BIANNUAL REPORT 2018/19

unileoben94615

BIANNUAL REPORT

2018/19

Chair for Simulation

and Modelling of

Metallurgical Processes

(SMMP)


WELCOME,

Numerical process simulation is much more than simply using a commercial

software code. Based on a profound knowledge of the corresponding

metallurgical process, expertise in numerical techniques as well as of the

underlaying physics is essential. That is the reason why numerical process

simulation cannot be performed on the side. A simplified process simulation

is quickly made. However, for many industrial problems, the consideration

of complex process details is crucial. Thus, comprehensive developments

are often necessary, which led in particular to the research topics

presented in this brochure.

The long-term strategy of the chair for ‘Simulation and Modelling of

Metallurgical Processes’ (SMMP) is to cover the full range from having a

worldwide acknowledged expertise on only a few well-defined topics to

a practical support team for the metallurgical industry. The eight main

research topics selected here are topics that had been worked on for years.

Three of them have a basic research character which is sometimes important

in order to get profound knowledge that can be used to verify more

complex industrial applications. In some topics we have been involved

from first steps that suggested simple models to nowadays complex

three-dimensional industry-relevant multiphase simulations. One example

is the work that had been done to understand the formation of so-called

macrosegregation in alloy castings. This work had started in 2002 and in

the meantime has led to the fact that Prof. Ludwig and Prof. Wu are the

world-leading scientists with regards of publications on macrosegregation.

Another important development is the increasing complexity of metallurgical

process simulations. A decade ago, computational fluid dynamic

simulations with a thermally induced phase change was challenging to

perform. Nowadays, magnetohydrodynamic interacts with discrete phase

boundaries between e.g. liquid steel and slag, that lead to the pinching-off

of tiny droplets from a liquid filament, can be calculated. Of course, such

complex simulations need extremely large computation capacity. It is this

competition between rising complexity and increasing hardware power that

will keep the researchers unsatisfied – and there will be no solution of this

dilemma, not even in the long run.

I hope by reading this brochure, you will feel the enthusiasm that had led

the group over the years. It is worth mentioning that physical-based metallurgical

process simulations have still so many challenges to be tackled,

that even the young generation will find plenty of room for further significant

improvements of the field. So, looking into the future we might argue that

the present brochure has described just the beginning…

Prof. Dr. A. Ludwig

Chair for Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes

Head of the Department of Metallurgy


CONTENTS

Main SMMP Research Themes ...................................................................................... 04

Research Theme 1:

Formation Mechanisms of Macrosegregation ............................................................. 06

Research Theme 2:

Modelling the As-cast Structure in Large Steel Castings ............................................. 08

Research Theme 3:

Nozzle Clogging in Steelmaking Processes .................................................................. 10

Research Theme 4:

Direct Measurements of Melt Convection

and Crystal Motion During Solidification ....................................................................... 12

Research Theme 5:

Flow-solidification Interaction in Mushy Zones ............................................................ 14

Research Theme 6:

Steel Continuous Casting: Solidification, Flow and Magnetohydrodynamics ............. 16

Research Theme 7:

Magnetohydrodynamic and Electrochemical Phenomena in Remelting Processes .. 18

Research Theme 8:

Metastable Solidification of Novel Peritectic Structures ............................................. 20

Grant Awards ................................................................................................................... 22

Given Lectures ................................................................................................................. 24

Completed Thesis ........................................................................................................... 24

Team Members

............................................................................................................... 26

Collaborations and Supporters

...................................................................................... 28

Invited Lectures

............................................................................................................... 30

Publications .....................................................................................................................

32

3


MAIN SMMP RESEARCH

THEMES

1. Formation Mechanisms of Macrosegregation

2. Modelling the As-cast Structure in Large Steel Castings

3. Nozzle Clogging in Steelmaking Processes

4. Direct Measurements of Melt Convection and

Crystal Motion During Solidification Basic Research

5. Flow-solidification Interaction in a Mushy Zone Basic Research

6. Steel Continuous Casting: Solidification, Flow and Magnetohydrodynamics

7. Magnetohydrodynamic and Electrochemical Phenomena in Remelting Processes

8. Metastable Solidification of Novel Peritectic Structures Basic Research

4 Main SMMP Research Themes


5


Research Theme 1:

FORMATION

MECHANISMS OF

MACROSEGREGATION

M. Wu, A. Ludwig, C. Rodrigues, A. Kharicha

Aims and key objectives

To use multiphase solidification models and study

macrosegregation mechanisms as caused by:

• thermo-solutal convection;

• crystal sedimentation;

• feeding flow due to solidification shrinkage;

• forced flow such as electro-magnetic stirring;

• mechanical deformation of the mushy zone;

• Marangoni convection.

To evaluate numerical models against different

theoretical models or experimental benchmarks:

• laboratory experiments;

• Flemings theory;

• industry castings.

To apply numerical models for different industry

processes (ingots, continuous castings of steel, and

direct chill casting of copper/aluminium).

Figure 1.1:

Predicted macrosegregation

during bulging of a steel slab

(length scaled 1:10).

(Diagram) Comparison of center-line

segregation for three different cases

corresponding to solidification of the

horizontal model steel slab:

(i) shrinkage only, (ii) bulging only and

(iii) combined effect of shrinkage and

bulging.

bulging without

shrinkage

shrinkage only

bulging + shrinkage

pos. seg.

A B

neutral

neg. seg.

Figure 1.2:

Predicted macrosegregation during

twin roll casting of Al-4wt.%Cu. The

viscoplastic high-solid fraction regions

are heavily deformed resulting in a

densification of the dendritic network

and thus in a pressing out of segregated

liquid [taken from Rodrigues et

al., Met. Trans. B 50 (2018) 1428-4].

Inlet

20 mm

40 mm R = 400 mm

Roll

Nozzle

Roll

150 mm

Strip

Outlet

8 mm

6 Research Theme 1: Formation Mechanisms of Macrosegregation


Summary of key progress:

1. We have developed a series of volume-average

multiphase solidification

models that accounts for mass,

momentum, enthalpy and species

conservation during columnar and

equiaxed solidification.

2. We have verified models against:

• Flemings’ theory (1D case)

[Wu et al., Steel Res. Int. 79 (2008)

637-644];

• Hebditch-Hunt laboratory benchmark

[Li et al., Comp. Mater. Sci. 55

(2012) 407-418];

• Steel ingots of industry scale

[Li et al., Int. J. Heat and Mass

Transfer. 72 (2014) 668-679].

• DC casting of Bronze

[Hao et al., Adv. Mater. Res.

154-155 (2011) 1401-04].

3. Some numerical models (source

codes) are available for applications

at the industry scale.

Potential

long-term impact:

This research has the potential to extend

our understanding of macrosegregation

formation, to develop industrial

relevant strategies for reducing

macrosegregation, and to refine the

solidification models (source codes)

and integrate them into the industry

4.0 as an important part of the virtual/

intelligent manufacturing.

Selected impacts:

1. Elsevier SCOPUS: since spring 2013 Prof. Ludwig is the world-leading author

with regards on publications on the keyword “macrosegregation”; Prof. Wu

has the second most.

2. Invited (keynote/plenary) lectures:

• A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha: “Recent Developments in Multiphase/Multiphysics

CFD Simulations in Steelmaking”, keynote, 8 th Int. Conf. on Mod.

& Simul. of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking (STEELSIM2019), Toronto,

Canada, Aug. 13-15, 2019.

• M. Wu: “Simulation of transport phenomena in metallurgy”, School of Materials

Science and Engineering, host Prof. Hu Zhang, Beihang University,

Beijing, China, July 23, 2019.

• A. Ludwig, M. Bellet: “Combining Modelling of Flow and Structure Mechanics

in Solidifying Regions”, plenary, 5 th Int. Conf. on Advances in

Solidification Processes (ICASP-5) combined with 5 th Int. Symposium

on Cutting Edge of Computer Simulation of Solidification, Casting and

Refining, Salzburg, Austria, June 17-21, 2019.

• M. Wu, H. Zhang, Y. Zheng, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Macrosegregation

formation in an Al-Si casting sample with crosssectional change during

directional solidification”, 7 th Int. Conf. on Solidification Science and Processing

(ICSSP7), Thiruvananthapuram, India, Nov. 19-22, 2018.

• Y. Zheng, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Concept of semi-continuous casting

for large steel strand: a numerical study”, keynote, China Symposium

on Sustainable Steelmaking Technology, Tianjin, China, Oct. 24-26, 2018.

• A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek, A. Kharicha, M. Wu: “Simulation in Metallurgy: Past

achievements and future challenges”, plenary, 27 th Int. Conf. on Metallurgy

and Materials (METAL2018), Brno, Czech Republic, 23-25. May 2018.

3. Technology transfer: This research is based on two CD-laboratories operated

at the chair: 2004-11, “Multiphase Simulation of Metallurgical Processes”

led by Prof. Ludwig, and 2011-18 “Advanced Process Simulation of

Solidification and Melting” led by Prof. Wu. The involved company partners

were Voest Alpine, RHI Magnesita GmbH, INTECO, Wieland Werke, and

Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH.

Selected publications:

1. C. Rodrigues, A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Vakhrushev: “A Comprehensive

Analysis of Macrosegregation Formation During Twin- Roll Casting”,

Metall. Mater. Trans. B 50 (2019) 1334-50.

2. M. Wu, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Simulation of as-cast steel ingot - a review”,

Steel Res. Int. 89 (2018) 1700037.

