 / 0.750<br />

6<br />

Left / Right<br />

1.75 / 2.08<br />

1.89 / 2.17<br />

1.75 / 2.08<br />

2.04 / 2.26<br />

0.750 / 0.750<br />

on the glass accuracy plate. Patterns<br />

on the left side are skewed<br />

at an angle of 1.5 degrees in<br />

counterclockwise direction, while<br />

in the middle patterns are skewed<br />

at an angle of 1.5 degrees in the<br />

clockwise direction. Patterns on<br />

the extreme right side are not<br />

skewed at all. Pattern on both extreme<br />

sides are pitched at 44 millimeters.<br />

Fiducial alignment is performed<br />

before dispensing the lines<br />

around the edges on the chip. The<br />

machine vision system locates the<br />

0.755 / 0.751 0.754 / 0.752<br />

chip edges through a vision algorithm<br />

and dispenses line patterns<br />

0.009 / 0.006 0.009 / 0.008 along the chip edges at the programmed<br />

position offset. Position<br />

0.767 / 0.763<br />

0.742 / 0.739<br />

0.025 / 0.025<br />

0.767 / 0.768<br />

0.740/ 0.740<br />

0.028 / 0.028<br />

offset is defined as the offset distance<br />

away from the center of the<br />

chosen chip edge, in the direction<br />

perpendicular to the chip edge.<br />

Lines highlighted in blue color are


dispensed at a position offset of 0.75 millimeters from dispense<br />

height of 2 millimeters. Patterns are dispensed with both heads in<br />

synchronous mode with the mini XY drive system set-up.<br />

A metrology tool named SmartScope has been programmed to<br />

measure the distance between the center point of the programmed<br />

centroid on the dispensed line and the midpoint of the programmed<br />

chip edge. Specification limits are based on tolerances of ± 50<br />

microns around the 0.75 millimeters position offset.<br />

Results showed that the standard deviation of the left head to be<br />

quite close to the standard deviation of the right head on most of<br />

the runs. Process capability is higher than the 1.33 value which is<br />

the industry acceptable standard for both heads in real time dynamic<br />

dispensing in synchronous mode. The right head has a little<br />

bit higher process capability than the left head due to its fixed mechanism<br />

onto the right Z-axis, while the left head is mounted on a<br />

movable mini XY drive system on left Z-axis.<br />

Dispense quality<br />

Line quality depends on the dot characteristics in terms of dot positional<br />

accuracy and circularity. Line width is defined by the series of<br />

dots dispensed at a correct spacing to align properly to form a<br />

straight and non-scalloped line. Visual inspection relates to humanbased<br />

optical inspection of line quality under the microscope to capture<br />

any satellite formation during the dispense cycle. Visual inspection<br />

also helps to determine whether the lines are misaligned or not<br />

and the lines are fine across the edges. Line quality shows both<br />

heads have good dispense quality in dual head synchronous mode.<br />

Increased throughput<br />

Increased throughput in the production environment has been a significant<br />

factor to meet the required units per hour (UPH) set mostly<br />

by the electronic device manufacturers to satisfy the customer’s demand.<br />

UPH is used to measure an industrial production process in<br />

terms of how many units produced per hour of the final product.<br />

Some of the major factors contributing to throughput are better vision<br />

capture and imaging system, conveyor mechanism, powerful<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Mittels eines Mini-XY-Antriebssystem wird eine doppelte dynamische<br />

Dosierung für ein höheres Maß an Prozesssteuerung sowie<br />

Produktzuverlässigkeit während des Herstellungsverlaufs und bei<br />

weniger Produktionsfläche realisiert.<br />

Résumé<br />

Un système d’entraînement Mini-XY permet de réaliser un double<br />

dosage dynamique pour un plus haut degré de contrôle du processus<br />

et de fiabilité du produit pendant le déroulement de la fabrication<br />

avec une surface de production réduite.<br />

Резюме<br />

Система привода Mini -XY обеспечивает двойное<br />

динамическое дозирование для более высокого уровня<br />

контроля процесса, а также обеспечивает надежную работу<br />

продукта в процессе производства при меньшей<br />

производственной площади.<br />

software-controlled architecture and laser height sensing which is<br />

mounted on a more precise and faster platform to deliver consistent<br />

dispensing results.<br />

The cycle time calculation does include the time interval for the<br />

board transfer, board clamp, capture board fiducials, height sensing,<br />

clean needle, dispense, board unclamp and transfer downstream.<br />

Total process time went down by 46.75 percent which is quite close<br />

to cutting the process time to half, from switching single head to<br />

dual head with mini XY drive system. The cycle time and UPH calculation<br />

involves dispensing operation of one carrier containing 16<br />

Cycle time savings leading to increased throughput.<br />

pieces of the product. Indicated UPH and cycle time percentages<br />

have been calculated through running a programmed test which includes<br />

lines and dot commands in the process program, to simulate<br />

the production environment at most of the manufacturer’s facility.<br />

There was a 24.00 percent reduction in height sensing and fiducials<br />

feature scan while switching from single head to dual head with<br />

mini XY drive system. Dispense time went down by 49.18 percent,<br />

which is a significant saving, almost cutting down the dispense time<br />

to half with a switch to dual head dynamic dispensing. There is no<br />

savings with board load, clean needle, board unload and board<br />

transfer time as they have no effect on the process. The desired high<br />

actuation speed can only be achieved for a small interval of time, limited<br />

by gantry motion along the three axes and mechanical friction<br />

between the parts. UPH went up by 87.79 percent while switching<br />

from single head to dynamic “real time” dual head dispensing.<br />

Summary<br />

Dual dynamic dispensing with the mini XY drive system has brought<br />

a new level of robustness to the high-volume manufacturing. The<br />

offset distance between the dispensing pumps is adjusted dynamically<br />

in XY direction to be the same as the offset distance between<br />

the multiple circuit distances to attain the same level of accuracy as<br />

the dispensing system. This way the multiple dispensing pumps can<br />

be utilized to increase throughput without any defect count coming<br />

from the left head mounted on the mini XY drive system.<br />

With Cpk numbers greater than 1.33 for both dot and line positional<br />

accuracy at ± 3 sigma capability indicates that mini XY drive mechanism<br />

does not have any adverse effect on the accuracy of the left<br />

head which in turn is close to the right head. Dual head “real time<br />

dispensing” with mini XY drive system has arrived, offering greater<br />

degree of process control with skewed identical substrates adjacent<br />

to each other thus providing good product reliability during the<br />

production run. Also, less manufacturing floor space required with<br />

almost dual increase in productivity.<br />

www.itweae.com<br />

Source: ITW EAE<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 23


Using suitable solder resists<br />

PCB production challenge:<br />

SVHC classified photoinitiator<br />

All photoimageable solder resists include photoinitiators in their formulation, serving the purpose of initiating the<br />

radicalic polymerisation under UV light exposure. To achieve this, a photoinitiator by the chemical name of<br />

2-methyl-1-[(4-methylthio)phenyl]-2– morpholinopropan-1-one (CAS no. 71868–10–5), also simply referred to as<br />

photoinitiator 907 is used, mostly combined with other photoinitiators. One can easily perceive it by its characteristic<br />

odour as released under UV light or heat as generated for example when curing or reflow soldering a solder resist.<br />

Peter Heuser, Sven Kramer, Detlev Schucht, Tilman Sehlen, Lackwerke Peters GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Needles consisting of photoinitiator 907 in a pre-drying oven for solder resists.<br />

As early as in 2012, the industry classified the photoinitiator 907<br />

as a reproduction toxic substance of category 1B on a voluntary<br />

basis. In 2017, the <strong>Europe</strong>an Chemical Agency (ECHA), categorised<br />

it as such in a legally binding manner within the 10th adaption to<br />

technical progress. In consequence, solder resists were labelled by<br />

the skull subject to the concentration contained therein, in accordance<br />

with the formerly applicable hazard directive 1999/45/EC. At<br />

that time, Peters was on the lookout for alternative substances in<br />

view of launching solder resists without photoinitiator 907.<br />

History and risks<br />

Since January 2020, this photoinitiator as well as a second one, has<br />

come to the focus again as far as hazard labelling is concerned.<br />

ECHA has added the photoinitiator 907 as well as type 369 by the<br />

chemical name of 2-Benzyl-2-dimethylamino-1-(4– morpholinophenyl)-butanone-1<br />

(CAS no. 119313–12–1) to the candidate list of Substances<br />

of Very High Concern (SVHC).<br />

Substances listed on the SVHC candidate list are of concern because<br />

they are either:<br />

Source: Lackwerke Peters GmbH & Co. KG<br />

• carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic,<br />

• persistent, bio-accumulating and toxic,<br />

• persistent and bio-accumulating, or<br />

• could have serious effects on human health or the environment<br />

(as hormone-like substances).<br />

This has launched a process which, after further evaluation, will lead<br />

to the registering of these substances in “Appendix XIV list of substances<br />

subject to authorisation (EC)” no. 1907/2006 (REACH =<br />

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of chemicals).<br />

Once registered in appendix XIV, i.e. the list of substances subject<br />

to authorisation, such a substance has to go through the authorisation<br />

process and will be admitted only for certain applications and<br />

a limited period of time; the use of it will only be admissible until the<br />

so-called „Sunset date“ i.e. the date of expiration. Requests for<br />

authorisation have to be filed 18 months before the transition period<br />

has elapsed, at latest.<br />

PCB production and packaging technologies<br />

To this day, the photoinitiators 907 and 369 are the most common<br />

photoinitiators formulated in photoimageable solder resists. However,<br />

their classification as SVHC candidates faces the PCB manufacturers<br />

with the challenge of a change-over to photoimageable<br />

solder resists formulating alternative photoinitiators.<br />

Photoinitiator 907: 2-Methyl-1-[(4-methylthio)<br />

phenyl]-2-morpholinopropan-1-one.<br />

Source: Lackwerke Peters GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Photoinitiator 369: 2-Benzyl-2-dimethylamino-<br />

1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-butanone-1.<br />

Source: Lackwerke Peters GmbH & Co. KG<br />

24 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


The polymerisation process triggered during the exposure of the<br />

solder resist is not fully completed: even additional UV bumps will<br />

not change this effect. As a consequence, one would find condensate<br />

material with photoinitiators in drying and curing ovens, in<br />

some cases in the form of white powder or needles.<br />

Moreover, one can clearly identify through analysis, the photoinitiator<br />

907 in reflow solder units during the packaging process. A substantial<br />

amount of condensate material is generated here.<br />

In view of determining the quantity of photoinitiator 907 discharged<br />

from a solder resist, a solder resist with a given quantity of photoinitiator<br />

907 was formulated. A sample of a free ink film (without<br />

substrate) taken from this was then extracted at 288 °C for 5 minutes.<br />

The degassed substances at the end of the tube were collected<br />

into a gas washing bottle by means of a dissolvent, followed<br />

by an analysis of this washed solution using the GC-MS method.<br />

The analytes were then assigned through retention comparison<br />

based on reference standards, while the quantification was made<br />

via a standard single-point calibration with the respective analytes.<br />

The result of this study was astounding: 2.2 % of weight of the<br />

photoinitiator 907 found accounted for approximately 1/3 of the<br />

quantity degassed from the ink film, without being chemically converted.<br />

Even the use of a UV bump did not make a significant difference.<br />

In practical conditions, it is not possible to reduce the photoinitiator,<br />

since otherwise the exposure speed will drop significantly<br />

and the resolution will be lower, in a way that the resistance in<br />

chemical finish processes is no longer ensured.<br />

Material from a condensate trap of a reflow oven – 7.7 % of weight of<br />

this brownish, semiliquid material was identified as photoinitiator 907 by<br />

GC-MS-analysis.<br />

In this context, it is important to know that the degassing from the<br />

photoinitiator 907 seems to have an impact on the melting of the<br />

second PCB side during the first reflow solder process. This can<br />

also be called ”self-dewetting“, which can have an impact on a<br />

solder resist’s flank, for example. A UV bump of the solder resist<br />

does not prevent this effect in a reliable manner.<br />

Labelling of contents<br />

A question may arise on the labelling requirement of coated PCBs:<br />

Should one evaluate the PCB as a whole? Or should just the solder<br />

resist be considered?<br />

Source: Lackwerke Peters GmbH & Co. KG<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />


Marcel-Breuer-Str. 15, D-80807 München<br />

Tel: +49(0) 89 321 996 06 E-Mail: sales@musashi-engineering.de


Flawless immersion tin plating layer after reflow soldering.<br />

Source: Atotech<br />

Self-dewetted immersion tin plating layers after<br />

reflow soldering.<br />

Source: Atotech<br />

Resolution example of Elpemer edition 766.<br />

Source: Peter Roskothen<br />

Reference is made to the REACH regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006.<br />

According to the information provided by the Federal Institute for<br />

Occupational Safety and Health (REACH CLP Biocide Helpdesk), the<br />

“dry“ ink layer has to be regarded as a component of the product<br />

i.e. of the printed circuit board. Thus, the reference of the candidate<br />

substance is not the ink layer itself, but the total weight of the PCB<br />

comprising the ink. If the mass percentage of the candidate substance<br />

to the PCB is < 0.1, there is no duty to notify this information.<br />

When a candidate substance liable to notification is formulated with<br />

a mass percentage of > 0.1, the REACH regulation does not specify<br />

how the notification has to be passed; a respective notification can<br />

be provided either with the documents supplied, or by the labelling<br />

of the product.<br />

At the first glance, this seems to be good news, since labelling will<br />

not be required in most cases. However, one has to consider the<br />

substantial accumulation during the assembly process (condensate<br />

trap), and thus the “exporting” and exacerbating of the problem<br />

from PCB fabrication to assembly production.<br />

Proven photoinitiators solutions<br />

It is possible to dispense with the two photoinitiators mentioned<br />

above, in particular with photoinitiator 907, without suffering any<br />

loss in performance. Shortly after the announcement of the new<br />

classification, Peters developed solder resists free from the photoinitiators<br />

907 and 369. For several years now, such Elpemer solder<br />

resists made by the company have been available, which are also<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Aufgrund der aktuellen SVHC-Situation sind nicht nur Leiterplattenhersteller,<br />

sondern auch Elektronikhersteller und EMS-Firmen<br />

hinsichtlich der Inhaltsstoffe der von ihnen verwendeten Produkte<br />

sensibilisiert. Praxiserprobte Lötstopplacke ohne kritische Foto -<br />

initiatoren sind verfügbar.<br />

Résumé<br />

En raison de la situation actuelle des SVHC, les fabricants de PCB,<br />

d‘électronique ainsi que les entreprises d’EMS ont tous été<br />

sensibilisés aux substances contenues dans leurs produits. Des<br />

résistances de soudure sans photo-initiateurs essentiels, qui on<br />

était éprouvées sur le terrain, sont disponibles.<br />

Резюме<br />

В связи с текущей ситуацией с SVHC было привлечено<br />

внимание производителей электроники и компаний EMS к их<br />

составам продуктов, а также к использованию защитного<br />

резиста (СПОТ маска) без фотоинициатора.<br />

suitable for direct imaging with LED or laser light sources. Many<br />

PCB manufacturers have successfully introduced these products.<br />

Since ECHA has now included the photoinitiator 907 in the SVHC<br />

candidate list, the discussion about substitutes has been revived.<br />

This way, the early development of alternative products pays off<br />

now, on which ample practical experience has been gained in the<br />

meantime. Even the new solder resists free from these photoinitiators<br />

reach reproduction accuracies of up to 50 μm.<br />

For Peters, it has been important that by their Elpemer 733 edition,<br />

a product series for the classical contact exposure, and by edition<br />

766, a product series for direct imaging have been developed which<br />

are both free from the photoinitiators 907 and 369, with all common<br />

coating methods being covered.<br />

Amongst others, the Elpemer editions 733 and 766 fulfil today’s demanding<br />

requirements of the automotive field, reaching excellent<br />

insulation results under moisture even after a permanent storage at<br />

a temperature of 175 °C. What is more, they show a high degree of<br />

elasticity and adhesion without cracking after temperature shock<br />

tests.<br />

The Elpemer editions 733 and 766 stand for<br />

• high permanent temperature resistance and temperature shock<br />

resistance of up to 175 °C,<br />

• temperature-critical high current applications,<br />

• an excellent surface insulation resistance (SIR) at 1000 V, and<br />

• finest structures thanks to direct imaging and contact exposure.<br />

Moreover, photoimageable solder resists variants are available in<br />

special colours such as red, blue, black or temperature-stable white,<br />

also free from the photoinitiator type 907.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Owing to the current SVHC situation, both electronics manufacturers<br />

