All You Need to Teach - Info Literacy 10+









in the

information age



Information Literacy

Ages 10+

Learning in the

information age



For Elle, Stephannie and Archer

and all their teachers.


This book is also for

the teacher librarians of OZTL_NET

and the teachers of the Oz-teachers Network

in appreciation of all the assistance they have

provided over the years.

This edition published in 2021 by

Matilda Education Australia, an imprint

of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd

Level 1/274 Brunswick St

Fitzroy, Victoria Australia 3065

T: 1300 277 235


First edition published in 2009 by Macmillan Science and Education

Australia Pty Ltd

Copyright © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia 2009

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+

ISBN 978 1 4202 6912 3

Publisher: Sharon Dalgleish

Managing Editor: Polly Hennessy

Project Editor: Claire Linsdell

Proofreader: Adriana Martinelli-Sciacca

Design: Trish Hayes and Stephen Michael King

Illustrations: Stephen Michael King

Printed in by

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Please note

At the time of printing, the internet addresses appearing in this book were

correct. Owing to the dynamic nature of the internet, however, we cannot

guarantee that all these addresses will remain correct.

C o n t e n t s

All the Teaching Tips You Need

Making the Most of This Book................................................................................5

Why Do We Need Information Literacy?.............................................................6

The Information Process (Mini-posters).................................................................7

Learning Outcomes................................................................................................... 10

All the Lesson Banks You Need

Sixth Year at School

Leading the Way....................................................................................................... 18

All About Learning.................................................................................................... 20

Working With Words............................................................................................... 22

In Their Footsteps...................................................................................................... 24

Hero Worship............................................................................................................. 26

True Blue...................................................................................................................... 28

Landscapes and Legends......................................................................................... 30

Birth of a Nation........................................................................................................ 32

Water Works.............................................................................................................. 34

A Place of Our Own................................................................................................. 36

Points of View............................................................................................................ 38

Celebrations................................................................................................................ 40

Seventh Year at School

Happy New Year....................................................................................................... 42

All About Thinking.................................................................................................... 44

Research Skills............................................................................................................ 46

Web Wisdom.............................................................................................................. 48

Planning Manoeuvres............................................................................................... 50

Capital Canberra........................................................................................................ 52

The Art of Persuasion............................................................................................... 54

Endangered Species.................................................................................................. 56

Lest We Forget........................................................................................................... 58

Read Around the World.......................................................................................... 60

Study Buddies............................................................................................................. 62

Time to Reflect........................................................................................................... 64

All the Worksheets You Need..................................................................66

All the



You Need


Making the Most of This Book

This resource can be used by teacher librarians working in collaboration with classroom teachers

to plan and teach information literacy. It is also ideal for teacher librarians who teach alone in the

library, or for teachers who want to teach information literacy in those schools where there is no

teacher librarian.

A ll the Teach i n g Tips You Need

In this section you’ll find an overview of the information literacy process, including a useful

step-by-step diagram of the stages in the process. You could photocopy and display this in the

library as a reminder for students. For each stage in the process there is also a checklist of the

learning outcomes you would expect students to have achieved by the end of the seventh year at

school. These outcomes pages include questions you could ask yourself as you plan the learning

experiences for your students. You could use the pages in your program, to help your planning, to

record assessment comments, or as assessment checklists.

A ll the Less o n Ban ks You Need

This section consists of 24 lesson banks built around commonly taught topics or themes. It is

divided into two parts—with twelve lesson banks each for the sixth and seventh years of school.

The activities in each lesson bank build on the previous bank’s activities, so it is suggested that

the year levels here are observed. However, you know your students’ needs, so change or adapt

the order if necessary.

Each lesson bank includes the following sections:

V Learning for Life A list of key ideas: those things students should know, do, understand,

appreciate and value long into the future as a result of this work.

V Focus Questions Suggested questions to stimulate student discussion and guide learning.

V Resources A list of items which are essential for the successful completion of the activities.

V Other Useful Resources A list of other useful resources, including websites which may be useful

or interesting and software for integrating ICT.

V Learning Activities A bank of activity ideas for teaching the information literacy process within

that topic. There is scope for both cooperative teaching and for the integration of these activities

into the classroom program. Because library lessons for this age group are often short, and include

circulation, the activities in the book can be spread over a number of sessions. In this case, teachers

should identify what meets their needs, find a logical finishing point for each session, and plan

their term and time accordingly.

V Hint Additional teaching hints, if appropriate, highlighted in boxes.

A ll the Worksh e ets You Need

This section provides photocopiable worksheets to be used

in conjunction with the activities in the lesson banks.


Why Do We Need Information Literacy?

L i v i n g in the Informat i o n Age

Despite our technological advances in producing and transmitting information, we are still

processing it at the same rate as we were approximately 5000 years ago. No miraculous

technological breakthrough has been made which would speed up the brain’s processing power;

we must instead help students become lifelong learners, able to identify the information they need,

and with the skills to locate and process it.

Students need to develop the skills that will enable them to:

V identify when they have a need for information

V find the required information from appropriate sources in a variety of formats

V understand and use effective and efficient research strategies

V select, interpret and evaluate the information according to what they already know and believe

V use sources effectively to meet their immediate needs or to construct new information

V share what they know and justify it with informed and reasonable arguments

V develop responsibility for their own learning and become active, independent learners

V apply what they have learned to solve similar problems in new situations

V reflect on what they have learned and assimilate this into their existing knowledge, thus

enriching and enhancing that understanding.

T h e Informat i o n Lit e rac y Process

The information literacy process helps students develop strategies

which will allow them to meet their information needs. It:

V is relevant to all learning situations

V builds on what is already known and understood

V involves active, self-directed learning

V provides a scaffold for investigations across the curriculum

V develops a sense of personal empowerment.

Information literacy is a cross-curriculum perspective, a process embedded in almost every aspect of

what we do, used whenever information is required, and modified to meet abilities and needs. It is

based on how we believe learning occurs, and encourages independent, lifelong learning. It should be

an integral part of the whole learning process, providing a pathway to follow from problem to solution.

The information literacy process commonly has six stages. This model adds a seventh, Reflecting.

Reflecting is a critical but often forgotten part of learning and it is valuable to have it explicitly stated.








Students define the problem and the information they need to solve it.

Students identify the range of resources available to them.

Students identify the information they need and record it so it can be used in

their final presentation.

Students organise the information they have gathered into larger units to be

written in their own words for their presentation.

Students present their findings in a format that is appropriate to the task and the

target audience.

Students evaluate the effectiveness of the product and the efficiency of the


Students reflect on what they have done, how they did it and why, connecting

their new learning to what they already know.






1. Defining

What is the problem I have to solve?


Cluster ideas.

Identify keywords.

Create a concept map.

Develop focus questions.

Prepare your research plan.

2. Locating

Where can I find the information I need?

People: family, friends, teachers, experts

and organisations

Print: books, magazines, brochures,

pamphlets, pictures, charts, maps,

tables, graphs

Digital: internet, email, software

Electronic: television, video, DVD, film,

audio, compact disk

Other: models, artefacts, museums,

galleries, excursions

3. Selecting

How can I search these sources effectively?

Look at the cover or packaging.

Use navigation tools.

Skim and scan headings and graphics.

Assess the source’s appropriateness.

Take notes.

Keep a list of where the information came from.

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.



4. Organising

How can I organise the information so I can understand it better?

Use a graphic organiser.

Think about headings, topic sentences and graphics.

Give it a structure and sequence.

Use your own words.

Review the task. Go back to step 2 if you need more information.

5. Presenting

How can I share this information with other people?

Oral: talk recount discussion debate

role-play interview courtroom argument

song re-enactment readers’ theatre

poetry reading

Print: report poster picture mural

chart pamphlet instructions explanation

description storyboard scrapbook bibliography

biography diary directory newsletter

letter script profile review

summary calendar timeline cartoon

collage diagram flow chart graph

map photographs advertisement

Digital: film video audio advertisement

animation soundtrack web page slideshow

blog podcast wiki e-zine

online conference

Other: model diorama display game

mobile art gallery dramatisation dance


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


6. Assessing

What have I learned from this?

Did I answer my focus questions?

How have my skills improved?

Which parts did I do really well?

Which parts would I change if I did the assignment again?

Which parts do I need support with in the future?

How well did I contribute to the work of my group?

7. Reflecting

Where to from here?

Think about what I learned.

Create goals.

Keep a learning log, journal,

diary or blog.

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 4 Learning Outcomes: End of Seventh Year at School


The student begins to identify information needs and how these might be satisfied.


V What do I expect students to know, understand, do and appreciate because of this study?

V How will I explicitly connect it to what they already know?

V What do they need to know/understand before they start?

V What other curriculum areas can I incorporate, integrate and consolidate?

V Are the tasks and questions open-ended so each student may achieve at their own level?

V What scaffolding will they need to complete this task successfully?

The student:

Initiates and participates in discussions to clarify own knowledge, identify ideas,

information and issues to be considered and offers an opinion for consideration.

Initiates and participates in discussions which explore abstract concepts and

hypothetical situations.

Explores new concepts using divergent questions such as ‘what if’ and ‘how


Explores open-ended questions and acknowledges there may be a variety of

answers which may conflict with or change their thinking.

Use knowledge, experience and needs to initiate, plan and undertake


Suggests ways to undertake an investigation and selects the most appropriate.


Uses an appropriate graphic organiser to identify what is already known and

what needs further investigation.

Classifies ideas and issues, generates keywords and poses focus questions to

explore new concepts and content.

Understands that one question may lead to another and a variety may be

needed to elicit the required information.

Analyses the core task and has a clear understanding of what is required and


Devises a research plan appropriate to the needs of the task.

Identifies key elements of the task to design questions to clarify issues such as

cause and effect, trends and predictions, advantages and disadvantages.

Examines existing resources to determine current thinking and perspectives

about an issue and is able to distinguish between fact and opinion.

Develops a personal opinion on an issue and defends this with explanations,

examples and evidence.

Uses a model to devise a task-and-time management plan.


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.

Learning Outcomes: End of Seventh Year at School


The student locates a variety of primary and secondary sources which meet their information needs,

using their knowledge of the purpose of texts and the library’s organisational system.


V What sorts of resources will students use?

V Are there enough authoritative, accurate, current, relevant and unbiased resources in a range of

formats and at the appropriate levels?

V Can they locate the resources easily?

V Do I need to provide a special collection or a hotlist of websites?


The student:

Identifies and selects resources to the research method being used.


Understands the differences between primary and secondary sources and

resources, including their purpose, format and use.

Understands the purpose of a range of resources in a variety of formats and

locates and uses these competently.

Locates possible resources held in the school library independently.

Identifies those resources that best meet their needs and abilities.

Identifies relevant people and interviews them competently, either in person or

via email, to elicit information and opinions.

Identifies strategies for locating information such as surveys, debates,

questionnaires, interviews, comparisons and so on and selects the most appropriate.

Devises, follows, adapts and refines search plans based on purpose, keywords

and likely resources.

Uses a combination of keywords or search terms, modifying them if necessary,

to locate required information.

Understands the organisation and borrowing procedures of both the school and

public library.

Understands the concept of intellectual property and copyright and records


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 6 Learning Outcomes: End of Seventh Year at School


The student evaluates, selects and records the information which best meets their information needs.


V Do students have the skills to identify and select specific information?

V Do they understand the structure of the resource format?

V Can they use the navigation tools of the resources?

V How will they record the information they find?

V Can they analyse, interpret and evaluate the information

for authority, accuracy, currency, relevance and bias?

V Can they create a bibliography in a format appropriate for this level?

The student:

Identifies and uses linguistic structures and features, including headings, topic

sentences, illustrations, tables and graphs, to extract information.

Uses contents page, index, menus and other navigation aids to elicit

information from a variety of resources in a variety of formats.

Distinguishes between fact, opinion, persuasion and generalisations.


Assesses the information for authority, accuracy, currency, consistency,

contradictions and relevance.

Identifies an author’s perspectives or biases, such as racism, sexism, politics or

stereotypes, and can select information with this in mind.

Verifies and clarifies information using at least one other independent source.

Elicits factual information from fiction.

Understands that not all information is relevant and can select and discard


Records required information accurately and systematically using simple notetaking


Recognises the need for adequate information and seeks more if necessary.

Understands the need for evidence and examples to support an argument and

seeks these.

Understands and uses quotations, footnotes, reference lists and suggested web


Seeks information on the lines, between the lines and beyond the lines.


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.

Learning Outcomes: End of Seventh Year at School


The student understands the need for information to be organised so that it can be easily retrieved,

manipulated and used.


V Can they organise their information so it can be easily retrieved?

V Do they understand the concept of intellectual property and the need to use their own words?

V Can they organise their gathered information to fit the format of their presentation?

V Can they merge information from a range of sources?

V Do they have time management skills?


The student:

Engages in reflective thinking and group discussion to clarify a problem so that

information is organised to address the task.

Understands the ‘big picture’ despite the fact that the information can be

interpreted in different ways.

Connects similar ideas and arranges information in a logical manner, using

headings and sub-headings.

Synthesises and summarises ideas related to the problem.


Understands the conventions of the selected presentation method and the

needs of the potential audience and organises information to suit these.

Recognises the need for more information and what is required.

Understands what is left out is as important as that which is used.

Uses tables, diagrams, graphs, flowcharts, timelines and spreadsheets to

illustrate, summarise and present information.

Interprets and synthesises prior knowledge and information gathered to

construct new information.

Draws simple conclusions and makes generalisations or judgements and

supports these with explanations, examples and evidence.

Creates and adheres to a task-and-time management plan to meet

commitments and deadlines.

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 8 Learning Outcomes: End of Seventh Year at School


The student presents an appropriate oral, written, pictorial or role-play response to a task or question.


V Does the presentation of the product meet the intended outcomes?

V Does the format of the presentation reflect the format of the instruction?

V Do students have an opportunity for individual input?

V Will the product help them to develop, consolidate and demonstrate their new learning?

V Are they aware of the required elements of the product?

The student:

Identifies the most likely audience for the information to be presented.


Selects the most appropriate method of presentation according to the purpose

and audience.

Creates presentations which synthesise prior knowledge and information

gathered and offer solutions to the original problem.

Explains how things work, what they imply, where they connect, why they

happened and their relationship to other people, objects or events.

Creates presentations which incorporate drawings, illustrations, graphs, models,

drama, video, audio, electronic and digital elements where appropriate.

Creates a response which demonstrates insight by linking ideas coherently,

showing cause and effect and possible future directions.

Demonstrates understanding and insight by defending knowledge with

explanations, examples and evidence.

Has sufficient background knowledge to explain, elaborate, discuss and debate

issues, solutions and future directions.

Considers and presents multiple viewpoints and understands the need for sound

reasoning if challenged.

Uses quotes, explanations, examples and evidence to clarify, justify and verify

their response and position.

Understands that there can be alternative solutions, that data can be interpreted

differently and respects the rights and opinions of others.

Is willing to consider other opinions and modify ideas to create a better


Understands that the presentation is just the end-product of a series of learning

experiences and the process is as important as the product.

Is sensitive to the audience’s mood and response and delivers presentation

efficiently and effectively.

Understands the concept of intellectual property and includes a bibliography of

references comprising title, author, format, publisher and publication date, or

appropriate website name, author, URL and date accessed.


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.

Learning Outcomes: End of Seventh Year at School


The student assesses the completed task to determine whether the original problem was solved and

evaluates the effectiveness of their research.


V What evidence will demonstrate a student’s understanding and proficiency?


V Is there a model or a rubric to show what is expected for each part of the task, appropriate to this level?

V How and when will I monitor, measure and record evidence?

V What will I do with the evidence presented?

V How will we celebrate success?

The student:

Determines whether the product offered insight as well as information and the

importance of both.

Identifies questions and issues arising from discussions, decisions and actions

that need further investigation and implementation.

Analyses audience response to presentation and determines efficiency and

effectiveness of both the solution and the product.

Assesses own process and product in relation to the original task and evaluation

rubric, and identifies future needs and support.

Assesses efficiency and effectiveness of task-and-time management plan and

identifies areas for improvement.

Acknowledges and celebrates personal and group achievements.