3. Y. Zheng, M. Wu, E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Use of a mixed

columnar-equiaxed solidification model to analyses the formation of

as-cast structure and macrosegregation in a Sn-10 wt% Pb benchmark

experiment”, Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans. 122 (2018) 939–53.

4. M. Wu, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “A four phase model for the macrosegregation

and shrinkage cavity during solidification of steel ingot”, Appl. Math.

Modelling 41 (2017) 102-20.

5. M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Discussion on Modeling Capability for Macrosegregation”,

High Temp. Mater. Proc. 36 (2017) 531–39.

6. M. Wu, Y. Zheng, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Numerical analysis of macrosegregation

in vertically solidified Pb-Sn test castings - Part I: Columnar

solidification”, Comp. Mater. Sci. 124 (2016) 444-55.

7. Y. Zheng, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Numerical analysis of macrosegregation

in vertically solidified Pb-Sn test castings – Part II: Equiaxed

solidification”, Comp. Mater. Sci. 124 (2016) 456-70.

8. A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha: “On Macrosegregation”, Metall. Mater. Trans.

A 46 (2015) 4854-67.

9. M. Ahmadein, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “Analysis of macrosegregation formation

and columnar-to-equiaxed transition during solidification of Al-4wt.%Cu

ingot using a 5-phase model”, J. Crystal Growth 417 (2015) 65-74.

7


Research Theme 2:

MODELLING THE

AS-CAST STRUCTURE IN

LARGE STEEL CASTINGS

M. Wu, Z. Zhang, H. Zhang, E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig

Aims and key objectives

• To understand the formation of the as-cast

micro-structure of steel that are

manufactured at the industrial scale;

• To develop numerical model for the

mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification

considering CET and macrosegregation;

• To model the electromagnetic stirring

during continuous casting, and its effect on the

as-cast structure (crystal fragmentation);

• To apply the numerical model to aid

industry to optimize the casting processes

(ingot, continuous casting);

• To apply the numerical model to aid

industry to design new casting process;

• To further evaluate the numerical model by

comparison the modelling results with

laboratory experiments and plant trials.

Figure 2.1:

Schematics of semi-continuous

casting process (SCC), and the

principle to control the as-cast

structure. The mixed columnarequiaxed

solidification model is

extended to investigate the mold

filling (casting) and solidification

processes during SCC.

casting

solidification control

a b c

Figure 2.2:

Numerical simulation of as-cast

structure and macrosegregation

in a 36-ton ingot. (a) Numericallysimulated

segregation maps in

different vertical and horizontal

sections; (b) the macrosegregation

map of the as-cast ingot

as measured in the longitudinal

section [Duan et al., Metall. Mater.

Trans. A, 2016]; (c) comparison

of the numerically-simulated

macrosegregation profiles along

the centerline.

8 Research Theme 2: Modelling the As-cast Structure in Large Steel Castings


Summary of key progress:

1. We have developed a mixed

columnar-equiaxed solidification

model [Wu et al., Metall. Mater.

Trans. A 37 (2006) 1613-31] that

is also able to consider dendritic

morphology [Wu et al., Comp. Mater.

Sci. 50 (2010) 32-42].

2. We have verified the model against:

• Flemings’ theory (1D case)

[Wu et al., Steel Res. Int. 79 (2008)

637-44];

• Hebditch-Hunt laboratory benchmark

[Li et al., Comp. Mater. Sci. 55

(2012) 407-18] [Zheng et al., Int. J.

H&M Transfer 122 (2014) 939-53];

• Industry steel ingots [Li et al., Int.

J. H&M Transfer 72 (2014) 668-79]

[Wu et al., 7 th STEELSIM, Aug. 16-

18, 2017, Qingdao, China].

3. We have recently extended the

model by considering:

• crystal fragmentation for the origin

of the equiaxed crystals [Zheng et

al., Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.

26 (2018) 015004];

• electromagnetic stirring (EMS).

Potential long-term impact:

Our research has the potential to

optimize the casting parameters by

controlling the as-cast structure and

minimizing the macrosegregation in

industry castings (ingots and continuous

casting of steel, DC casting of

non-ferrous alloys); to aid industry

for the design of new solidification

processes (e.g. semi-continuous casting

of steel); to be integrated into the

industry 4.0 as an important part of

the virtual/intelligent manufacturing.

Selected impacts:

1. Invited lectures:

• A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha: “Recent Developments in Multiphase/Multiphysics

CFD Simulations in Steelmaking”, 8 th Int. Conf. on Mod. & Simul.

of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking (STEEL-SIM2019), Toronto, Canada,

Aug. 13-15, 2019.

• M. Wu: “From numerical modeling toward the intelligent design/control of

metallurgical processes”, 1 st Int. Forum on Application of Artificial Intelligence

in Metallurgical Engineering, Beijing, China, Aug. 5-7, 2019.

• M. Wu: “Simulation of as-cast ingots”, School of Metallurgical and Ecological

Engineering, Univ. Sci. Techn. Beijing, China, Aug. 5. 2019.

• M. Wu: “Simulation of transport phenomena in metallurgy”, School of Materials

Science and Engineering, host Prof. Hu Zhang, Beihang University,

Beijing, China, July 23, 2019.

• M. Wu: “Simulation of as-cast steel ingots”, Int. Conf. on Industrial Development

of Heavy Castings and Forgings, Deyang, China, Dec. 5-6, 2018.

• M. Wu, “Numerical modelling/simulation and their applications in metallurgy

and materials processing”, School of Materials Science and Engineering,

host Prof. Hu Zhang, Beihang University, Beijing, China, Oct. 29, 2018.

• Y. Zheng, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Concept of semi-continuous

casting for large steel strand: a numerical study”, China Symposium on

Sustainable Steelmaking Technology, Tianjin, China, Oct. 24-26, 2018.

• M. Wu: “A numerical study on the role of fragmentation in the as-cast

structure”, 7 th Int. Conf. on Solidification and Gravity (SG’13), Miskolc,

Hungary, Sept. 3-6, 2018.

• A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek, A. Kharicha, M. Wu: “Simulation in Metallurgy: Past

achievements and future challenges”, 27 th Int. Conf. on Metallurgy and

Materials (METAL2018), Brno, Czech Republic, 23-25. May 2018.

2. Prof. M. Wu is selected as Chairman of 9 th Int. Steelmaking Conf., Vienna,

Austria, Oct. 4-7, 2021. This is partially attributed to the research achievement

of the group in the field of steel processing.

Selected publications:

3. M. Wu, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Simulation of as-cast steel ingot, a review”,

Steel Res. Int. 89 (2018) 1700037.

4. Y. Zheng, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Incorporation of fragmentation

into a volume average solidification model”, Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.

26 (2018) 015004.

5. A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha: ”On Macrosegregation”, Metall. Mater. Trans.

A 46 (2015) 4854-67.

6. M. Wu, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “A four phase model for the macrosegregation

and shrinkage cavity during solidification of steel ingot”, Appl. Math.

Modelling 41 (2017) 102-20.

7. M. Wu, Y. Zheng, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Numerical analysis of as-cast

structure, macrosegregation and shrinkage cavity in steel ingots: case

study of a 36 tons’ ingot”, 7 th Int. Conf. on Mod. & Simul. of Metall.

Processes in Steelmaking (STEELSIM2017), Qingdao, China, 129-32.

8. Y. Zheng, M. Wu, E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Use of a mixed

columnar-equiaxed solidi-fication model to analyses the formation of

as-cast structure and macrosegregation in a Sn-10 wt% Pb benchmark

experiment”, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 122 (2018) 939–53.

9. J. Li, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “The predication of macrosegregation

in a 2.45 tons’ steel ingot with a mixed columnar-equiaxed three phases

model”, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 72 (2014) 668-79.

9


Research Theme 3:

NOZZLE CLOGGING IN

STEELMAKING PROCESSES

M. Wu, H. Barati, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig

Aims and key objectives

• To develop a transient clogging model considering key

physical/chemistry mechanisms:

• origin of the non-metallic inclusions (NMIs);

• transport of NMIs by the molten steel of high

turbulence, and the effect of Ar gas;

• behaviour of NMIs in the boundary layer of the

nozzle wall (refractory);

• adhesion mechanism of NMIs on the nozzle wall and

the effect of nozzle refractory materials;

• growth of the clog front and its interaction with the

turbulent melt flow;

• flow and possible solidification of molten steel in

the clog region;

• fragmentation/detachment of clog.

• To evaluate numerical model against available

laboratory/industry experiments.

• To achieve fundamental understanding about the nozzle

clogging in steelmaking processes, and aid

the industry to optimize the process parameters.

Clogging phenomenon in a

steel transport nozzle

Figure 3.1:

A transient nozzle clogging model

is developed and used to simulate a

laboratory experiment (simulator of

nozzle clogging: Comdicast AB,

Sweden) with a purpose to validate

the numerical model.

Numerical simulation

a

b

Figure 3.2:

Evolution of clogging in the nozzle.

(a) View of the clog region from the

vertical section and a cross-section

A-A of the nozzle; (b) Zoomed view of

the flow streamlines and a partially

clogged section at 200 s. The clogged

section is shown in yellow. The magnitude

of the flow velocity is shown in a

color scale along the streamlines.

10 Research Theme 3: Nozzle Clogging in Steelmaking Processes


Summary of key progress:

1. A transient model for the clogging

of submerged entry nozzle (SEN)

during continuous casting of steel

has been recently proposed [Barati,

et al., Powder Technology, 2018].