and EMS companies have been sensitised to this situation,<br />

as far as the content of their products is concerned. PCB manufacturers<br />

who were early in changing over to type 907-free solder resists<br />

do not have to worry, thanks to Elpemer, and can respond with<br />

ease to a growing number of SVHC related questions.<br />

www.peters.de<br />

Special colours are also free from the photoinitiator 907.<br />

Source: Peter Roskothen



Solder fume filter for healthy work environment<br />

In corona-times, all topics around the health<br />

of employees are receiving higher attention –<br />

and that´s a good thing because staff<br />

members remain the most important asset.<br />

The media reported research from the Technical<br />

University Berlin addressed the spreading<br />

of aerosols in closed room environments including<br />

the risk of infection. Technical ventilation<br />

minimizes the risks of infection.<br />

Wearing a mask in a hand soldering work environment<br />

is uncomfortable. Additionally,<br />

face masks are limited to reduce the spread<br />

of fine aerosols created while a person is just<br />

speaking or breathing. In closed room environments,<br />

technical ventilation is needed to<br />

have sufficient air exchange rates. Fresh air is<br />

“thinning” the potentially virus charged aerosols<br />

and thus reduces the immediate danger<br />

of infection.<br />

Filter units to clean the process air also fit<br />

into the concept of freshening the air! Es-<br />

The fume extraction units Easy Arm 1 and Easy Arm<br />

2 supply a three-stage filter system to clean the<br />

process air. This creates a healthy work environment<br />

and operators are protected against illnesses.<br />

Source: Ersa<br />

pecially in a soldering environment, the<br />

highly efficient filter systems capture the air<br />

in the operators’ direct work area. They filter<br />

out harmful particles generated from flux in<br />

the solder smoke. In combination with technical<br />

aeration, the indoor climate is improved.<br />

Solder fume extraction units protect from respirable<br />

particles (< 1 micrometer) contained<br />

in solder smoke. Thereby, they have a preventative<br />

effect against the pollution of human<br />

respiratory tracts and chronic diseases like<br />

asthma and bronchitis.<br />

The Ersa fume extraction units Easy Arm 1<br />

and Easy Arm 2 supply a three-stage filter<br />

system to clean the process air. The pre-filter<br />

(class F7) captures particles larger than 1 μm<br />

size. In the combined filter (class H13),<br />

micro-particles smaller than 1 μm are bound,<br />

and activated carbon neutralizes harmful<br />

gases. The units are connectable to Ersa soldering<br />

stations and rework systems, and<br />

thus supply effective protection. This creates<br />

a healthy work environment and operators<br />

are protected against illnesses.<br />

www.kurtzersa.de<br />

Products for battery thermal management<br />

Electrolube’s thermal gap filler, GF400, is a<br />

highly effective heat transfer solution, providing<br />

excellent thermal performance<br />

at 4.0 W/m.K. The two-part, liquid siliconebased<br />

filler is ideal for a PCB placed in an aluminium<br />

casing, filling potential voids with<br />

material and improves the transfer of heat,<br />

improving reliability. GF400 is a thick liquid<br />

that can easily be applied around different<br />

shaped housings with low stress on components.<br />

Following application, the gap filler<br />

can be cured at room temperature or accelerated<br />

with heat, with a wide operating<br />

temperature range between –50 to +200 °C.<br />

The low viscosity of GF400 enables easier<br />

dispensing and following curing, it forms a<br />

low modulus elastomer, preventing the<br />

pump-out phenomenon of the thermal interface<br />

layer from the bond line.<br />

HTCPX non-silicone heat transfer compound<br />

Plus Xtra provides the ultimate in thermal<br />

conductivity together with the advantage of<br />

using a non-silicone base oil. The exceptional<br />

properties obtained from HTCPX are due to<br />

the novel use of various metal oxide (ceramic)<br />

powders. These materials are electrically<br />

insulative to ensure that leakage currents<br />

can not be formed if the paste should<br />

come into contact with other parts of the assembly.<br />

HTCPX has excellent thermal conductivity<br />

at 3.40 W/m.K and provides a wide<br />

operating temperature range from –50 °C to<br />

+180 °C. Designed for gap filling applications,<br />

the non-silicone heat transfer compound is<br />

vibration stable, low in toxicity and upholds<br />

excellent non-creep characteristics.<br />

To achieve prolonged battery life and higher efficiency,<br />

the thermally conductive epoxy potting<br />

compound, ER2221, is a highly thermally<br />

conductive resin with low viscosity, ideal for<br />

potting cells within electric vehicle batteries.<br />

The UL94 V-0 approved epoxy potting compound<br />

can withstand long durations at high<br />

temperatures and can assist with securing<br />

cells in place whilst dissipating the heat away<br />

to the surroundings. The resin effectively creates<br />

a protective shield around the battery and<br />

enables excellent adhesion, high temperature<br />

resistance, high thermal conductivity, and retention<br />

of characteristics throughout the thermal<br />

cycling process. ER2221 is coloured black<br />

with an operating temperature of 150 °C and<br />

an advanced thermal conductivity value.<br />

The company‘s thermally conductive epoxy<br />

compounds are ideal for potting cells within electric<br />

vehicle batteries.<br />

Source: Electrolube<br />

The soft and removable PU resin, UR5044, is<br />

a high-performance potting compound that<br />

allows easy repair and rework in-field with<br />

user-friendly resin packs. The material provides<br />

protection from extreme and varied environmental<br />

factors and is fully UL approved.<br />

The flexibility and softness of this resin<br />

makes it highly shock absorbent, ideal for<br />

battery applications subject to vibration and<br />

shock. It provides excellent protection from<br />

extreme and varied environmental factors.<br />

Ron Jakeman, Managing Director, comments,<br />

“We have numerous, versatile solutions<br />

that provide excellent protection in a<br />

wide range of environments and frequently<br />

develop bespoke solutions for our customers<br />

if an application presents more of a challenge.”<br />

www.electrolube.com<br />

Electrolube has developed thermal management and<br />

encapsulation resins for better battery protection.<br />

Source: Electrolube<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 27


Assisting with protection compounds<br />

The power of renewable<br />

sources of energy<br />

Renewable energy is energy collected from renewable resources that are naturally<br />

replenished on a human timescale and are projected to account for more than 50 % of global<br />

electricity production by 2035. Put another way, this is energy harnessed from the earth’s<br />

infinite or non-exhaustible natural resources rather than our traditional reliance upon finite<br />

resources of fossil fuels. According to Allied Market Research, the renewable energy market<br />

is predicted to grow exponentially by 2025 with biomass representing the leading form of<br />

energy within this market. From looking into the applications in more detail, a much wider<br />

potential use for all forms of renewable energy sources can be demonstrated.<br />

Jade Bridges, Technical Manager, Electrolube<br />

The discussion commences with a traditional source of renewable<br />

energy, water. Water-based power sources, hydropower,<br />

tidal power and wave power all rely on hydrokinetic potential; that is,<br />

the energy carried by bodies of water. Water-based power is sustainable<br />

and has a low carbon footprint. The energy generated by falling<br />

or fast-moving water is typically known as hydropower and has<br />

been used for centuries for a variety of mechanical applications. In<br />

the late 19th century, hydropower was first used for the generation<br />

of electricity and has since continued to develop as an important<br />

source of renewable power.<br />

Water based renewable energy<br />

Hydroelectricity is produced by passing the flowing water through<br />

turbine generators which consist of a number of electronic parts;<br />

simply identified as alternators, inverters, control panels and power<br />

switches or breakers. This type of power is incredibly versatile, and<br />

examples of its application can be seen around the world, one of<br />

the most famous being the Hoover Dam in USA. Run-in-river applications<br />

can also be utilised to harness the power from flowing<br />

water, rather than falling water as seen in a reservoir-dam facility.<br />

Whilst the emissions from these plants may be low, they are not<br />

totally emission free and their effect on the environment also has to<br />

Source: Electrolube<br />

With the future development of energy generation and harvesting technologies, thermal management materials, conformal coatings and encapsulation resins<br />

will continue to have a vital part to play.<br />

28 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Electrolube products assist with protection compounds that aid the efficient and prolonged application of electronics in challenging environmental conditions.<br />

Source: Electrolube<br />

be considered; protection of fish from turbines, appropriate use of<br />

the land and evaluation of surrounding wildlife, are just some criteria<br />

that must be addressed when developing new sites.<br />

The two remaining water based renewable energy sources sound<br />

similar but in fact are very different. Tidal pattern is continuous<br />

therefore the energy generation from this is predictable. Tidal generators<br />

are placed on suitable shorelines in order to harness the<br />

power of this source. Wave power, however, is generated at sea, is<br />

unpredictable and currently plays a very minor role in the global mix<br />

of energy sources. Consideration in both cases, needs to be placed<br />

on the effects of any machinery or movement on the surrounding<br />

ecosystem. It is in these demanding electronic applications where<br />

Electrolube products assist with protection compounds, such as encapsulation<br />

resins and conformal coatings, that aid the efficient and<br />

prolonged application of these electronics in challenging environmental<br />

conditions. Devices such as sensors and data loggers are<br />

important for gathering information both in and out of the plant, providing<br />

details such as water depth and wave acceleration to adjust<br />

systems and achieve maximum capability. Water protection for<br />

these devices is just one example of where an encapsulation resin<br />

may make these measurements possible, greatly reducing maintenance<br />

requirements and human interaction in data collection.<br />

Solar based renewable energy<br />

Moving on, solar energy has to be one of the most iconic forms of<br />

renewable energy, particularly prevalent in the domestic electricity<br />

market. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sunlight<br />

via the technology known as photovoltaics (PV), and it is these solar<br />

cells that are seen in many different applications globally. However,<br />

the technology doesn’t stop at the solar cell alone. Inverters are<br />

used to convert the direct current into alternating current electricity<br />

so that it can be fed from the solar panel into a home/building to operate<br />

standard appliances. In addition, capacitors are used to temporarily<br />

store electricity where required, or in off-grid applications<br />

batteries may be required to store power for more widespread use.<br />

In such cases, these electronic devices will require protection from<br />

the elements but will also be required to operate at higher temperatures<br />

and offer some form of thermal dissipation, due to the heat<br />

emitted during operation. Depending on the design, thermal management<br />

products may be used to help dissipate heat away from<br />

devices, this could be in the form of thermal gap fillers (Electrolube<br />

GF400) for example. However, to offer both protection from the environment<br />

and thermal dissipation, specialist encapsulation resins<br />

such as the ER2221 may be required.<br />

In addition to capturing and converting the energy, the requirement<br />

for measuring the performance or having some control over the<br />

solar panel may be required. Measurements such as solar panel<br />

temperature, can help to manage solar farms and ensure the most<br />

efficient use of the technology is attained. Unfortunately, some of<br />

these system electronics can be relatively small and possibly fragile,<br />

yet conversely, the average piece of solar equipment must be<br />

able to withstand some pretty extreme weather conditions, including<br />

direct exposure to the sun, heat and other environmental elements.<br />

Electrolube has worked directly with organisations harnessing<br />

solar power. In one particular instance, a small device displaying<br />

information on the performance and connectivity of the<br />

solar panels in an array required protection from the external environment.<br />

Some issues had arisen with resins tested, where the<br />

hardness and Tg of the material resulted in pressure on the LCD<br />

screen, leading to failures in operation. Initially silicone options were<br />

tested due to this low stress requirement, but these did not perform<br />

to the high level achieved by the company’s UR5044, which<br />

showed great stability and low hardness over a wide temperature<br />

range. Adhesion of this polyurethane resin was greatly improved<br />

compared to the previous silicone resins tested and thus an improved<br />

protection from the external conditions was realised.<br />

Devices separate from the solar farm are also very important.<br />

Measurements of solar radiation, incoming UV and infrared light<br />

spectrums will give data to help correctly position and manage<br />

these solar plants. Such data is required to be transmitted, often by<br />

GPRS or maybe Bluetooth, and any protection compound used<br />

must not interfere with these signals. Encapsulation resins with a<br />

low dielectric constant are most suited, such as the UR5118, which<br />

also offers excellent water resistance. However, if the unit is well<br />

sealed by the outer casing and has a high IP rating, it may also be<br />

possible to use a conformal coating (Electrolube AFA) to prevent the<br />

effects of condensation on the electronics and also minimise the<br />

weight of the device in comparison to a potted unit.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 29


Solar panels can be seen powering devices from decorative garden<br />

lighting to streetlights and road signs. Smart streetlights and solar<br />

benches are amongst the newest products to fully integrate numerous<br />

technologies, such as remote management control, wireless<br />

charging and Wi-Fi hotspots all built in, and again, all requiring protection<br />

for the electronics used. The chemical industry is playing a<br />

strong part in these novel developments, right up the development<br />

of solar paint. The possibilities here are seemingly endless.<br />

Wind based renewable energy<br />

The third renewable source for discussion is wind power, one of our<br />

most predominant sources, with the UK currently ranking as the 6th<br />

largest producer of wind power in the world. Wind farms capture<br />

the energy of wind flow by the use of turbines and convert it into<br />

electricity. Commercially positioned wind systems can power many<br />

alternative organisations whereas single wind turbines are predominantly<br />

used as a method to supplement pre-existing energy<br />

sources.<br />

(these can change depending upon the location but can include salt<br />

mist/spray and limited accessibility). Longevity of component life,<br />

reduced maintenance and long-term cost are all key drivers prompting<br />

reliable protection systems in the form of either conformal coatings,<br />

encapsulation resins or sometimes a combination of both.<br />

There are also requirements for thermal management materials<br />

within the use of wind turbines and the company was faced with a<br />

particularly tricky problem when a ‘greener’ version of a standard<br />

thermal interface material was required. It is encouraging that green<br />

energy developers are considering all aspects of environmental impact,<br />

including the materials used with the manufacture of their<br />

products. In this case, the thermal interface material had to be<br />

classed as completely non-hazardous and as traditional TIMs contain<br />

zinc oxide they were deemed completely unsuitable. Presented<br />

with the problem, Electrolube developed a solution specifically for<br />

the purpose, HTCX_ZF. This was developed using alternative thermally<br />

conductive fillers which removed the zinc oxide and the corresponding<br />

H410 hazard phrase, representing toxicity to aquatic life.<br />

The product also offered an increased thermal conductivity compared<br />

to the standard material and thus offered greater efficiency of<br />

heat dissipation in customer testing.<br />

The location of the wind farm is as important as the location of any<br />

other renewable energy sites. In offshore wind farms, the conditions<br />

are much more extreme and corrosive elements such as salt<br />

mist can have a detrimental effect on both mechanical and electrical<br />

parts. With experience in electronic devices for marine applications,<br />

the company can offer support and advice on suitable protection<br />

compounds for such applications. Like the developers of integrated<br />

technology, Electrolube strives to utilise experience gained from<br />

multiple industries and from the varying types of products offered in<br />

our range. Combining the understanding of protection levels<br />

required, with correct thermal management and suitability for applications<br />

such as LED technology, assists in the correct selection of<br />

products for complex and critical applications. For example, the use<br />

of the company’s products to protect lighting arrays in outdoor applications,<br />

such as shopping centres, sports arenas and even aircraft<br />

Renewable energy is the harnessing of energy from the earth’s non-exhaustible<br />

natural resources.<br />

The traditional turbines are huge with very large blades driven by<br />

wind power which in turn powers a rotor. This rotor spins the shaft<br />

within the tall upright of the turbine and this powers a generator for<br />

harnessing electricity. Almost all wind turbines can contain up to<br />

8,000 separate parts including gearboxes, power systems, generators,<br />

sensors and devices for electronic control. One of the huge<br />

challenges is to assemble these enormous devices, enable a long<br />

life and trouble-free operation. All electronics and components<br />

mounted in the tower must also be able to withstand constant vibration,<br />

temperature changes (extremes), environmental conditions<br />

Source: Electrolube<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Wärmemanagementmaterialien, konforme Beschichtungen sowie<br />

Harze zur Verkapselung spielen bei der Planung und Wartung von<br />

Energieerzeugungs- und Energiegewinnungstechnologien eine<br />

entscheidende Rolle für den Schutz, die Zuverlässigkeit und die<br />

Lebensdauer der Geräte.<br />

Résumé<br />

Les matériaux de gestion thermique, les revêtements conformes<br />

ainsi que les résines destinées à l’encapsulation jouent un rôle<br />

essentiel pour la protection, la fiabilité et la durée de vie des<br />

équipements lors de la conception et de la maintenance des<br />

technologies de production d’énergie et de collecte d’énergie.<br />

Резюме<br />

Терморегулирующие материалы, конформные покрытия, а<br />

также герметизирующие смолы играют решающую роль при<br />

проектировании и обслуживании энергогенерирующих и<br />

энергодобывающих технологий для защиты оборудования,<br />

обеспечения его работоспособности и срока эксплуатации.<br />

30 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


runways, gives confidence and understanding of the potential use<br />

of these products to protect the warning lights used on the top of<br />

wind turbines. Combine that with their understanding of products in<br />

applications where wireless data transfer is required, the smart<br />

management of such lighting technology can be successfully<br />

achieved, even in such harsh external conditions.<br />

The most used form of renewable power in the UK however is carbon-neutral<br />

and comes from bio-waste, making use of the unwanted<br />

by-products of today’s way of life. Biomass is an alternative<br />

fuel made from organic materials, including wood, crops and plants,<br />

animal waste and more. Biomass products are burned within a<br />

boiler, generating a source of steam to turn a turbine thereby producing<br />

electricity. Traditional coal-fired power stations can be converted<br />

to run entirely on biomass fuel. Biomass, hydroelectricity and<br />

wind power are the three resources on which we depend the most<br />

on, in order to achieve cleaner energy goals and reduction of carbon<br />

footprint.<br />

Whilst the most reliable and productive sources of renewable energy<br />

have a heavy reliance on harvesting equipment with a myriad of<br />

moving parts, it is clear that electronic developments have been key<br />

in the development and integration of these sources into our everyday<br />

lives. Over time, the harvesting of energy is likely to become<br />

even more automated and entwined with the IoT as trees are being<br />

fitted with PV cells and pressure power sensors can now be found<br />

underneath high traffic roads. Efficiency and reliability will increase<br />

as the level of AI builds. Thermal management materials, conformal<br />

coatings and encapsulation resins all have a vital part to play in the<br />

protection, reliability and lifetime of devices throughout the planning<br />

and maintenance of energy generation and harvesting technologies.<br />

www.electrolube.com<br />

In the late 19 th century, hydropower was first used for the<br />

generation of electricity and has since continued to develop<br />

as an important source of renewable power.<br />

Source: Electrolube<br />

Jade Bridges is the Technical<br />

Manager with Electrolube.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 31