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 10 Learning Outcomes: End of Seventh Year at School


The student reflects on their learning and how their knowledge, understandings and values have changed.


V What has been achieved because of this study?

V Did I spark students’ curiosity and challenge them to new learning?

V Were the strategies purposeful and grounded in sound pedagogy?

V Which were the most effective strategies?

V Did the strategies support the ethnic, religious and gender construction of the group?

V Which parts will I use again?

V Which parts need revision and modification?

V Was the process more important than the product?

V Were all students actively involved in their learning?

V Did students have ownership of their learning?

V Did I allow time for reflection?

V Are students proud of their achievements?

V Did I move my students along their learning journey?

V Did I move myself along my learning journey?

The student:


Understands how existing knowledge, understandings and skills can be

transferred to new tasks to make these easier to accomplish.

Demonstrates an initial understanding of the relevance of the problem to

themselves as individuals and the wider world.

Reflects on the significance of what has been learned and is willing to modify

attitudes and values if appropriate.

Places faith in own judgement and point of view and can support and sustain


Demonstrates an empathetic response to other perspectives and opinions

and is willing to explore these and reconsider own position if presented with

compelling new information, arguments or evidence.

Demonstrates an appropriate open-mindedness when confronted with new or

unusual problems, or alternative opinions and perspectives.

Demonstrates understanding and tolerance of others’ different, and even

conflicting, opinions, attitudes and values.

Realises that some things we learn will shape our lifelong understandings,

values and attitudes; others will be important to know and do and others we

can find out about when we have a need to know.

Understands there is a difference between ‘knowing’ and ‘understanding’.

Realises that understanding has various levels and grows and changes with new

knowledge, experiences and expertise.

Is beginning to understand preferred learning styles and methods.

Is developing a positive work ethic and understands the need to honour

commitments to others as part of a team.


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.

All the



You Need


Lesson Bank

Leading the Way

Learning for Life

Focus Questions

V The library provides resources and services to

support the learning at our school.

V We are all responsible for maintaining our library.

V If we are involved in the ownership or

organisation of something, we are more likely

to value it.

How can I use what I know about the library and

its services to help others use it?

How can I share with others the books I have



V badge holders

V a map of the library

V BLM 11 and BLM 12

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:

–Apple iWork Pages

–Microsoft Publisher

–Microsoft Photo Story 3

V websites, such as:



Learning Activities

Using the library

Begin by revisiting and reviewing the previous year’s

activities with students.

What did you do in the library last year?

What did you enjoy most?

Explain that this year’s work builds on last year’s,

and that they will now have greater responsibilities

as library users. The purpose of this year’s program

is to help them learn how to use all libraries

effectively. Emphasise the contribution students will

make to their own learning as well as that of their

peers. Encourage them to reflect on their progress

regularly and suggest that they keep a journal to

record their thoughts over the year.

Bearing badges

Have students use a desktop publishing business

card template to design a distinctive badge for

library helpers. Display the entries and hold a secret

ballot to determine which one will be adopted for

all to wear during the year.

Why do we need badges?

How does wearing a badge make you feel?

The physical environment

Remind students of the need for the library to

be an attractive, exciting and inviting place, and

ensure they know the purpose of each section so

they can help others find what they are looking for.

Construct a roster for students to show visitors to

the school around the library.

To remind students of the location of various

resources, prepare an outline map of the library and

develop a scavenger hunt with a cryptic clue for

each section. Give partners a list of clues to follow

and questions to answer. Have them find each

location and mark it on the map, and consult the

resources to answer the questions.

Circulating resources

Involve students in the decision-making process

when buying new books for the school. Demonstrate

the accessioning process from shop to shelf. Set

aside a portion of your budget for students to spend

on new resources of their own choice. Display new

books you have on approval as well as any reviews

of them. Discuss and create a system for students to

vote on their favourite new books.

Who are these books for?

How will we decide which books to buy?

How will we use the reviews?

How will we keep within our budget?


Sixth Year at School

Rostered on

Organise a roster of partners to fill different

roles in the library. Assign partners responsibility

for circulating resources. Ensure they know the

procedures for reserving books, and what to do if

students have overdues or exceed the limit. Have

them organise the books for shelving in all sections

and shelve these correctly.

Ensure that each student can search the OPAC

using a variety of search terms, and knows how to

check the availability and location of the resource

and find it on the shelves. Demonstrate how to use

‘see’ and ‘see also’ references, and brainstorm other

search terms.

Assign partners responsibility for teaching other

library users how to search the OPAC and assess the

suitability of a resource using the blurb, contents

page, index and general layout. Have them help

other students find resources online, select a

website and navigate to the required information.

Remind them to demonstrate how to check if it

is accurate, reliable and current. Have them show

younger students how to keep themselves safe on

the internet.

The love of literature

Encouraging a love of literature is another important

library role. Roster volunteers to conduct lunchtime

story-reading sessions for younger students.

Attractive displays engage students, inform them

about what is available, and can encourage them

to try new things. Organise a roster for small

groups to create a display promoting an unusual or

unfamiliar topic, genre, author or illustrator. Each

group member should also read and review at least

two of the books on display and create a bookmark

review, using BLM 11. Check these reviews and

have students place them inside the correct books

on the shelves. Students can create 60-second video

advertisements for their books using software such

as Microsoft Photo Story 3.

Ask students to read and review the short-listed

books for state or national awards. Display their

reviews with the books and allow others to post

their opinions.

Celebration time

Suggest to the class that they host a visit by an

author, or invite a local celebrity to come to read

to students. Ask students who they would like to

invite. Begin by having them prepare an invitation.

When the invitation has been accepted, work

with students on developing special displays and

advertising. Remind them that they will need to

organise a gift and write a thank you speech.

Distribute BLM 12 and explain the concept of a

time-and-task management plan. Have students

create a class plan and use it to keep track of progress.

Book fair

Using what they have learned from the previous

activity, allow students to take a leadership role in

planning and holding a book fair. Students could:

• make posters to advertise books for sale

• compile ‘wish lists’ for themselves and the library.

To gauge which books the student body would

like to see purchased for each age group, have

them conduct a survey and tally the results

• create and hold competitions, such as ‘dressas-your-favourite

book character’, or colouring

competitions for younger students and book

quizzes for older students. Competition prizes

could be vouchers to be spent at the book fair.

Reserve some budget so that prizes can be

purchased and awarded.

Awards ceremony

Design a certificate to acknowledge the community

service contribution that students are making as

library helpers, and present these to the whole class

at the end of the year.


Lesson Bank

All About Learning

Learning for Life

V We learn in different ways and we need to

acknowledge this when we work together.

V Understanding how I learn is important.

V I can show what I have learned by teaching


Focus Questions

What does a human brain look like?

What do the different parts of the brain do?

How do we learn?

How can we teach others effectively?


V a cauliflower or red cabbage, small enough to fit

into the palm of your hand

V a walnut in a shell

V a model or diagram of the human brain

V BLM 13

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:

–Microsoft PowerPoint

–Apple iWork Keynote

V websites, such as:

–Flash Slideshow Maker


–The Brain Museum

–Neuroscience for Kids




–Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

Learning Activities

Whose brain?

Share images of animal and human brains with

students. Have students discuss them.

Is an elephant’s brain bigger than a human’s brain?

Is an elephant more intelligent than a human?

Why does it have such a big brain?

Are there any living creatures that do not have


Explain that all creatures with the ability to choose

to move have a brain to tell their muscles to make

movement. Give students the examples of sponges

and corals to illustrate the types of animals which

do not have a brain. Explain that most animals need

the ability to move so they can be safe, eat, drink,

communicate and reproduce.

Brain size in animals is related to body size but has

also been found to be an indicator of intelligence.

Share examples to illustrate this. Explain that

some animals have brains which are larger—in

relation to the size of their bodies—than others,

and that scientists have found that an approximate

assessment of the relative intelligence of animals

can be based on the ratio between average brain

mass and average body mass.

Use a small cauliflower or red cabbage to demonstrate

the size of a human brain. Compare it to the size of

the head. Compare human brain size to that of other

animals and discuss the reasons for the differences.

Our brains are large—relative to the size of our

bodies—when compared with those of other

animals. For example, if our brain size was in the

same ratio to our bodies as the brain of a sperm

whale is to its body, our brains would only be the

size of walnuts.

If your brain accounts for two per cent of your

body weight, how heavy is your brain?

The working brain

Brainstorm and list all of the things students know

about their brains. Use a graphic organiser in

both the chart and outline views to present the

information. Have students suggest headings to

organise the statements, and show them how to

connect the statements to create a summary. Pose

questions for further investigation.


Sixth Year at School

What are the parts of the brain?

How do our brains get information?

How can you keep your brain healthy?

Have students create a glossary which explains the

functions of these parts of the brain.

1 brain stem

2 cerebellum

3 hippocampus

4 corpus callosum

5 cerebrum

6 cerebral cortex

7 thalamus

8 pineal gland

9 amygdala

The model brain

Distribute a model or diagram of the cross-section

of a brain to partners. Ask students to draw their

own diagram, showing the parts from one to nine in

the list above. Have them label it with a numerical

key to explain the function of each part.

Information input

The brain receives its information from the senses.

Have groups create a slideshow presentation to

demonstrate how one of the senses works. After

the presentations, hold a class discussion.

What happens if one of the senses is impaired?

Which do you think would be the worst sense to

lose? Why?

Understanding learning

Share with students the following points that

scientists have discovered about how we learn.

Emotions drive attention.

Attention drives memory.

Memory drives learning.

Discuss the meaning of this and its implications for

students’ learning and their teaching of others.

Why is it easier to learn if you have an emotional

connection to what you are being taught?

If you memorise something, have you learned it?

How can you show that you have learned

something well?

How do I learn?

10 dendrites

11 axons

12 neurons

13 synapses

14 hypothalamus

15 frontal lobe

16 parietal lobe

17 occipital lobe

18 temporal lobes

Have small groups discuss this ancient Chinese

proverb and share their interpretation of its meaning.

‘I hear and I forget

I see and I remember

I do and I understand.’

Have students identify their personal learning

strengths using whichever model your school

prefers, such as Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences.

Online quizzes are an entertaining way for students

to make this discovery.

How does your preferred learning style influence

the things you do and the choices you make?

How do you feel when you are required to work

in a way which does not suit your preferred

learning style?

I am a successful learner

Discuss the common characteristics of a successful

learner, regardless of preferred learning style.

Have each student create a poster from one of the

sections of BLM 13 to create a display to illustrate

the idea that we can all be successful learners,

regardless of our preferred style.

My healthy brain

Discuss the factors that are most likely to impact

on the brain’s health and functioning for learning.

Divide the class into six groups. Allocate each a

topic to investigate from the following list:

• Heads Up—physical safety

• Food for Thought—diet

• Water on the Brain—hydration

• Eight Hours—sleep

• Fit for Learning—exercise

• Brain Drainers—drugs including nicotine and alcohol

Have each group produce a poster which is

designed to teach other students about their topic.

Help them plan their work by holding a class

discussion before they begin.

What are the essential elements of a poster?

What critical information do we want to share

with others?

How can we best use colour, images, text and



Use a 3-2-1 process to help students reflect on their

learning. Have each student write:

• three things they remember

• two insights

• one question.


Lesson Bank

Working with Words

Learning for Life

V I can adapt my language to suit different


V If I use words well, my message will be


V The English language is not the same as it was in

the past and it is still changing today.

Focus Questions

How can you adjust your language to suit

different situations?

How can you use what you already know about

words to further develop your vocabulary?


V images from the Book of Kells, or other

illuminated manuscript

V early English literature, such as one of

Shakespeare’s plays

V examples of SMS text messages

V dictionaries

V poems about the absurdity

of English spelling

V alphabet books

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–The Macquarie Dictionary Online

–Macquarie Library Pty Ltd and ABC Online

joint project

–The Spelling Society

–Jennifer’s Language Page

Learning Activities

A living language

Familiarise students with the idea that the

English language is not static but is changing and

developing. Share images from the Book of Kells

and passages from early English literature—such as

one of Shakespeare’s plays—to illustrate this.

Can you understand this text?

Why do you think this English is so different?

Analyse a passage from an early English text and

ensure that students understand it. Have them

translate that passage into SMS language.

Does the meaning of the passage change?

Other influences

Help students discover which languages have

influenced the English language. To find clues and

examples give them a list of words to look up in the

dictionary. Show them how to examine and explain

the notations found in the dictionary entries. Have

them create a chart of these words and other

examples they might find.

Explore with students how we can determine

the meaning of a word by examining its roots,

prefixes and suffixes. Building on this idea,

challenge partners to invent a new word to add to

the language, write its definition and provide an

example which demonstrates its use and meaning.

Oral traditions

Explain to students that many early traditions and

stories were passed on orally. Have them investigate

and retell some of the stories associated with these

cultures. Compile a class anthology.

Writing across time

Brainstorm the stages in the development of the

written language, from papyrus to the internet.

Have students investigate the various ideas and

add new stages they may have identified from their

research. Develop a class time line of significant

events. Discuss the effect of this development in

communication on how we live today and compare

it with how people lived in the past.

Time and place

Brainstorm and list the different uses of language.

Have students give examples of how the language

we use when we speak differs according to the

formality of the situation. Discuss the role of the

audience in determining the type of language used

in both written and spoken English. Discuss the


Sixth Year at School

concept of register, and of formal and informal


Have students give examples of different types of

written texts, such as emails, newspaper reports,

advertisements, birthday cards and textbooks.

Group them according to the formality of the

language used.

Do you speak to the principal in the same way

you speak to your friends?

Do you think you should be allowed to use SMSstyle

language and spelling in your assignments?

Text types

Have partners select a text type from this list:

• information report

• recount

• explanation

• procedure

• narrative

• description

• response

• exposition

• discussion

Ask students to examine the text type to identify

its essential elements. They might then use that

information to create a poster which:

• describes the purpose of the chosen text type

• lists its essential elements

• provides an example of it.

Learning the language

Have students design and construct a survey to

identify the different languages spoken within the

school community.

How many students are learning English as their

second language?

Share poems that focus on the absurdities of English

spelling and discuss why English is such a difficult

language to learn. Construct a chart that shows all

the different spellings of English phonemes. Give

examples, such as the ones below.

Long ‘i’ sound







Explain that there have been many attempts to

simplify English spelling to make it easier to learn.

Discuss why these have failed. Explain—and

illustrate with examples—how different spellings of

some English words are used in different countries.

Picking patterns

Have students compile translations of common

phrases, days of the week, numbers and colours

using online resources. Ensure they include

examples from any other languages spoken within

the school community. Discuss the results.

Speaking ‘Strine’

Brainstorm words and phrases used by Australians but

which a visitor to the country might not understand.

Compile a class dictionary and allow students to add

to it during the term as they discover interesting

new phrases or words. Other entries might be

included which show regional variation in words and

expressions throughout Australia. See the Macquarie

Dictionary/ABC word map joint project for examples.

Making meaning

Review with students the purpose and arrangement

of a glossary. Have each construct a glossary to

show the definition and use of the following terms:

• alliteration • antonym • synonym

• homonym • homophone • homograph

• simile • metaphor • affix

• mnemonic • abbreviation • personification

• onomatopoeia • cliché • colloquialism

• idiom • euphemism • irony

• oxymoron • paradox

Later additions to the glossary could explore

punctuation or parts of speech.

Playing with poems

Investigate forms of poetry such as the sonnet,

cinquain and haiku. Share some examples of

each with students and discuss and explain their

distinguishing features. Have students write a poem

following the rules of their chosen form and then

decorate the page. Display the poems.

Alphabet books

Examine the format of alphabet books. Alphabet

books which follow a theme or which use

alliteration are best for this activity. Have the class

decide on a theme and brainstorm to produce

at least one idea to illustrate each letter. Record

these on slips of paper and place them in a paper

bag. Have students draw a word and create an

alliterative sentence and illustration for it. The

finished pages can be compiled into a book.


Lesson Bank

In Their Footsteps

Learning for Life

V I can learn things about life in the past by

reading historical fiction.

V I can use what I learn to understand historical


V Imagining myself in another’s place gives me

new insights into their life.