2. The model has been successfully

verified by comparison with a

laboratory experiment (simulator

of nozzle clogging: Comdicast AB,

Sweden).

3. The model has been applied to

investigate the clogging-related

phenomena during operation of

continuous casting of steel.

Potential long-term impact:

This research has the potential to

optimize the casting parameters by

minimizing the clogging tendency

during continuous casting of steel;

to be integrated into the industry 4.0

as an important part of the virtual/

intelligent manufacturing. The developed

numerical model can also be

extended to investigate the clogging/

fouling phenomenon (deposition and

accumulation of solid suspended

particles on the fluid passage) in other

engineering processes such as in heat

exchangers, petrochemical industry,

automotive industry food production,

pharmaceutical industries.

Selected impacts:

1. Invited lectures:

• M. Wu, H. Barati, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Clogging in SEN during continuous

casting”, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, host Prof.

Andre Phillion, McMaster University, Canada, Aug. 16, 2019.

• M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Using a numerical model to study the

transient clogging phenomena in SEN during continuous casting of steel”,

8 th Int. Steelmaking Conf., Toronto, Canada, Aug. 13-15, 2019.

2. Technology transfer: based on this research, a K1-MET project (Tundish

and mold operation, WP2 - Inclusion Behaviour in SEN Clogging) is granted,

with the direct industry involvement and financial support. The industry

partners are voestalpine Stahl Linz GmbH, voestalpine Stahl Donawitz

GmbH, RHI Magnesita GmbH.

3. Prof. M. Wu is selected as Chairman of 9 th Int. Steelmaking Conf., Vienna,

Austria, Oct. 4-7, 2021. This is partially attributed to the research achievement

of his group in the field of steel processing.

Selected publications:

1. H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “A Transient Model for Nozzle

Clogging”, Powder Technology 329 (2018) 181-98.

2. H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Calculation accuracy and efficiency

of a transient model for submerged entry nozzle clogging”, Metall.

Mater. Trans. B 50B (2019) 1428-43.

3. M. Wu, H. Barati, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Using a numerical model to study

the transient clogging phenomena in SEN during continuous casting of

steel”, Proc. of STEESIM (8 th Int. Conf. on Mod. & Simul. of Metall. Processes

in Steelmaking, Aug. 13-15, 2019, Toronto, Canada), 664-7.

4. H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Discussion on possible solidification

during SEN clogging in steel continuous casting”, Proc. of SG’13 (7 th

Int. Conf. on Solidification and Gravity), Sept. 3-6, 2018, Miskolc, Hungary,

eds. Roosz A., et al., 144-9.

5. H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity

of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging”, World Academy of Sci.,

Eng. Techn., Int. Sci. Index 134, Int. J. Chemical, Molecular, Nuclear, Mater.

Metall. Eng. 12 (2018) 62-6.

6. H. Barati, M. Wu, T. Holzmann, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Simulation of

non-metallic inclusion deposition and clogging of nozzle”, Proc. CFD

Model. Simul. in Mater. Processing, TMS 2018, In: Nastac L., Pericleous K.,

Sabau A., Zhang L., Thomas B. (eds), Phoenix, AZ, USA, Mar. 11-15. 2018.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72059-3_15, pp. 149-158.

7. H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Assessment of difference turbulence

models for the motion of non-metallic inclusion in induction crucible

furnace”, Proc. of LMPC (Liquid Metal Processing & Casting Conference,

Sept. 20-24, 2015, Leoben, Austria), Edited by Kharicha A., Ward R.M.,

Holzgruber H. and Wu M., 365-71. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and

Engineering 143 (2016) 012036

11


Research Theme 4:

DIRECT MEASUREMENTS

OF MELT CONVECTION

AND CRYSTAL MOTION

DURING SOLIDIFICATION

A. Kharicha, M. Stefan-Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig

Basic Research

Aims and key objectives

• To observe double-diffusive phenomena during

solidification of a transparent alloy with a

so-called Particle Image Velocity (PIV) system.

• To create a data base with well controlled boundary

conditions which can be used for validation of

world-wide existing solidification numerical models.

• To define an experimental benchmark for the

columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and

the macroscopic shape of mushy zone.

• To measure the relative velocity of

equiaxed crystals and the melt and

therewith evaluate existing drag laws.

• To understand the interaction between solidification

and naturally driven melt flow convection.

• To develop a dendrite envelope

model on a semi-macroscopic scale.

a

b

c

Figure 4:

Ammonium chloride solidification in a die cast cell cooled from three sides: (a) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements

and (b) simulation results (dendritic envelope model) and (c) crystals and liquid velocities map taken by the two-colour

PIV system. Note that the different motion of crystals and surrounding melt could be resolved.

12 Research Theme 4: Direct Measurements of Melt Convection and Crystal Motion During Solidification


Summary of key progress:

1. We have built a Particle Image

Velocimetry (PIV) experimental setup

able to measure simultaneously

melt and equiaxed velocities.

2. We discovered a new kind of

double-diffusive convection: the

meandering flow known from large

scale oceans flow.

3. We put in evidence a strong

correlation between the occurrence

of CET and the total kinetic energy

of the melt flow.

4. Thermal, hydrodynamic and solidification

data were gathered to build

a very consistent and complete

experimental benchmark.

5. Our dendrite envelope model was

able to reproduce successfully both

hydrodynamics and solidification.

6. The predicted topology and

structure of mushy zone dynamics

was found to be much richer than

expected from an a priori simple

solidification front. In particular,

various kinds of freckles and

channel segregations are generated

mostly at the boundaries between

columnar grains.

Potential long-term impact:

In the future new generations of

numerical models will surpass the

common volume-averaging models

by predicting the largest structures

within the mushy zone together with

the hydrodynamics. Our experimental

research offers the possibility to

validate these advanced numerical

models with an alloy which properties

are very well known.

Selected impacts:

1. Invited keynote lectures:

• A. Kharicha, M. Stefan-Kharicha, A. Ludwig, M. Wu: “A meandering sinking

flow as possible explanation for the thermohaline stair cases in oceans”,

5 th Int. Symp. Instabilities and Bifurcations in Fluid Mechanics, July 8-11,

2013, Haifa, Israel.

• A. Kharicha, M. Stefan-Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “A Mesoscopic model

for solidification of systems of large number of columnar dendrites”

E-MRS Spring Meeting 2014, Symp. V: Effect of natural and forced

convection in materials crystallization. May 27-29 2014, Lille, France.

2. Prof. M. Ludwig was granted a basic research FWF project (P22614)

entitled: “Flow-solidification interaction”, 01.08.2010 - 31.01.2015.

Selected publications:

1. M. Stefan-Kharicha, A. Kharicha, M. Wu and A. Ludwig: “On the coupling

mechanism of equiaxed crystal generation with the liquid flow driven by

natural convection during solidification”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 49 (2018)

1708-24.

2. M. Stefan-Kharicha. A. Kharicha, J. Mogeritsch, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “Review

of ammonium chloride-water solution properties”, J. Chem. Eng. Data. 63

(2018) 3170-83.

3. A. Ludwig, M. Stefan-Kharicha, A. Kharicha and M. Wu: “Massive formation

of equiaxed crystals by avalanches of mushy zone segments”, Metall.

Mater. Trans. A 48 (2017) 2927-31.

4. M. Stefan-Kharicha, A. Kharicha, M. Wu and A. Ludwig: “Observation of

flow regimes and transitions during a columnar solidification experiment”,

Fluid Dyn. Res. 46 (2014) 041424:1-20.

5. A. Kharicha, M. Stefan-Kharicha, A. Ludwig and M. Wu: “Simultaneous

observation of melt flow and motion of equiaxed crystals during solidification

using a dual phase particle image velocimetry technique. Part I: stage

characterization of melt flow and equiaxed crystal motion”, Metall. Mater.

Trans. A 44 (2013) 650-60 and “…Part II: relative velocities”, Metall. Mater.

Trans. A 44 (2013) 661-8.

6. A. Kharicha, M. Stefan-Kharicha, A. Ludwig and M. Wu: “Exploration of the

double-diffusive convection during dendritic solidification with a combined

volume-averaging and cellular-automaton model”, IOP Conf. Series: Mater.

Sci. Eng. 33 (2012) 012115.

13


Research Theme 5:

FLOW-SOLIDIFICATION

INTERACTION IN

MUSHY ZONES

M. Wu, H. Zhang, C. Rodrigues, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha

Basic Research

Aims and key objectives

• To develop/refine numerical models for

solidification by considering flow interaction

with the advancing much zone.

• To investigate the solidification process under

the pure diffusive condition (micro-gravity)

and forced convection condition by applying

rotating magnetic field (RMF).

• To evaluate different permeability laws (or the dependency

of the permeability on the morphological

parameters of dendritic crystals in the mushy zone) by

comparison of the modelled solidification results with

the experiments where flow is well controlled by RMF.

• To investigate the flow influence on the microstructure

formation, in cooperation with some laboratory

experiments (micro-gravity and forced convection).

• To model the columnar-to-equiaxed transition

(CET) under the forced convection condition

by considering crystal fragmentation as the

origin of equiaxed crystals.

• To investigate the macrosegregation

mechanism under the RMF.

a

b

c

Figure 5.1:

Comparison of the experimentally-measured

(left)

and the numerically-calculated

(right) macrosegregation

in the unidirectionallysolidified

sample under the

rotating magnetic field.