Following the TLC methodology<br />

Mastering the product life<br />

cycle with flexible automation<br />

Production volumes tend to increase as products move through their life cycle and the maturity of the<br />

technology progresses. With a mature, high-volume product, industrial automation is an attractive<br />

solution. In such a scenario, infrastructure investment will likely pay-off over time. But the right strategic<br />

choice for automation earlier in the product life cycle, when the volumes are lower and the products<br />

tend to be less mature and stable in their technology, is less clear.<br />

Mattias Andersson, CEO & Founder MTEK Industry AB<br />

When going from prototype to mass production, manual labor<br />

has been the answer in many processes, instead of automation.<br />

That is until now. Flexible automation is now readily available<br />

and will be a game changer for manufacturing automation.<br />

Defining automation<br />

The Product or Technology Life Cycle (TLC) is a methodology used in<br />

high-tech industries to recognize changing manufacturing and mar-<br />

ket conditions triggered by the maturation of a product and of the<br />

technologies it uses. When the technology of a product evolves, so<br />

will the requirements in terms of product features, design, price and<br />

service. This impacts supply chain and operations strategies. The<br />

TLC is therefore an important concept to consider when defining<br />

business and automation strategy.<br />

Considering the right automation throughout the TLC is key to creating<br />

the most cost-efficient production process. In the past, the alternative<br />

to automation was manual work. Manual<br />

labor’s advantage over traditional automation is<br />

that it is flexible and configurable. It is relatively<br />

easy to assign new tasks and move operators as<br />

demand is shifting. This is not the case with traditional<br />

automation, which is by nature rigid, inflexible<br />

and hard to redeploy, not to mention capital<br />

intensive.<br />

Source: MTEK<br />

Flexible automation<br />

Today, with the emergence of collaborative robots<br />

and software defined robotics, there is an<br />

Source: MTEK<br />

Data is at the heart of the smart factory and is the<br />

currency for continuous improvement.<br />

Digital twins can be created<br />

for both manufacturing<br />

systems and products.<br />

32 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Source: MTEK<br />

Analysis of trends and real-time data allows better decisions to be made faster.<br />

Source: MTEK<br />

Adaptable automation modules, like MCell are the digital building<br />

blocks of smart manufacturing.<br />

alternative to both traditional hard automation and manual labor, and<br />

that is flexible automation. Using this in the right way allows manufacturers<br />

to cost-efficiently automate from prototype to mass-production.<br />

This shortens the development cycle of the product and removes<br />

the need to redesign the product as it enters the later stages<br />

in its life cycle, since design for automation (DfA) has been applied<br />

already from the start.<br />

Flexible automation has many of the benefits that manual labor provides.<br />

If deployed in the right way, it will be simple to move the<br />

robot to the line and the position where it is required for the shift,<br />

and support tasks previously undertaken by an operator. What’s<br />

more, a software defined approach, allows new tasks and new configurations<br />

to be downloaded to the robot instantly. This is very different<br />

to how hard automation is working today and much more like<br />

an operator taking updated work instructions. The robot becomes<br />

the physical representation of the software model and can immediately<br />

start the task it has been requested to execute. Collaborative<br />

robots are not delivering on this promise today, but with added<br />

functionality for adaptability to new tasks and increased flexibility,<br />

they become a hybrid of traditional automation and the manual operator,<br />

all with the efficiency and lower cost of an automated solution.<br />

As an example, the insertion of odd shape components, such as capacitors,<br />

relays, and terminal blocks, is usually carried out manually<br />

in the electronics industry. The shape and form of the components<br />

as well as the relatively high mix of products makes it hard to automate<br />

using standard solutions. But flexible automation, a collaborative<br />

robot and a software defined approach,<br />

would allow this task to be automated.<br />

This provides a route to efficiently automate<br />

very early in the product life<br />

cycle when volumes are lower and<br />

there are often changes to the products.<br />

It also allows for that automation<br />

to scale-up during the later<br />

phases of the product life cycle as volumes<br />

grow.<br />

Mattias Andersson<br />

is the founder and<br />

CEO of MTEK.<br />

Source: MTEK<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Flexible Automatisierung schafft einen Mehrwert zu Beginn des<br />

Produktlebenszyklus bei hohem Produktmix sowie geringem Volumen<br />

und sie bietet eine Methode zur Skalierung bei steigender<br />

Nachfrage, wenn die Produkte im Produktlebenszyklus später<br />

marktfähig werden.<br />

Résumé<br />

L’automatisation flexible apporte une valeur ajoutée au début du<br />

cycle de vie du produit en présence d’un assortiment important et<br />

d’un faible volume et offre une méthode d’évolution à mesure que<br />

la demande augmente, lorsque les produits arrivent à maturité plus<br />

tard dans leur cycle de vie.<br />

Резюме<br />

При большой комбинации продуктов и малых объемах гибкая<br />

автоматизация создает дополнительные преимущества в<br />

начале жизненного цикла продукта и предлагает метод для<br />

масштабирования по мере увеличения спроса, когда продукты<br />

созревают на более поздних этапах их жизненного цикла.<br />

Approach for automation<br />

An important aspect to the success of flexible automation is to simplify<br />

and empower the organization to use the full capabilities of the<br />

solution, to adapt it to the changes that happen as product mix and<br />

volumes change. Proprietary knowledge is an inhibiting factor for<br />

digital transformation and solutions which fail usability and ease will<br />

not be successful.<br />

In an increasingly connected world, last mile connectivity to the factory<br />

floor is essential. This is not only important for performance and<br />

configuration, but also to secure the product and process data feedback<br />

loop in the early stages to secure optimal use of solutions in<br />

the later stages. Finding deviations early in the various process<br />

steps provides insight into the changes required in products or processes<br />

for a successful scale-up.<br />

Flexible automation is a contemporary approach for automation. It<br />

adds value early in the product life cycle when mix is high, and volumes<br />

are lower, and it provides a method to scale as demand increases<br />

and products mature later in the product life cycle.<br />

www.mtek.se<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 33


Treatment of moisture sensitivity<br />

Dry run over IC bridge<br />

Keeping moisture out of electronic components before they enter the manufacturing process is a<br />

critical concern for the automotive sector. Tackling the problem, Melexis has come up with a<br />

towering solution. Cars have always needed to be safe, but safety is no longer just about having<br />

robust engine and chassis. With the shift in automotive technology being from mechanical to<br />

electronic, it is the performance of the electronic components that need to be completely reliable.<br />

The consequences of failure can, of course, be devastating as these component manufacturers<br />

are all too aware.<br />

Melexis is a leading<br />

player in the automotive<br />

semiconductor sensors<br />

market.<br />

Source: Totech <strong>Europe</strong> B.V<br />

One of the leading players in the automotive semiconductor sensors<br />

market, as well as in the integrated circuits for motor<br />

driving, car networking and wireless communication, is Melexis,<br />

and it has recently completed the first phase of a new project to ensure<br />

components are delivered in the same impeccable condition<br />

that they were made in.<br />

Moisture in semiconductors is a serious issue. Trapped moisture<br />

can vaporise and expand when subjected to the temperatures of a<br />

reflow oven during assembly. While this can lead to catastrophic failure<br />

of the part during the production process – an effect called ‘popcorning’<br />

– it can also introduce cracks and weaknesses in the component<br />

that could present reliability issues once the assembly is out<br />

on the market. It is an issue that is obviously taken very seriously<br />

both by the electronics assembly sector in the way that they handle<br />

and store components, and by the semiconductor makers themselves.<br />

Final drying stage<br />

With this latest project, Melexis is aiming to provide additional assurance<br />

for the step from its semiconductor factory in leper, Belgium<br />

to its assembly customers. The site works around the clock to<br />

test around 40 million ICs a month, principally sensors for the automotive<br />

market, though their high performance has also led to applications<br />

in consumer and industrial.<br />

Bertrand Leterme, Manufacturing Manager at Ieper, explained he<br />

was “looking to control temperature, humidity and timing. The Dry<br />

Tower project enables us to do this accurately.”<br />

Dry Tower is the solution provided by Totech, a company that was already<br />

well-known to Melexis. “Totech solutions and tools are<br />

known and used internally and at our customers,” continued Leterme,<br />

who also recognised Totech’s support and reactivity.<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Eine Lösung zur automatisierten Lagerung mit kontrollierter Klimatisierung<br />

sowie die Umsetzung einer kundenspezifischen Schnittstelle<br />

inklusive Einbindung weiterer Lagerorte erfüllte die Anforderungen<br />

eines belgischen Unternehmens für Halbleitersensoren im<br />

Automobilbereich.<br />

Résumé<br />

Une solution de stockage automatisé avec climatisation contrôlée<br />

ainsi que la mise en place d’une interface spécifique au client, y<br />

compris l’intégration d’autres lieux de stockage, répondaient aux<br />

exigences d’une entreprise belge de capteurs à semi-conducteurs<br />

dans le secteur automobile.<br />

Резюме<br />

Решение для автоматизированного хранения с<br />

контролируемым кондиционированием воздуха и реализация<br />

индивидуального интерфейса клиента, включая интеграцию<br />

дополнительных мест складирования, соответствовали<br />

требованиям бельгийской компании к полупроводниковым<br />

датчикам в автомобильной отрасли.<br />

34 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


This project was looking at the stage just before final packing and<br />

sending off to customers. All components will have had their testing<br />

at three different temperatures: –40 °C, 25 °C and 135 °C, followed<br />

by final optical inspection before being taped and reeled. Then this<br />

final drying stage ensures components are completely dry before<br />

despatch. It is a stage that is standard – and defined by JEDEC standards<br />

– within the industry. All components are held for a minimum<br />

of 24 hours at 1 % RH (relative humidity).<br />

Totech’s standard drying cabinets were already being deployed at an<br />

earlier stage in the company’s process. However, to use these cabinets<br />

for the final drying application would have meant a footprint of<br />

around three times that of the adopted Dry Tower solution – and<br />

floor space was one of the key considerations.<br />

After benchmarking against another main <strong>Europe</strong>an supplier, it was<br />

considered that the Dry Tower would offer the best solution. Leterme<br />

said: “Totech provided more technical answers to our concerns.<br />

And has proved in the past year to give good support in case<br />

of trouble – important in our market.”<br />

The Dry Tower is really designed for automated storage with precise<br />

and proven environmental control technology. However, its ability to<br />

tie in with inventory control systems made this an ideal solution to<br />

Melexis’ drying requirements. Leterme says: “It gives us the expected<br />

control and traceability for our products and our customers.<br />

There is also flexibility in the software to manage large batches of<br />

reels including a high automated quality control.”<br />

Moreover, it will allow Melexis to continue to develop the project.<br />

“The tool is flexible and gives us capacity for potential future production<br />

automation projects,” Leterme commented. The next step<br />

over the coming year or so is to increase the level of automation<br />

with the addition of customised conveyors and other automated<br />

handling equipment – the Dry Tower is currently loaded and unloaded<br />

manually.<br />

Perhaps, ultimately, this drying solution could play its part in a full<br />

‘Smart factory’ scenario. All component data is saved into a data<br />

base, from when it enters the system after reeling to when it leaves<br />

the Tower for packaging and shipping.<br />

It sounds like a complex arrangement for a one-day stop-over for<br />

components on their way to their end application, especially as they<br />

will already have passed their ‘final’ test. However, it is a stage that<br />

forms a crucial bridge connecting the often separate worlds of semicon<br />

and assembly, and it is imperative to drive in efficient, comfortable<br />

and, most importantly, safe cars – that these components<br />

cross that bridge in perfect condition.<br />

Dry Tower<br />

centralised<br />

materials<br />

storage.<br />

Source: Totech <strong>Europe</strong> B.V<br />

Dry Tower installment at Melexis’ semiconductor factory in leper,<br />

Belgium.<br />

Moisture in semiconductors<br />

Ever increasing miniaturization of electronics, including thinner components<br />

and new materials has made the management and treatment<br />

of moisture sensitivity an increasingly critical element of electronics<br />

manufacturing and product reliability. Electronics manufacturers<br />

are thus challenged to manage larger and larger volumes of<br />

parts in a controlled and traceable manner.<br />

The Totech Dry Tower comprises integrated drying and storage environments<br />

with complete operator free material handling. Incorporating<br />

mature, proven drying technology and WMS-system integration<br />

capabilities, the system is also modular, and can be configured<br />

for different size and storage requirements. All relevant data<br />

for processing components is saved into a data base, from entering<br />

the system through to the retrieval of components. Important storage<br />

parameters, such as humidity and temperature, are logged and<br />

available for analysis.<br />

The Dry Tower storage system can be connected to different inventory<br />

control systems (WMS) through standard interfaces. Automated<br />

input and output at a central point reduces personnel time.<br />

Incoming reels are recognized by specific characteristics and automatically<br />

scanned by unique barcode before they are fed into the<br />

system ready to be transported to storage locations. The gripper<br />

systems are driven by low-noise and low-maintenance servomotors<br />

and move simultaneously within a 5-axis system. Vacuum grippers<br />

transport component packages quickly and safely.<br />

The system can also calculate the smallest storage position the<br />

components require, in order to save space. As an example of storage<br />

capacity, up to 15,000 7 ” reels can be stored. Like the entire<br />

range of Totech Super Dry products, these are solutions for a new<br />

generation of electronics process problems. They are also cost efficient<br />

and extremely eco-friendly. They consume less energy than<br />

traditional methods, while at the same time reducing overall floor<br />

space and logistics.<br />

www.superdry-totech.com; www.melexis.com<br />

Source: Totech <strong>Europe</strong> B.V<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 35


Finding the right solvent alternative<br />

Top ten reasons to switch to<br />

a better PCB cleaning fluid<br />

The electronics manufacturing industry has seen incredible changes over the years. The evolution to<br />

smaller, high density circuit boards with low standoff or zero-clearance components is ongoing. With<br />

the pervasive deployment of BGAs and microBGAs, MCM devices and even denser semiconductor<br />

packages, today’s PCBs run hotter, and are more complex than ever before. In addition, the pressure<br />

to produce PCBs faster and more economically amid ever-changing environmental regulations and<br />

requirements makes it an exciting but challenging time to be in the industry. So, it is imperative that<br />

PCB fabricators adapt to these changes to stay current, competitive and profitable.<br />