Focus Questions

How can we know if the historical fiction we are

reading is based on fact?

How can our knowledge of the past help us to

understand the present and make predictions?


V the poem 'Pioneers' by A. B. Paterson

V novels set in the early days of Australia’s

settlement by Europeans

V BLM 14

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–PB Wikis


–Road Maps of Australia

–Wilkins Tourists Maps

–Google Maps

–Travelmate MapMaker


Learning Activities

Fact from fiction

Give students a selection of historical novels set

during the earliest days of Australia’s settlement by

Europeans and have them choose one to read. Tell

them to make a list, as they read, of things they

have learned about life in that period of history.

What sort of research would the author have had

to do to ensure the setting and characters were


Brainstorm a list of questions about life in that period

which the author might have needed to research.

Have each student take on the role of author’s

research assistant and select five questions from the

class list to answer. Have them share the answers to

develop a class database about life at that time.

Have students investigate the early development of

the state’s capital city. Discuss why it was so important

for the early settlements to succeed, and why the

discovery of new travel routes was so important.

Why was exploration essential?

Have students investigate the development of their

town or suburb.

Why was a town established here?


Why was our suburb established?

When was it established?

What made the area attractive as a site for


How has it changed over time?

What do you think it will be like 100 years from



Share the poem ‘Pioneers’ by A. B. Paterson with

the class.

What is meant by the last verse?

Who were the pioneers of your area?

Distribute BLM 14. Explain to students that all

of the explorers in the table on the worksheet

played a significant role in Australia’s settlement

by Europeans. After students have completed the

worksheet, ask them to select one explorer and

write a report on him. Ask them to consult at least

three different sources to find the information, and

cross-check to make sure that all the sources agree.

What should you do if you find there is a



Sixth Year at School

Create a class wiki and add each report. Ensure

that students have included a bibliography of the

resources used. For print resources show the title,

author, publisher and date of publication; for online

resources show the page title, URL and the date


If you could interview your explorer, what five

questions would you ask to help you understand

why he went where he did?

Have each student develop a presentation about their

explorer and his contribution to the development of

Australia. Inform students about copying images,

copyright implications and how to attribute sources.

At a glance

Create a class timeline of Australia’s discovery and

exploration, adding each explorer’s name at the

appropriate place. Include a brief synopsis of his

discoveries. Make a master map for the class which

shows all of the journeys.

How might each journey be marked?

What is the purpose of a map’s key?


Have each student imagine they are out on the trail

of discovery with the explorer, and can ask their five

questions (in Pioneers above). Prompt them with

the questions below if necessary.

How would you describe yourself?

Why are you prepared to take such great risks?

What is the most amazing sight you have seen on

this journey?

What is your greatest fear?

What is your greatest hope?

How would you like to be remembered?

Now have students write the answers to these

questions as a journal entry. Upload the journal

entries to the wiki.


Have students investigate the ways in which

the achievements of the explorer have been

remembered, such as landmarks, highways, towns,

buildings and statues. Add the information and

photos to the wiki.

On their trail

If a highway has been named after an explorer, have

students use mapping software to trace its route.

Compare its route to that taken by the explorer on his

original journey.

Ask students to create a travel brochure that follows

the route taken by the explorer. Explain that they

are to plan a holiday for their family that follows

this route. Ensure they consider such things as:

• how to get there

• the best time to go

• how long the journey will take

• where to buy food and petrol

• where to stay

• what the road conditions will be like

• what things to see and do along the way.

Invite students to reflect on how their journey

would differ from that made by the explorer.


Lesson Bank

Hero Worship

Learning for Life

V A biography is a written account of a person’s


V We adapt our language to suit different


V Spoken texts and written texts are structured in

different ways.

Focus Questions

What is a biography?

What are the features of a biography?

How can you prepare and present a speech that

will engage your audience?

What is a hero?


V newspaper articles about ‘heroes’

V biographies of Australian authors (two per


Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–Authors and Illustrators


–Australian Authors and Illustrators

–Famous Australians



–Famous People

–Fact Monster Biographies

–Dictionary of Australian Biography

Learning Activities


What does ‘heroic’ mean?

What are the characteristics of a hero?

Can you name someone who has done something


Create a class list of students’ heroes. Have students

identify and discuss the features which are common

to the people on the list.

Have any of these people put their own lives at


Have any of them received an award as a result

of their heroic actions?

Do you agree that all of these people should be

considered heroes?

Does a hero have to be famous?

Brainstorm the word ‘heroic’ to build a bank

of associated words. Have students draw two

concentric circles and write the words that apply

to their hero in the inner circle. Ask them to write

those words that do not apply in the outer circle.


Which words consistently appear in the inner


What statement can you make that sums up the

qualities of a hero?

Have students search for and examine newspaper

articles about people who have behaved in a heroic

way, such as by saving someone from a fire, or

who are considered to be heroes as a result of their

achievements. Ask them to write a summary of their

article, focusing on the reasons why the subject of

the article is considered a hero.

Fiction favourites

Help students to conduct a survey of library

users which investigates their opinions of popular

heroes in various fiction formats, including comics,

movies, games, and so on. Ensure that the survey is

anonymous but includes some personal information,

such as age and gender of respondent. Graph the

results and distribute them. Hold a class discussion to

analyse the results. Prompt students with questions

such as the ones below.

Is one hero significantly more popular than the

others? Which one?

Are the most popular heroes from books, movies,

games or comics?

Which hero is the most popular among younger

library users?


Sixth Year at School

Which hero is the most popular among older

library users?

Which heroes do boys prefer?

Which heroes do girls prefer?

What qualities do they exhibit?

Do you think the role of a hero in fiction is

different from that of a hero in real life? Why?

Build a biography

Remind students of the concept and purpose of

a biography. Distribute biographies of Australian

authors and illustrators (at least two per student).

After reading, have them highlight the key facts and

sort these according to the following headings:

• name

• birth: place and date

• childhood

• education

• significant events

• achievements

• death: place and date

What sort of information is most commonly found?

What sort of information is rarely found?

What sort of information do you think should be

included when writing a biography?

How should this information be organised?

Ask students to write a biography of their favourite

fictional hero or heroine.

From fiction to fact

Have each student write another biography, this time

of a real hero. Before they begin, ask them to plan

their biography according to the headings above.

Discuss the following questions with them before

they begin to guide their planning and research.


Who is, or has been, a leader in a field that

interests you?

What do you know about this person?

What would you like to know?

What would be the best format for your


What sort of resources should you use?

What search terms will you use to locate online


How might you check that your information

about the person is accurate?

What would be the most efficient note-taking

strategy to use?

How will you organise your work?

Does the information you have gathered answer

your questions?

How will you combine your information into an

interesting presentation?

What examples, quotations and other evidence

can you add?


In what ways was your hero’s life extraordinary?

What were the main influences that shaped your

hero’s life?

Has your hero influenced your life? How?

What is your hero’s legacy to the world?

If you could change places with your hero, would

you? Why?

If you could interview this person, what five

questions would you ask?

Publish and display the biographies.

This is your life

Remind students of the structure of a formal

speech, mentioning the introduction, the body—

including examples and evidence—and the

conclusion. Remind them also to make and use

notes. Discuss the elements of delivery, such as

statements, commands and questions, words and

phrasing, volume, pitch, pronunciation, pace,

timing, body language, facial expressions and


Have students imagine they have been invited to

introduce their favourite fictional hero at an awards

night. Have them prepare, practise and present

their introductory speeches. Afterwards, ask them

to provide feedback on which introduction they

thought was the most effective and memorable.

Champion children

Set partners the task of investigating the lives of

children who have become famous through their

own heroic actions. Research news items online to

find recent or high-profile stories.

Can a child be a hero?

What made this child a hero?

Could you be a hero?

Ask students to identify something they would

really like to achieve and the steps they would need

to take to achieve this goal. Have them identify

any possible obstacles they may face and suggest

possible ways to overcome these. Invite students to

share their goals with the class, if they wish.


Lesson Bank

True Blue

Learning for Life

V There are many ways to present information.

V The form of a presentation is determined by the

purpose of the investigation and the needs of

the audience.

V Good presentations combine text and graphics

in an informative way.

Focus Questions

What presentation methods can you use?

What factors will influence the type of

presentation you choose?

How can you ensure that it will make an impact

on your audience?


V BLM 15

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–‘Say G’day You Aussie Children’ (Ted Egan)

–‘I am Australian’

(Bruce Woodley and Dobe Newton)

–‘True Blue’ (John Williamson)


–Becoming an Australian Citizen


–Citizenship Test

Learning Activities


Begin by discussing the concept of belonging.

What does it mean to belong?

Why is important for people to feel they belong?

What groups do you belong to?

How do you feel when you are recognised as being

part of a particular group?

I am Australian

Discuss what it means to be Australian.

What are some of the best things about living in


What are the common values that you think all

Australians should hold?

What rights and responsibilities do all Australians


Share a popular song about being Australian with

the class and analyse its lyrics.

What do the lyrics mean?

Why has this song become popular?

The First Australians

Have students investigate the culture of Indigenous


Which parts of the Australian landscape have

cultural significance for Indigenous people?

Can you describe some aspects of Indigenous

Australian culture?

How can we show respect for this culture?

How has European settlement changed their lives?

How has Australia’s Indigenous heritage been

recognised or maintained?

What might be the best way to present what we

have learned?

Discuss the oral traditions of Australia’s Indigenous

people. Remind students of the ancient Chinese

proverb: ‘I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I

do and I understand’. Discuss.

If the saying ‘I hear and I forget. . . ’ is true, why

have the stories and beliefs from Indigenous

cultures survived for centuries?


Sixth Year at School

A personal heritage

Have students investigate their family’s history as

far back as possible. Display the family trees, with

any additional text and illustrations, so that other

library users can read them.

Who would be the best people to ask about your

family’s history?

What questions should you ask?

How might you present what you discover?

Where have we come from?

Have students conduct a survey to investigate the

countries represented in the school. Ensure they ask

about the nationality of parents and grandparents,

to provide a wider representation of nationalities in

the school.

How might we share the results?

Would maps and graphs be useful?

How might we explain what they represent?

Create a display of how to say ‘hello’ in each of the

languages spoken by students and their families.

Build this language display around the graphs and

maps created in the first part of the activity. Have

students learn a song about being Australian, such

as ‘Say G’day You Aussie Children’ by Ted Egan,

and present it at assembly.

All our citizens

Explain to students that to become Australian

citizens, migrants have to pass a test. Invite them to

access the citizenship test website and answer some

of the sample questions. Have students think of ten

questions they would put into a citizenship test.

What does ’citizenship’ mean?

Do you have to be born in Australia to be


Do you think you would pass the citizenship test?

Walk a mile

Prompt students to think about how migrants might

feel about their experiences of leaving their country

and adapting to a new one. Have them write a

journal or blog entry to describe their feelings.

How would you feel if you had to leave everyone

and everything you know to live in a new country?

What would be the hardest things to leave behind?

How might you express your feelings?

As Australian as . . .

Have students listen to a song about being

Australian. Explain the concept of a simile and have

students create a set of new sayings that begin ‘As

Australian as . . .’

Explain what an icon is, then distribute BLM 15 and

have students complete it. Collate the results from

students’ responses to create a list of the ‘Top Ten

Australian Icons’. List these terms and icons on a

chart and have students illustrate it, then display it

in the library.


Have students investigate the range of souvenirs

that are available commercially.

Which souvenirs are the most popular?

What gift would you give to a visitor to

Australia? Why?

Recognising ourselves

Introduce the terms ‘symbol’ and ‘emblem’ and

invite students to suggest definitions. Discuss.

Can you give me the names of some Australian

emblems, songs and symbols?

How do you feel when you hear or see these


Have students investigate the origins and symbolism


• the flag (national, state, territory)

• the national anthem

• the national coat of arms

• floral and faunal emblems.

Have students use the information they have found

to help them design a new flag, add a new verse to

the national anthem, or create a new set of coins,

notes or postage stamps.

Being Australian

What do you think being Australian means?

Have students write a passage about what it means

to be Australian.


Lesson Bank

Landscapes and Legends

Learning for Life

V Legends reflect the beliefs and traditions of

different cultures.

V Our beliefs are shaped by people around us and

by our experiences.

V Models and diagrams can help us to understand

visual concepts.

V A topographical map tells us about the surface

configuration of an area, so we can understand

how flat or mountainous the land is.

Focus Questions

Why are there so many different explanations of

Earth’s creation?

Do you think other people influence what you


How can making and using models help you learn?


V legends about Earth’s creation

V diagrams of Earth’s structure

V maps of Australia:

–elevation and altitude

–land use

–outline map

V BLM 16 and BLM 17

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–Indigenous Australia

–Geoscience Australia

–National Library of Australia Online Images


–National Gallery of Australia—Ocean to Outback:

Australian Landscape Painting 1850-1950

–Art Gallery of NSW—myVirtualGallery

Learning Activities

The birth of Earth

Explain to students that ancient civilisations and

cultures each had their own way of explaining how

Earth, the sun, the sky and the seas were created.

Have students read and retell some of these stories.

How are these stories the same?

How are they different?

Ask students to investigate the beliefs of Australia’s

Indigenous people.

How do these beliefs shape their relationship

with the land?

Which local sites are significant for them? Why?

Explain that scientists believe the universe, including

Earth, was created in a sudden, enormous explosion of

matter. This idea is known as the ‘big bang theory’.

Can you describe this theory?

A hard-boiled egg

Compare Earth’s structure to that of an egg. Explain

that Earth’s rocky crust is like the eggshell, the solid

rock mantle is like the white, and the molten outer

core and the solid inner core are like the yolk.

Ask students to examine diagrams of Earth’s

structure and use these to create a papier-mâché

scale model. Demonstrate how to do this by

covering a ping-pong ball with layers of coloured

paper soaked in paste until the ball is about 5.5

cm in diameter. When this is dry, build another

layer using newspaper until the ball is about 8.5

cm in diameter. When that is dry, cover it with a

layer of blue and green paper until the newspaper

layer is hidden. Finally, when that is dry, cut out a

cross-section down to the ping-pong ball to expose

the layers. Have students label these the inner

core (ball), outer core (coloured paper), mantle

(newspaper), and crust (blue-green layer).


Sixth Year at School

Rocky layers

Have students investigate the composition of the

layers which make up Earth’s structure and create

a diagram to illustrate it. Then have them research

the three types of rocks (igneous, sedimentary and

metamorphic) and write an explanation of how

they are formed.

What are the three main types of rocks found on


Why are they classified into these three groups?

What is the predominant rock type in your area?

How was it formed?

When was it formed?

Time on a line

Explain that scientists believe our planet is about 4.5

billion years old. Have students research and create

a time line that shows Earth’s major geological

periods and the critical events that occurred in each.

Land shapes

Ask students to explore how land is shaped by

natural forces. Have them create a model or a series

of diagrams which demonstrates the formation of

one of the following:

• mountains or plateaux

• islands, reefs or atolls

• canyons, caves or valleys

• lakes, ponds, rivers or waterfalls

• volcanoes

Wind and water

Share pictures of Australia’s and New Zealand’s

mountains and ask students to compare them.

How are they different?

Why do you think they are different?

What is erosion?

What part does it play in shaping the landscape?

Have students investigate the role of wind and

water in shaping the landscape.

An ancient land

Explain that the Australian continent is one of

the world’s oldest landmasses. Have students

investigate the geological age of the continent.

How do scientists determine the age of the land?

Ups and downs

Introduce the term and concept of topography.

Have students examine a relief map of Australia and

show them how to use its key so they understand

what the colours represent.

Where are the highest points?

What is the average elevation of most of the


What can you say about the Australian landscape

from looking at this sort of map?

Distribute BLM 16 and BLM 17. Have students

complete the worksheet by locating the landmarks

in the table and marking them on the map.


Lesson Bank

Birth of a Nation

Learning for Life

Focus Questions

V Information about how people lived in the

past is obtained from a variety of sources, such

as archaeological finds, artefacts, artworks,

documents, letters and literature.

V Historical fiction can provide insight into the

lifestyle, beliefs and values of the past.

How might we know if a work of historical fiction

provides an accurate insight into life at that time?