Figure 5.2:

A two-phase columnar solidification model is used to calculate the unidirectional solidification

of AlSi7 alloy under the rotating magnetic field (RMF). (a) Geometry configuration and

boundary conditions; (b) modeling results to indicate the Tayler-Görtler vortices of the bulk

melt in front of the mushy zone, typically caused by RMF; (c) flow in the mushy zone, where

the volume fraction of liquid (upper) and the velocity direction and magnitude (lower) are

shown in color scale. The macrosegregation pattern in the as-solidified sample is shown in

Figure 5-1.

14 Research Theme 5: Flow-solidification Interaction in Mushy Zones


Summary of key progress:

1. A two-phase columnar solidification

model has been refined and applied

to ‘reproduce’ the unidirectional

solidification experiment under

the condition of RMF, which was

carried in ESA-MICAST project. The

comparison allowed to understand

the importance of correct data on

the mushy zone permeability for

predicting realistic solidification

dynamics.

2. The two-phase model is also used

to ‘reproduce’ the Al-Si casting

experiment with cross-section

change, which was carried out by

NASA group [Ghods et al., J. Cryst.

Growth, 2016].

3. The model is extended to include

the effect of intermetallic precipitates

in ternary alloy (AlSi7Fe1) on

interdendritic fluid flow during alloy

solidification.

Potential long-term impact:

This fundamental research has the

potential to gain deep knowledge

about the flow-solidification interaction

and this knowledge will be further

implemented in the advanced

solidification models to realize the

virtual manufacturing.

Selected impacts:

1. Invited (keynote/plenary) lectures:

• M. Wu: “Simulation of transport phenomena in metallurgy”, School of Materials

Science and Engineering, host Prof. Hu Zhang, Beihang University,

Beijing, China, July 23, 2019.

• M. Wu, H. Zhang, Y. Zheng, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Macrosegregation

formation in an Al-Si casting sample with cross-sectional change during

directional solidification”, 7 th Int. Conf. on Solidification Science and Processing

(ICSSP 2018), Triruvanathapuram, India, Nov. 19-22, 2018.

2. Prof. M. Wu is a member of the team – MICAST (Microstructure formation

in casting of technical alloys under diffusive and magnetically controlled

convective conditions), sponsored by ESA (European Space Agency),

AO-99-031. This research has got direct financial support by FFG – ASAP

(Austrian Space Application Program) with a project FLOWSICONS (Flowsolidification

interaction under controlled convective conditions), 10. 2017

– 12.2020.

3. Prof. M. Wu is also the member of the topic team, GRASP (Gravity impact

on microstructure evolution in technical alloys during solidification

processes), sponsored by ESA. The purpose is to initiate the activities in

the framework of the integrated ESA-CSMA (China Manned Space Agency)

research project between Chinese and European science teams.

4. Prof. M. Wu got an international grant by FWF-NKFIN between Austria and

Hungary: “Formation of as-solidified structure and macrosegregation during

unidirectional solidification under controlled flow conditions”, 12.2019

– 11.2023.

Selected publications:

5. H. Zhang, M. Wu, Y. Zheng, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Numerical study of

the role of mush permeability in the solidifying mushy zone under forced

convection conditions”, Mater. Today Comm. 22 (2020) 100842.

6. H. Zhang, M. Wu, Y. Zheng, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Macrosegregation

Formation in an Al-Si Casting Sample with Crosssectional Change During

Directional Solidification”, Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 71 (2018) 2639–43.

7. S. Steinbach, L. Ratke, G. Zimmermann, L. Sturz., A. Roosz, J. Kovacs, Y.

Fautrelle, O. Bodenkova, J. Lacaze, S. Dost, G. Grün, N. Warnken, M. Wu, W.

Sillekens: “The effect of magnetically controlled fluid flow on microstructure

evolution in cast technical Al-alloys: The MICAST project”, 7 th Int. Conf.

Solidification and Gravity (SG 2018), Miskolc, Hungary, pp. 284.

8. H. Zhang, M. Wu, Y. Zheng, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Numerical simulation

of fluid flow in the mushy zone under rotation magnetic field: influence of

permeability”, 7 th Int. Conf. Solidification and Gravity (SG 2018), Miskolc,

Hungary, pp. 265-70.

9. S. Steinbach, L. Ratke, G. Zimmermann, L. Sturz., A. Roosz, J. Kovacs, Y.

Fautrelle, O. Bodenkova, J. Lacaze, S. Dost, G. Grün, N. Warnken, M. Wu,

W. Sillekens: “Investigation of the effect of fluid flow on macrostructure

evolution in Al-Si-Fe alloys: The MICAST project”, 6 th Decennial Int. Conf. on

Solidification Processing (SP2017), Old Windsor, UK, pp. 267-71.

15


Research Theme 6:

STEEL CONTINUOUS

CASTING: SOLIDIFICATION,

FLOW AND

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS

A. Kharicha, A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, A. Ludwig

Aims and key objectives

• Multiphase phenomena modelling during

continuous casting (CC): turbulent flow,

shell growth, inclusions (NMI) and

bubbles motion, meniscus behaviour, etc.

• Model development of the turbulent flow

under the applied magnetic field

considering the Lorentz force.

• Coupled numerical simulation of the

solidification during CC with the magneto

• hydrodynamic (MHD) effects from the

electromagnetic brake (EMBr).

• Models verification against analytical

solutions, experimental data and

existing numerical results.

• Influence of the casting and EMBr conditions

on the CC mould flow pattern, the shell

thickness, meniscus temperature, slag

band stability and NMI behaviour.

• Apply the results of the numerical studies

for real industrial process with an optimization

aims regarding the cast products quality.

a

Turbulent flow

b

Magnedtic field

Magnedtic field

Figure 6:

(a) Modelling of turbulent melt flow during thin slab continuous casting of steel. The width of the funnel-shaped mould is

around 1.5 m. The final slab has a thickness of around 15 cm. (b) Flow pattern under applied eletro-magnetic break and the

electric current interaction with a vortex structure.

16 Research Theme 6: Steel Continuous Casting: Solidification, Flow and Magnetohydrodynamics


Summary of key progress:

1. The solidification model was developed

in open-source software

OpenFOAM ® that considers turbulent

effects, heat transfer near

the solidification front as well as

viscoplastic material behaviour of

the solidifying shell.

2. Coupled flow /solidification / MHD

model was developed and extensive

verification was performed.

3. MHD effects on the turbulent flow

were investigated based on the

mould conductivity. The consideration

of the highly conductive shell

was found crucial.

4. The solidification of the steel alloy

for the wide range of real industrial

thin slab CC configurations including

mould, submerged entry nozzle

(SEN) and slab part was simulated

without and with the applied EMBr.

5. Influence of the mould width,

casting speed, immerse depth of

the SEN on the solid shell distribution,

on the meniscus velocity and

temperature was analysed. The

parametric studies based on the

EMBr magnetic field variation were

performed for latter cases. The predicted

meniscus wave height was

successfully compared with the

measurements at the steel plant.

Potential long-term impact:

Our scientific investigations provide

the theoretical basis for innovative

control techniques which will lead

to growing productions rates by

increasing the casting speed while

keeping the quality. Thus large energy

savings by casting at lower super heat

and promoting CO 2

reduction will be

achieved. Developed methodology

opens the possibility to apply electromagnetic

field to other metallurgical

and semiconductor industry.

Selected impacts:

1. Invited (keynote/plenary) lectures:

• A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha: “Recent Developments in Multiphase/Multiphysics

CFD Simulations in Steelmaking”, keynote, 8 th Int. Conf. on Mod.

& Simul. of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking (STEELSIM2019), Toronto,

Canada, Aug. 13-15, 2019.

• M. Wu: “From numerical modeling toward the intelligent design/control of

metallurgical processes”, plenary, 1 st Int. Forum on Application of Artificial

Intelligence in Metallurgical Engineering, Beijing, China, Aug. 5-7, 2019.

• A. Kharicha, A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “Applications of MHD in

continuous casting”, 11 th Pamir Int. Conf. on Fundamental and Applied

MHD, Reims, France, July 1-5, 2019.

• A. Kharicha: “Modelling MHD applied in Metallurgy”, American University

of Beirut, host Prof. M. Darwish, Lebanon, Dec 26. 2018.

• A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek, A. Kharicha, M. Wu: “Simulation in Metallurgy: Past

achievements and future challenges”, 27 th Int. Conf. on Metallurgy and

Materials (METAL2018), Brno, Czech Republic, 23-25. May 2018.

2. Technology transfer: based on this research the CD-Laboratory “Metallurgical

application of Magnetohydrodynamics” lead by P.D. Dr. A. Kharicha

was founded in 2018. The involved company partners are INTECO, RHA

Magnesita GmbH and Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH.

Selected publications:

1. A. Vakhrushev, A. Kharicha, Z. Liu, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, G. Nitzl, Y. Tang, G.

Hackl, and J. Watzinger: “Electric Current Distribution during Electromagnetic

Brake in Continuous Casting”, Metall. Meta. Trans. B (2020) in press.

2. Z. Liu, B. Li, A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “Physical and Numerical

Modeling of Exposed Slag Eye in Continuous Casting Mold using Euler-Euler

Approach”, Steel Res. Int. 90 (2019) 18020117 1-10.

3. A. Vakhrushev, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, G. Nitzl, Y. Tang, G. Hackl, J.

Watzinger, C. Rodrigues: “On modelling viscoplastic behavior of the solidifying

shell in the funnel-type continuous casting mold”, 5 th Int. Conf. on Advances

in Solidification Processes (ICASP-5) combined with 5 th Int. Symposium on

Cutting Edge of Computer Simulation of Solidification, Casting and Refining,

Salzburg, Austria, IOP Conf. Series: Mater. Sci. Eng. 529 (2019) 012081.