Emily Peck, Senior Chemist, MicroCare, LLC<br />

Source: MicroCare<br />

Each of these changes, especially those regarding environmental<br />

regulations, impacts the way printed circuit boards and other<br />

electronics parts are cleaned and prepped for further processing like<br />

conformal coating or packaging. Historically, brominated and chlorinated<br />

solvents like nPB (n-propyl bromide) and TCE (trichlorethylene)<br />

were used inside a vapour degreaser to reliably and economically<br />

clean PCBs.<br />

Following <strong>Europe</strong>an regulations<br />

Once the chief cleaning solvents within industry, these legacy solvents<br />

are no longer acceptable for use without extreme restrictions<br />

in <strong>Europe</strong>. TCE has a carcinogen classification and has not been<br />

available for vapour degreaser cleaning in <strong>Europe</strong>, without special<br />

authorisation and stringent controls on factory emissions, since<br />

2016. And under EU REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation<br />

and restriction of chemicals) regulations, nPB requires special permission<br />

for use in <strong>Europe</strong> as of July 2020.<br />

Even water-based or aqueous cleaning is proving to be problematic.<br />

Aqueous systems use water to clean. In some areas, water is a<br />

precious non-renewable resource giving aqueous cleaning systems<br />

a low score for environmental sustainability. They produce a waste<br />

stream that requires treatment before discharge. Wastewater must<br />

be filtered, distilled, deionized, and osmosis prepped ready for disposal.<br />

The cleaning agent added to the water can be toxic and poorly<br />

biodegradable, making disposal problematic.<br />

Finding the right solvent alternative<br />

In addition, the energy required to operate an aqueous system can<br />

be high. Aqueous systems require high temperatures to be effective.<br />

This means more power is needed. Also, aqueous machines<br />

are generally bigger and more complicated than solvent-based systems.<br />

They have larger pumps, sprayers, blowers and filters, as well<br />

as longer cycle times that consume more energy. This in turn means<br />

more electricity is consumed, adding to the global warming impact.<br />

So, what options are there for company owners, facility managers<br />

and environmental safety and health officers looking for better<br />

choices that are more efficient, easier to maintain and less hazardous<br />

for workers and the environment? Faced with the challenge of<br />

changing to alternative solvents, they are concerned about the impact<br />

the change will have on their bottom-line.<br />

Small, densely packed semiconductor packages<br />

make PCB cleaning a challenge.<br />

The biggest concerns are that switching out their cleaning solvents<br />

and processes will cause production down-time, require a big capital<br />

investment in new equipment or result in time lost training employees<br />

on new processes. Not to mention the worry that the new<br />

cleaning fluids will not deliver the same cleaning results as the old<br />

ones.<br />

Fortunately, there are a number of solvent alternatives on the market<br />

that clean just as well, if not better than the old solvents. In<br />

many instances, the changeover to these modern fluorinated fluids<br />

is simple and does not require any investment in new equipment.<br />

Benefits can include consistent cleaning quality, improved throughput<br />

and decreased energy usage. Plus, these next generation cleaning<br />

fluids have an excellent toxicity profile, making them safer for<br />

people and the planet.<br />

So, here are the top 10 reasons to switch to a better cleaning fluid<br />

today:<br />

• Same or better cleaning: The modern fluorinated cleaning fluids<br />

have been lab-tested and analyzed to ensure the cleaning results<br />

are reliable, consistent and just as good as the legacy solvents.<br />

Cleaning efficiencies were maintained or improved, even on hard<br />

to remove lead-free and no-clean flux residue. Although the aggressive<br />

cleaning fluids have high solvency to dissolve contaminants,<br />

they are formulated to not damage delicate PCB substrates<br />

or components.<br />

36 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


• Low cost of conversion: In many cases, most of the modern cleaning<br />

fluids can be used in existing equipment, using the same<br />

methods. After emptying and cleaning the vapour degreaser, many<br />

of the replacement cleaning fluids can be “dropped in” into the<br />

machinery without an appreciable change to the cleaning process.<br />

• Energy savings: Many of the modern cleaning fluids have a lower<br />

boiling point and heat of vapourization than the older solvents.<br />

This requires less energy consumption, resulting in an overall<br />

energy cost savings.<br />

• Improved efficiency: Since modern cleaning fluids boil at a lower<br />

rate than the legacy solvents, PCBs come out of the vapour degreaser<br />

cool enough to handle. No extra time is required for them<br />

to cool down. This allows technicians to move on to the next production<br />

process sooner, boosting the overall throughput and productivity.<br />

• Enhanced safety: Many of the new cleaning fluids are nonflammable<br />

for improved safety in the workplace. Their azeotropic properties<br />

ensure the compositions are thermally stable and safe to use<br />

throughout their service life.<br />

• Healthier for workers: Many of the substitutes for nPB, PERC or<br />

TCE have better toxicity profiles and higher TLVs (Threshold Limit<br />

Values) than the legacy solvents making them safer for workers to<br />

be around.<br />

• Better environmental impact: Since the modern cleaning fluids do<br />

not carry a heavy regulatory burden like some of the legacy solvents,<br />

switching to a modern cleaning fluid helps you improve<br />

your environmental footprint. Modern cleaning fluids boast ODP<br />

(Ozone Depleting Potential) ratings of zero and have a very low<br />

GWP (Global Warming Potential). This allows them to follow the air<br />

quality emissions regulations of the <strong>Europe</strong>an Union, including<br />

REACH requirements.<br />

• Improved maintenance procedures: Except under the most extreme<br />

conditions, such as if exposed to a strong base or acid, or<br />

exposed to extreme heat, the modern cleaning fluids will not<br />

“turn acid”. They do not require chemical stabilizers or scavengers<br />

or the weekly testing required of the legacy chlorinated solvents.<br />

• Better working conditions: Most modern cleaning fluids do not<br />

have the same pungent, sweet smell associated with TCE or the<br />

other legacy solvents. Less fumes means a more pleasant work<br />

area and happier, more productive workers. In addition, since<br />

many of the next generation fluids are safer to use, PPE requirements<br />

may be less stringent, making the working environment<br />

more convenient and comfortable for employees.<br />

TCE (trichlorethylene) has a<br />

carcinogen classification<br />

and is under stringent<br />

control.<br />

Source: MicroCare<br />

Vapour degreasing reliably and economically cleans PCBs.<br />

• Easier handling, transport and disposal: Modern cleaning fluids<br />

are more easily recycled on-site because they do not contain any<br />

stabilizers or additives required when using legacy chlorinated solvents.<br />

Employees do not need the same type of intensive training<br />

to manage the new fluids safely, saving time and money.<br />

The change to a new cleaning fluid can be full of uncertainty. For<br />

many PCB fabricators who are looking to make the switch to a<br />

better solvent, it is imperative that they maintain their cleaning performance<br />

with minimal impact to throughput and productivity. The<br />

best course of action is to partner with a trusted electronics cleaning<br />

expert. A few companies have experienced field engineers that<br />

will audit the current solvents and processes, and make recommendations<br />

on the best fluids and process to make the switch to a<br />

better solvent easier.<br />

www.microcare.com<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Die rasanten Veränderungen in der Elektronikfertigungsindustrie<br />

mit zunehmender Miniaturisierung und Komplexität der Baugruppen<br />

machen auch die Umstellung auf ein besseres Lösungsmittel<br />

unerlässlich. Der Artikel stellt die zehn wichtigsten Gründe hierfür<br />

vor.<br />

Résumé<br />

Les changements rapides dans l’industrie de la fabrication électronique<br />

avec la miniaturisation et la complexité croissantes des<br />

sous-ensembles rendent également indispensable le passage à un<br />

meilleur solvant. L’article présente les dix principales raisons à<br />

cela.<br />

Резюме<br />

Быстрые изменения в производстве электроники с<br />

увеличением миниатюризации и сложности узлов делают<br />

переход на данное лучшее решение необходимым. В статье<br />

представлены десять наиболее важных причин этого.<br />

Source: MicroCare<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 37


Staying one step ahead<br />

Distributor expands goods control<br />

with X-ray component counter<br />

The industrial area near Frankfurt exudes modernity and at the same time a cool serenity.<br />

This is where Chip 1 Exchange, a <strong>Europe</strong>an distributor of electronic components, is located.<br />

Founded in 2001, the company prides itself on maximizing quality and speed, and always<br />

staying one step ahead of others. And that should remain the case.<br />

Guaranteeing number of components<br />

The company is a hybrid distributor – a dealer for some manufacturers<br />

– but also a broker. Brokers have to purchase components<br />

worldwide when customers need them, sometimes within a very<br />

short timeframe. Every now and then, it is necessary to do this with<br />

new, unknown suppliers, but only after consultation with the customers,<br />

as Mesut Aksu QC & Logistics Manager and Radiation Protection<br />

Officer states expressly.<br />

In order to ensure flawless quality for customers, the company has<br />

a high-quality check, which the components must pass. This is communicated<br />

openly with the customers. This is because the worldwide<br />

acquisitions, which also consist of overstocks or subsets of<br />

customers, require extensive tests so that defective components or<br />

even counterfeits can be screened. These tests include visual testing,<br />

X-ray testing, Acetone Test, chemical checking and now X-ray<br />

counting. Chip 1 customers in the automotive, medical and telecommunications<br />

sectors can expect and rely on component quality,<br />

and now – thanks to Assure- they are guaranteed the exact number<br />

of components.<br />

Chip1 Exchange has acquired the automatic component counter solution, Assure.<br />

Source: Nordson Dage<br />

The company is the first and only hybrid distributor to offer its<br />

customers bundles with guarantees an exact number of pieces.<br />

For half a year, they have been using the sophisticated software<br />

technology of the Assure automatic component counter from Nordson<br />

Electronics Solutions. Throughput at hybrid distributors is always<br />

high – goods which arrive in the morning often have to be released<br />

in the evening, and must be inspected accurately, counted,<br />

labelled and packaged.<br />

Customers expect this level of turnaround time, and Chip 1 Exchange<br />

meets these requirements quickly and easily. Every day,<br />

there are about 85 deliveries that need to be processed further:<br />

often containing 250 reels or more, which must be counted and<br />

checked immediately upon receipt of goods. Sometimes a single<br />

component can cost up to 100 Euro– so the exact number of pieces<br />

is important.<br />

Chip1 Exchange offers their customers a customized PDF report,<br />

containing the evaluation image, the corresponding article number,<br />

and the most important information for the customer.<br />

Source: Nordson Dage<br />

38 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Assure will count reels in<br />

less than 10 seconds, no<br />

matter the size or the shape<br />

of the container.<br />

„It‘s not that easy to give up control. This has to be built up slowly.<br />

What used to be done by hand,“ reports Mesut Aksu, „is now carried<br />

out using X-ray technology. So, I have to entrust my goods to<br />

technology.“ However, it is now the case that 80 % of the goods<br />

must go out the same day. If the employees counted manually, the<br />

entire process per role would take about four to five minutes. With<br />

Assure, counting reels takes less than 10 seconds, no matter how<br />

big it is or what shape the container has. If four reels are scanned at<br />

once, it takes only 20 seconds”. Aksu is highly satisfied, because the<br />

machine not only saves time, but also allows employees to take<br />

care of other processes.<br />

Delivering unique requirements<br />

After careful examination of all machines on the market, Chip 1<br />

chose Assure as the market and technology leader. The company<br />

commissioned special specifications that were implemented<br />

quickly and easily. For example, the software from the automatic<br />

component counter has a key code that allows the respective operator<br />

to log in via his personal identification card. The counting results<br />

are automatically assigned to the respective operator.<br />

Source: Nordson Dage<br />

Their most important feature request was a customized report, containing<br />

the evaluation image, the corresponding article number, and<br />

the most important information for the customer, all saved in a<br />

single PDF document. This is provided to the customer as added<br />

value – with the guarantee: Counted by Assure.<br />

The automatic component counter solution has been installed in the<br />

specially separated ESD area of the warehouse, where it is responsible<br />

for ensuring the stock during receipt and quality checking. The<br />

goal for the company is to completely exclude complaints due to<br />

shortages. They can also alert suppliers if the number of components<br />

delivered does not match with the number on the delivery<br />

note, as soon as the quick count is complete.<br />

Thanks to the speed of the component counter, the company can<br />

now finally count the full amount of goods received instead of just<br />

examining samples as before.<br />

Always one step ahead<br />

„Assure has not only convinced us by its speed,“ Aksu emphasizes.<br />

„The machine also meets the high ESD protection requirements<br />

that we place on our processes. Assure is designed to be absolutely<br />

user-friendly and the Dage team manages to simplify everyday work<br />

from the customer‘s point of view.“<br />

Chip 1 Exchange has been anticipating the future of the company<br />

with Assure and will equip its new 5,000 m 2 warehouse, which is located<br />

in the USA, with the X-ray scanner.<br />

Accurate material stocks secure the future of a company – at a time<br />

when resource planning of people (time) and materials (components),<br />

transport and optimization are crucial.<br />

www.nordsondage.com<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Ein führender Distributor für elektronische Komponenten erweitert<br />

seine Warenkontrolle mit einem innovativem Röntgenscanner und<br />

ist damit durch garantiert exakte Stückzahlen stets einen Schritt<br />

voraus.<br />

Résumé<br />

Un distributeur majeur de composants électroniques étend son<br />

contrôle des marchandises grâce à un scanner à rayons X innovant<br />

et a ainsi toujours une longueur d’avance grâce à la garantie<br />

de quantités exactes.<br />

Резюме<br />

Ведущий дистрибьютор электронных компонентов расширяет<br />

свой товарный контроль с помощью инновационного<br />

рентгеновского сканера и, следовательно, благодаря<br />

гарантированному точному количеству всегда находится на<br />

шаг впереди.<br />

Source: Nordson Dage<br />

The automatic component<br />

counter has a key<br />

code that allows the<br />

respective operator to<br />

log in via his personal<br />

identification card.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 39


Source: Aegis USA<br />

Although there is a misconception of the abilities of AI, some current excellent applications involve speech recognition, text-to-speech, and noise detection/cancelation.<br />

Factory digitization<br />

Artificial Intelligence is<br />

not thinking yet<br />

Artificial Intelligence remains an emerging field. It has entered the mainstream consciousness through<br />

the abstract discussions and concerns among folks like Elon Musk and Mark Zuckerberg regarding<br />

future risks, advertisements that put forward an image of AI capability that evokes science fiction, and<br />

the increasing rate of movies exploring AI in robots that often end badly for their human progenitors.<br />

All of this has resulted in a flawed public perception of the actual state of AI. The following briefly<br />

summarizes Aegis’ view on the current technical capability and application value of AI, and then<br />

where the company thinks this capability can have practical application in manufacturing.<br />

Jason Spera, CEO, Aegis Software<br />

At present, AI is not ‘thinking.’ It cannot simulate or approximate<br />

the human capacity for intuition, inference, creation. In reality, it<br />

is not yet even close. It likely will be at some time, and we need to<br />

think toward that and plan for that, but to envision current applications<br />

predicated on a false belief in actual cognitive ability in AI is<br />

wasteful and unproductive. So, what is AI good for? One need only<br />

look slightly below the surface of even the marketing for AI applications<br />

one might see on television.<br />

Artificial Intelligence applications<br />

Finding snow leopards on a mountain face against which they are<br />

nearly perfectly camouflaged — finding the pattern within an archeological<br />

site image that would suggest where something of interest<br />

is located. These image processing applications are ideal for AI<br />

— because AI is good at finding patterns within images that, while<br />

humans also can do it, we find it tedious, slow, and are sloppy at it.<br />

AI algorithms don’t bore or degrade in their diligence and are even<br />

better than humans at reliably finding pattern matches at great<br />

speed in huge volumes of images. This pattern-matching capability<br />

is a great application for AI.<br />

Other current excellent applications of AI involve speech recognition,<br />

text-to-speech, and noise detection/cancelation. Once taught<br />

and given parameters, AI is excellent at evolving automatically to<br />

cancel noise from content more fluidly, and refining the way it<br />

understands a speaker, and how it might speak back.<br />

The above examples, while not exhaustive, have commonality.<br />

40 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Whether sound waves or raster images, AI excels at learning patterns,<br />

automatically evolving its comparative patterns, and making<br />

matches and suggestions. AI is differentiated from traditional algorithms<br />

in its ability to self-learn. In the snow leopard example, it<br />

would be possible to write a traditional algorithm that finds snow<br />

leopards, of course. But for this algorithm to improve, coders would<br />

have to continually refine the algorithm, and publish new versions<br />

regularly. The AI version gets better on its own because it learns and<br />

continuously refines the algorithm itself. AI is also adept at highspeed<br />

acts of tedium humans loathe, but this learning also enables<br />

it to become better at it—on its own—over time. The more it does,<br />

the better it becomes, so to speak. It is in this area of detecting<br />

anomalies or changes in patterns, becoming better at it with greater<br />

use and exposure to the problem, and pointing them out that AI has<br />

current and powerful potential.<br />

This pattern recognition and mapping extend to multidimensional,<br />

large volumes of patterns within data sets. Humans are woefully<br />

lacking in this area. Imagine extending the snow leopard search, not<br />

to one mountain but thousands, then add a third dimension to the<br />

data set of each.<br />

Managing big data<br />

That brings us to practical applications in manufacturing. Aegis entered<br />

this exploration from the perspective of what is lacking in<br />

MES/MOM and the digitization of factories, rather than from what<br />

AI can do or cannot do. Another element to the consideration was<br />

the fundamental tenet of Industry 4.0, which is a fully automatically<br />

adapting factory environment. This scenario led Aegis to believe<br />

that, ironically, it is factory digitization that has opened an opportunity—or<br />

more accurately, a need—for AI.<br />

IIoT and factory digitization has caused a massive increase in data<br />

sets available about everything happening in production. The precise<br />

real-time nature of each detail of production, materials, quality,<br />

operator actions, test data, throughput, errors, etc. is all entering<br />

giant data reservoirs. So, the question becomes, we have this data,<br />

why are we not seeing the grand benefits of Industry 4.0? The<br />

answer is simple—we aren’t doing anything with the data because<br />

there is too much for any human to make sense of it quickly enough<br />

and to derive any actions as a result of it.<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Der Artikel zeigt die Einschätzung, wo die gegenwärtige technische<br />