How has life changed since the days of early

European settlement?

How and when did we create the Parliament of



V ‘Waltzing Matilda’, by A.B. Paterson

V calculator

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:

–Microsoft Photo Story 3

V websites, such as:


–Aboriginal Australia map


–Indigenous Australia

–Picture Australia

–Parliament of Australia–Education

–Royal Commission of Assent for the

Commonwealth of Australia

Learning Activities

Traditional owners

Explain to students that Indigenous Australians

are believed to have inhabited this continent for

approximately 60 000 years.

If we were to construct a time line of the human

habitation of Australia, with 1 cm representing

each 200 years, how long would that line be?

Use a calculator if you need to.

How much of that line represents the time that

Europeans have been here?

If possible, have students investigate the traditional

owners of the land in your area.

What beliefs and practices do, or did, the

traditional owners of the land observe?

Can you describe their relationship with the land?

Discuss how we know what happened in the past.

How is the information gathered?

How is it dated?

Ask students to search printed and online resources

for pictures of Indigenous Australian art and cultural


What do these pictures reveal about Indigenous

Australian culture?

Six colonies

Have students investigate the origins of your state

and then create a documentary using software,

such as Photo Story or VoiceThread.

What was the reason for the establishment of

your state?

Who were the significant people involved in its


Why were they significant?

How were the state’s boundaries defined?

Who explored it?

What areas were opened up as a result of these


How was the name of the state’s capital city


What is the significance of its symbols, such as its

flag and coat of arms?

The pioneers

Use the resources available online, or in your state

library, to help students understand what life was

like for early settlers. Locate historical fiction set in

your city, region or state, and set this as a text for

students to read.


Sixth Year at School

Have students imagine they are members of one of

the first families to settle your district, and compile

a journal. Ensure they include descriptions of the

landscape, daily life, challenges, celebrations and

other people in their lives.

When they have done this, ask students to write

a letter to a pioneer which describes their lives

today—as Australian citizens in the 21st century—

and how much has changed since those days.

Which era would you prefer to live in? Why?


Wheatwoolgold was one of the names proposed for

the national capital because of the importance of

these three commodities in the development of the

colonies. Discuss.

Was wheat, wool or gold the most important

commodity in the early development of the state?

Ask students to create a presentation about the

development and importance of one of these

industries (or another of particular significance) to

the development of your state during the 1800s.

Prosperity to poverty

Describe how living standards in Australia between

the 1850s and the 1890s were among the highest

in the world, but when the world economy went

into depression, this prosperity was threatened.

What is an economic depression?

What effect does it have on people’s lives?

Have students imagine they are newspaper reporters

investigating the events surrounding the death of the

swagman in ‘Waltzing Matilda’, by A. B. Paterson.

Tell them to write an article for the newspaper which

includes details of the circumstances of his death,

as well as some background information. Then ask

them to write an editorial which takes one side of

the argument about whether he was a thief and a

rogue, or a person to be pitied, made desperate by


Hold a class discussion about the issue and then ask

students to write a ‘Letter to the Editor’, arguing the

other side of the case to the one they chose in their


that shows the progression. Discuss the results of

their research.

What were the arguments for and against


What key issues needed to be decided?

Invite students to select a name from the list below

and then investigate that person’s role in the

process of Federation. Have them write a short

piece describing their position and involvement.

Sir Henry Parkes

Sir George Turner

Sir John Forrest

Alfred Deakin

Sir Edmund Barton

Sir John Quick

Sir George Reid

Charles Kingston

Explain that before the Commonwealth of Australia

could be formed, the people of each state had

to agree. Investigate when the referendum on

Federation was held in your state and what its

outcome was.

What is a referendum?

How is it held?

How is the result decided?

What sorts of things might be decided by a


An Australian Constitution

Explain that at the time of Federation, the Constitution

of the Commonwealth of Australia was drawn up.

One of the key issues to be decided at the time was

the structure of the new federal parliament. Have

students find answers to the following questions.

Where is Australia’s federal parliament situated?

How is the Parliament of Australia structured?

How was the issue of states with smaller

populations having fair representation addressed?

What are the two houses called?

What is the name of this electorate?

What is the name of the Member of Parliament

who represents your electorate?

Instruct students to construct a flowchart that

shows the structure of federal parliament, starting

with your local member and going through to the

monarchy. Have them include a brief explanation of

the responsibilities of each level of government.

A united nation

Discuss the idea of Federation and explain that

this occurred in 1901. Have students investigate

the events of the 1880s and 1890s that led to

Federation and create a time line and a flowchart


Lesson Bank

Water Works

Learning for Life

V My investigation methods are determined by the

outcome I want.

V Presentation format is determined by the

purpose of the task and its intended audience.

V Teaching others helps us to understand what we

have learned.

Focus Questions

Why is it important to have a range of strategies

for investigations and presentations?

How can we share what we learn at school with

our families and the community?


V a terrestrial globe

Other Useful Resources

V a diagram of the water cycle, such as in

Macmillan Wall Charts: Weather and

Climate Ages 8-10 (Macmillan)

V websites, such as:


–Pivot Stickfigure Animator

–Images of Earth from Space

–Bureau of Meteorology

–Waterwise Calculator


Learning Activities

Water everywhere

Invite students to examine a terrestrial globe, a map

of the world, and images of Earth taken from space.

What is the predominant colour?

What does that colour represent?

What percentage of Earth’s surface is covered by


Brainstorm and create a class list of the types of

bodies of water found on Earth, both natural and

made, such as oceans, glaciers, dams, irrigation

channels and rivers. Have students create a detailed

glossary entry for each.

What are the most significant bodies of water in

Australia, natural and made?

Do they contain fresh or salt water?

The need for water

Ask students to create a presentation that is

intended to help younger students understand the

importance of water to life on Earth. Ensure that at

this stage they are not describing the water cycle,

but simply identifying the uses of water on Earth.

How is a presentation for a younger audience

different from one which is directed at an older


What headings will you use?

Will you use more text or more illustrations in

your presentation?

An endless cycle

Explore what students already know about the

water cycle and have them write an explanation of

it and draw a diagram. Share with students the idea

that weather lore has developed over centuries to

help people predict the weather. Have them collect

some sayings associated with the weather, such as

the ones below.

‘When a halo rings the moon or sun

The rain will come upon the run.’

‘Red sky at night, sailor’s delight

Red sky in the morning, sailor’s warning.’

Ask students to choose one of the sayings, investigate

the science behind it and write an explanation. Invite

them to illustrate the page and display it.

Ask the Bureau

Show students how to access the Bureau of

Meteorology’s website to learn about how the


Sixth Year at School

Bureau develops its weather forecast. Show them the

Weather Watch Radar and explain how it works.

Tank to tap

Have students investigate how water is gathered,

stored and distributed. Show them how to construct

a flowchart and invite them to create one to

illustrate the sequence in the water distribution

cycle. They could then develop this by creating an

animated version using animation software.

Liquid gold

If 70 per cent of Earth’s surface is water, why is it

considered such a precious resource?

To answer this question, demonstrate the following:

1 Fill a one-litre container of water and tell students

that this represents all the water on the planet.

2 Measure 30 ml of this water and tip it into another

container—this represents Earth’s fresh water

supply. The water left in the first container is the

salt water of the seas and oceans (approximately

97 per cent of Earth’s water is found in the


3 From the fresh water container, take 10 ml and tip

it into a third container. This represents the fresh

water available for humans to use (less than 0.5

per cent of Earth’s total water).

4 The remaining water in the container represents

the fresh water which is locked into ice caps and

glaciers (about 2.5 per cent of Earth’s water).

Invite students to debate a topic on the subject of

water use. Remind students of the rules of a debate

and have them choose a topic, such as one from

the list below.

• Water restrictions should remain in place


• The price of water should double so people value

it more.

• Desalination plants are the only answer to the

problem of water shortages in the future.

Water audit

Invite students to use one of the online water

calculators to predict their daily or weekly water

usage. Then have them ask their parents to show

them their latest water bill, which should tell them

the family’s average daily water usage. Have them

compare the two figures. If they are very different, ask

them to suggest reasons for the discrepancy. Discuss

the results. Ask students if the water bill contained

any other information of interest, such as how much

a family of that size should use, and how their water

usage compares with the same time last year.

How does your family’s daily water usage compare

with the daily average for that many people?

What do you think your family might do to

improve your household’s water efficiency?

Taking action

Discuss methods to encourage people to reduce

their water use. These might include:

• writing an article for the school newsletter or local


• writing a page for the school website

• creating a display for the school’s entrance foyer

or a local shopping centre

• designing a pamphlet of tips.

Water week

Arrange to hold a ‘Water Week’ at your school

in which every class focuses on saving water. Ask

students to discuss ways to do this.

What is the purpose of Water Week?

What are your goals?

How can you measure whether you have

achieved these?

What sort of activities will you hold?

How will you convince other students in the

school to take part?

How will you let other students know what is

happening in Water Week?


• holding a competition to devise a water-saving

device for washing the dog

• creating a poster to encourage water conservation

• devising a quiz—about water and methods of

saving it—that can be handed around to the

teachers of all of the classes in the school. When

the answers have been returned and judged, the

winning class can be awarded a prize.

• starting a chart of 100 ways to save water and

inviting everyone to add their ideas

• planning and constructing a garden using native

plants that require little water

• challenging students to calculate the amount of

water that could be harvested from the school

roof over a year. (Use the formula that for

every one millimetre of rain, one litre of water is

collected from every square metre of roof.)


Lesson Bank

A Place of Our Own

Learning for Life

V Our lives are shaped by our experiences.

V I can develop insight through sharing stories and

reading anecdotes and recounts.


V a children’s story, such as Are You My Mother?

(P. D. Eastman, HarperCollins)

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:

–Microsoft Photo Story 3

Focus Questions

What aspects of people’s lives stay the same

despite the passage of time?

How can you share information about yourself

with others safely?

V websites, such as:



–International and Education Resource Network

(iEARN) Australia

Learning Activities

More than a story

Introduce the concept and purpose of an


Do you have to be famous to write an


Would you like to write the story of your life?

Brainstorm and list the features of an

autobiography. Have students make notes of the

things they would include in their autobiography.

Share a children’s story, such as Are You My

Mother?, then create a class timeline of its events.

Demonstrate how it could be rewritten as an

autobiography. Consider the following questions.

What were the main events in the story?

How did the whole series of events influence the

main character?

What feelings or concerns influenced the main

character’s actions?

How did the setting impact on the main

character’s choices?

How did the other characters impact on those

actions and choices?

What role did the main character’s determination

to succeed play?

What might have happened after the conclusion

of the story?

What did you learn from this?

Invite each student to select a similar story to read,

analyse and rewrite as an autobiography.

A story of my own

Show students how to use software, such as Photo

Story 3, to create digital diaries of one day in their

lives, including photographs, captions and narration.

Afterwards, have them consider how their actions

and choices were influenced by:

• the day of the week

• the time of the year

• the weather

• where they lived

• family members

• other people

• personal needs, commitments and expectations.


Sixth Year at School

A time of my own

Have students imagine that it is the future and they

have been asked by one of their grandchildren to

describe their life when they were in primary school.

What would be the most important things to share?

Brainstorm the possibilities, and invite students to


• home-based activities, such as the family

home, family members, diet and mealtimes,

responsibilities and rewards, celebrations,

traditions, leisure activities

• school-based activities, such as school hours,

transport, curriculum, friendships

• community-based activities, such as shopping,

communications, sports, religion, community


Ask students to write a letter to a fiuture grandchild,

highlighting the important aspects of their lives at

present. Illustrate them with photographs.

Back in time

Encourage students to investigate what life was like

for their grandparents when they were at primary


What things have changed since then?

Which time would you prefer to live in?

A school of our own

Discuss how you could create a snapshot of your

school that could be preserved for future students

to study. Consider the factors that make your school

unique, such as:

• geographic location—metropolitan, town,

regional, rural and remote

• school population—numbers, ages, cultural

diversity and religious beliefs

• curriculum—arts, sports, languages and academic


• facilities—building structure and classroom

arrangement, library, ICT access, sports and

community facilities

• out-of-class activities—clubs, teams and the SRC.

A town of our own

Discuss the factors that make your community


What is unique about our community?

Do we have any unusual services here, such as

the Royal Flying Doctor Service?

Are there any special celebrations or

commemorations during the year that bring

people together?

What are the major issues facing the community?

How would you encourage people to come and

live here?

Discuss how you might create a snapshot of your


How could we present what we have learned?

How could we best organise the task and our

time to do this?

Sharing your place

Initiate a project to find out about life in other

schools and communities by:

• creating a wiki and using online networks to invite

others to contribute

• using OzProjects

• using the International and Education Resource

Network (iEARN) Australia.

Have students write instructions for registering with

your project so others can join. Include guidelines

for writing contributions and add these to the site.

How will they add the information to your site?

Is there a specific format or size for illustrations?

What will be the time frame for contributions?

How will this information be shared?

Who will be able to access this website?

How will students’ personal information be kept



Lesson Bank

Points of View

Learning for Life

V Our beliefs and opinions are shaped by our


V Our beliefs and opinions are also shaped by

those we admire and whose opinions we value.

V Our perceptions are shaped by our beliefs and


V People are more likely to listen if we support our

arguments with facts and examples.

Focus Questions

How are our opinions shaped?

Why do our beliefs and opinions change?

Which people influence our beliefs and opinions?

Why do these people influence us?


V novels or short stories with an environmental


V print and digital nonfiction resources on the same

theme as the novels

V newspaper or magazine articles on environmental


V encyclopedias

V BLM 18

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:


V websites, such as:

–PB Wikis



Learning Activities

Power of print

Have students read a novel or short story which has

an environmental theme. When all students have

finished reading the text, discuss.

What environmental issue does this story explore?

What is the main character’s position on this issue?

How are their opinions shaped by their


How does the author introduce different points of


Is the voice of the main character also that of the


Discuss how students’ understandings and attitudes

have been shaped by reading the novel or short story.

Was the main character likeable?

If not, why would the author create such a


Did you agree or disagree with their beliefs?

Has reading this story made you change your

opinion on the issue?

Does reading this story make you want to do

something about the issue?

Discuss the role of literature in giving us access to new

experiences. Introduce and discuss the concept of bias.

Are stories only for entertainment?

Are authors always impartial?

How do authors influence our thinking?

How can we learn to identify bias?

Why is it important to identify bias?

Have students discuss whether there was an

obvious bias in the novel. Invite them to identify

statements or situations that might indicate

the author’s bias. They can then research these

statements using nonfiction sources to assess the

novel’s accuracy on that issue.

Where are we most likely to find accurate and

up-to-date information?

Discuss the features of a nonfiction resource which

indicate that it should be an accurate unbiased

source of information on the issue.

How do we know if the information is accurate?

How can we identify if the publisher is objective?

What can we learn about possible bias from the

publisher’s name or URL?

How do we know the information is up-to-date?

Discuss with students how they might use printed


Sixth Year at School

and online research resources to find information.

Explain how wikis, and Wikipedia in particular, work

and invite them to consider whether Wikipedia is a

reliable source of information.

If anyone can post information on these sorts of

websites, how can we make sure that what we

are reading is true?

Making meaning

Brainstorm and list environmental issues, such as

those in the list below. Have students investigate

what each term means and write a description:

• climate change

• carbon trading

• water conservation

• air pollution

• deforestation

• habitat destruction

• energy use

• sustainability

• introduced species

Taking up the cause

Discuss an environmental issue that is having a

significant impact on your school or community.

Why is it a problem?

What is the school or community’s proposed


Does this issue affect or involve any other


What is their role or involvement?

Do they agree with the school or community’s

proposed solution?

If not, what are the arguments for each side?

Have students search newspapers and magazines for

articles about the issue, examine them and identify

which statements are fact and which are opinion.

Use BLM 18 or a software application, such as

Inspiration, to develop a concept map of the issue.

Have students investigate the issue more thoroughly.

Record the positive effects of the issue on one side

of the concept map, and the negatives on the other.

Have students write a discussion text giving these

two points of view. Ensure they include:

• what they have learned

• what they think of the issue

• how their opinions on the issue have been

confirmed, challenged or changed as a result of

their investigations.