4. Z. Liu, A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig, B. Li: “Scale-Adaptive

Simulation of Transient Two-Phase Flow in Continuous Casting Mold”,

Metall. Mater. Trans. B 50 (2019) 543-54.

5. Liu Z., Vakhrushev A., Wu M., Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Ludwig A., Li B.:

“Effect of an Electrically-Conducting Wall on Transient Magnetohydrodynamic

Flow in a Continuous Casting Mold with an Electromagnetic Brake”,

Metals. 8 (2018) 609:1-14.

6. A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, G. Nitzl, Y. Tang, G. Hackl, R. Wincor: “A Water

Experiment Benchmark to Evaluate Numerical Models for the Motion of Particles

in Continuous Casting Tundish”, Steel Res. Int. 87 (2016) 1600276:1-13.

7. A. Ludwig, A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, T. Holzmann, A. Kharicha: “Simulation of

Crystal Sedimentation and Viscoplastic Behavior of Sedimented Equiaxed

Mushy Zones”, Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 68 (2015) 1087–94.

8. A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, Y. Tang, G. Hackl, G. Nitzl: “Numerical

investigation of shell formation in thin slab casting of funnel-type mould”,

Metall. Mater. Trans. B 45 (2014) 1024-37.

9. M. Wu, A. Vakhrushev, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha: “Influence of forced convection

on solidification and remelting in the developing mushy zone”, IOP Conf.

Series: Materials Science and Engineering (ICASP-4) 117 (2016) 012045.

10. M. Wu, A. Vakhrushev, G. Nunner, C. Pfeiler, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Importance

of Melt Flow in Solidifying Mushy Zone”, Open Transp. Phenomena

J. 2 (2010) 16-23.

17


Research Theme 7:

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC

AND ELECTROCHEMICAL

PHENOMENA IN

REMELTING PROCESSES

A. Kharicha, E. Karimi-Sibaki, M. Wu, A. Ludwig

Aims and key objectives

• To understand the interaction between phase

distribution and magnetohydrodynamics

when strong electric currents are applied;

• To predict the electrical current path in the

presence of strong spatial and temporal

variation of electric conductivity;

• To solve process instabilities and predict the formation

of defects in the electroslag remelting process

(ESR) and vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process;

• To understand electrochemical apects of the

ESR process;

• To predict the thermal and solidification characteristics

during remelting of different metallic alloys;

• To explore the origin of the coherent arc

behaviour in the VAR process;

a

b

Figure 7:

(a) Melting during the electroslag remelting process (ESR) process and (b) cathode spots distribution during the vacuum

arc remelting (VAR) process. Red and yellow colours show a high electric current density. During ESR the formation of metal

droplets happens in a turbulent slag flow constantly heated by the strong electric current. In the figure the slag has been

masked out. During VAR the electric current is extremely localised inside the so-called cathode spots, which move rapidly over

the surface of the electrode.

18 Research Theme 7: Magnetohydrodynamic and Electrochemical Phenomena in Remelting Processes


Summary of key progress:

1. We have developed a three dimensional

multiphase model of

the electroslag refining processes

that accounts for the interaction

between electromagnetism, droplet

formation and interface instabilities.

2. We are modelling the ionic transport

to understand the electrical

behavior of an electrolyte.

3. We have applied the model to study

industrial scale ESR to predict the

pool depth and consequently the

quality of the final ingot of process.

This includes modelling of melting

of ESR electrodes.

4. We related the electrical signal to

physical phenomena occurring

inside the ESR process such as:

droplet formation, interface instabilities,

electrochemistry and intensity

of the mould current. These results

are now fully used for controlling

the process.

5. We analysed the composition of

slag skin to understand the mechanism

of its formation and its ability

to transfer electric current.

6. For the VAR process, the effect of

arc behaviour, side-arcing, and gas

cooling were explored. We found

that the origin of the arc behaviour

is related to the collective motion of

cathode spots.

7. Impacts of process parameters

such as applied electrical current

frequency were predicted and fully

verified in industrial plants.

Potential long-term impact:

In order to decrease CO 2

production,

the developments of new generation

of metallurgical processes using electric

currents are planned by the world

leading industrial groups. Strong currents

will be transferred through plasma

and high temperature electrolytes

to achieve production of new metallic

alloys. Fundamental knowledge built

by our research has the potential to

solve complex physical, technical and

design issues that can arise during

these crucial developments.

Selected impacts:

1. Invited (keynote/plenary) lecture:

• A. Kharicha: “Collective motion of cathode spots in the VAR process”,

plenary, 8 th Int. Workshop on Mechanisms of Vacuum Arcs, Padova, Italy,

Sept. 16-19, 2019.

• A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha: “Recent Developments in Multiphase/Multiphysics

CFD Simulations in Steelmaking”, keynote, 8 th Int. Conf. on Mod.

& Simul. of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking (STEELSIM2019), Toronto,

Canada, Aug. 13-15, 2019.

• A. Kharicha: “Modelling MHD applied in Metallurgy”, American University

of Beirut, host Prof. M. Darwish, Lebanon, Dec 26. 2018

• A. Kharicha, E. Karimi-Sibaki, M. Wu M, A. Ludwig: “Modeling of electrically

induced flows”, keynote, Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM

2018), Hyogo, Japan, Oct. 14-18, 2018.

2. In 2017 the group was invited by Wiley’s Steel Research Int. Journal to write

a scientific review article on the Electro Slag Remelting (ESR) process

3. In 2016, Dr. Karimi-Sibaki won a share of INTECO-ASMET award for his

scientific contribution in the field of Metallurgy

4. In 2017, a figure from the paper “Toward Modeling of Electrochemical

Reactions during Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Process” appeared as the

cover picture of the journal of Steel Research International

Selected publications:

1. E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, J. Bohacek, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “A Parametric

Study of the Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) Process: Effects of Arc Radius,

Side Arcing, and Gas Cooling”, Metall. Mater. Trans. (2019) 1-14.

2. E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, J. Bohacek, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “Contribution

of an Electro-Vortex Flow to Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Electric Current

Distribution in an Electrolyte”, J. Electrochem. Soc. 165 (2018) E604-15

3. E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek: “Confrontation

of the Ohmic approach with the ionic transport approach for modeling the

electrical behavior of an electrolyte”, Ionics 24 (2018) 2157–65.

4. E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek: “Modeling

electrochemical transport of ions in the molten CaF2 –FeO slag operating

under a DC voltage”, Appl. Math. Comput. 357 (2018) 357-73.

5. A. Kharicha, E. Karimi-Sibaki, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek: “Review on

Modeling and Simulation of Electroslag Remelting”, Steel Res. Int. 89

(2018) 1700100:1-20.

6. E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek: “Toward

Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions during Electroslag Remelting (ESR)

Process”, Steel Res. Int. 88 (2017) 1700011:1-8.

7. A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, E. Karimi-Sibaki: “Simulation of the Electrical

Signal During the Formation and Departure of Droplets in the Electro Slag

Remelting Process”, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 47 (2016) 1427-34.

8. E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, J. Bohacek, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “On Validity

of Axisymmetric Assumption for Modeling an Industrial Scale Electroslag

Remelting Process”, Adv. Eng. Mater. 18 (2016) 224-30.

9. E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, J. Bohacek, M. Wu, A. Ludwig: “A Dynamic

Mesh-Based Approach to Model Melting and Shape of an ESR Electrode”,

Metall. Mater. Trans. 46 (2015) 4854-67.

19


Basic Research

Research Theme 8:

METASTABLE

SOLIDIFICATION OF NOVEL

PERITECTIC STRUCTURES

A. Ludwig, J.P. Mogeritsch

Aims and key objectives

• To understand the formation of isothermal

peritectic coupled growth (IPCG) and the

impact convection might have on the

occurrence of this metastable growth mode;

• To define a suitable process window

for the occurrence of IPCG;

• To perform solidification experiments with the

transparent peritectic model alloy TRIS-NPG

under microgravity conditions on board of the International

Space Station (ISS), and compare the

observation with its equivalent terrestrial experiments;

• To investigate the transition from

lateral bands to IPCG and to identify

transient and steady growth modes;

• To perform phase field simulation of IPCG

and suggest a theoretic framework for the

physical processes that favour this

metastable growth form;

a

b

Figure 8:

(a) In-situ studies on the transition from island bands to a kind of 1-λ instability to Isothermal Peritectic Coupled Growth in

the transparent model system TRIS-NPG; (b) the experiment of solidification of couples peritectic growth is designed to be

performed on the International Space Station ISS

20 Research Theme 8: Metastable Solidification of Novel Peritectic Structures


Summary of key progress:

1. We carried out a variation of directional

solidification experiments

with the transparent peritectic

model alloy TRIS-NPG with different

compositions, different sample

geometries, temperature gradients

and different growth direction

relative the gravity;

2. We have developed a purification,

alloying and sample filling technique

according to the characteristics

of the model system by especially

avoiding contact with O 2

and H 2

0.

3. We have confirmed by DSC studies

the exact alloy compositions, the

longevity and the thermal stability of

different alloys. From these studies,

we have established the experimental

requirements that the filling of

the space-cartridge by QinetiQ and

the experiments on the ISS have to

fulfil;

4. We have done specific experimental

studies and measurements on

security issues and finally pass the

NASA’s security test;

5. We have started the ground based

pre-studies in cooperation with

ESA’s control centre E-USOC in

Madrid;

Potential long-term impact:

This research project aims to get a

complete fundamental understanding

of metastable coupled peritectic

pattern formation under purely diffusive

conditions including of specific

transient growth modes and of the

dependence of its occurrence on convective

boundary conditions.