Fähigkeit und der Anwendungswert von KI liegt und wo diese<br />

Fähigkeit praktische Anwendung in der Fertigung finden könnte.<br />

Résumé<br />

L’article présente une évaluation de la capacité technique actuelle<br />

et de la valeur d’application de l’IA, ainsi que là où cette capacité<br />

pourrait trouver une application pratique en fabrication.<br />

Резюме<br />

В статье даётся оценка текущему техническому свойству и<br />

прикладная ценность искусственного интеллекта, и где это<br />

свойство может найти практическое применение в<br />

производстве.<br />

Source: Aegis USA<br />

This data gap is where the company believes AI will add value. The<br />

application of AI to continuously monitor and learn from the massive<br />

incoming data about production and do a few things with that to assist<br />

its human colleagues. First, its value comes in detecting areas<br />

for improvement to the processes by revealing causal relationships<br />

that humans could never detect. Detecting multidimensional cause/<br />

effect from factors not just on an assembly line but also from incoming<br />

materials, out to shipment, and back to design. This is a<br />

Factory digitization has opened a need for Artificial Intelligence, especially<br />

when it can detect areas for improvement by revealing causal relationships<br />

that humans could never detect.<br />

massive data set continuously in flux—which is where AI excels at<br />

establishing baseline patterns and then the deviations from it. This<br />

would enable AI to reveal opportunities for continuous improvement,<br />

to ultimately direct human colleagues to focus their investigation<br />

and apply their creativity, etc.<br />

Another potential value is in the area of scheduling and simulation.<br />

Once the AI has developed its baseline pattern of ‘normal’ or even<br />

‘ideal’ operations, it is in a great position to apply that to ‘what if’<br />

scenarios to help its human colleagues to see the impact of a<br />

sudden schedule change. However, it would not be doing this in the<br />

current algorithmic way, but more based on reality borne of extremely<br />

thorough historical patterns as well as the reality from production<br />

at the moment. This could usher in true, instantaneous production<br />

adaptation to nearly continuous flux in demand, materials<br />

supply, and product types.<br />

In the end, all of the envisioned applications are using AI to augment<br />

human shortcomings in the areas of pattern detection and the<br />

analysis of massive data sets in real-time to both see patterns, see<br />

changes to baseline patterns, and reveal the cause/effect of changing<br />

a pattern that is already understood.<br />

www.aiscorp.com<br />

Jason Spera is the co-founder<br />

of Aegis Software.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 41


Advancing the smart factory<br />

Smart electronics production<br />

with PC-based control<br />

Two companies in China, CYG Intelligent Automation Co., Ltd. (CYGIA) and CYGDM, have used<br />

PC-based control technology from Beckhoff to develop a smart factory platform with unified interfaces<br />

and protocols as part of a new and flexible manufacturing strategy for electronics products. The<br />

platform combines sensors, actuators, operator terminals, control systems and communications<br />

equipment in an intelligent network that connects multiple users, including humans with machines,<br />

and machines with services. From an Industry 4.0 perspective, the platform maximizes integration,<br />

both at the device level and at the vertical and horizontal production levels.<br />

Kevin Gao, Technical support engineer, Beckhoff China<br />

Formed in 2006, CYGIA is one of China’s foremost high-tech<br />

companies. Its business is customer-specific automation and<br />

test solutions for industries such as consumer electronics, semiconductors,<br />

automotive, energy, medical engineering and lighting technology,<br />

among others. CYGDM, founded in 2015, is a software and<br />

hardware services vendor specialized in developing and implementing<br />

smart factory solutions. Examples of projects include the ALC<br />

line control system, the iSPC smart data analytics system, and<br />

smart warehouse management and logistics systems.<br />

Open control technology for the smart factory<br />

CYGIA’s smart factory solution utilizes IoT and monitoring technology<br />

to facilitate information management, to track the production<br />

process better, to reduce manual intervention on production lines,<br />

and to streamline production planning. Other technologies deployed<br />

as part of the solution include simulation, multimedia, and augmented<br />

reality. CYGIA and CYGDM chose powerful CX2030 and<br />

CX9020 embedded PCs from Beckhoff to deliver the requisite computing<br />

power. The CX2030 handles higher-level hub control in the<br />

smart factory, while the CX9020 is used as control platform for distributed<br />

sub-stations. The open architecture of PC-based control,<br />

combined with ultra-fast EtherCAT communication technology,<br />

meets all their requirements when it comes to keeping response<br />

times as short as possible, while at the same time supporting timedivision<br />

multiplexing and multitasking, programming in high-level<br />

languages, and extensive data storage capacity.<br />

On the software side, the integration of the TwinCAT 3 automation<br />

software into Visual Studio is a key benefit for CYGIA’s experts: In<br />

their view, the standardized bottom-layer control platform, created<br />

in TwinCAT 3’s object-oriented development environment, combined<br />

with the upper-layer control platform developed in .NET, has<br />

made it easier to integrate a wide variety of devices and to shorten<br />

the time required to develop their smart factory solution. Plus,<br />

being able to develop the software on a modular and distributed<br />

CYGIA’s smart factory solution for electronics manufacturing.<br />

Source: CYGIA, China<br />

42 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Source: CYGIA, China<br />

Information displayed on the central control platform’s HMI.<br />

basis, they say, results in greater software efficiency while minimizing<br />

development and maintenance costs. In the higher-level control<br />

system, they use both ADS.Net components and the Dynamic Link<br />

Library (DLL) to implement asynchronous communication between<br />

the server and multiple clients. The entire communication architecture,<br />

they claim, not only saves time, it is efficient and compatible,<br />

too. In addition, the TwinCAT automation interface enables developers<br />

to program device interaction using COM technology.<br />

With TwinCAT, CYGIA’s engineers can use a unified, object-oriented,<br />

modular program framework, structured text, object-oriented programming<br />

and customer-specific libraries – all of which help streamline<br />

the development of this complex system. Joshua Wang, R&D<br />

Director at CYGIA, explains: “We’ve succeeded in improving programming<br />

efficiency through modularization and standardization.<br />

We only need to modify a few methods when developing new production<br />

technologies. The program may be large and complex, but<br />

we can reuse the code efficiently, nonetheless. The program has a<br />

clear structure, is easy to read, and is highly portable.”<br />

It makes the most of TwinCAT 3’s built-in capabilities for system<br />

configuration, PLC code development, motion control configuration,<br />

bus and module configuration, and HMI development, as well as its<br />

oscilloscope functionality. And the program structure, process control,<br />

data structure, alarm release and security control have all been<br />

standardized as well.<br />

Smart factory solution for mobile phone<br />

production<br />

The software and hardware from Beckhoff perfectly fulfill CYGIA’s<br />

requirements for smart solutions in electronics manufacturing.<br />

Compared to a conventional setup with separate production<br />

stations, the company’s system can achieve greater manufacturing<br />

and supply-chain flexibility and improve capacity utilization. For instance,<br />

it enables the ERP, MES and monitoring systems involved in<br />

the manufacture of mobile-phone circuit boards to exchange data,<br />

resulting in comprehensive process automation that spans everything<br />

from order booking and handling, material distribution, product<br />

manufacture and inspection to packaging, warehousing, logistics<br />

and transportation. The smart factory’s system architecture<br />

Source: CYGIA, China<br />

combines order, asset and quality management functions with a<br />

management dashboard, inventory control and product traceability.<br />

The intelligent warehouse assigns codes to all goods and creates<br />

unified racks and pallets that are carried by forklifts or shuttles into<br />

the intended positions. Each storage location is controlled by the<br />

warehouse management software. Product locations, inventory levels,<br />

open storage locations and storage strategies are all administered<br />

through a parameter management system. The CX9020 embedded<br />

PC is the core element in inventory control, running the PLC<br />

program, connecting to the local MES over TCP/IP, and operating as<br />

an NC controller for material requirements planning. It also connects<br />

with the extended part of the feed and removal mechanism,<br />

in a chain topology, via an EK1110 EtherCAT extension.<br />

The CX9020 embedded PC that controls the smart warehouse.<br />

The main elements in the automated production line include hollowboard<br />

printing, surface mounting, reflow welding, dispensing,<br />

screw locking, automated optical inspection, integrated and functional<br />

circuit testing, and packing and unpacking. The line has three<br />

CX2030 embedded PCs in total, which communicate at high speed<br />

with the higher-level central control system and are essential to ensuring<br />

efficient production and precise fabrication of semiconductor<br />

components.<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 43


The CX2030 embedded PC<br />

(left) that serves as the<br />

main controller for the<br />

automated production line.<br />

Source: CYGIA, China<br />

The master CX2030 runs both the PLC program and the motion<br />

control and HMI software. It also sends data bidirectionally at high<br />

speed between the control system and the MES over TwinCAT TCP/<br />

IP (TF6310), and controls the printing, surface mounting and reflow<br />

welding processes. Here, TwinCAT PLC/NC PTP 10/NC I (TC1260)<br />

provides full motion control functionality that can dynamically position<br />

20 EtherCAT servo axes per machine. The NC I interpolation<br />

function serves to achieve smooth, steady, coupled movements on<br />

two axes and to control the arc-welding process.<br />

The second CX2030 embedded PC runs PLCs, motion control and<br />

HMI software, handles communication over TCP/IP, and exchanges<br />

data with the ALC line control system. It also receives instructions<br />

from the MES over TCP/IP to run tests and execute packing and unpacking<br />

processes. It can flexibly configure ten EtherCAT servo<br />

axes through a synchronization device that can switch quickly and<br />

efficiently between specific test environments for different products.<br />

The third CX2030 handles PLCs, motion control and HMI software,<br />

and in addition controls a high-resolution TCP/IP camera for<br />

optical inspection.<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Eine Smart-Factory-Plattform stellt im Rahmen eines flexiblen Fertigungskonzepts<br />

für Elektronikprodukte einheitliche Schnittstellen<br />

und Protokolle bereit, so dass ein vollständiger Automatisierungsprozess,<br />

vom Auftragseingang bis zum Transport, realisiert wird.<br />

Résumé<br />

Une plate-forme Smart Factory fournit des interfaces et des protocoles<br />

uniformes dans le cadre d’un concept de fabrication flexible<br />

pour des produits électroniques, ce qui permet de réaliser un processus<br />

d’automatisation complet, depuis la réception des commandes<br />

jusqu’au transport.<br />

Резюме<br />

«Умная фабрика» предоставляет для электронных устройств в<br />

рамках гибкой производственной концепции<br />

унифицированные интерфейсы и протоколы, позволяющие<br />

реализовать полный автоматизированный процесс со стадии<br />

поступления заказов до доставки.<br />

EtherCAT technology boosts system performance<br />

CYGIA chose EtherCAT as a high-speed communication system to<br />

ensure fast, precise transmission of sensor signals. The company<br />

runs master communication on its automated production line over<br />

EtherCAT in a star topology. Slave devices are easy to connect,<br />

which simplifies management, maintenance and expansion. A line<br />

topology is used at sub-station level to keep the wiring as simple as<br />

possible.<br />

Says Jianming Huang, a senior electrical engineer: “The EL1809<br />

and EL2809 HD EtherCAT terminals are not just highly compact and<br />

inexpensive, they operate on multiple channels and can be configured<br />

flexibly for different topologies. They also support offline configuration<br />

and hot connect groups, which makes them much easier<br />

to set up. In addition, EtherCAT provides a wide range of useful information,<br />