Taking action

Ask one person to stand up and say, ‘I can make a

difference’. Discuss the volume of the voice. Have

another say it with the first, adding voices until

everyone is involved and the statement is loud. This

demonstrates the impact of working together.

Review the issue that is causing concern and

investigate ways in which students could become


What sorts of things could we do as individuals

and as a class to make a difference?

How can we involve others in our campaign?

What do other people need to know about the

issue and its impact?

Who might have the power to change things?

How can we convince others that our information

is accurate?

Louder voices

Invite students to investigate local, national and

international organisations that are involved in

environmental issues. Discuss.

What sorts of things might we want to know

about these groups?

Where can we find this information?

Have students create a class chart that shows each

organisation and a summary of its purpose and



Lesson Bank


Learning for Life

V Discussions help us to clarify our ideas and hear

new perspectives.

V I can learn from the experiences of other people.

Focus Questions

When is listening more important than talking?

What is ‘active listening’?

How can we organise and present our information

so others will want to read it?

What types of presentations do you find the most

interesting or memorable?


V songs on the theme of world peace and harmony

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–PB Wikis



–TEAR Gift Catalogue

–World Vision Australia

Learning Activities

Celebrating with gifts

Make a class list of the times throughout the

year when students give or receive gifts. Include

occasions such as Mother’s Day, Father’s Day,

birthdays, name days, Chinese New Year, Christmas

and others. Discuss.

On what special occasions does your family

give gifts?

Why are gifts given at that time?

Does the type of gift have special significance?

What traditions or customs are associated with

the gift giving?

Can you describe these traditions?

What special significance does this have for you?

Have each student prepare a presentation about the

most significant gift-giving occasion in their family,

illustrating it with personal photos where possible.

Work with them to explore different text styles that

offer more than a personal recount, and encourage

them to think about how they will use colour,

layout, headings, borders and illustrations in their


How can we organise and present our

information so others will want to read it?

Ask students to imagine that a friend who lives in

another country has written to them asking about

celebrations in Australia. Invite them to write a

letter in response, describing the things they do in

their community, school and at home.

Which celebrations will you tell them about?

How will you describe them?

Why do you think these traditions are important?

In the past

Ask students to interview their grandparents or

other members of the community to find out how

Christmas, birthdays or other gift-giving occasions

were celebrated in the past.

What are your most vivid memories of these


How have things changed?

Why do you think they have changed?

Are the changes for the better?

Have students create a chart that compares and

contrasts the way occasions were celebrated by

their grandparents with the way we celebrate them

today. Discuss.

What are the key similarities and differences?

Which traditions are continued today?

Which are new?

Are there any features of past celebrations that

you would like to reintroduce?


Sixth Year at School

In other places

Discuss the different cultures represented in the

class, or in the school, to explore celebrations which

involve giving and receiving gifts.

What is the reason for the celebration?

When is it held?

What sorts of gifts are given?

What customs are associated with the gift-giving?

Are the gifts the most important part of the


Create a class wiki to share the information. Follow

the instructions on one of the wiki websites to

add and edit information and then have students

explore how the advanced features could be used

to make a more interesting presentation.

The value of gifts

Discuss the importance of the value of a gift and

ask students whether gifts have to be large or

expensive to be appreciated.

What was the best gift you ever received? Why?

Does ‘value’ mean the same as ‘cost’?

Does a homemade gift have the same value as a

store-bought one?

Encourage students to listen to and respond to

others’ contributions. Have them reflect on the

content of the discussion.

Whose contribution made a particular impact on

you? Why?

What did you learn?

Has your understanding or attitude changed

because of what you have heard?

Giving more

Invite students to discuss ways in which people give

to their community, without expecting to receive

anything in return. Remind them that a gift does

not always have to be something bought but can

be the gift of someone’s time. Prompt them with

suggestions, such as:

• donating blood

• volunteer fire-fighting

• surf life-saving

• working for animal charities such as the WWF

or the RSPCA

• donating clothes and household items to charities.

Invite them to research one of these options and

make a brief presentation to the class about the

impact of this type of giving.

In the family

Discuss how students might give to their families—

such as helping with jobs around the house or

taking part in special projects. Suggest ways to

make this interesting and fun. One possibility might

be for students to create a gift certificate to give to

their parents or someone special, which requires the

student to give their time and energy, for example

‘This voucher entitles you to a day without washing

up’ or ‘This voucher entitles you to an hour of quiet

time (without any interruptions from children)’.

Have students create these certificates and decorate

them. If these are given before the end of term,

have students discuss the reaction they received

when they were presented, and how successful they

were at completing the ‘gifts’ on the certificates.

What makes personal gifts like these so special?

Can you put a price or a value on your time?

What do you think is the most precious gift you

can give?

What does ‘It is better to give than to receive’ mean?

Do you think it is true?

Can you think of an example which illustrates this?

Making a difference

Ask students to choose a charity website on which

it is possible to purchase gifts to be given to families

in need in developing countries. These gifts might

include such things as tree seedlings or an animal,

such as a pig or goat. Have the class select a gift

and plan and prepare activities to raise the money

to purchase it. Keep a photographic diary of the

plans and preparation. Another possibility is to have

the class sponsor a child in a developing country.

Have students share their feelings about being

involved in this project.

What the world needs now

Play a song which has a theme of world peace and

harmony. Discuss.

What message do you think the songwriter was

trying to convey?

If you could give the world a gift, what would it be?

Create a display to share students’ responses.


Lesson Bank

Happy New Year

Learning for Life

V Following a logical sequence makes it easier to

organise tasks and time.

V Breaking a task into smaller parts makes it more


V Setting and achieving goals provides us with a

sense of satisfaction.

Focus Questions

What steps should you follow to plan a research


How can you use the internet to safely share what

you learn with others?

Which online resources are you allowed to copy

and paste from?


V BLM 19

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–PB Wikis




–Creative Commons Licences

Learning Activities

Two faces

January 1st has been celebrated as New Year’s Day

in the western world since Julius Caesar introduced a

new calendar in 46 BCE. The first month was named

after Janus, the god of doors and gates, beginnings

and endings, who was always depicted with two

faces, one looking forward and one looking back.

Have students investigate the months of the year. Begin

the investigation by discussing what is already known.

Invite students to consider:

• the origins of each month’s name

• the number of days in each month

• the traditional gemstones and flower assigned to it

• the season within which it falls

• national days, celebrations and commemorations.

Discuss the most effective way to undertake the

investigation, guided by its purpose.

Should the investigation be done by individuals,

pairs or groups? Why?

Does everyone have to research all of the months?

What will we do with the information we find?

What would be a reasonable time frame in which

to complete this task?

Guide students through the investigation using the

information literacy process. If necessary remind them

of the steps involved. Encourage them to ask questions.

Where would you be most likely to find the

information you need?

Discuss the ways in which the information could be

presented and shared. Consider an ongoing display

that changes when the month does. Reflect on

the way the information literacy process offered a

logical pathway through the investigation, and how

the task was made more manageable by breaking it

into smaller steps.

Counting time

Explain that a calendar is a tool for keeping track of

time and dividing it into manageable chunks. The

earliest calendars were notches marked on sticks

to count the days and cycles of the moon. Have

students write an explanation of the structure of a

modern calendar and how it works.

Using the information literacy process, have groups

investigate solar, lunar and lunisolar calendars,

including their strengths and weaknesses. Suggest

they also research the Julian and Gregorian

calendars and explain how they are different.

Ask them to choose a calendar from the following

list and write an explanation of how it works:

• Ancient Egyptian • Jewish

• Ancient Greek • Ancient Roman

• Mayan

• Celtic

• Mesopotamian, such as the Sumerian or Babylonian


Seventh Year at School

Have each student reflect on their use of the

information literacy process to identify their

personal strengths and weaknesses.

What did you do well?

What do you need support with?

Which aspect should you focus on first?

New Year’s Day

Although much of the world celebrates New Year

on January 1st, many other cultures and religions

have their own calendars and celebrate in different

ways and at different times. Construct and conduct

a survey to find when New Year is celebrated by

other students in the school. Consider:

• Yuan Tan (Chinese) • Tet (Vietnamese)

• Norooz (Iranian) • Rosh Hashanah (Jewish)

• Oshogatsu (Japanese) • Muharram (Islamic)

Develop a set of core questions so comparisons can

be made.

Which culture are you investigating?

In which countries does this culture exist?

When is New Year celebrated?

Why is New Year celebrated at that time?

How is New Year celebrated?

What do these traditions signify?

Discuss where the information might be found, and

allow students to contribute their own experiences.

What primary sources might we use?

Which secondary source might we use?

Investigate whether there is an online resource that

provides all the information required in one spot. Have

students construct a wiki to share what they have

learned. Explore and explain the concept of copyright

and using materials, especially images, shared under

a ‘creative commons’ licence so images can be used


Ask students to reflect on how their knowledge

and understanding has changed through their


How might we acknowledge the beliefs and

traditions of students whose calendars are

different from ours?

Traditions and superstitions

New Year is traditionally a time of ritual, renewal

and resolution. Discuss the ways in which students

and their families celebrate New Year.

Does your family celebrate New Year?

What things are done to celebrate it? Why?

Have students investigate other traditions associated

with New Year around the world. Prompt their research.

What is a ‘first footer’?

Why do some people give new coins to others?

Why do people form a circle and sing ‘Auld Lang

Syne’ at midnight?

Ask students to focus on how and where the

information might be located, taking notes and

reconstructing these into sentences.


Explain the idea behind astrology and the signs of

the zodiac. Have each student investigate their star

sign and the characteristics attributed to it, then

discuss whether they think it is reliable or true.


Discuss the idea of New Year resolutions.

What are New Year resolutions?

Why do people make them at this time?

Did you make a New Year resolution?

Have each student set five goals which are to be

achieved by the end of the year. Invite them to set

one each for:

• personal development

• family

• community


• school

• friends

Goals should be S.M.A.R.T.

S = specific, significant, sustainable

M = measurable, meaningful, motivational

A = achievable, agreed, action-oriented

R = relevant, realistic, reasonable, rewarding,


T = timely, tangible, trackable

As well as setting SMART goals, help students

develop a plan to achieve them. Distribute BLM 19

and have students complete it by describing their

promises, purpose, strategies, support, success and

time frame.


Lesson Bank

All About Thinking

Learning for Life

V Interpreting information is the key to learning.

V Working with others helps me to learn.

V Explaining a topic, and discussing it with others,

helps me to understand it better myself.

V People learn in different ways and at different


Focus Questions

What are some of the ways in which people


How do discussions help us to learn?

How do you learn best?

Why is it sometimes useful to work with others

when you are trying to learn something new?


V a brief nonfiction text, divided into

three colour-coded sections

V Bloom’s Taxonomy

V the story of ‘Cinderella’

V a timer

Learning Activities

How we think

Explain that while it is easy to gather information, it is

the interpretation of that information and the insight

we gain that is the key to learning and understanding.

Explore and explain the concept of metacognition—

the process by which we think about our own

thoughts in an internal dialogue. Demonstrate by

reviewing the questions associated with the first step

of the information literacy process. Have students ask

themselves the following questions.

What am I trying to achieve?

What problem am I trying to solve?

Have I encountered this sort of thing before?

What do I already know?

What do I need to find out?

Types of thinking

Explain that people are able to think in very simple

and very complex ways and that different situations

require different types of thinking. Introduce

them to Bloom’s Taxonomy, which is a way of

demonstrating the hierarchy of the thinking skills

used in learning. Discuss the verbs associated with

each level, as shown in the table.

1 Remembering

tell list describe relate

locate write find state

name make recite retell

recall memorise repeat


3 Applying

solve show use illustrate

calculate construct

complete examine

classify map design

apply demonstrate


5 Evaluating

judge select choose

decide justify debate

verify recommend assess

discuss rank prioritise

determine convince


2 Understanding

explain interpret outline

predict restate describe

convert rewrite illustrate

summarise sequence

4 Analysing

analyse distinguish

examine compare

contrast categorise

explain separate

6 Creating

create invent compose

forecast plan construct

design imagine

improve propose devise


Share the story ‘Cinderella’ with students. Have a

class discussion to determine which sort of thinking

would be involved in:

• describing the coach that took Cinderella to the ball

• comparing a pumpkin and a parsnip and

explaining why the pumpkin is more suited to

becoming a coach

• designing the inside of the coach


Seventh Year at School

• persuading the fairy godmother that a watermelon

would be a better choice for a coach than the

pumpkin you were keeping for Halloween.

Invite partners to use the story to develop an

activity for each level of thinking, and explain why

it meets the criteria.

Planning through thinking

Help students build a set of questions they can

ask themselves when presented with a problem or

project. Explain the purpose of a template and have

them develop one to use so they can construct an

action plan.


What am I being asked to do?

What information have I been given?

What are the key ideas?

What strategies would be most effective?

What would be the best resources to use?


What do I need to produce?

What sort of thinking do I need to use—

remembering, understanding, applying, analysing,

evaluating, creating?

How long do I have?

How do I organise my findings?


What will be the best way to present this?

How well did I do?

What do I need help with?

What did I learn?

How did it fit with what I already knew?

What questions or concerns do I still have?

How can I apply it to other situations?

Ordering thinking

Demonstrate how our thinking can be planned,

mapped and organised. Make a class list of graphic

organisers, such as concept maps, Venn diagrams,

fishbone diagrams, flow charts and PMI charts.

Invite students to consider when they would use

each of these.

1 Each group member receives one section. They

are to read and make notes from that section only.

2 Students meet with members of the other groups

who have read the same section. They discuss and

combine their observations and understandings.

3 Students return to their original groups and share

the information.

Discuss the effectiveness and efficiency of the strategy.

Working together

Create a class chart that lists the advantages

of working with a partner or in a small group.

Brainstorm and list the personal attributes and

skills that students associate with the following


• leadership

• cooperation

• communication

• conflict resolution

Provide opportunities for students to identify,

practise and evaluate their use of the skills necessary

for working with others.

Reflecting on thinking

Have students reflect on their thinking, focusing in

particular on identifying when they do their best


Do you think best early in the morning, during

the afternoon, or later in the evening?

Do you prefer silence or background noise when

you are thinking about something?

When you are looking for information, do you

make notes as you are reading or do you read the

whole text and then go back to write notes?

Do you complete a task and then go back to edit

it, or edit as you go?

Do you prefer to work alone or with someone else?

Do solutions come to you even when you are not

consciously focusing on a problem?

How can understanding your thinking processes

help you to plan your time and tasks?

The expert jigsaw

Divide students into groups of three and distribute

the same material to each group—for example a

nonfiction text which is divided into three sections

by headings—but each member receives either

section one, two or three. Explain the activity so

that students understand what they are to do:


Lesson Bank

Research Skills

Learning for Life

Focus Questions

V Research involves problem solving, data

collection, critical thinking, analysis, reasoning,

argument, synthesis and decision making.

V When I am researching a topic I should follow a

logical process.

What is research?

What are the steps involved in a successful

research project?


V dice

V examples of primary and secondary sources

Learning Activities

What is research?

Discuss what students understand by the term


What is research?

How do you feel when you are set a research task?

Which parts are you confident about?

Which parts are you concerned about?

Share with students the idea that whenever we

are confronted with a research task we go through

a range of emotions and thoughts, starting with

uncertainty and moving through to understanding

and a sense of accomplishment. In this way, students

can be reassured that their feelings of uncertainty are

normal at this stage of the research process.

Starting out

Explain that information needs can be simple or

very complex. Hold a class discussion to find out

how students define the term ‘researcher’ then

demonstrate that students are already researchers

themselves. To do this, have them think of and

describe a situation in which they had to ask a

person or consult a resource to find information.

What did you want to know?

How did you find out?

Why did you choose that source?

The right questions

Explain that research involves asking questions—

and asking the right questions is as important

as answering them. Provide students with topic

suggestions, and tell them that they are going to

investigate this topic throughout the year. Possible

topics might range from a global research task to

something which has personal relevance, such as

an investigation of the high school they will be

attending the following year.

Ask partners to choose one, for which they will

develop a series of questions. Explain that they will

be developing a deeper understanding of that topic

through their research.