Selected impacts:

1. Since Spring 2010 the MUL team is one of four scientific European teams

that had defined the technical requirements for ESA’s TRANSPARENT ALL-

OYS facility (Ludwig et al., JOM 2012). This specific devise had been put

into operation on the International Space Station in Fall 2017;

2. In 2012 first direct observations of coupled peritectic growth in TRIS-NPG

were obtained;

3. As side product to these studies several scientifically important

observations were made: (i) IPCG may evolve from lateral bands; (ii) rapid

growth of the peritectic phase in direct contact with the primary phase

reveals a so called compact seaweed morphology; (iii) micro-channels

within the solidifying phases might be the source of localized buoyancy

jets which interact with the solidification phases;

4. Brochure of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology:

ASAP Success Stories of the 7 and 8 call

Selected publications:

1. J.P. Mogeritsch, T. Pfeifer, A. Ludwig: “Formation of micro-plumes at a

planar solid liquid interface in a temperature gradient”, 5 th Int. Conf. on

Advances in Solidification Processes (ICASP-5) combined with 5 th Int. Symposium

on Cutting Edge of Computer Simulation of Solidification, Casting

and Refining, Salzburg, Austria, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science &

Engineering 529 (2019) 012025.

2. J.P. Mogeritsch, A. Ludwig: “Investigation on Peritectic Layered Structures

by Using the Binary Organic Components TRIS-NPG as Model Substances

for Metal-Like Solidification”, Res. & Dev. Materials Sci. 4 (2018) 1-3

3. J.P. Mogeritsch, A. Ludwig: “Investigation on the Binary Organic

Components TRIS-NPG as Suitable Model Substances for Metal-Like

Solidification”, 7 th Int. Conf. Solidification and Gravity (SG 2018), Miskolc,

Hungary, pp. 330-5.

4. J.P. Mogeritsch, T. Pfeifer, M. Stefan-Kharicha, A. Ludwig: “Investigation on

the Liquid Flow ahead of the Solidification Front During the Formation of

Peritectic Layered Solidification Structures”, 7 th Int. Conf. on Solidification

and Gravity (SG 2018), Miskolc, Hungary, pp. 319-24.

5. A. Ludwig, J.P. Mogeritsch, T. Pfeifer: “In-situ observation of coupled

peritectic growth in a binary organic model alloy”, Acta Mater. 126 (2017)

329-35.

6. A. Ludwig, J.P. Mogeritsch: “Compact seaweed growth of peritectic phase

on confined, flat properitectic dendrites”, J. Crystal Growth 455 (2016)

99–104.

7. J.P. Mogeritsch, A. Ludwig: “In-situ observation of the dynamic of peritectic

coupled growth using the binary organic system TRIS-NPG”, 14 th Modeling

of Casting, Welding and Adv. Solidification Processes, (MCWASP XIV),

Awaji island, Hyogo, Japan, 21-26 June (2015), Ed.: H. Yasuda, IOP Conf.

Series: Materials Science and Engineering 84 (2015) 012055.

8. A. Ludwig, J.P. Mogeritsch: “Recurring instability of cellular growth in a near

peritectic transparent NPG-TRIS alloy system”, Mater. Sci. Forum 790-1

(2014) 317-22.

9. A. Ludwig, J.P. Mogeritsch, M. Kolbe, Z. Gerhard, L. Sturz, N. Bergeon, G.

Faivre, B. Billia, S. Akamatsu, S. Bottin-Rousseau, D. Voss: “Adv.

Solidification Studies on Transparent Alloy Systems: A New European

Solidification Insert for Material Science Glovebox on Board the Int. Space

Station”, JOM 64 (2012) 1097-101.

21


GRANT AWARDS 1

Projekt

Advanced Process Simulation of

Solidification and Melting

Principal

Investigator

Sponsor

Value

(k€)

Duration

Menghuai Wu CDG 2 1,295 July 2011 – June

2018

On the Formation of Macrosegregation Menghuai Wu FFG 3 -Early Bridge 342 June 2014 – Mar

2018

Microstructure Formation in Casting of

Technical Alloys under Diffusive and

Magnetically Controlled Convective

Conditions

Menghuai WU

European Space

Agency MAP

10 Jan 2015 – Aug 2018

Ultrafast Simulations Andreas Ludwig FFG Early Bridge 230 Apr 2015 – Aug 2019

Slags, Refractories and Inclusions in the

Continuous Casting Process

Menghuai Wu FFG-COMET: K1-

MET

46 July 2015 – Dec 2018

Reduced Build-up Growth in a Hot Dip Abdellah Kharicha FFG-COMET: K2

MPPE

149 Apr 2016 – Dec 2019

Combined Modelling of Solidification and

Visco-plasticity

Andreas Ludwig FWF 4 220 May 2016 – Aug 2019

Metastable Solidification of Composites:

Novel Peritectic Structures and In-situ

Composites

Andreas Ludwig

European Space

Agency MAP

100 Sept 2016 – Aug 2019

Microstructure Simulation Andreas Ludwig AIT 5 21 July 2017 – Dec 2020

Flow-solidification Interaction Menghuai Wu FFG ASAP 222 Oct 2017 – Sept 2020

Simulation of the Multiphase Phenomena Abdellah Kharicha Aubert Duval/F 60 June 2018 – Oct 2020

Metallurgical Application of

Magnetohydrodynamics

Formation Mechanism of As-cast

Microstructure

Metastable Solidification of Novel

Peritectic

Abdellah Kharicha CDG 2,200 July 2018 – June

2025

Menghuai Wu FFG Bridge 395 Dec 2018 – Nov 2022

Andreas Ludwig FFG-ASAP 6 318 Nov. 2018 – Apr 2021

CFD Simulation and Optimization of Gas

Flow in New Sorting Systems

Menghuai Wu

IFE Aufbereitungstechnik

30 Mar 2019 – Dec 2019

Tundish and Mould Operation Menghuai Wu FFG-COMET: K1-

MET

107 July 2019 – June

2023

Formation of As-solidified Structure and

Macrosegregation

Menghuai Wu FWF 335 Dec 2019 – Nov 2023

1 The cumulated funding for 2018 results to 638 k€ and for 2019 to 863 k€.

2 CDG: Christian Doppler Gesellschaft

3 FFG: Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft

4 FWF: Der Wissenschaftsfonds

5 AIT: Austrian Institute of Technology

6 ASAP: Austrian Space Applications Programme

22 Grant Awards


From the chair for Simulation and Modelling Metallurgical Processes awarded grants since 2004

900

800

700

THIRD-PARTY FUNDING [K€]

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

'04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 '15 '16 '17 '18 '19

YEARS

23


GIVEN LECTURES

L-Nr. Title Lecturer Participants

310.001 Fundamentals of Numerical Simulation A. Ludwig 53

310.002 Exercises on Fundamentals of Numerical Simulation M. Wu 15

310.005 Simulation of Casting Processes M. Wu 14

310.006 Magnetohydrodynamics in Metallurgy A. Kharicha 10

310.019 Process Simulation in Metallurgy A. Ludwig 56

310.020 Microstructure Simulation Using Phase Field J. Mogeritsch, A. Ludwig 11

310.021 Use of Open Source Programs in Metallurgy A. Vakhrushev, A. Ludwig 15

310.022 Excursion Related to Simulation A. Ludwig 32

310.024 Fundamentals and Application of Multiphase Simulation A. Kharicha 11

310.025 Simulation of Transport Phenomena in Metallurgy M. Wu 15

COMPLETED THESIS

Name Degree Thesis Title

Hadi BARATI Ph.D. Numerical Modeling of Clogging in a Submerged Entry Nozzle During Steel

Continuous Casting

Tobias HOLZMANN Ph.D. Method Development to Calculate the Material Properties of Aluminum

Castings in 3D for a Local Heat Treatment

Mihaela STEFAN-KHARICHA Ph.D Observation of Flow Phenomena During Dendritic Solidification

Yongjian ZHENG Ph.D Multiphase Modeling of As-solidified Structure and Macrosegregation in

Continuously Cast Round Billet of Large Format

Markus Philipp MAYR Master Simulation of Residual Stresses During Heat Treatment of a Hardenable

Aluminum Casting Alloy

Tanja PFEIFER Master Estimation of Convection Ahead of the Solid/liquid Interface During Solidification

of Layered Peritectic Solidification Morphologies

24 Given Lectures / Completed Thesis


25


TEAM MEMBERS

Chair Holder and Head of the Department

Univ.-Prof. habil. Dr. rer.nat. Andreas LUDWIG

Research Group Leader

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ing. Menghuai WU

Priv. Doz. Dr. Abdellah KHARICHA

Secretary

Claudia HEINZL

Sabine STRASSEGGER

IT-Administrator

Klaus-Jürgen OTTO

Researchers

Dr. mont. Hadi BARATI

Dr. Jan BOHACEK

Dr. Christian GOMES RODRIGUES

Dr. mont. Tobias HOLZMANN (till Mar 2018)

Dr. mont. Ebrahim KARIMI-SIBAKI

Dr. mont. Johann MOGERITSCH

Dr. mont. Mihaela STEFAN-KHARICHA

Dr. Alexander VAKHRUSHEV

Student Assistants

cand. Dipl.-Ing. Veronika GRELA (till July 18)

cand. DIpl.-Ing. Carina PELKA (till July 19)

cand. Dipl.-Ing. Mehran ABDI

Guest Scientists

Prof. Marwan DARWISH, American University of Beirut,

Lebanon (Oct – Dec 2019)