such as diagnostic codes, diagnostic types, text IDs and<br />

time stamps. This helps to locate and fix master-slave communication<br />

outages potentially caused by EMC disturbance, cable damage<br />

or equipment faults. This makes maintenance much more efficient.”<br />

Future development potential<br />

The company’s aim with its smart factory solution is to integrate assembly<br />

and manufacturing units for discrete electronic components<br />

within a unified production system. Other goals are to connect production<br />

plants, to visualize production data, to make production processes<br />

transparent, and to create fully automated production sites.<br />

Given the broader trend toward Industry 4.0, CYGIA also needed<br />

smart factory software that would enable access to a wide range of<br />

data resources, including cloud computing, big data, and IoT.<br />

With TwinCAT 3, Joshua Wang has found the right solution and is<br />

now looking forward to the new production model the company has<br />

lined up: “We’ll gradually incorporate TwinCAT 3 functionality to support<br />

big data analysis, IoT advancements, and machine vision in future<br />

upgrades. Going forward, this will further enhance the setup of<br />

this hybrid control system to fully exploit the benefits of cloud data<br />

storage and distributed data interaction.”<br />

www.beckhoff.com; www.cygia.com<br />

44 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020



Introducing flexible laser marking solution<br />

The miniaturization of the printed circuit board with simultaneous<br />

high assembly density increases the requirement to apply codes in<br />

the smallest possible space. Asys has the answer: the laser marking<br />

system Insignum 6000 uses a CO2 laser and a positioning accuracy<br />

of ± 100 μm@5Sigma to mark codes smaller than 1 mm. Therefore,<br />

module sizes of < 3 mil (0.08 mm) are possible.<br />

A product becomes a unique specimen by providing it with a unique<br />

code. Traceability is the big keyword here. In times of electromobility<br />

and 5G technology, high performance electronics are applied to a<br />

smaller PCB area. Accordingly, the markings must also shrink. This<br />

requires a new type of technology in the field of laser marking.<br />

Laser marking with CO2<br />

The company’s laser experts have taken up the challenge. They have<br />

succeeded in guiding the laser beam through optics in such a way<br />

that a small spot is created with which 3 mil codes can be generated.<br />

This technology is integrated in the new laser marking system<br />

Insignum 6000 3 mil. The system uses a CO2 laser and a positioning<br />

accuracy of ± 100 μm@5Sigma to mark codes smaller than 1mm.<br />

Therefore, module sizes of < 3 mil (0,08 mm) are possible.<br />

Flexible platform – Configuring the machine<br />

With this flexible solution, it is possible to realize any requirements<br />

in the field of laser marking. In addition to the realization of module<br />

sizes smaller than 3 mil, model variants for double-track solutions,<br />

the processing of large format printed circuit boards and the marking<br />

of e.g. ceramics, plastics and DBC substrates are also possible.<br />

Transport system and laser types are individually adapted to the process<br />

requirements. Different laser sources such as CO2, fiber,<br />

green and UV can be used in the system to meet any special<br />

requirements. In the basic version, the plant is equipped with a<br />

10-Watt CO2 laser, X/Y linear axis and transport system.<br />

The benefits:<br />

• Miniature markings: codes smaller than 1 mm with module sizes<br />

< 3 mil<br />

• High-precision marking: with a positioning accuracy of ± 100 μm @<br />

5 sigma<br />

• Flexible: different laser sources can be integrated<br />

www.asys-group.com<br />

PanaCIM-EE Gen2 -<br />

Smart Factory solutions<br />

for today and tomorrow<br />

Shorter cycle times and optimized<br />

line productivity thanks to production<br />

planning at line level<br />

Digitization of all production steps and<br />

cross-plant inventory management thanks<br />

to systems for maintenance and asset<br />

management<br />

The laser marking system Insignum 6000 uses a CO2 laser to make markings<br />

smaller than 1mm.<br />

Source: Asys<br />

industry.panasonic.eu<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 45



Solution for assembly of press-fit contacts<br />

The flexible automatic inline system, FlexPresser II<br />

has a cell with a rear feeder bank, for all sorts of<br />

component feeding.<br />

With the FlexPresser, IPTE, a supplier of<br />

automation solutions for the electronics and<br />

mechanics industry, offers innovative, powerful<br />

and flexible press-fit solutions for almost<br />

every customer application. The next generation<br />

of this proven machine for the assembly<br />

of press-fit contacts, the FlexPresser<br />

II, is based on the High Dynamic Cell, the<br />

company’s new production cell, and is now<br />

available.<br />

The basis of the machine is a cell with a rear<br />

feeder bank, for all sorts of component feeding.<br />

The most important highlights of the<br />

FlexPresser II are a three-part belt segment<br />

for the PCB transport, the highly dynamic linear<br />

motors for moving the setting unit and a<br />

PCB support to absorb the joining forces.<br />

Source: IPTE<br />

High press-in forces of up to 7,000 Newton<br />

are possible, due to the adapted cell design.<br />

The IPTE FlexPresser II stands out:<br />

• Designed as a fully automatic inline system<br />

and easy to integrate into production lines:<br />

Feeding and removal of printed circuit<br />

boards with SMEMA interface.<br />

• Free programmable component positions<br />

(x, y, angle of rotation) creates huge flexibility<br />

during pickup and press-in, thus not only<br />

for layout or component changes purposes.<br />

• The wide feeder bank (max. 12 places)<br />

allows the docking of different component<br />

feeders such as stick feeders, tray feeders<br />

and sorting conveyors. Further customerspecific<br />

feeders are easy to integrate.<br />

• Excellent process monitoring through force<br />

and travel-dependent pressing-in.<br />

• Easy to adapt to application-specific<br />

requirements.<br />

• Press-in forces of up to 7,000 N.<br />

• Low maintenance linear motors allow high<br />

dynamic and precise positioning of the setting<br />

unit.<br />

• An optional vision scan of the component<br />

pins with subsequent position correction<br />

compensates component tolerances and<br />

improves the quality of the press-in process.<br />

• An automatic gripper quick-change system<br />

allows different component types to be<br />

pressed in per PCB without operator intervention.<br />

• A quick-change system for the PCB support<br />

plate minimizes set-up times for other PCB<br />

types.<br />

• Stepless variable press-in speeds allow<br />

flexible adaptation to different setting<br />

tasks.<br />

• For smooth maintenance access, the component<br />

feeders are quickly undocked from<br />

the machine and easily re-docked afterwards.<br />

• For process monitoring, the placement process<br />

is carried out with a controlled placement<br />

force.<br />

High dynamic cell – the<br />

production cell<br />

IPTE is successively converting all its production<br />

cells to the new design. In addition to<br />

align to the requirements of Industry 4.0, to<br />

introduce a new visual appearance and to optimize<br />

the arrangement of machine components,<br />

the new generation of the company‘s<br />

production cells adds another step into the<br />

further standardization of the so-called standard<br />

machines. The new High Dynamic Cell<br />

series is available with a height of two<br />

meters, three widths (1 m, 1.5 m & 2 m) and<br />

three depths (1.5 m, 1.7 m & 2 m). They are<br />

scalable depending on the application and<br />

customer requirements.<br />

With the new production cells, IPTE offers a<br />

powerful and modern concept for the automation<br />

of various manufacturing processes<br />

in electronics and mechanical production.<br />

This new line contains many improvements<br />

compared to the previous generation.<br />

www.ipte.com<br />

Robot flexibility boost with software for feeder<br />

Yamaha Motor <strong>Europe</strong> Factory Automation<br />

section is giving customers extra power to<br />

boost the pick-and-place flexibility and productivity<br />

of their Scara and cartesian robots<br />

by providing a free software plugin for the<br />

Asyril Asycube intelligent parts feeder.<br />

The software eases integration of Asycube<br />

and lets the intelligent feeder take advantage<br />

of RCXiVY2+ high-speed, high-resolution vision<br />

system. Any of the company’s Scara or<br />

cartesian robot compatible with the RCX320<br />

or RCX340 controller can rely on Asycube to<br />

quickly sort and orientate bulk components for<br />

easier, faster, pickup. This feeder intelligently<br />

adjusts vibration frequency, amplitude, and<br />

platter orientation to position the parts optimally,<br />

leveraging advanced 3-axis vibration technology.<br />

A standard Ethernet connection simplifies<br />

setup and scalability is assured by con-<br />

necting multiple feeders via a switching hub.<br />

“The plugin software for Asycube easily integrates<br />

the Asyril flexible feeder with Yamaha’s<br />

fast and agile robots and efficient<br />

RCXiVY2+ vision system to bring further<br />

flexibility and increase productivity,” said Ryosuke<br />

Nakamura, Branch Manager of Yamaha<br />

Motor <strong>Europe</strong> Robotics Division.<br />

The plugin integrates Asycube with Scara and<br />

cartesian robots and sharpens pick-and-place<br />

flexibility with Yamaha RCXiVY2+ non-stop vision.<br />

Source: Yamaha Motor <strong>Europe</strong> N.V.<br />

The RCXiVY2+ vision system maximises the<br />

advantages of Asycube with features such as<br />

non-stop vision that checks the pickup orientation<br />

on the fly. This system, developed using<br />

knowhow gained from high-speed surfacemount<br />

electronics assembly, increases productivity<br />

by up to 20 %. Any gripping deviation<br />

is automatically corrected, allowing picked<br />

parts to be placed or assembled directly.<br />

The Asycube plugin is available to download<br />

for registered users of the company’s robot<br />

member website. It also contains information<br />

to help select equipment and accessories<br />

such as actuators, tips on product<br />

design for robotic assembly, and help to<br />

setup, program, and maintain Yamaha industrial<br />

robots.<br />

www.yamaha-motor-im.eu<br />

46 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

Green vapor degreasing cleaners<br />

MicroCare’s vapor degreasing chemistries<br />

help improve the manufacturing process of<br />

electronic devices. The Tergo family of cleaning<br />

products boasts impressive ‘green’ credentials.<br />

“When it comes to selecting cleaning solutions<br />

for vapor degreasing, we are seeing a<br />

change to the approach in which the electronics<br />

industry is choosing their cleaning<br />

processes,” said Rob Lee, Senior Market and<br />

Technical Manager. “A very important consideration<br />

is its sustainability. Cleaning processes<br />

must minimize any negative environmental<br />

impact, while also conserving resources<br />

like energy and water. At the same<br />

time, it has to clean effectively. This is particularly<br />

important as electronic components<br />

become smaller and more intricate.” “Another<br />

significant factor is ensuring the safety<br />

of the workers. The Tergo product range upholds<br />

regulatory compliances with excellent<br />

toxicity profiles, making them safer for the<br />

environment and people. The vapor degreasing<br />

and the product range, including Tergo<br />

high performance flux remover are having a<br />

very positive effect on long-term sustainable<br />

cleaning for companies around the world.”<br />

The Tergo high performance flux remover is a<br />

non-flammable fluid engineered for cleaning<br />

PCBs in vapor degreasers. It features a nonvolatile<br />

additive specifically developed to<br />

clean challenging high-temperature solder<br />

pastes and flux residue, stubborn white residue<br />

and water-soluble (OA) fluxes. This flux<br />

remover is a drop-in replacement for many<br />

older legacy chemistries that are being<br />

phased-out under environmental, health,<br />

safety or economic pressures. It also makes<br />

it an excellent replacement for power-hungry<br />

aqueous cleaning machines, therefore helping<br />

to conserve natural resources.<br />

The Tergo chlorine-free cleaning fluid is a nonflammable<br />

cleaner, which contains no harmful<br />

chlorine-containing elements. This ensures<br />

strict global regulatory and environmental<br />

boundaries. It is an effective degreaser offering<br />

comprehensive and reliable cleaning of<br />

the most challenging contamination including<br />

The Tergo high performance flux remover is a<br />

non-flammable fluid engineered for cleaning PCBs<br />

in vapor degreasers.<br />

complex shapes and delicate substrates.<br />

In addition, since the vapor degreasing process<br />

is automated, it provides an effective<br />

way to batch clean circuit boards with just<br />

one operator. It easily meets local and global<br />

health agency Covid-19 social distancing recommendations<br />

without manufacturers needing<br />

to stagger production schedules or run<br />

extra shifts.<br />

www.microcare.com<br />

Source: MicroCare<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

‹ Process control by KY<br />

realtime monitoring<br />

‹ User-friendly library<br />

manager for local<br />

access to global<br />

database<br />

Koh Young <strong>Europe</strong> GmbH<br />

Industriegebiet Süd E4<br />

63755 Alzenau<br />

Tel. +49 (0)6188 9935663<br />

E-mail: europe@kohyoung.com<br />

www.kohyoung.com<br />

‹ Improvement of<br />

processes through<br />

<br />

data<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 47



Injection principle in vapour phase soldering<br />

Whether in aerospace technology, medical<br />

electronics, e-mobility and automotive,<br />

power electronics, LED production or in the<br />

aerospace & defence sector – the areas of<br />

application for reflow soldering are diverse.<br />

Electronic components only function in end<br />

devices thanks to high-quality soldering of<br />

the electronic contact points. But what if the<br />

components on the circuit board are very<br />

large or of high-mass? Or if vacuum soldering<br />

processes need to be realised inline?<br />

This is where the efficiency of condensation<br />

soldering (vapour phase soldering) stands<br />

out, for example with the Condenso series<br />

systems from Rehm Thermal Systems. The<br />

heat transfer is up to ten times higher than<br />

with convection soldering, so even large,<br />

high-mass boards can be reliably processed<br />

in a stable atmosphere and with the added<br />

advantage of their innovative vacuum technology.<br />

Condensation with injection<br />

principle<br />

Vapour phase soldering is not a new invention,<br />

but with the company’s patented systems<br />

within the Condenso series, a greater<br />

range of flexibility is provided for the soldering<br />

process than can be achieved with other<br />

more conventional methods. The usage of an<br />

injection principle and the control of the temperature,<br />

the number of injections, as well as<br />

its quantity, and the pressure (vacuum) facilitates<br />

more precise and more diverse reflow<br />

profiling. The soldering process takes place in<br />

a hermetically sealed process chamber.<br />

With condensation soldering, a film of liquid<br />

builds up with the aid of the heat-conducting<br />

medium, Galden, which is distributed<br />

throughout the entire process chamber and<br />

The Condenso series provides a greater range of flexibility for the soldering process.<br />