Have students copy the table below. Explain the

difference between closed and open questions and

tell students that they are going to create a basic

question bank to provide information about their

topic using the question starters and modal verbs

in the table. Encourage them to develop questions

which provide more than one-word answers.

Question Starter

Now give partners two dice which they throw to

initiate questions. For example, if they throw two

fours, their question would start with ‘Why should .

. .?’ Have them share their questions with the class

to compare the types of questions that come up.

Finding answers


1 what 1 must

2 where 2 can/could

3 when 3 will/would

4 why 4 should

5 who 5 may/might

6 how 6 ought

Discuss the methods that could be used to find the

answers to the questions. Provide students with the

following examples:

• interviews with knowledgeable people

• review of primary information sources


Seventh Year at School

• review of reports by knowledgeable people

• review of print and digital resources

• surveys, questionnaires and opinion polls

• direct observations of people, places and events

When would you use . . . (method)? Why?

What would be the best research method to use

to investigate your topic? Why?

What do you need to know to be able to use that


How will your chosen research method influence

your choice of information sources and resources?

Sources and resources

Explain to students that the success of a research

project depends on finding sources that offer

accurate, current, relevant and reliable information.

Brainstorm the types of resources that could be

used to investigate a topic.

Which would be the most useful resources for your


Primary sources

Provide students with a definition of ‘primary

sources’, explaining that these provide first-hand

information. Suggest examples of primary sources,

such as:

• interviews and speeches

• original letters and diaries

• official correspondence

• statistics, questionnaire, poll and survey results

• official records

• photographic records, including film and stills

• paintings, drawings and sketches

• political cartoons

• television and newspaper reports

• editorials written at the time

• artworks, including music, poetry, fiction and 3D


Encourage students to think about the suitability of

the information.

What is the origin of this source?

Who created it? Why?

Is it an authoritative and accurate source?

Who was it created for? Why?

What might have influenced its creation?

Was there strong public opinion on the issue at

the time this source was created?

How does it compare with what you already know?

Does this source provide you with the

information you need?

Have students suggest and locate primary sources

which could be used to investigate their topic.

Secondary sources

Define ‘secondary sources’ for students, explaining

that these include encyclopedias, atlases, timelines

and databases. Provide examples of some of these

and discuss them.

In what ways are secondary sources

different from primary sources?

Why does so much of our information

come from secondary sources?

How can you know if the information is

accurate, current, consistent, reliable and unbiased?

How do secondary sources assist your research?

Have students make a list of some of the secondary

sources to search for information on their topic.

Gathering information

Show students how to use headings, topic

sentences and captions to determine the relevance

of the resource and select the information they

need. Explain the concept of plagiarism and ensure

they know to use their own words, yet still be

accurate. Discuss how to do this.

Ask partners to select a short passage from one of

their resources and make a list of the keywords and

key phrases. Tell them to write clearly but to write

notes and phrases, not full sentences, and to keep

the work in a logical order.

Which keywords and phrases did you write down?

Do you think you have left out anything important?

Have partners swap their notes with other pairs of

students and see if they can convert the notes into

a coherent passage. When they have finished, have

them return it to the original authors of the notes

and have them compare it with the original.

How close is the rewritten passage to the original


Has the meaning of the original text been

maintained? Can you give examples?

What have you learned about the note-taking


Citing sources

As well as using their own words, students also

need to cite information sources. Demonstrate the

correct format for the various types of resources

they are using.


Lesson Bank

Web Wisdom

Learning for Life

V Information obtained from the internet needs to

be checked for accuracy and currency.

V I should not rely solely on the internet to provide

me with information.

V I need to take responsibility for my own safety

when I am online.

Focus Questions

How can you get information and images from the


How can you add information and images to the


How can you keep yourself safe when you are


Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:





–Intel Ranking


–Pencil Drawing


Learning Activities

An international network

Investigate what students already know about the

internet and how it works.

Who owns the internet?

Who can post information and images online?

Does anyone check the information or images to

make sure they are correct?

Remind them of the ease with which information

can be added to the internet. Discuss the following

information about safety online.

• Anyone can post anything easily.

• The content of the internet is not monitored in the

way that an editor/publisher monitors the content

of a book.

• We need to check what we find to ensure it is


• We need to keep ourselves safe because things

may not be as they seem.

From the web

Ask students to locate information online. The following

questions might be used as research prompts.

Which city holds an annual spring flower festival

known as Floriade?

Which state’s coat of arms features a red deer and

a brolga?

Why do people in rural and remote Australia

appreciate the work of Reverend John Flynn?

Have students keep a record of the terms they

use for each search so they can be compared and

discussed. Remind them to limit their searches,

if using Google, to ‘pages from Australia’.

Demonstrate how to select the most likely link by

reading the summary and checking the features of

the URL. Explain how to use the menu of a website

to navigate to the required page, including the

internal search option if there is one. Show them

how to find specific words on a page using the

‘Find’ feature of the internet browser.

Remind students of the need to check information

for accuracy and currency. Brainstorm a list of

features they should look for in a website. Remind

them to check that:

• the title of the page relates closely to the query

• there is a name on it (of a person or organisation),

which shows that someone is taking responsibility

for the information


Seventh Year at School

• the date the information was posted and its latest

update is recorded somewhere on the website

• it is suitable for the research task—a blog or a

website full of advertisements may have biased


Remind students to compare the information with

that found in another resource to check its accuracy.

Demonstrate how to bookmark websites. Show them

how to highlight and copy selected information from

the page and paste this into a document so keywords

can be selected and listed as notes for later use.

Wide web

Create a classroom blog and make a ‘how to…’

slideshow presentation by answering the following


What is the name and the URL of this service?

What is its purpose?

Is registration necessary?

How do you register?

What information do you need to provide for


Is there a privacy statement that guarantees your

details will not be sent or sold to anyone?

• Report concerns to a responsible adult.

• Never talk online to anyone you don’t know.

• Never agree to meet in person anyone you meet


• Know the difference between private and public

messages and places.

• Understand advertising and watch your wallet.

• Check with your parents before you send anyone

anything, including a photo.

• Never post your phone number or address online.

• Never use your full name online, only use your

first name or nickname.

• On social networking sites, always use the privacy


• Pretend your mum is sitting beside you watching

everything you do.

Publish and display the class guidelines.

Online etiquette

Discuss the language and etiquette associated with

email and demonstrate how easy it is to forward a


What should you remember when sending emails?

Remind students of the ease with which they can

upload, download and share information and

images from the internet.

If you can do this from other websites, can

someone do the same thing from yours?

What might be the consequences of someone

sharing a private comment or photo from your

website with the world?

Develop a set of class guidelines that will enable

students to know how to keep themselves safe

while online. The suggestions in the list below can

be used to prompt students.

• Understand the risks and know how to manage


• Keep private information private.

• Protect your rights and reputation, and those of

your friends.

• Respect the privacy and property of others.

• Leave any situation that makes you feel worried

or uncomfortable.


Lesson Bank

Planning Manoeuvres

Learning for Life

V Planning makes tasks manageable.

V Planning helps me to organise my time.

V I can use what I learn to make informed choices.

Focus Questions

When is a plan useful?

Why do you need a plan?

What are the features of a well-constructed plan?


V BLM 12

V note cards

Learning Activities

Our own plans

Inform students that this year they will have a

significant role to play in planning their major

excursion. Brainstorm the key aspects of the

excursion. Consider:

• destination

• transport

• finances

• communications

• equipment

• activities

• accommodation

• rosters

Record these on cards so they can be moved along

a time line until a final order is agreed. Discuss the

elements of the plan which need to be considered.

What do we need to know and do to ensure this

excursion is successful?

How can we ensure that all tasks are done and

the workload is shared?

What is our deadline for the completion of the

final task?

How will we keep track of what needs to be done?

Does everything have to be done in order?

Decide which parts of the plan need to be agreed to

by the group and which will be the responsibility of a

committee or individual. Use an enlarged version of

BLM 12 to draw up a master chart of all that has to be

done, the time frame and the committee responsible.

Sharing responsibility

Introduce the concept of a committee, and discuss

its structure and role in the planning process. Give

students the following committee titles and invite

them to volunteer for the one of their choice:




When the committees have been appointed, ask

students to decide which individual will do which

task, and the time frame for each. Use BLM 12 to

keep track of progress.

Site selection

If the destination is not already decided, set the

travel committee the task of investigating suitable

locations based on their knowledge of past

excursions as well as discussions with their peers.

Have them write letters seeking brochures or obtain

information from internet websites which allow free

downloads. Discuss the sorts of locations which

might be suitable.

What sort of experience do we want?

How will this location meet our needs?

What do we need to know about the location so

we can make the best choice?

Do we have all the information we need?

Is this location likely to be within our budget?

Have students compile a list of locations which fit

the search criteria. Allow the whole class to vote on

the list in order to select a first and second choice.

Present this information to the relevant member of

the executive staff, or the school principal. When it

is approved, obtain quotes and make a booking.


Seventh Year at School

A learning plan

When a booking has been made, have the travel

committee gather information about the location,

including other significant sites which may be along

the route.

What do we want to see or experience at this


What other sights or experiences could we


Allow the committee to investigate the most

economical way to arrive at the destination and

provide answers to the following questions.

What are the transport options?

What is the best route to take?

What is there to see and do along the way?

Will these incur extra costs?

Are there group discounts available?

Do you need to make bookings for any other

attractions that will be visited along the way?

Work with students to obtain quotes from transport

companies and from any tourist venues along the way.

A financial plan

When travel quotes have been received, and

one accepted by the school, have the fundraising

committee investigate the total cost of the excursion.

When do deposits and final payments need to be

made for the venue?

When do deposits and final payments need to be

made for the travel company?

Is the cost of the venue all-inclusive?

Will there be extra funds needed for meals or

admission to attractions?

How much extra money should we add to cover

any incidentals?

How much money do we expect this excursion to

cost in total?

Discuss with office staff how and when the money

will be collected and share this information with


A fundraising plan

Brainstorm ways to raise funds to help cover costs.

Have the fundraising committee decide on activities

and then hold a class discussion about how these

will be organised. Allow the committee to take a

leadership role, delegating tasks to other students,

if necessary. Hold the fundraising activities and

afterwards have students present a report about

what was done, the problems faced and solved, and

the money raised.

Was enough money raised?

If not, how much more money do we need to


To illustrate fundraising progress, suggest the

committee members draw a large thermometer and

divide it into $50 amounts, up to the total amount

required. As each fundraiser is held, mark the

amount raised on the thermometer.

An entertainment plan

Have the entertainment committee make a list

of possible evening activities. Present this list to

the whole class and have them determine which

activities will be included. The entertainment

committee can then create and post a timetable of

activities. Possible options include:

• a concert

• a fancy dress night

• a karaoke night

• a movie night

• a games night

• a trivia night


After the excursion, review it so that students can

reflect on:

• the quality of the planning

• how it could be improved

• the advice they would give to others undertaking

the same task

• how their input added to the experience.


Lesson Bank

Capital Canberra

Learning for Life

V It is easier to understand something if I have

learned about it before I encounter it.

V Information and images found on the internet

are protected by copyright, just as those in print

format are.

V Copyright protects the rights of authors, and to

use information or images without permission or

acknowledgement is the same as stealing.

V There are accepted procedures to follow which

enable me to use information and images legally.

Focus Questions

Why do we need to know about the national


What is copyright?

How can you ensure you use information and

images legally?

What information should you include in a



V BLM 20

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–The Parliamentary Education Office

–The Australian Constitution



–Visit Canberra

–National Capital Authority

–Picture Australia

Learning Activities

A national capital

Which city is Australia’s national capital?

Is it Australia’s largest or most famous city?

Share a map that shows the world’s major capital

cities. Discuss.

Is a country’s capital always its largest or most

famous city?

What is a capital city?

How is it different from other cities?

How is a national capital different from a state


Federal, state, local

Explain that Australia is governed at local, state

and federal levels. Have students work in groups to

create a display which illustrates:

• the correct names of the levels of government

• the types of services provided at the local, state

and federal levels

• the leadership structure of each level of



Demonstrate how to use the internet to retrieve

accurate and current information, including:

• choosing search terms

• assessing the authority of a website by its URL

• copying and pasting information and then

highlighting the keywords

• constructing original text from keywords

• attributing information and images obtained

from the internet.

Emphasise that digital-format information and

images are protected by copyright in the same

way as print-format resources, and that sources

must be acknowledged.

A new city

Federation in 1901 created the need for a national

capital city that was independent of both Sydney

and Melbourne.

Why were Sydney and Melbourne not chosen?

Share Section 125 of the Australian Constitution

with students—this sets out the rules for

establishing a new national capital city. Examine a

map of New South Wales and determine the area


Seventh Year at School

that falls outside a 100 mile (161km) radius of


Distribute BLM 20. Have students determine the

distances between Canberra and the state capitals

and their own town. Have students choose one of

the attractions and design and write the home page

of a website for it. They should include:

• the title of the site

• the purpose of the attraction or institution

• its location

• public access times and charges

• the name and logo of the site’s owner

• copyright information.

Encourage students to examine the attraction or

institution’s website but to ensure that their own

work is not identical to it, but is original and creative.

Celebrate a century

On 12 March 2013 Canberra celebrates the

centenary of its establishment as the national

capital. Invite students to produce a resource that

describes its history. Consider:

• the area’s Aboriginal heritage

• its early settlers

• how it was selected as the site for the national


• Walter Burley Griffin’s contribution to the city’s


• the opening of the old Parliament House in 1927

• the ways in which the city has grown and


Discuss and decide on the best format for the

presentation. Encourage students to search for

images online, using websites such as Picture

Australia, and ensure they know how to attribute

these resources correctly in their bibliography.

Have students use desktop publishing software to

develop a brochure for their tour.

A significant contribution

Most of Canberra’s suburbs are named after people

who have made a significant contribution to

Australia. Have students choose one name from the

table below and write a report which explains who

the person was and why they have been honoured

in this way.

Banks Barton Bonner

Bonython Bruce Calwell

Casey Chifley Conder

Cook Curtin Deakin

Dunlop Evatt Farrer

Florey Flynn Gilmore

Gordon Greenway Holt

Hughes Jacka Kenny

Lawson Macarthur Macquarie

Mawson Monash Melba

Moncrieff Nicholls Oxley


A new suburb


If you had the task of naming a new suburb of

Canberra, what would you call it?

Have each student choose a ‘significant Australian’

and write a report about their life and contribution

to the country. They can then use this research to

develop and deliver a speech which would persuade

a panel that their ‘significant Australian’ should

have a new suburb of Canberra named after them.

Places to visit

Explain that, because it is the national capital,

Canberra has many significant national institutions

and attractions.

Invite students to develop an itinerary for a tour of

Canberra. Divide the tour into sections according to

the following headings:

• Living Legends

• Natural Wonders

• National Treasures

• Lest We Forget

• Super Scientists

• Law and Order

• Swim, Run, Play


Lesson Bank

The Art of Persuasion

Learning for Life

V Information helps me to make good decisions.

V When I am informed I am able to consider both

sides of an argument.

V An effective argument is supported by facts.

V Working cooperatively makes tasks manageable.

Focus Questions

What makes an argument persuasive?

Why is it important to base an argument on

research and evidence?

How can working with others help you with task

and time management?


V BLM 12 and BLM 21

Other Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–Macrotis Lagotis (Greater Bilby)

–About Bilbies

All About Bilbies

–The Bilby: a case study


Learning Activities

Setting the scene

Share the following scenario with students.

A company has decided to create a new tourist

resort on the Tanami Track, which crosses the

Tanami Desert in the Northern Territory. Not

only is this the most direct route between Alice

Springs and the Kimberley, the Tanami Desert is

one of the most isolated and arid places on Earth.

However, it is also one of the few remaining

habitats of the Greater Bilby, which is listed as

vulnerable by the Environment Protection and

Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Before they

can start, the company must obtain planning

permission from the government, and the vote is

currently split 50-50.