Dr. Youngsim CHOI, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology,

Cheonan, South Korea (Dec 19 – Jun 20)

Dr. Zhongqiu LIU, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China

(Nov 2017 – Oct 2018)

M.Sc. Jérémy CHAULET, University of Lorraine, Nancy,

France (Oct 18 – Jun 19)

Dipl.Ing. Stephan JÄGER, Austrian Institute of Technology,

Vienna, Austria (on a non-regular basis)

Apprentice

Nico BAUMGARTNER (till Jul 19)

PhD Students

MEng. Rui GUAN (from Nov 19)

MEng. Mohamad AL-NASSER (from Oct 19)

MEng. Haijie ZHANG

MEng. Zhao ZHANG (from dec 18)

Dr. mont. Yongjian ZHENG (till Aug. 18, graduation May 18)

26 Team Members


27


COLLABORATIONS

AND SUPPORTERS

Industrial

Societies, Trade Organisations and Fund Bodies

28 Collaborations and Supporters


Academic

29


INVITED LECTURES

2019

A. Kharicha, Invited Plenary Talk, 8 th Int. Workshop on

Mechanisms of Vacuum Arcs, Padova, Italy, Sept. 16-19,

2019

“Collective motion of cathode spots in the VAR process”

M. Wu, H. Barati, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig, Invited Lecture,

Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, host Prof. Andre

Phillion, McMaster University, Canada, Aug. 16, 2019

“Clogging in SEN during continuous casting”

A. Ludwig, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, Invited Keynote Lecture, 8 th

Int. Conf. on Mod. & Simul. of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking

(STEELSIM2019), Toronto, Canada, Aug. 13-15,

2019

“Recent developments in multiphase/ multiphysics CFD simulations

in steelmaking”

M. Wu, H. Barati, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig, Invited Lecture, 8 th

Int. Conf. on Mod. & Simul. of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking

(STEELSIM2019), Toronto, Canada, Aug. 13-15,

2019

“Using a numerical model to study the transient clogging

phenomena in SEN during continuous casting of steel”

M. Wu, Invited Plenary Talk, 1 st Int. Forum on Application

of Artificial Intelligence in Metallurgical Engineering, Beijing,

China, Aug. 5-7, 2019

“From numerical modelling toward the intelligent design/

control of metallurgical processes”

M. Wu, Invited Lecture, host Prof. Aimin Zhao, School of

Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, Univ. Sci. Techn.,

Beijing, China, Aug. 5, 2019

“Simulation of as-cast ingots”

M. Wu, Invited Lecture, School of Materials Science and Engineering,

host Prof. Hu Zhang, Beihang University, Beijing,

China, July 23, 2019

“Simulation of transport phenomena in metallurgy”

A. Kharicha, A. Vakhrushev, M. Wu, A. Ludwig. Invited Lecture,

11 th Pamir Int. Conf. on Fundamental and Applied MHD,

Reims, France, July 1-5, 2019

“Applications of MHD in continuous casting”

A. Ludwig, M. Bellet, Invited Plenary Talk, 5 th Int. Conf. on

Advances in Solidification Processes (ICASP-5) combined

with 5 th Int. Symposium on Cutting Edge of Computer

Simulation of Solidification, Casting and Refining, Salzburg,

Austria, June 17-21, 2019

“Combining Modelling of Flow and Structure Mechanics in

Solidifying Regions”

2018

A. Kharicha, Invited Lecture, American University of Beirut,

host Prof. M. Darwish, Lebanon, Dec 26. 2018

“Modelling MHD applied in Metallurgy”

M. Wu, Invited Lecture, Int. Conf. on Industrial Development

of Heavy Castings and Forgings, Deyang, China, Dec. 5-6,

2018

“Simulation of as-cast steel ingots”

M. Wu, H. Zhang, Y. Zheng, A. Ludwig, A. Kharicha, Invited

Lecture, 7 th Int. Conf. on Solidification Science and Processing

(ICSSP7), Thiruvananthapuram, India, Nov. 19-22, 2018

“Macrosegregation formation in an Al-Si casting sample with

cross-sectional change during directional solidification”

M. Wu, Invited Lecture, School of Materials Science and Engineering,

host Prof. Hu Zhang, Beihang University, Beijing,

China, Oct. 30, 2018

“Advanced Process Simulation of Solidification and Melting”

M. Wu, Invited Lecture, School of Materials Science and Engineering,

host Prof. Hu Zhang, Beihang University, Beijing,

China, Oct. 29, 2018

“Numerical modelling/simulation and their applications in

metallurgy and materials processing”

M. Wu, Y. Zheng, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig, Invited Keynote,

China Symposium on Sustainable Steelmaking Technology,

Tianjin, China, Oct. 24-26, 2018

“Concept of semi-continuous casting for large steel strand:

a numerical study”

A. Kharicha, E. Karimi-Sibaki, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, Invited

Keynote Lecture, Electromagnetic Processing of Materials

(EPM 2018), Hyogo, Japan, Oct. 14-18, 2018.

“Modelling of electrically induced flows”

M. Wu, Invited Lecture, Hebei University of Technology,

Tianjin, host Prof. Ri Li, China, Oct. 23, 2018

“Advanced Process Simulation of Solidification and Melting”

M. Wu, Invited Plenary Lecture, 7 th Int. Conf. on Solidification

and Gravity (SG’13), Miskolc, Hungary, Sept. 3-6, 2018

“A numerical study on the role of fragmentation in the ascast

structure”

A. Ludwig, J. Bohacek, N. Koutna, C. Rodrigues, E. Karimi-Sibaki,

A. Kharicha, Invited Plenary Talk, 27 th Int. Conf.

on Metallurgy and Materials (METAL2018), Brno, Czech

Republic, 23-25. May 2018

“Simulation in metallurgy: past achievements and future

challenges”

30 Invited lectures


The chair for SMMP is operating, together with other groups, two High Performance Clusters:

(i) 1168 cores with 200 TB storage and (i) 546 cores with 76 TB storage. These HPC-Clusters are equipped

with modern Multi-core Intel Xeon CPU’s that operate with frequencies that range from 1.3 GHz to 3.6 GHz.

31


PUBLICATIONS

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

• Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Bohacek J., Wu M.,

Ludwig A.: Metall. Mater. Trans. B 51 (2002) 222-35

“A parametric study of the vacuum arc remelting (VAR)

process: effects of arc radius, side arcing, and gas

cooling”

• Wu M., Ludwig A., Kharicha A.: Metals 9 (2019) 229:1-43.

“Volume-averaged modelling of multiphase flow

phenomena during alloy solidification”

• Liu Z., Li B., Vakhrushev A., Wu M., Ludwig A.: Steel Res.

Int. 90 (2019) 18020117:1-10.

“Physical and numerical modelling of exposed slag eye in

continuous casting mould using euler-euler approach”

• Liu Z., Li B., Wu M., Xu G., Ruan X., Ludwig A.: The Minerals,

Met. & Mater. Soci ASM Int. 50A (2019) 1370-79.

“An experimental benchmark of non-metallic inclusion

distribution inside a heavy continuous casting slab”

• Barati H., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A.: Metall. Mater.

Trans. B 50 (2019) 1429-43.

“Calculation accuracy and efficiency of a transient model

for submerged entry nozzle clogging”

• Rodrigues C., Ludwig A., Wu M., Kharicha A., Vakhrushev

A.: Metall. Mater. Trans. B 50 (2019) 1334-50.

“A comprehensive analysis of macrosegregation

formation during twin-roll casting”

• Liu Z., Vakhrushev A., Wu M., Kharicha A., Ludwig A., Li B.:

Metall. Mater. Trans. B 50 (2019) 543-54.

“Scale-adaptive simulation of transient two-phase flow in

continuous casting mould”

• Rodrigues C., Ludwig A., Kharicha A., Wu M.: Trans. Indian

Inst. Met. 71 (2018) 2645-49.

“Modelling of the twin-roll casting process: transition from

casting to rolling”

• Zhang H., Wu M., Zheng Y., Ludwig A., Kharicha A.: Trans.

Indian Inst. Met. 71 (2018) 2639–43.

“Macrosegregation formation in an Al-Si casting

sample with cross-sectional change during directional

solidification”

• Mogeritsch J., Ludwig A.: Res. & Dev. Materials Sci. 4

(2018) 1-3.

“Investigation on peritectic layered structures by using

the binary organic components TRIS-NPG as model

substances for metal-like solidification”

• Liu Z., Vakhrushev A., Wu M., Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A.,

Ludwig A., Li B.: Metals 8 (2018) 609:1-14.

“Effect of an electrically-conducting wall on Transient

Magnetohydrodynamic flow in a continuous casting

mould with an electromagnetic brake”

• Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Bohacek J.:

J. Electrochem. Soc., 165 (2018) E604-15.

“Contribution of an electro-vortex flow to primary,

secondary and tertiary electric current distribution in

an electrolyte”

• Bohacek J., Kharicha A., Ludwig A., Wu M., Karimi-Sibaki

E.: Metall. Mater. Trans. B 49 (2018) 1421-33.

“Heat transfer coefficient at the cast/mould interface

during centrifugal casting: calculation of air gap”

• Stefan-Kharicha M., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A.: Metall.