surrounds the whole assembly and evaporates.<br />

The vapour condenses for as long as<br />

the assembly takes to reach a soldering temperature<br />

of between 240 and 260 °C. Galden<br />

is perfluoropolyether, a liquid polymer that<br />

consists of carbon, fluorine and oxygen.<br />

Rehm uses the patented injection principle<br />

to achieve better control of the condensation<br />

phase. In the process, exactly the right quantity<br />

of Galden is added at the correct time.<br />

With this procedure, the latent heat that is<br />

released during the change in state of the<br />

medium from its vaporous form to a liquid is<br />

then used to warm up an assembly evenly<br />

and constantly. Galden is a self-limited medium.<br />

This offers additional safety as the components<br />

cannot overheat.<br />

Vacuum – for maximum<br />

reliability<br />

This condensation principle with vacuum has<br />

proven to be extremely efficient and reliable<br />

in practice. Due to the increased demand for<br />

high-performance electronics and safety-relevant<br />

electronic components, a vacuum soldering<br />

process is increasingly sought after.<br />

The vacuum technology of the Condenso is<br />

therefore used in an extremely varied range<br />

of processes. Reflow soldering reduces oxidation<br />

and increases solder joint reliability by<br />

reducing voids. This results in soldering<br />

points with a surface bonding percentage of<br />

up to 99 %. In addition, a vacuum can already<br />

be drawn during the heating phase before<br />

the actual soldering process. This facilitates<br />

not only a more even distribution of the<br />

Galden vapor in the process room but also<br />

the degassing of solvent and moisture from<br />

the soldering paste. Furthermore, in addition<br />

to the temperature, the atmosphere can also<br />

be varied over the entire time in the process<br />

chamber.<br />

Proven technology – adapted<br />

for the entire series<br />

The range of condensation soldering systems<br />

from the company has been continuously<br />

expanded due to market requirements.<br />

Thus, their customers now have access to<br />

optimised production equipment for the condensation<br />

soldering processes. The flexible<br />

system variants of the Condenso smart<br />

series can be integrated in an extremely<br />

broad range of production environments. Regardless<br />

of whether batch operation, inline<br />

connection or soldering in the run-through<br />

process is required, Rehm provides maximum<br />

process reliability for all areas.<br />

www.rehm-group.com<br />

Source: Rehm Thermal Systems GmbH<br />

Manual cleaning bath concentration measurement<br />

Source: Zestron <strong>Europe</strong><br />

The bath analyzer is a manual test that enables a reliable<br />

concentration measurement of cleaning baths.<br />

In order to achieve good cleaning results consistently,<br />

the cleaner concentration in the<br />

cleaning bath should remain constant. The<br />

concentration can change through various<br />

process factors like carry-over or thinning. It<br />

is therefore advisable to check the concentration<br />

over time.<br />

A simple method for regular concentration<br />

checks is the Zestron Bath analyzer. The<br />

quick manual test enables a reliable and<br />

exact concentration measurement of cleaning<br />

baths whether new or used. In addition,<br />

the inexpensive test method is compact and<br />

portable, enabling flexible usage throughout<br />

the production environment. For the bath<br />

concentration measurement of alkaline<br />

cleaning media, the Bath analyzer 10 is recommended,<br />

because it also indicates the alkalinity<br />

of the cleaner using a color code. The<br />

Bath analyzer 20 was designed exclusively<br />

for the measurement of pH-neutral cleaning<br />

media.<br />

The Zestron Eye is an automatic method that<br />

displays cleaning agent concentration measurement<br />

results in real time and is an alternative to<br />

the manual Bath Analyzer products.<br />

www.zestron.com<br />

48 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

Soldering solution adapts to all future requirements<br />

With the SelectLine platform, Seho developed<br />

a selective soldering system<br />

that provides the highest precision and<br />

solder joint quality and features maximum<br />

flexibility. The machine concept is<br />

consistently modular, thus ensuring clear<br />

cost benefits. Several modules with different<br />

dimensions can be configurated individually<br />

with fluxer, preheatings, soldering<br />

units, cooling modules, selective<br />

brush unit and AOI system. Thus, it<br />

adapts to virtually any manufacturing<br />

requirement and if the production conditions<br />

should change, it may be expanded,<br />

the configuration can be modified, or SelectLine<br />

modules can be shifted to different<br />

manufacturing lines at any time. Up<br />

to six soldering units and more than 15<br />

parallel workstations can be integrated in<br />

one system.<br />

Electro-magnetic soldering units with innovative<br />

nozzles for mini-wave and<br />

multi-wave soldering processes are part<br />

of the standard machine equipment.<br />

Maximum throughput requirements are<br />

met with the Synchro concept, patented<br />

by Seho. This intelligent software feature<br />

coordinates the soldering process with<br />

several soldering units for one assembly<br />

type in such a way that the cycle time is<br />

nearly halved without the need for significant<br />

investment. If different products<br />

are manufactured in mixed operation,<br />

the SmartSplit function ensures automatic<br />

split of the available soldering<br />

units, thus providing maximum throughput<br />

rates.<br />

Automatic ultrasonic cleaning of solder<br />

nozzles is another highlight in the soldering<br />

area. The solder nozzle is gently<br />

cleaned and completely re-wetted. The<br />

SelectLine is ideally suited for using the<br />

new LongLife mini-wave solder nozzle.<br />

This new nozzle features a lifetime that<br />

is at least three times longer than that of<br />

conventional nozzles. Therefore, the an-<br />

The SelectLine platform can be easily<br />

be expanded or modified if the production<br />

conditions should change.<br />

nual savings potential is remarkable.<br />

Maintenance requirements for the new<br />

nozzle are significantly reduced. The<br />

LongLife solder nozzle does not need to<br />

be cleaned or re-activated throughout a<br />

complete production shift. In addition,<br />

there is no activation needed prior to<br />

production start.<br />

Moreover, the solution is perfectly prepared<br />

for the constantly growing requirements<br />

in the manufacturing of next-generation<br />

products, such as 5G antennas or<br />

LED technology. By means of an automatic<br />

software switch, the system is able<br />

to process virtually endlessly long PCBs.<br />

The software automatically coordinates<br />

and optimizes the assembly transport<br />

and the positioning of the process<br />

stations. As the individual processing<br />

stations thereby do not have to match the<br />

actual length of the assemblies, it stands<br />

out for its very compact design. This minimizes<br />

production floor costs, resulting in<br />

an excellent cost-efficiency.<br />

The SelectLine provides a complete hardware<br />

and software package for 100 %<br />

automated process control. The flux<br />

quantity monitoring system and gradientcontrolled<br />

temperature profiles in the preheat<br />

area, automatic monitoring of the nitrogen<br />

quantity and nitrogen quality, the<br />

touchless wave height control or automatic<br />

setup control and tool measurement<br />

are only some of the monitoring<br />

functions that ensure a reliable process.<br />

The machine can be equipped with a selective<br />

brush system for automatic removal<br />

of solder balls and an AOI system<br />

for automatic inspection of solder joints<br />

immediately after the soldering or brushing<br />

process. The advantages are obvious:<br />

Safe and reliable processes on the<br />

one hand and reduced overall production<br />

costs on the other hand.<br />

www.seho.de<br />

IPTE strenghtens its<br />

presence in E-Mobility<br />

On October 22nd this year,<br />

AZL together with an<br />

international industrial<br />

consortium consisting of<br />

automotive OEM Audi and<br />

suppliers along the value<br />

chain, including IPTE,<br />

will launch a joint project to<br />

develop a multi-material<br />

battery casing.<br />

The 8-month product<br />

development will start<br />

with an international market<br />

analysis as well as a concept<br />

study in which different<br />

multi-material component<br />

concepts including production<br />

scenarios will be developed<br />

and evaluated with regard to<br />

their costs. Finally, a final<br />

multi-material battery casing<br />

is designed in detail, which<br />

will be manufactured as a<br />

prototype in a follow-up<br />

project.<br />

Source: Seho<br />

www.ipte.com<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 49



Productivity boost with E-solutions<br />

When the growing demand for smart-home<br />

solutions had pushed Norwegian manufacturer<br />

CTM Lyng AS to its capacity limits, the<br />

company decided to transition to an integrated<br />

smart factory with E-Solutions for<br />

printing and placement as well as with ASM<br />

software solutions. The result: much more<br />

throughput and improvements in flexibility<br />

and productivity.<br />

Embarking in new directions<br />

“After our production had moved more and<br />

more toward our own smart-home solutions,<br />

the time had come in 2018 to make the<br />

necessary replacement and expansion investments,”<br />

explains Thomas Kruksve, process<br />

engineer. “Both production lines had<br />

reached their capacity limit, and our technical<br />

capabilities were no longer in line with the<br />

high demands we place on our products in<br />

terms of quality and flexibility.”<br />

Another goal was to modernize and automate<br />

the Norwegian company‘s material<br />

management operations with powerful hardware<br />

and software solutions. “Our operators<br />

handled the material management and production<br />

planning more or less by the seat of<br />

their pants in processes that had grown over<br />

the years, which made the workflows increasingly<br />

susceptible to mistakes, depending<br />

on specific people, and more labor-intensive<br />

as the number of products and variants<br />

increased,” adds Thomas Kruksve.<br />

Innovative total package<br />

The company compared proposals from various<br />

equipment suppliers in detailed evaluations.<br />

“We wanted a mid-speed solution<br />

with short setup times and optimized material<br />

supplies that would give us the flexibility<br />

we needed to produce the PCB for our various<br />

product lines. ASM quickly was at the<br />

top of the short-list with its E-Solutions for<br />

printing and placement. We were particularly<br />

impressed by the software concept because<br />

the E-solutions software is identical to the<br />

software for ASM’s high-end solutions, which<br />

makes it compatible with their workflow solutions.<br />

In combination with forward-looking<br />

solutions like the Material Manager and Remote<br />

Smart Factory, the total package was<br />

unbeatable in terms of cost, effective benefits<br />

and investment protection,” says<br />

Kruksve.<br />

Optimally positioned<br />

ASM implemented one E by DEK printer and<br />

three E by Siplace placement machines. To<br />

supply the production with component reels,<br />

an automatic Material Tower storage system<br />

is available. Material-related processes and<br />

setups are coordinated via the Material Manager<br />

software solution, which closed the<br />

software support gap between the ERP and<br />

the shop floor.<br />

“The new ASM equipment provides us with<br />

complete control over all aspects of the PCB<br />

production for the more than 300 of our own<br />

products,” says Thomas Kruksve. “From<br />

small batches to lots sizes of between 2,000<br />

and 4,000 units, we now produce exactly<br />

based on demand and with a level of speed<br />

and quality that we could never achieve in the<br />

past. The teaching and simulation processes<br />

for new product introductions are also impressive<br />

and accelerate the entire NPI process.<br />

And the new setup and material supply<br />

concept has cut our setup changeover times<br />

from several hours to a few minutes.”<br />

Significantly faster setups<br />

For example, on the old production lines of<br />

CTM Lyng, setup changeovers lasting two to<br />

three hours were everyday occurrences –<br />

time that was long and unproductive. With<br />

the Material Manager and a new family setup<br />

concept of the ASM E-Solutions, the setup<br />

times dropped to as little as one to five minutes,<br />

with 50 different products run on the<br />

line. “These are numbers that deliver previously<br />

unthinkable benefits,” says Kruksve.<br />

Support is also provided by the Line Monitor,<br />

which pools all production-relevant material<br />

status information and displays it above the<br />

line and on all station computers. Order and<br />

line status data is now available at a glance.<br />

The software prioritizes all pending steps on<br />

the lines and alerts the line with plenty of<br />

lead time – for example, whether a new component<br />

reel is needed or the remaining units<br />

on the reel are still sufficient to complete an<br />

order.<br />

Material management optimized<br />

and automated<br />

The installation of the Material Manager and<br />

the Material Tower led to significant changes<br />

at CTM Lyng. “The introduction of workflow<br />

solutions required our employees to change<br />

their way of thinking,” explains Thomas<br />

Kruksve. “ASM helped us to accomplish this<br />

with professional training that alleviated their<br />

initial reservations and demonstrated the advantages<br />

of automation and showed them<br />

how to deal with it. Today, we all benefit from<br />

having an accurate overview of what is<br />

where on the shop floor. And the fact that<br />

the machines trigger material issues by<br />

themselves and notify the operators in advance<br />

of what needs to be picked up and installed<br />

where, is a huge improvement for<br />

us.”<br />

Secure access to service specialists<br />

To enable ASM’s service specialists to provide<br />

support for CTM Lyng‘s operators and<br />

technicians at any time, the company also<br />

decided to install the Remote Smart Factory<br />

solution that connects all ASM line components<br />

and systems in a remote service LAN<br />

that’s separate from their corporate network<br />

and even has its own internet link. When<br />

problems occur or settings need to be improved,<br />

ASM service technicians can now access<br />

the machines directly and instantly. And<br />

if manual actions are needed to troubleshoot<br />

or optimize a machine, the specialist can be<br />

consulted via video link and give the local<br />

technician step-by-step instructions. “They<br />

can access our machines only if we request<br />

it, and all activities are logged in detail. These<br />

links, which meet our strict security standards,<br />

have been very useful several times<br />

already, and always quickly and very efficiently,”<br />

says Kruksve.<br />

www.asm-smt.com<br />

Source: ASM<br />

With the three E by<br />

Siplace placement<br />

solutions, setup times<br />

of up to three hours<br />

have been reduced to<br />

just a few minutes.<br />

50 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

Installing X-ray component counter<br />

Dynamic Source Manufacturing, Inc., a high-volume, fully integrated,<br />

leading-edge technology manufacturing and turn-key assembly<br />

organization, has recently installed the Nordson Dage Assure<br />

X-ray component counter at their Calgary location.<br />

Celebrating its 20 th year in business, DSM embraces leading-edge<br />

technology when selecting equipment for its state-of-the-art, worldclass<br />

manufacturing facilities. With its primary focus on printed circuit<br />

board assembly, the company also provides mechanical assembly,<br />

design for manufacture, and supply chain management services<br />

for its strategic customer partners ensuring a steady flow of<br />

critical customer assemblies and components via their long-term<br />

supplier partnerships.<br />

“Over the past decade it has become apparent that in order for<br />

contract manufacturers to stay competitive locally and internationally,<br />

selecting quality automation equipment designed into lean, high-volume,<br />

efficient assembly processes are paramount. Such investments<br />

allow DSM to be agile in its manufacturing planning and processing<br />

while ensuring accuracy, quality, and shortened delivery lead times to<br />

our customers.” stated by Kevin Falenda, General Manager.<br />

“Additionally, with the continued emergence of IoT4 globally, the<br />

Assure X-ray component counter assists DSM on its integration<br />

path of ensuring all its factory’s equipment are connected and working<br />

together to minimize/eliminate manual labor intensive data processing<br />

and line down scenarios by receiving notifications early in<br />

the process that can be addressed before they become an issue.”<br />

Business Development Manager from Nordson, Todd O’Neil stated<br />

“Immediately after the installation, we were able to connect to 3 rd<br />

party s/w systems for reel and feeder management, which tied into<br />

an inventory control storage system. These features are standard on<br />

our machine. Before we left after just two days, their team was able<br />

to begin their semiannual inventory and count nearly 2000 reels in a<br />

couple of days, and with zero programming. This would have taken<br />

weeks using the manual counting method”.<br />

Inventory knowledge is essential for modern industry. Live assurance<br />

of correct inventory in an MRP system at all times minimizes stock,<br />

labor, errors and costs ensuring customer confidence and trust.<br />

Assure is a fast, simple and reliable way to implement live component<br />

inventory management into an organization. The solution increases<br />

productivity and minimizes component shortage downtime.<br />



LIMITS<br />

Contact solutions<br />

from finest pitches<br />

to highest currents.<br />

Every child<br />

is one of a kind and unique. Each child needs<br />

individual support according to their needs.<br />

Please help us by donating. Thank you!<br />

www.nordsondage.com; www.dynamicsourcemfg.com<br />

DMS acquired the Assure X-ray componen counter, which minimizes<br />

component shortage downtime.<br />

Source: Nordson Dage<br />

Tel.: 0800/50 30 300 (free of charge)<br />

IBAN DE22 4306 0967 2222 2000 00<br />


www.sos-kinderdoerfer.de<br />

2016/1<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 51


CCI systems use UV illumination<br />

Reliable and fast conformal<br />

coating inspection provides<br />

greater safety<br />

In recent years, the conformal coating production process has become increasingly important for electronics<br />

manufacturing. In this process, protective coatings are applied to printed circuit boards at a standard thickness<br />

ranging from 100 to 200 μm 1) . The coatings are designed to protect the entire assembly or individual components<br />

against environmental factors such as dirt, dust, moisture and condensation, as well as against temperature changes.<br />

Protective coatings may also have insulating properties and can be used to protect against electrical breakdown.<br />

The S3088 CCI‘s integrated UV LEDS provide optimal contrasting<br />

between protective coatings and non-coated areas.<br />

There are many different manufacturers that offer a wide range of<br />

conformal coatings for various areas of application. In most<br />

cases, the coatings are either silicon- or acrylic-based, so different illumination<br />

options also need to be taken into consideration during<br />

inspection. The coatings are easy to handle, they adhere well, and<br />

their viscosity can be easily adapted, making them suitable for use<br />

in many different areas. They offer precise handling especially when<br />

being applied, and they cure reliably.<br />

There are also chemical hybrids and environmentally-friendly coatings<br />

in use which contain no solvents. Demand for these is growing,<br />

as they contain fewer volatile organic compounds (VOC). However,<br />

these conformal coatings do not provide the same level of adhesion<br />

as solvent-based coatings. In series production, conformal<br />

coatings are normally applied via dosing systems, making the entire<br />

process reproducible. In prototype environment and small lot size<br />

production, the coatings can be applied manually.<br />

Source: Viscom AG<br />

Protecting safety-relevant electronics is crucial<br />

Conformal coatings are often used when electronic systems need<br />

to perform with high levels of reliability. These electronic systems<br />

need to be impervious to environmental factors, as they are often<br />

responsible for performing safety-relevant tasks. Conformal coatings<br />

are used in the military and maritime sector, in aerospace, in industry<br />

automation and the automotive industry, which in recent<br />

years has contributed tremendously to the continued development<br />

of the overall conformal coating process, as well as to the development<br />

of new coatings. This development has played a crucial role in<br />

electromobility and in semi-autonomous driving. Through these applications,<br />

a growing number of electronic systems are finding their<br />

way into vehicles, including camera systems and sensors which perform<br />

safety-relevant tasks and, in some cases, are already making<br />

decisions for human drivers.<br />

For this reason, high levels of reliability are imperative. And they will<br />

play a decisive role in future developments in the area of autonomous<br />

vehicles and aircraft, as these safety-relevant systems are<br />

exposed to wide-ranging, critical environmental factors. Salt spray,<br />

extreme temperature changes and chemicals, such as those used in<br />

car washes, can cause electronic assemblies to oxidize and become<br />

damaged. Protection, and hence proper functioning, can only be<br />

achieved by applying conformal coating to assemblies or critical<br />

components. The situation is similar in other application areas, such<br />

as green energy, where control units in solar parks and wind turbines<br />

are exposed to demanding environmental conditions, including<br />

salty sea air and extreme changes in humidity and temperature.<br />

Source<br />

1) Figure provided by Electrolube (introduction to the product brochure<br />

„Conformal Coatings: Enhanced protection for ultimate PCB performance“).<br />

Coating thicknesses up to 300 μm can be found in other<br />

sources.<br />

52 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020


Source: Viscom AG<br />

Various forms of surface-level damage are made visible by<br />

the ultraviolet light, such as cracks, blisters, missing coating<br />

(right) and bubbles (left).<br />

Other reasons for the growing use of conformal coatings include<br />

progressive miniaturization as well as the increasing component<br />

density on electronic assemblies. This development is accompanied<br />

by a growth in system functionality. The insulating effect of protective<br />

coatings allows the distance between conductor paths to be reduced,<br />

thus making higher component densities possible. In addition,<br />

the conductor paths are able to carry more electrical power,<br />

which leads to better performance in end devices.<br />

Defects and risks of conformal coating<br />

However, all applications of conformal coating have one prerequisite:<br />

the assembly surface and the applied protective coating must<br />

form a stable, fixed bond, and this bond must hold up against the<br />

environmental conditions described above. The growing demands<br />

on this process are not entirely unproblematic — the final quality of<br />

the conformal coating can be negatively impacted by many materialand<br />

process-related variables. These defects have many different<br />

causes. A large portion of them can be traced backed to impurities<br />

on the assembly, which in turn arise when the circuit board or components<br />

are manufactured, or which become attached during assembly<br />

production. Material incompatibilities and also quality issues<br />

in circuit boards and components, such as poor solder resist curing,<br />

flux residues and separating agents on component housings, can<br />

play a role in this as well. In most cases this leads to delamination<br />

between the assembly surface and the protective coating.<br />

Many other defects can arise frequently and in many different<br />

forms. For example, coating can be applied to locations which need<br />

to remain uncoated, such as sockets and contacts. Another defect<br />

is blistering. Blisters form when air becomes trapped, and in the<br />

worst case they can push through to the surface, burst open and<br />

leave craters during curing. Moreover, if the coating is applied with<br />

excessive pressure, the resulting foam can cause orange peel to<br />

form on the coating surface. The thickness of the applied protective<br />

coating layer also plays a role — the coating must be applied evenly.<br />

Exceeding the layer thicknesses recommended in the manufacturer‘s<br />

technical data sheets can lead to delamination and cracks in<br />

the coating, or may cause solvent to become trapped, which in turn<br />

may cause the formation of blisters. Double-coating as well should<br />

only be performed if the material allows for it.<br />

In addition to handling the protective coating in accordance with the<br />

manufacturer‘s specifications, the application process needs to be<br />

performed without defects and with the right configuration of systems.<br />

The assembly to be protected needs to be pretreated. There<br />

is a wide range of solutions available for this. Plasma surface treatment<br />

not only cleans the assembly, but also activates the surface,<br />

allowing a stable bond to be formed between the components. Finally,<br />

an automated assembly inspection is the only way to reliably<br />

acquire information about the extent to which the conformal coating<br />

process was performed without defects. This inspection is essential<br />

because it is the only way to ensure compliance with standards and<br />

specifications.<br />

Conformal coating inspection: quality criteria<br />

The applied protective coating needs to be inspected in terms of<br />

three quality criteria: coating presence, the even and defect-free application<br />

of the coating, and layer thickness. The latter can only be<br />

determined with a coating thickness spot measurement process,<br />

and in practice random sample spot measurements have proven effective<br />

for this. For comprehensive inspections of large areas of a<br />

circuit board to determine whether the coating is present and has<br />

been applied evenly and without defects, the suitable option is automatic<br />

optical inspection (AOI), which is called conformal coating in-<br />

The S3088 CCI also works with Viscom‘s vVision and Easy Pro inspection<br />

software.<br />

Source: Viscom AG<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 53


The S3088 CCI inspection<br />

system has camera resolution<br />

of up to 15 μm/pixel and offers<br />

inspection of transparent<br />

protective coatings.<br />

spection (CCI) when used for applied protective coatings. Since the<br />

coating is usually transparent and therefore contains few structures,<br />

fluorescent dyes must be used, which can be recognized by the AOI<br />

system‘s special cameras.<br />

Source: Viscom AG<br />

CCI functions and areas of application<br />

CCI systems use UV illumination because coating manufacturers<br />

normally add ultraviolet fluorescent particles to their products. These<br />

particles can be easily detected by cameras with UV LEDs, thereby<br />

making it possible to perform manual and automatic optical inspections<br />

on coatings. For this, the particles need to be evenly distributed,<br />

and they need to fluoresce uniformly and steadily. If the<br />

coating layer has been evenly applied, the properties of the fluorescent<br />

particles ensure that light is emitted at a consistent intensity<br />

when the particles are exposed to continuous UV light. Camera systems<br />

are able to detect and capture the emitted light intensity. Various<br />

forms of surface-level damage, such as cracks, blisters, orange<br />

peel, excessive coating and even missing coating are made visible by<br />

the ultraviolet light. The use of camera systems mounted at angles<br />

enables the documentation of these defects and imperfections, as<br />

well as of missing protective coating in visible and illuminable gaps,<br />

such as the coating on pins and in the spaces between them.<br />

The inspection images captured by the CCI system are automatically<br />

analyzed for acceptance or rejection with permitted tolerance<br />

values. Detected deviations are classified as defects. Other indicators<br />

which can be used for optimizing the conformal coating process<br />

are evaluated as well. The protective coating can be inspected<br />

both before and after it has cured. With a wet inspection, the coating<br />

is inspected before it cures, which makes subsequent reworking<br />

and improvements by manufacturing personnel possible.<br />

The S3088 CCI inspection system from Viscom AG offers inspection<br />

of transparent protective coatings. With a camera system that features<br />

one orthogonal and eight angled cameras, as well as a transport<br />

clearance of 105 mm for circuit boards, the S3088 CCI sets<br />

itself apart from the other S3088-series systems. It also works with<br />

Viscom‘s vVision and Easy Pro inspection software, and hence features<br />

the same user interface as the other AOI systems. In standard<br />

configuration, the S3088 CCI can perform inline inspections on circuit<br />

boards measuring 508 mm x 508 mm. Standard options are<br />

available for longer boards. It is important to note that different coating<br />