Those who agree with the proposal believe:

• more tourists mean there will be more money

spent in the area, boosting existing businesses

• more businesses will bring more people into the

area, so there might be more services such as a

school and a library

• guided tours and talks about the bilbies will create

a greater awareness of them and people might do

more than buy a chocolate bilby at Easter.

Those who disagree believe:

• the damage done to the environment during

construction will never be repaired

• there will be on-going issues with servicing the

resort, such as waste management, which will

continue to impact on the environment

• all the extra people in the area will drive the

bilbies deeper into the desert where there is

little food or water for them to survive.

From the hat

Inform students that they will be working in two

groups—one in favour of, and one against, the resort’s

development. They will research a case for their side

of the argument and then three representatives from

their group will present their argument to the panel.

The panel—of three adults, if possible—will vote on

the issue, following the presentations.

In order to have equal-sized lobby groups, place

slips of paper into a hat, half with ‘for’ on them

and half with ‘against’. Each student selects a

slip to discover which side of the debate they will

research. Remind them of the benefits of working

cooperatively to make a task manageable.

Task and time

Discuss the tasks which need to be completed

and how they can be broken down into smaller

components to make them more manageable.

Brainstorm and list these, and then put them in

order and within a time frame. Consider:

• concept map

• focus questions


Seventh Year at School

• finding resources

• doing research

• selecting key points

• finding examples and evidence

• finding graphics and other support materials

• listing bibliography

• preparing presentation

• practising presentation

• delivering presentation

Roles and responsibilities

As a class, brainstorm and list the roles required to

complete the task. Construct a job description for

each one so everyone knows the scope of their

particular responsibilities. Discuss how each role will

be filled.

Do you think there needs to be a team


Should the roles be allocated according to

individual strengths and interests?

If more than one person wants a particular role,

how can this be decided?

How can you ensure that everyone does their fair

share and delivers this on time?

When the issues have been discussed and decided,

distribute BLM 12. Have the teams decide who will do

each task and complete the worksheet so that tasks,

team members and time can be tracked and managed.

Preparing the case

Have the groups prepare their case using the

information literacy process. Distribute BLM 21 and

guide students to organise their ideas and plan their



What ideas and issues might be considered?

What do we want the panel to know, understand

and value as a result of hearing our case?

What are our key points?

What examples and evidence can we use to

support our case?


What resources are likely to give us the

information we need?

How can we locate these?


Which information is the most

relevant to our case?

Is this information accurate,

current and unbiased?


How can we use our points to create a strong and

persuasive case?

How can we use the examples and evidence to

support each point?


How can we present our case so that our

audience understands our perspective?

How can we present our case so that our audience

is persuaded to adopt our point of view?

Presenting the case

Remind students of the format of a debate, and

have each team prepare their case. Suggest the

guidelines in the table below for preparing an

effective speech.





Attention-grabbing opening


Argument stated clearly

Well-organised preview of main


Main points and supporting

evidence are well structured with

clear links to argument

Transition between ideas is smooth

and connected

Use of logical, ethical or emotional

appeals for persuasive effect

Summary of main points

Logical and clear link back to

original argument

Direct call to action

Memorable closing statement

Clear articulation with expression

and enthusiasm

Appropriate volume

Use of eye contact and body


Effective choice of vocabulary and

sentence structure

Invite another class to the presentation, as well

as the panel. Have them judge the debate and

compare their decision to that of the panel.

What were the strongest points of each


How were the judges persuaded to give the

verdict they did?

How could you use what you have learned in a

similar situation?


Lesson Bank

Endangered Species

Learning for Life

V Asking questions helps me to learn new


V The answer to one question sometimes raises

another question.

V I can learn about, and be involved in, issues of

global importance.

Focus Questions

How can posing questions help me to focus my


How can I find out about endangered species?

Useful Resources

V websites, such as:

–IUCN Red List

–World Wildlife Fund

–Australia’s Threatened Species and Ecological



–The Thylacine: A Case Study

Learning Activities

Endangered or extinct?

Share with students the fact that over 100 unique

Australian animal and plant species have been

declared extinct since their existence was first


What does ‘extinct’ mean?

Lost forever

Discuss the thylacine, one of Australia’s most famous

extinct creatures, with students. Explain that,

although the last known member of this species died

in Hobart Zoo in 1936, sightings of thylacines in

remote areas of Tasmania continue to be reported.

Do you think thylacines might still exist?

If you were part of an expedition to find a

thylacine, what would you need to know about

the animal before you set out?

Construct a class concept map of questions which

focus on:

• appearance

• habitat

• behaviour

• movement

• diet

• communication

• defences

• families

• extinction

Is it true?

Have groups investigate an aspect of the thylacine’s life,

taking notes to record their findings. Inform students

they are not able to use Wikipedia because it will form

part of the activity later. Create a class fact summary by

inviting them to share the information they have found.

Given that the thylacine is extinct, and has not

been seen by anyone alive today, how do you

know this information is accurate?

Share the entry for thylacines in Wikipedia and

invite them to compare that information with the

class fact summary. Discuss their observations.

Is there anything different or new in the

Wikipedia entry?

How might we check which information is correct?

Explain that it was the effect of human activity that

led to the extinction of the thylacine.

How did the thylacine contribute to the balance

of nature in the bush while it was alive?

What questions would help us to investigate this?

A second chance

Explain that some scientists believe they could clone

a thylacine using the DNA of the animal that died

in Hobart Zoo. Ask students to write an editorial,

expressing their opinion on this possibility.

What points would you need to consider?

What is the difference between fact and opinion?

What is the difference between an article and an



Seventh Year at School

Invite students to imagine they are the curator of

the zoo that is to house the cloned thylacine. Ask

them to begin by researching the conditions in

which the thylacine was kept at Hobart Zoo and

suggest they design a new enclosure. Have them

use their design to draw a plan and make a model

of the space.

How would your enclosure differ from the one at

Hobart Zoo in which the last thylacine lived?

What role do zoos play in the protection of

endangered species?

Different times

Describe how, in 1888, the Tasmanian government

placed a bounty on thylacines and it was this which

led to their extinction. Discuss the problem which

led to this situation, the possible alternatives and

why they were not adopted.

What is a bounty?

Why was a bounty placed on thylacines?

Could there have been a different

solution to the problem?

How do you think the issue might

be handled today?

Fake or fur

Explain to students that fur coats were seen as a

symbol of wealth for a very long time. However,

when people were made aware of the methods

involved in the fur industry, and of the effect on

the populations of endangered animal species, they

became unfashionable.

Ivory, harvested from elephant tusks, is another

example of an animal product which has become

unfashionable. Have students investigate one of

these products and explain what actions are being

taken to remove them from the market.

How can individuals help to protect endangered


Do you think people’s attitudes about animals

have changed? How? Why?

The red list

At-risk species are classified into nine categories by

the International Union for Conservation of Nature

(IUCN), ranging from ‘not evaluated’ to ‘extinct’.

Have students consult the IUCN website to research

what these categories are and develop a glossary

explaining these terms. Another online resource

which may be of interest is the World Wildlife Fund

website’s ‘Species Finder’.

What is the IUCN Red List?

Why is it important?

What is considered to be the greatest danger

facing all species in the wild?

What other organisations exist to protect animals,

especially endangered species?

Have students research and write a report about the

goals and actions of one of these organisations.

A case study

Brainstorm the methods conservation groups use

to inform the public about animals and habitats

which are threatened—include television and radio

advertising campaigns, websites and posters. Discuss,

including the issue of conserving the environment.

National Threatened Species Day

Introduce the idea of Australia’s ‘Threatened

Species Day’, which is held on September 7 each

year. Explain that the date was chosen because it

commemorates the death of the final thylacine in

Hobart Zoo in 1936.

Have students read the Australian Government’s

‘Green Kids Guide to Threatened Species’. (See

the Australia’s Threatened Species and Ecological

Communities website reference above.) Ask them to

identify the nine ways in which they can help preserve

the environment and its inhabitants, then select one

of these and use the information to create a poster for

display. Ensure they use language and phrases which

accentuate the positive things people can do.

Use the OPAC to find novels and children’s storybooks

with an environmental theme and create a display of

these to coincide with ‘Threatened Species Day’. Share

a children’s storybook about a threatened animal

species, and then discuss with students.

Why do you think the author chose this animal?

What did the author need to know in order to

write this story?

Brainstorm a list of 10 questions that the author

would have needed to answer. Have students find

answers to the questions and use them to create

a FAQ database about the animal. Plan and hold

‘Threatened Species Day’ in your school to highlight

the problems facing Australia’s threatened flora and

fauna species.


Lesson Bank

Lest We Forget

Learning for Life

Focus Questions

V Learning about the past can help us to

understand the present.

V I can obtain facts from a variety of sources.

How can you learn about the past?

What does ‘there are always two sides to a story’



V a novel set during a time of war

Other Useful Resources

V Anzac Day teaching resources, such as

Thinking Themes: Anzac Day, Ages All primary

(Macmillan) and Macmillan Wall Charts: Anzac

Day, (Macmillan)

V websites, such as:

–Anzac Day

–Anzac Research

–Australian War Memorial

–The Returned & Services League of Australia

–Department of Veterans’ Affairs

–Anzac Day Commemorative Committee of


–Australians at War

Learning Activities

First response

Without discussion, have each student write a

response to these questions.

What is war?

Have you, or anyone in your family, ever

experienced a war?

If so, which war?

Why do you think people go to war?

Are wars avoidable?

How else might conflicts be resolved?

Have students read, or share as a class, a novel for

this age group set during a time of war. When the

book is finished, have them write a review of it,

using the questions below as a guide.

Where is the novel set?

Who are the combatants in the war?

What caused the war?

What was its outcome?

What effect did the war have on the lives of the


Discuss the novel. Have students review their initial

responses to the questions about war.

What have you learned about war from this novel?

Has this changed the way you think about war?


Australians at war

Write a list of the conflicts in which Australia has

been involved since Federation. On a map of the

world, shade in red the places Australian troops

have gone to in the past, and shade in blue the

places in which troops are currently serving. Display

the list and map for students and discuss.

What is an ally?

Who were/are Australia’s allies in each conflict?

Who are Australia’s allies now?

Are the old enemies still enemies?


This lesson bank is primarily designed to

investigate the reasons Australians commemorate

Anzac Day (April 25) and Remembrance Day

(November 11). Many students may well be the

victims of war themselves and have stories to tell

or forget. Other students may have relatives in

the armed forces. Therefore, the activities of this

lesson bank should be chosen and taught with

particular sensitivity and care.

Two sides

Explain that the first time Australia went to war as

a united nation was in World War I. Although some

soldiers were volunteers looking for adventure,


Seventh Year at School

many were forced to go because of compulsory

military training and conscription. Discuss.

What was conscription?

Have students investigate the answers to the

following questions.

What was the age for compulsory military training?

What did the conscripts have to do?

What happened if they refused?

Why were girls not required to enlist?

Do you think they should they have been?

Divide the class into groups to discuss these views

on conscription, war and military training, which

may have been held at the time of World War I.


• Military training teaches discipline and teamwork,

and improves character, health and fitness.

• Compulsory military training is the only way to

provide the number of soldiers needed.

• War is a great adventure as well as a duty.

• It is the duty of every man to know how to fight

and be able to defend their country.

• Men who don’t enlist are cowards.


• It is wrong to teach people how to hurt others.

• If all young men are in compulsory military

training, their work in factories and farms will

have to be done by others.

• Australia’s young men should not have to fight in

other country’s wars.

• Working men should not have to spend their free

time in military training.

• Military training makes young men more aggressive.

After the discussion, have students vote to decide if

they would support conscription. Discuss the result.

Do you think you had enough information to

make an informed decision?

What more did you need to know?

If the government wanted to introduce

conscription now, would a decision by all those

eligible to vote be a fair way to decide the issue?


How else might that decision be made?


Investigate the ceremonies held on both Anzac Day

and Remembrance Day.

What can be done at our school to acknowledge

these days?

Marching rights

Explain that the numbers of returned servicemen

and women from the first and second world

wars are diminishing, and now their children and

grandchildren are allowed to take their places in

the Anzac Day march. This is causing controversy

because, while some believe it shows that the

younger generation respect the sacrifices that others

have made for them, others believe they don’t

understand and are marching for show, not respect.

Discuss, and create a class ‘for and against’ chart.


Discuss the concept of leadership.

What does a leader have to do?

Give some examples of leaders in the armed

forces and in civilian life.

Why do we need leaders?

How does a leader convince followers to do as

they are asked?

What are the qualities of a good leader?

Why are these qualities important?

Explain that in the armed forces, servicemen and

women are expected to respect those who are

of higher rank, and follow their orders without

questioning them.

Can you see why this might be important?

Do you think it is always right to follow orders?

Good friends

Explain that mateship is a quality valued by

Australians, particularly in times of war. Discuss.

What is mateship?

How is mateship demonstrated during war?

How can you be a good mate?

Celebration or commemoration

Discuss the difference between a celebration and a


What are the major celebrations in Australia?

What are the major commemorative occasions?

How do we acknowledge the contributions made

by those who have served this country during


Lesson Bank

Read Around The World

Learning for Life

V I can obtain facts from a variety of sources.

V Our environment, culture and beliefs influence

the way we live.

Focus Questions

What sort of information would we like to

discover about life in another country?

How does sharing what I know enhance my



V a sample passport

V a stamp or sticker for passports

V BLM 22 and BLM 23

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:

–Microsoft Photo Story 3

–Microsoft Powerpoint

–Apple iWork Keynote

V websites, such as:

–Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Visa


–Big Mac Index

–Universal Currency Calculator

–World Clock

Learning Activities

Paperwork and passports

Explain to students that they are going to read their

way around the world, as part of a team, and learn

about each country they visit. However, before they

can travel they need a valid passport.

What is a passport?

What is it used for?

Have each student fill in the details required on

BLM 22 to create their passports.

Team travellers

Divide the class into teams of four students and

have each group choose a name. Place the names

of twice as many countries as there are groups

into a container, then have each group select two

countries at random from the container.

Have each team plot their journey on a map,

beginning at their hometown and visiting the capital

cities of their countries, without backtracking, if

possible. Use coloured flag pins to plot the journeys

on a master map displayed in the library.

Planning the journey

Before they begin, each team must plan and

write their itinerary, detailing how they will travel

between destinations. Have them list the five key

attractions they will visit in each country.

Starting with a story

Have each group select a novel set in one of the

countries being studied. On completion of the novel

have them answer the following questions and prepare

a book review to be put on display in the library.

Who is the author?

Where is the story set?

Is the author from this country?

Is it historical or contemporary fiction?

Does it have a rural or urban setting?

Could this story have been set in another place or


What did you learn about the country from

reading this book?


Seventh Year at School

Behind the scenes

As a group, have students undertake an in-depth

study of both of the assigned countries. Invite them

to consider:

• location

• geography

• climate

• population

• government

• education system

• famous people

• history

• language

• currency

• diet—include a traditional recipe as an example

• flags and national emblems

• celebrations, commemorations and religious


• entertainment, sports and leisure activities

• traditional costumes

• family structures, homes and routines.

Ask students to select eight of these topics and

develop a pictorial travelogue based on them. They

can use software applications, such as PowerPoint,

KeyNote or Photo Story, to do this. Explore the

narration and animation features of the software

and demonstrate how they can include images

shared under a creative commons licence. As well

as information about the country, include tips for

potential travellers, such as:

• why a tourist might go there

• when to visit

• how to get there

• whether a visa is needed

• other essential information for travellers.

Fact and feast festival

The final aspect of the task is to present it in a

memorable way. Each group is responsible for

organising and holding a ‘fact and feast’ festival

to celebrate the culture of the countries they have

studied. Students could present their travelogue,

slideshow and travellers’ tips wearing the national

costume or using culturally significant props. They

should also aim to provide samples of foods from

their assigned countries.

The groups could work in a rotation to present their

countries, so that each group holds two ‘fact and

feast’ festivals. Alternatively, partners within each

group could be assigned one of the two countries

to present. These presentations might take several

weeks to be completed.

Visitors’ visa

Distribute BLM 23 before the presentation. After

each country has been presented, have students

complete one of the two visitors’ visas on BLM 23.

When each page is completed correctly, stamp it as

a record of the visit.