Mater. Trans. A 49 (2018) 1708-24.

“On the coupling mechanism of equiaxed crystal

generation with the liquid flow driven by natural

convection during solidification”

• Stefan-Kharicha M., Kharicha A., Mogeritsch J., Wu M.,

Ludwig A.:J. Chem. Eng. Data 63 (2018) 3170-83.

“Review of ammonium chloride-water solution properties”

• Barati H., Wu M., Kharicha A., Ludwig A.:

Powder Technology 329 (2018) 181–98.

“A transient model for nozzle clogging”

• Zheng Y., Wu M., Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Ludwig A.:

Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans. 122 (2018) 939–53.

“Use of a mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model to

analyse the formation of as-cast structure and macrosegregation

in a Sn-10 wt% Pb benchmark experiment”

• Zheng Y., Wu M., Kharicha A., Ludwig A.: Modelling Simul.

Mater. Sci. Eng. 26 (2018) 015004 1-18.

“Incorporation of fragmentation into a volume average

solidification model”

• Wu M., Ludwig A., Kharicha A.: Steel Res. Int. 89 (2018)

1700037 1-14.

“Simulation of as-cast steel ingots”

• Wu M., Ahmadein M., Ludwig A.: Front. Mech. Eng. 13

(2018) 53–65.

“Premature melt solidification during mould filling and its

influence on the as-cast structure”

• Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Bohacek J.:

Ionics 24 (2018) 2157-65.

“Modeling electrochemical transport with the ionic transport

approach for modelling the electrical behaviour of an

electrolyte”

32 Publications


• Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Bohacek J.:

Appl. Math. Comput. 357 (2018) 357-73.

“Modeling electrochemical transport of ions in the molten

CaF2 –FeO slag operating under a DC voltage”

• Kharicha A., Karimi-Sibaki E., Wu M., Ludwig A., Bohacek J.:

Steel Res. Int. 89 (2018) 1700100:1-20.

“Review on modelling and simulation of electroslag

remelting”

• Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Bohacek J.,

Holzgruber H., Ofner B., Scheriau A., Kubin M.: Appl. Thermal

Eng. 130 (2018) 1062–69.

“A multiphysics model of the electroslag rapid remelting

(ESRR) process”

• Bohacek J., Kharicha A., Ludwig A., Wu M.,

Karimi-Sibaki E., Paar A., Brandner M., Elizondo L., Trickl T.:

Appl. Math. Comput. 319 (2018) 301-17.

“A (non-)hydrostatic free-surface numerical model for

two-layer flows”

33


Conference Proceedings

• Kharicha A., Karimi-Sibaki E., Wu M., Ludwig A.: Liquid

Metal Processing & Casting Conference (LMPC2019),

Birmingham, UK, pp. 11-16.

“Investigations on Collective Motion of Cathode Spots in

the VAR Process”

• Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Bohacek

J., Holzgruber H., Ofner B., Scheriau A., Kubin M.: Liquid

Metal Processing & Casting Conference (LMPC2019),

Birmingham, UK, pp. 55-62.

“Numerical Investigation of the Vacuum Arc Remelting

(VAR) Process”

• Chaulet J., Kharicha A., Dussoubs B., Charmond A., Jardy

A., Hans S.: Liquid Metal Processing & Casting Conference

(LMPC2019), Birmingham, UK, pp. 107-116.

“DNS and Engineering Modeling of the Electroslag Remelting

Process”

• Karimi-Sibaki E., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Bohacek

J.: Liquid Metal Processing & Casting Conference

(LMPC2019), Birmingham, UK, pp. 131-138.

“Modeling Electrochemical Transport of Ions in the ESR

Process”

• Vakhrushev A., Kharicha A., Liu Z., Wu M., Ludwig A., Nitzl

G., Tang Y., Hackl G., Watzinger J.: 8 th Int. Conf. on Mod.

& Simul. of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking (STEEL-

SIM2019), Toronto, Canada, pp. 615-9.

“Optimizing the flow conditions in the thin-slab casting

mold using electromagnetic brake”

• Wu M., Barati H., Kharicha A., Ludwig A.: 8 th Int. Conf.

on Mod. & Simul. of Metall. Processes in Steelmaking

(STEELSIM2019), Toronto, Canada, pp. 664-7.

“Using a numerical model to study the transient clogging

phenomena in SEN during continuous casting of steel”

• Mogeritsch J.P., Pfeifer T., Ludwig A.: 5 th Int. Conf. on

Advances in Solidification Processes (ICASP-5) combined

with 5 th Int. Symposium on Cutting Edge of Computer

Simulation of Solidification, Casting and Refining,

Salzburg, Austria, IOP Conf. Series: Mater. Sci. Eng. 529

(2019) 012025.

“Formation of micro-plumes at a planar solid liquid interface

in a temperature gradient”

• Jäger, S., Ludwig A.: 5 th Int. Conf. on Advances in Solidification

Processes (ICASP-5) combined with 5 th Int.

Symposium on Cutting Edge of Computer Simulation of

Solidification, Casting and Refining, Salzburg, Austria, IOP

Conf. Series: Mater. Sci. Eng. 529 (2019) 012028.

“Efficient model for the prediction of dendritic grain growth

using the lattice Boltzmann method coupled with a cellular

automaton algorithm”

• Rodrigues C., Ludwig A., Wu M., Kharicha A., Vakhrushev

A.: 5 th Int. Conf. on Advances in Solidification Processes

(ICASP-5) combined wi th 5 th Int. Symposium on Cutting

Edge of Computer Simulation of Solidification, Casting

and Refining, Salzburg, Austria, IOP Conf. Series: Mater.

Sci. Eng.529 (2019) 012041.

“On the modelling of macrosegregation during twin-roll

casting”

34 Publications


• Vakhrushev A., Kharicha A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Nitzl G.,

Tang Y., Hackl G., Watzinger J., Rodrigues C.: 5 th Int. Conf.

on Advances in Solidification Processes (ICASP-5) combined

with 5 th Int. Symposium on Cutting Edge of Computer

Simulation of Solidification, Casting and Refining,

Salzburg, Austria, IOP Conf. Series: Mater. Sci. Eng. 529

(2019) 012081.

“On modelling viscoplastic behaviour of the solidifying

shell in the funnel-type continuous casting mold”

• Vakhrushev A., Kharicha A., Ludwig A., Nitzl G., Tang Y.,

Hackl G., Watzinger J.: 8 th Int. Conf. on Solidification:

Computer Simulation, Experiments and Technology 2019,

Izhevsk, Russia, pp. 85-87.

“On modelling parasitic solidification due to heat loss at

submerged entry nozzle region of continuous casting

mold.”

• Zheng Y., Wu M., Kharicha A., Ludwig A.: 1 st Chinas Symposium

on Sustainable Technology (CSST2018), Tianjin,

China, pp. 355-7.

“Concept of semi-continuous casting for large steel

strand: a numerical study”

• Barati H., Wu M., Kharicha A., Ludwig A.: 7 th Int. Conf.

Solidification and Gravity (SG 2018) ), Miskolc, Hungary,

pp. 144-9.

“Discussion on possible solidification during SEN clogging

in steel continuous casting”

• Mogeritsch J.P., Ludwig A.: 7 th Int. Conf. Solidification and

Gravity (SG 2018), Miskolc, Hungary, pp. 330-5.

“Investigation on the Binary Organic Components TRIS-

NPG as Suitable Model Substances for Metal-Like Solidification”

• Mogeritsch J.P., Pfeifer T., Stefan-Kharicha M., Ludwig A.:

7 th Int. Conf. Solidification and Gravity (SG 2018), Miskolc,

Hungary, pp. 319-24.

“Investigation on the Liquid Flow ahead of the Solidification

Front During the Formation of Peritectic Layered Solidification

Structures”Zhang H., Wu M., Zheng Y., Ludwig

A., Kharicha A.: 7 th Int. Conf. Solidification and Gravity (SG

2018), Miskolc, Hungary, pp. 265-70.

“Numerical simulation of fluid flow in the mushy zone

under rotation magnetic field: influence of permeability”

• Zheng Y., Wu M., Kharicha A., Ludwig A.: 7 th Int. Conf.

Solidification and Gravity (SG 2018), Miskolc, Hungary, pp.

226-31.

“Influence of nucleation and dendrite fragmentation on

as-cast structure of Sn- 10wt.%Pb benchmark”

• Liu Z., Vakhrushev A., Wu M., Ludwig A., Li B., Xu G.: 7 th

Int. Congr. on Sci. and Techn. of Steel Making (ICS2018),

Venice, Italy, No. 43.

“Numerical Modelling of Bubbly Flow in Continuous Casting

Mold using Two Population Balance Approaches”

• Vakhrushev A., Liu Z., Wu M., Kharicha A., Ludwig A., Nitzl

G., Tang Y., Hackl G.: 7 th Int. Congr. on Sci. and Techn. of

Steel Making (ICS2018), Venice, Italy, No. 159.

“Numerical Modelling of the MHD flow in continuous

casting mold by two CFD platforms ANSYS Fluent and

OpenFOAM”

350

19.7 p.a.

300

NUMBER OF SMMP PUBLICATIONS

250

200

150

100

9.9 p.a.

8.7 p.a.

Evolution of

SMMP publications

since the foundation

of the chair in 2003

Total

50

Journal

0

2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019

Proceedings

YEARS

35


Chair for Simulation and Modelling

of Metallurgical Processes

Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben

+43 3842 402 3101

smmp@unileoben.ac.at

smmp.unileoben.ac.at

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