types require different exposure times. For less reflective coatings<br />

that contain silicon, the HD option provides a more powerful<br />

emission of UV light.<br />

The S3088 CCI‘s integrated UV LEDS provide optimal contrasting<br />

between protective coatings and non-coated areas. With a camera<br />

resolution of up to 15 μm/pixel, the S3088 CCI makes cracks,<br />

blisters, smearing and coating splatter easy to see. The coating can<br />

also be inspected for completeness. In addition to dry inspection,<br />

the it also offers a wet inspection option. For this option, the customer<br />

connects an internal extraction system to the S3088 CCI to<br />

ensure that the concentration inside the system remains low. The<br />

S3088 CCI also offers a 3D spot measurement option for coating<br />

thickness, which uses a vertically installed sensor to spot measure<br />

the distance between the coating surface and the circuit board surface<br />

as a reference plane. The resulting differences represent the<br />

thickness of the coating.<br />

The S3088 CCI can also perform qualifications of electrical insulating<br />

compounds on circuit boards based on the IPC-CC-830C standard.<br />

www.viscom.com<br />

Zusammenfassung<br />

Sicher funktionierende Elektronik benötigt eine zuverlässige Inspektion<br />

von Schutzlacken. Das vorgestellte Inspektionssystem ist<br />

einfach adaptierbar auf die Anforderungen unterschiedlicher<br />

Schutzlacke zur präzisen Detektion von Fehlstellen inklusive<br />

schneller Prüfprogrammerstellung.<br />

Résumé<br />

Le bon fonctionnement de l’électronique exige une inspection fiable<br />

des vernis de protection. Le système d’inspection présenté est<br />

facilement adaptable aux exigences des différents vernis de protection<br />

pour une détection précise des points de défaut, y compris<br />

la création rapide de programmes d’inspection.<br />

Резюме<br />

Решение для автоматизированного хранения с<br />

контролируемым кондиционированием воздуха и реализация<br />

индивидуального интерфейса клиента, включая интеграцию<br />

дополнительных мест складирования, соответствовали<br />

требованиям бельгийской компании к полупроводниковым<br />

датчикам в автомобильной отрасли.<br />

54 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020



Bond Tester by F&S BONDTEC<br />

Source: Goepel electronic<br />

The new 3D AOI systems of the 3D XE series:<br />

Basic Line · 3D XE and Advanced Line · 3D XE.<br />

>> Fully automatic pull- & sheartesting<br />

by using most modern<br />

Pattern-Recognition-Software<br />

>> Reproducible test results and<br />

precision within a few μm<br />

>> BAMFIT - Revolutionary quick test<br />

Introducing affordable 3D AOI systems<br />

Large and small electronics manufacturers are subject to relentless<br />

demands for reduced cost and improve quality. To meet these demands,<br />

Goepel electronic has launched two new automatic optical<br />

inspection systems. The 3D XE series of AOI platforms are characterised<br />

by low acquisition costs whilst still delivering full 3D inspection<br />

functionality.<br />

The series consists of the stand-alone system Basic line · 3D XE<br />

and the inline system Advanced line · 3D XE. Flexible interfaces,<br />

such as Hermes or Pulse, allow production line integration of the inline<br />

version; for smaller quantities, the offline 3D AOI system with<br />

manual loading is an attractive solution. In addition, both systems<br />

can be used as full 3D solder paste inspection systems (SPI). Thus,<br />

configuration as an inspection island offers a highly efficient and<br />

flexible production environment. (especially for the Advanced line ·<br />

3D XE)<br />

3D XE series platforms are controlled using the latest Pilot AOI software<br />

and MagicClick for AI-based, fully automatic creation and optimization<br />

of inspection programs. This functionality enables the system<br />

to inspect new assemblies within a few minutes and without<br />

any component library. This is especially important for manufacturing<br />

service providers with a large variety of products. It guarantees<br />

a high degree of cost-effective use even for the smallest of board<br />

quantities and saves up to 80 % of program creation and optimization<br />

time.<br />

Goepel electronic‘s 3D AOI systems, developed and manufactured<br />

in Germany, feature innovative hardware and software components<br />

with a very user-friendly operating concept. They provide a cost-effective<br />

initial purchase and are highly efficient in production operation.<br />

This opens the door for smaller electronic manufacturers to<br />

use the latest fully-fledged 3D-AOI technology.<br />

for lifetime of heavy wire bonds<br />


Our SERIES 56i<br />

What‘s new?<br />

A lot - and yet everything stays the same.<br />

The new edition of the Series 56 has kept<br />

its basic features - high flexibility,<br />

combined with unique possibilities.<br />

A new control unit has found its way into<br />

the Series 56i. This enables faster and more<br />

precise travels, which for the first time,<br />

makes extremely fine wires up to 12 μm<br />

bondable on the machine.<br />

www.goepel.com<br />

F&S BONDTEC Semiconductor GmbH<br />

Industriezeile 49a<br />

5280 Braunau am Inn<br />

Austria<br />

3D image acquisition by the Advanced Line · 3D XE.<br />

Source: Goepel electronic<br />

Phone: +43-7722-67052-8270<br />

Fax: +43-7722-67052-8272<br />

E-Mail: info@fsbondtec.at<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 55<br />




High-precision 3D sensing technology solutions<br />

Auto Resistance Sensor (ARS) with CyberSpectrum<br />

software enables real-time resistance measurements<br />

of plating cell contacts in semiconductor application.<br />

CyberOptics Corporation, a global developer<br />

and manufacturer of high-precision 3D sensing<br />

technology solutions, has recently released<br />

its In-line Particle Sensor (IPS) and<br />

Auto Resistance Sensor (ARS) for semiconductor<br />

tool set-up and equipment diagnostics,<br />

and the WX3000 metrology and inspection<br />

system for wafer-level and advanced<br />

packaging applications.<br />

An extension of the industry-leading Wafer-<br />

Sense and ReticleSense Airborne Particle<br />

Sensor (APS) technology that is documented<br />

by fabs as the Best Known Method (BKM),<br />

Source: CyberOptics<br />

The In-line Particle Sensor (IPS) with CyberSpectrum<br />

software detects particles in gas and vacuum lines in<br />

semiconductor process equipment.<br />

the In-line Particle Sensor (IPS) with Cyber-<br />

Spectrum software detects particles in gas<br />

and vacuum lines 24/7 in semiconductor process<br />

equipment. The IPS quickly identifies<br />

monitors and enables troubleshooting of particles<br />

down to 0.1 μm.<br />

The new WaferSense Auto Resistance Sensor<br />

(ARS) with CyberSpectrum software for<br />

semiconductor tool set-up and diagnostics<br />

enables real-time resistance measurements<br />

of plating cell contacts in semiconductor<br />

Electrochemical Deposition (ECD) applications.<br />

Source: CyberOptics<br />

Process and equipment engineers in semiconductor<br />

fabs can speed equipment qualification,<br />

shorten equipment maintenance<br />

cycles, lower equipment expenses and optimize<br />

preventative maintenance plans.<br />

“Whether it’s used in the front-end, mid-end<br />

or back-end of the semiconductor fab, our<br />

high-precision sensor technology is delivering<br />

significant improvements in yields, processes,<br />

productivity and through-put,” said<br />

Dr. Subodh Kulkarni, President and CEO,<br />

CyberOptics.<br />

The WX3000 system focuses on wafer-level<br />

and advanced packaging metrology and inspection.<br />

Performing two to three times<br />

faster than alternate technologies at data processing<br />

speeds in excess of 75 million 3D<br />

data points per second, the NanoResolution<br />

Multi-Reflection Suppression (MRS) sensorenabled<br />

WX3000 systems deliver throughput<br />

greater than 25 wafers per hour. 100 % 3D<br />

and 2D metrology and inspection can be<br />

completed simultaneously at high speed, as<br />

compared to an alternate, slow method that<br />

requires two separate scans for 3D and 2D<br />

and only a sampling of a few die.<br />

The proprietary NanoResolution MRS sensor<br />

meticulously identifies and rejects multiple<br />

reflections caused by shiny and mirror-like<br />

surfaces. Effective suppression of multiple<br />

reflections is critical for highly accurate<br />

measurements.<br />

www.cyberoptics.com<br />

Ensuring high quality for screen printing<br />

Like Harley Davidson, Google, Microsoft, and<br />

Apple, Laritech was started by enthusiastic<br />

engineers working in their garage. This newly<br />

published case study, including interviews<br />

with Joel Butler, Vice President of Manufacturing<br />

and Matthew Banks, SMT Manager,<br />

explores how the company grew and how<br />

Koh Young helped them reach their goal of<br />

manufacturing excellence and exceptional<br />

quality.<br />

Laritech has Koh Young 8030–2 SPIs and Zenith<br />

LiTE AOIs connected with the KSmart<br />

smart factory solution software. Joel and<br />

Matt explain the selection process, why they<br />

chose Koh Young, and the installation process,<br />

as well as their experience with the<br />

equipment and with Koh Young as a partner.<br />

Joel Butler, Vice President of Manufacturing,<br />

explains, “Everybody knows screen printing<br />

is the core of quality. If you don‘t get that<br />

right, nothing else matters. When we got our<br />

first Koh Young SPI, we had a large board<br />

with around 4,000 components, plus 50 different<br />

BGAs. We saw our yields increase<br />

overnight.”<br />

Brent Fischthal, Sr. Manager, Americas Marketing<br />

and Regional Sales at Koh Young<br />

added, “we really enjoy working with companies<br />

like Laritech and with people like Joel<br />

and Matt who have an enthusiasm for what<br />

they do and the way they serve their customer.<br />

It really is an honor to be involved in their<br />

success story and we thank them for taking<br />

the time to talk to us about it.”<br />

The video on the use case can be found here:<br />

https://youtu.be/1BFmyfKKnrU<br />

www.kohyoung.com; www.laritech.com<br />

Source: Laritech<br />

Laritech uses an SPI, AOI and a software<br />

solution from Koh Young to help them reach<br />

their manufacturing goals.<br />

56 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

Investing in 3D AOI for THT line<br />

E.D.&A. NV (Kalmthout) is one of Belgium’s<br />

most advanced electronics production company,<br />

which earned them the title of “Factory<br />

of the Future” in 2016 and 2019. They are always<br />

looking for innovations to adapt their<br />

manufacturing process which recently<br />

prompted them in buying the Viscom 3D automated<br />

optical inspection system S3016 ultra.<br />

With their multidisciplinary team of engineers,<br />

E.D.&A. offers hardware and embedded<br />

software solutions for, amongst<br />

others, machine and equipment manufacturers.<br />

For the production of these solutions<br />

they use their own ultramodern automated<br />

assembly lines. They are the frontrunners<br />

when it comes to quality, flexibility, efficiency<br />

and short lead times thanks to a thorough<br />

automation. The company is expanding: To<br />

continue to meet customer’s demand, they<br />

have major plans including the construction<br />

of a new production hall and the increasing of<br />

their production capacity.<br />

For the 3D inspection of the THT line,<br />

E.D.&A. carried out an extensive market<br />

E.D.&A. chose the S3016 ultra for the inspection of<br />

their THT line.<br />

study and did many tests and measurements<br />

to determine which machine best correlated<br />

with their demands and wishes. This guided<br />

them to the impressive performance of the<br />

S3016 ultra, which combines high accuracy<br />

with ease of use. The 3D AOI system inspects<br />

PCB bottom sides precisely even<br />

under extreme cycle times. The great inspection<br />

scope covers SMD, THT, press-fit and selective<br />

solder joints in full 3D. Thanks to the<br />

special sensor technology, accurate<br />

Source: Viscom AG<br />

measurements of soldering and THT pin<br />

lengths can be performed. Besides measuring<br />

pins, algorithms make fast detection of<br />

open solder joints, solder bridges, missing<br />

pins and other defects possible.<br />

Unique to Viscom are the eight angled cameras<br />

that complete the orthogonal image and<br />

guarantee a shadow-free inspection. The<br />

clear color images are displayed from all 9<br />

perspectives to the operator, allowing for a<br />

smooth verification of the quality of the connections.<br />

“As Factory of the Future staying up-to-date is<br />

not enough, but looking to the future is the<br />

only motto. That is why reinventing oneself<br />

and observing evolutions closely is crucial. Especially<br />

when certainties of the past are<br />

suddenly uncertain, it is of utmost importance<br />

that we look ahead, think ahead and stay<br />

ahead – just like E.D.&A. and Viscom”, so Tom<br />

Van Tongelen from Smd-Tec, sales representative<br />

of Viscom for the Benelux countries.<br />

www.viscom.com<br />

AOI solution designed for THT processes<br />

Seho Systems GmbH, a manufacturer of<br />

complete solutions for soldering processes<br />

and automated production lines, is the right<br />

partner when innovative ideas are required.<br />

With the PowerVision, the company focuses<br />

on two key points in the manufacturing of<br />

THT assemblies: Continuous quality assurance<br />

and cost-efficient production processes.<br />

The PowerVision stands for fast, automated<br />

optical inspection, and it is particularly designed<br />

for THT processes. The system can be<br />

configured depending on the manufacturing<br />

requirements: For component placement inspection<br />

in front of a wave or a selective soldering<br />

machine, or for solder joint inspection<br />

after wave or selective soldering processes,<br />

or as a combination of both inspection tasks,<br />

integrated into the same module to save<br />

space.<br />

The system reliably detects typical placement<br />

defects, such as presence of components<br />

or polarity, and soldering defects like<br />

incomplete solder joints, solder bridges or<br />

solder balls, for instance. Additionally, the<br />

system is capable of reading and processing<br />

product IDs.<br />

The stand-alone variant of the Seho PowerVision<br />

can be flexibly integrated into each fully<br />

automated production line. Moreover, the<br />

system can be directly integrated in many of<br />

the company’s selective soldering systems,<br />

thus providing additional benefits, particularly<br />

in terms of floor space and board handling<br />

costs.<br />

Generation of test plans is performed easily<br />

and comfortably at any PC using an offline<br />

teach program. Basic data can be taken from<br />

Gerber data, DXF files or from any digital<br />

image file (camera or scan). A simple wizard<br />

leads the operator through the programming<br />

procedure. Moreover, the comprehensive<br />

and individually expandable component library<br />

includes component-specific test elements,<br />

as well as an automatic inspection<br />

search to simplify programming.<br />

Even optimization of a test plan that usually<br />

requires temporary interruption of the production<br />

to adjust parameters can be made<br />

offline. Thus, the AOI system will be permanently<br />

available for production. PowerVision<br />

software provides analyzing tools that can<br />

draw conclusions on the current production.<br />

These tools include a heatmap that visualizes<br />

error frequencies based on their geometrical<br />

location on the PCB and a trend analysis that<br />

effectively supports optimization of the test<br />

program. The detected defects can easily and<br />

Source: Seho Systems GmbH<br />

The PowerVision detects typical placement<br />

as well as soldering defects and is capable<br />

of reading and processing product IDs.<br />

quickly be classified using the intuitive interface<br />

of the SehOverify software.<br />

Based on this classification of the test results,<br />

the software module Seho spc calculates<br />

and graphically displays different statistical<br />

key figures such as first pass yield, false<br />

calls rates or defect rates (FCPMO/DPMO).<br />

The benefits are obvious: Early identification<br />

of defects allows a fast increase of the overall<br />

manufacturing quality. Simultaneously,<br />

production costs can be sustainably reduced<br />

due to automated inspection and computerassisted<br />

rework.<br />

www.seho.de<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 57


(Anzeige / Redaktion)<br />

Aegis Software 40<br />

ASM SMT Solutions 6<br />

ASM 50<br />

Asys 45<br />

Beckhoff 42<br />

BJZ GmbH & Co. KG 60<br />

CyberOptics Corporation 56<br />

CYGIA 42<br />

Dynamic Source Manufacturing 51<br />

E.D.&A. NV 57<br />

Electrolube 27, 28<br />

Ersa 3, 27<br />

F&S BONDTEC 55<br />


Göpel electronic 55<br />

IPTE 46, 49<br />

ITW EAE – Speedline 5, 20<br />

Koh Young <strong>Europe</strong> 10, 11, 14, 47, 56<br />

Kurtz Ersa 11<br />

Lackwerke Peters 24<br />

Melexis 34<br />

Mentor 10<br />

Mesago Messe Frankfurt 9<br />

Messe München 12<br />

MicroCare Corporation 7, 47<br />

MicroCare, LLC 36<br />

MTEK Industry AB 32<br />

Musashi Engineering <strong>Europe</strong> 25<br />

Nordson DAGE 38, 51<br />

Panasonic Industry <strong>Europe</strong> 45<br />

Rehm Thermal Systems 13, 48<br />

Saki Corporation 9<br />

Seho 49, 57<br />

Totech 34<br />

Viscom 10, 52, 57<br />

Yamaha Motor Europ 46<br />

YXLON International 2<br />

ZEVATRON Löttechnik 31<br />

ISSN 1618–5587<br />

Trade journal for all fields of production in the<br />

electronics industry, manufacturing equipment,<br />

test and messurement, materials<br />

Publisher: Katja Kohlhammer<br />

Publishing House:<br />

Konradin-Verlag Robert Kohlhammer GmbH,<br />

Ernst-Mey-Straße 8, 70771 Leinfelden-Echterdingen,<br />

Germany<br />

General Manager: Peter Dilger<br />

Editor-in-Chief:<br />

Doris Jetter, Phone +49 7021 53 609<br />

E-Mail: doris.jetter@konradin.de<br />

Online Editor:<br />

Charlene Hesse, Phone +49 (0)711 7594–428<br />

E-Mail: charlene.hesse@konradin.de<br />

Editorial Assistant: Birgit Niebel,<br />

Phone +49 711 7594 -349, Fax –1349,<br />

E-Mail: birgit.niebel@konradin.de<br />

Layout: Helga Nass,<br />

Phone +49 711 7594 -278<br />

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E-Mail: josephine.linseisen@konradin.de<br />

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is currently in effect.<br />

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Phone +49 711 7594-5850,<br />

Fax +49 711 7594-15850<br />

E-Mail: ute.kraemer@konradin.de<br />

<strong>EPP</strong> and <strong>EPP</strong> <strong>Europe</strong> are published nine times a year,<br />

and will only be supplied free of charge to qualified<br />

subscribers. Non-qualifying individuals place subscriptions<br />

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Annual subscription price Germany € 85,40, abroad<br />

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Unless ordered for a specific period, a subscription<br />

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58 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

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<strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020 59

60 <strong>EPP</strong> EUROPE November 2020

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