Come fly with me

Set up displays for each country, grouping them

by continent in various parts of the library. Include

maps, artefacts, novels and nonfiction resources,

with the travelogues on a continuous loop. Invite

other classes and parents to visit and view the

displays, with their creators acting as travel guides.


Lesson Bank

Study Buddies

Learning for Life

V Putting what I know into practice helps me to

understand it better.

V Creating something helps to demonstrate how

well I understand it.

V Taking time to reflect is an important part of the

learning process.

Focus Questions

Why is it important to write clear and concise


Which parts of the information literacy process

can you do well?

In which areas do you need to improve?

Why is it important to reflect on what you have



V BLM 18 and BLM 24

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:

–Microsoft Publisher

–Apple iWork Pages

Learning Activities

Setting up

A study buddy is a guide designed to help students

investigate a topic using the information literacy

process. It is produced as a double-sided, threecolumn

brochure. Students will use it to identify the

phases of the information literacy process they can do

well, and those areas in which they need more help.

Explain to students that they are going to create a

study buddy, and describe what it is. Demonstrate

how to navigate to and open the desktop

publishing software, and how to set the page to a

landscape setting. Create two pages, each divided

into three columns. Save.

Provide each student with a sheet of paper and

have them fold it brochure-style so they can identify

the design and placement of their information. For

example, using the software, the cover sheet will

be the third column of the first page. Have them

use their paper model to refer to throughout the

process, so they can be sure of their design.

Select a subject

Invite students to select one of these Australian

icons, or have them suggest another which is of

interest to them.

• Royal Life Saving Association

• Returned Services League

• The Ghan Railway

• Royal Flying Doctor Service

• Country Women’s Association

• Melbourne Cup

• The Man from Snowy River

• Rabbit Proof Fence


• National Sorry Day

• Rural/Country Fire Service

• Eureka Stockade

• The Dingo Fence

• The Ashes (cricket)

• Aboriginal Tent Embassy

• School of the Air

• Australia Day

• Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme

• Sydney Opera House

• Big Banana

• Sydney Harbour Bridge

• Indian Pacific Railway

On the front page of the study buddy, have students

create an eye-catching title, write a paragraph that

introduces the subject, and illustrate it.


Write a focus question for students to consider.

Why is . . . an Australian icon?

Distribute BLM 18 and have students develop a

concept map. Create a set of questions that provide

a framework for the investigation and ensure that

the most important aspects of the topic are covered.

Encourage students to include a range of question

starters, and help them to gain insight as well as

information by including a ‘What if . . .?’ question

for them to explore. Have them decide on the best

research method to investigate the topic.


Seventh Year at School


Ask students to create a list of search terms that

could be used to search the OPAC to find print

resources in the library, then locate and skim them

for suitability for both topic and readers’ needs.

They can then select the best two and make a list of:

• title

• author

• publisher

• date of publication

• call number

• the reason it has been chosen as a resource for

this topic.

Invite students to create a list of the search terms

they could use to find online resources, then locate

and skim them for suitability for both topic and

readers’ needs. They can then select the two most

useful websites and make a list of:

• website name

• author or authority

• date of latest update


• the reason it has been chosen as a resource for

this topic.

Have students investigate and list three other

resources that might be useful, including:

• people

• DVDs or videos

• posters or pictures

• brochures.

Where can you find these resources?

All seven resources can be listed in the study buddy

under the heading ‘Recommended Resources’.

Include an example of a bibliographic record so the

resources can be attributed if they are used.


Have students write brief directions for using

each type of resource in the study buddy. For

print resources, explain the purpose of the title,

contents, chapter names, page numbers, headings,

topic sentences, illustrations, maps, tables, graphs,

captions, glossary and index. Ensure they give

examples of how to use some of these features.

For websites, have students explain how to navigate

the menu and follow links. If there is an illustration,

the way in which this can be copied and pasted into a

presentation should be described. Demonstrate how to

record the source and have them include an example of

this in the brochure. If there is a particularly interesting

or relevant paragraph or graphic on the website, have

students include a reference to it in the brochure.


Have students include some headings suggestions—

to help younger students organise their information.

They might also suggest the types of graphics to

include, such as maps or photographs.


Brainstorm to create a list of the different ways to

present information and have students include three

of these in their brochures. Consider a range of

formats that will meet the requirements of the task,

the needs of the audience, and be within the scope

of students.

• oral presentation

• pamphlet

• video documentary

• slide show

• digital scrapbook

• diorama

• magazine article


• poster

• information report

• web page

• wiki

• model

• booklet

• blog

Have students include five questions they think

users of their study buddy should consider, such as:

• what they learned

• what they did well, and in which areas they need


• how they managed their time

• how well they worked with others

• whether they are satisfied with what they have

learned and produced.


Remind students that the purpose of this

assignment is for them to discover which parts of

the information literacy process they can do well,

and those in which they need some support. Have

them use BLM 24 to reflect on their learning and

assess each stage. This blackline master can be used

after any research assignment.


Lesson Bank

Time to Reflect

Learning for Life

Focus Questions

V Reflecting is a key part of the learning process.

V Our beliefs are shaped by our experiences and

by the people around us.

V Setting goals helps us to direct our learning.

Why is it so important to reflect on what we see,

hear and do?

What are your goals for the future?


V Oh, the Places You’ll Go! (Dr Seuss,


V BLM 19

Other Useful Resources

V software, such as:

–Microsoft Photo Story 3

Learning Activities

A journey made

Discuss the importance of reflecting in the learning

process. Have students reflect on their journey

through primary school. Suggest they make notes

under headings, such as:

The first day

Where did you have your first day of school?

How did you feel?

What do you remember about that day?

Were you looking forward to going to school?


Which teachers and other staff members do you

remember from that first year? Why?

What was it they said or did that was so



Who was your first friend at school?

Has your friendship group changed as you have


Have any of your friends left the school?

Have you made any new friends this year?

Will your friends be going with you to your high



What are your favourite subjects? Why?

Do you do well in these subjects?

Will you be able to do these subjects in high


Good times, bad times

What have you liked most about primary school?


What have you liked least about primary school?


How did these shape your time at school?

Beyond the classroom

What teams, clubs or student bodies have you

participated in?

What leadership roles have you had?

Have you enjoyed these roles?


Which three things at school have influenced you


Which two things would you like to do again?

What one thing would you do differently if you


Have each student create a presentation of their

journey through primary school, sharing their

information, images and insights using multimedia,

such as Photo Story 3.

The power of people

Explore the impact that people and places beyond

the school walls have on each of us.

Who are the most important people in your life?

What is ‘peer pressure’?

How can you deal with it?


Seventh Year at School

A journey beginning

Share Oh, the Places You’ll Go! and discuss its

message. Encourage students to share and discuss

their feelings about leaving the comfort of primary

school and moving onto secondary school. Compile

a list of concerns so they can see they are not

alone in having them and that strategies can be

developed to deal with them if they do occur.

Remind them they had similar concerns when they

began primary school and they were successful in

dealing with them, even when they knew a lot less

than they do now.

Rank the concerns in order of importance to

students. (Usually ‘getting lost’ or ‘not knowing

anyone’ are very close to the top.) Brainstorm a

range of strategies that could be put in place to

address each one.

Mapping the journey

Discuss the purpose of setting goals and having a

plan in place to achieve them. Explain that having a

clear purpose allows us to make sure the choices we

make, and the things we do, take us in the direction

we wish to go.

Have each student construct a charter of the goals

they want to achieve during their time at secondary

school, including the values they want to uphold.

Remind them that goals should be SMART. Include

at least one short, one medium and one long-term

goal for each of these areas:

• personal development

• school

• family

• friends

• community


SMART goals are:

S = specific, significant, sustainable

M = measurable, meaningful, motivational

A = achievable, agreed, action-oriented

R = relevant, realistic, reasonable, rewarding,


T = timely, tangible, trackable

Emphasise that these are personal goals and need

not be the same as anyone else’s. They should

also be worded so they provide room for flexibility

and change while still maintaining the big-picture

outcome. ‘Passing the Year 12 English exam’ is better

than ‘Being in the Top 10 in English in Year 12’.

Distribute BLM 19 and have students use it to make

a plan for achieving each goal.

How do your goals shape and reflect who you are?

How often should you revisit and review your


Is it okay to change your goals if your interests or

circumstances change?

What challenges might you face in attempting to

achieve your goals?

How can you deal with these challenges?

How will you know if it is time to modify or

abandon a particular goal?

How should you celebrate when a goal is achieved?

What should you do if you do not achieve a goal?

Wall of wisdom

Give each student a brick-sized piece of paper on

which to write one piece of advice for the other

students who are still on their primary school

journey. Create a ‘Wall of Wisdom’ for the following

class to reflect on throughout the next year.





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subject are

Lesson Bank: pages 18–19

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 12


Planning Manoeuvres


Name of project

Aim of project


Person responsible












Lesson Bank: pages 18–19, 50–51 and 54–55

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.



Successful Learners

BLM 13

I am positive

V I believe in myself.

V I expect to succeed.

V I can make the right


V I can do anything if I

work hard enough.

V I can be anything I want

to be.

I am organised

V I know what I want to


V I plan what I am going

to do.

V I have different ways of

doing different things.

V I use different types of


V I use my time well.

I am adventurous

V I try new things even if

they seem difficult.

V I try again if it doesn’t

work the first time.

V I experiment with lots of

ways to solve a problem

until I find the best one.

V I use what I already know

to learn new things.

I am thoughtful

V I like to solve problems.

V I know how to find out

what I don’t know.

V I think about what I do

and what I have done.

V I understand how the new

things I learn fit into what

I already know.

V I have an open mind and

I am willing to listen to

new ideas.

I am cooperative

V I work well with other


V I respect other people’s

opinions and listen to their


V I value other people’s help.

V I am aware of how others

are feeling.

V I am prepared to help

others and share what

I know.

I am a good learner

V I know I will always be a

learner because there will

always be new things to


V I know the way that I

learn best.

V I take responsibility for my

own learning.

V I know when to ask for

help and who to ask.

I am creative

V I use my imagination.

V I use my own thoughts

and ideas.

V I look for new ways to

do things.

V I write stories and reports.

V I draw pictures and make


I am industrious

V I like to learn and I enjoy


V I work hard.

V I practise until I get

it right.

V I keep going until I have

finished the task.

V I always do the best

I can.

I am curious

V I ask questions.

V I like to learn new things.

V I try to find out about

things I don’t understand.

V Sometimes the answers to

my questions lead to more


V I listen to answers and

think about them.

V I learn something new

every day.

Lesson Bank: pages 20–21

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 14 Name

Great Explorers

The table below lists the names of famous Australian explorers.

For each one, find the missing information and write it in the box.


Willem Janszoon

Abel Tasman

William Dampier

James Cook

Matthew Flinders

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :






Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Dirk Hartog

George Bass

Gregory Blaxland

William Lawson

William C.

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :






B o r n :

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:


Area explored:

George Evans

John Oxley

Hamilton Hume

William Hovell


B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :






B o r n :

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:


Area explored:

Charles Sturt

Thomas Mitchell

Paul de Strzelecki

Ludwig Leichhardt

Edmund Kennedy

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :






Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Edward John

John McDouall

William John

Robert O’Hara

Ernest Giles





B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :

B o r n :






Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Area explored:

Lesson Bank: pages 24–25


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


Write a well-known Australian example in each box.


Australian Icons

BLM 15

animal bird flower song story

poem musician author poet painter/




word or


food drink recipe

building event politician clothing sportsperson

sea creature scientist doctor invention dancer

structure industry television star sport organisation

movie star legend movie game television


Lesson Bank: pages 28–29

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 16


On the Map


Find each landmark on a map of Australia. Mark its number in the correct place.






Great Sandy

Tanami Desert

Great Victoria

Gibson Desert

Simpson Desert








Sturt Stony

Mt Kosciusko

Mt Bogong

Mt Bimberi

Mt Bartle Frere







Mt Ossa

Mt Zeil

Mt Woodroffe

Mt Meharry

Great Diving







Australian Alps

Murray River


Darling River

Lachlan River







Franklin River

Cooper Creek

Goulburn River

Gascoyne River

Lake Eyre







Twelve Apostles

Devils Marbles

Three Sisters

Bungle Bungles







Flinders Island

Fraser Island

Heron Island

Melville Island







Great Barrier

Jenolan Caves


King Island







Katherine Gorge

Lake Mungo

Lake Pedder

Nullarbor Plain

Wave Rock






Flinders Ranges

Wilpena Pound

Kangaroo Island

Kings Canyon

Kata Juta






Wallaman Falls

Lake Argyle

Lake Eucumbene

Lake Gordon

Mt Townsend

Lesson Bank: pages 30–31


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.



Map of Australia

BLM 17

Lesson Bank: pages 30–31

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 18



Concept Map


Lesson Bank: pages 38–39 and 62–63

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.



Create a plan to achieve your SMART goals.

Goal Planner

BLM 19


Promise 1 Promise 2 Promise 3 Promise 4

What do I want

to achieve?


Why do I want

to achieve it?


How will I

achieve it?


Who will help

me achieve it?


How will I know

I am successful?


When will I

start and finish?

Lesson Bank: pages 42–43 and 64–65

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 20 Name

Capital Canberra


Choose one of these attractions and research its location and purpose. Design a new home

page for its website using the information you have found.

Anzac Parade

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

Australian Institute of Sport

Australian National Botanic Gardens

Australian Parliament House

Australian War Memorial

Australians of the Year Walk

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

Captain Cook Memorial Jet

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

CSIRO Discovery Centre

Foreign Embassies

Government House

High Court of Australia

National Archives of Australia

National Emergency Services Memorial

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

National Film and Sound Archive

National Gallery of Australia

National Library of Australia

National Museum of Australia

National Police Memorial

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

National Portrait Gallery

National Science and Technology Centre

Old Parliament House

Reconciliation Place

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

Suffrage Fountain

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

National Capital Exhibition

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

National Carillon

(go to ‘Visiting’, then ‘Attractions managed by the NCA’)

Lesson Bank: pages 52–53


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


Clarify the issue.


Plan to Persuade

BLM 21

Construct the arguments.

Argument 1

Argument 2

Argument 3

Argument 4

Conclude your presentation with a memorable statement to persuade your audience

to take action.

Lesson Bank: pages 54–55

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 22 Name Date

Read Around the World


Family name

Given names


Insert recent

photograph here



Date of birth

Place of birth


Eye colour

Hair colour

Special features

Lesson Bank: pages 60–61


All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.









BLM 23



12 1



11 1


2 10




3 9



4 8








Flag Our time Their time (+ or -)










12 1



11 1


2 10




3 9



4 8








Flag Our time Their time (+ or -)


Lesson Bank: pages 60–61

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.


BLM 24



Reflecting on the Process

Which parts of the information literacy process are you particularly good at?

Which part do you find most difficult?

Who would be the best person to help you overcome this?

What have you learned?

Was the assignment useful? Why?

Which part did you like best? Why?

Now rate each stage in the process.
















Lesson Bank: pages 62–63

All You Need to Teach Information Literacy Ages 10+ © Barbara Braxton/Macmillan Education Australia.

All the tools a smart

teacher needs!

Information Literacy

All you need to teach . . . Information Literacy is an essential resource for both

classroom teachers and teacher librarians. Inside you’ll find everything you need

to help your students become lifelong learners, able to identify the information

they need and with the skills to locate and process that information.

Teaching Tips — practical tools and tips, including a three-page

photocopiable chart for display in the library or classroom

Learning Outcomes — checklists for each stage in the information

literacy process

Lesson Banks — 24 lesson banks packed with ideas for teaching

information literacy through commonly taught curriculum topics

Resource lists — including suggested websites and software

Worksheets — photocopiable worksheets

Stages in the information literacy process:

• Defining

• Locating

• Selecting

• Organising

• Presenting

• Assessing

• Reflecting

Also available:

All you need to teach . . .

Information Literacy Ages 5-8

All you need to teach . . .

Information Literacy Ages 8-10

Other titles in this series:

All you need to teach . . .

• Drama

• Critical Thinking,

Humour and Text

• Nonfiction Text Types

• Comprehension

• Calculators

• Problem Solving

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