Smangus - Wendy Yun-chia Lo

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UTS Product Design Honours 2020 - Smangus - Wendy Yun-chia Lo

Smangus

A backpack honouring Aboriginal

Taiwanese Culture

Wendy Yun-Chia Lo

Product Design Honours 2020

University of Technology Sydney




Smangus

A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Smangus is now known as "God's Village" because this place is far away

from the city and located at a very high mountain.

The development:

1967 - provide electricity

1995 - have a road for cars to go to this place

For these reasons, it has kept their culture complete.

Wendy Yun-Chia Lo

loyunchia1011@gmail.com

Smangus has a provision: cement building is not allowed in their tribe, so all

the facilities need to use bamboo or wood to keep their Atayal culture.

Product Design Honours 2020

University of Technology Sydney



Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Table of Contents

Abstract 11

Chapter 1 — Introduction 12-23

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Thesis

1.3 Background & Context

1.4 Problem statement

1.5 Statement of Purpose and Research Questions

1.6 Research Approach

1.7 Assumptions

1.8 The Researcher

1.9 Rationale and Significance

1.10 Definition of Key Terminology

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14

15

16

18

19

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20

21

22

Chapter 2 — Literature Review 24-47

2.1 Introduction

2.2 What is Camping?

2.3 Motivation in Camping

2.4 Origin of Camping

2.5 Today's Camping

2.6 Problems of Camping Equipment with Advanced Technology

2.7 Traditional Craft

2.8 Taiwanese Aboriginal Crafts

2.9 Conclusion

2.10 Conceptual Framework

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46

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Table of Contents

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Chapter 3 — Research Questions & Hypotheses 48-55

3.1 Introduction

49

3.2 Research Questions 1: What essential elements would be the priority for people to consider 50

when choosing camping gear?

3.3 Research Questions 2: Why is it essential to cultivate the skill of traditional Taiwanese

52

crafts?

3.4 Research Questions 3: Can the integration of traditional Taiwanese crafts make camping 54

more socially and ecologically responsible?

5.3 Development of Key Features

5.3.1 Ideation and Exploration of the Backpack

5.3.2 Bamboo Material Experiment in Bending

5.3.3 Prototype of Backpack Frame Structure I

5.3.4 Type of Camping Backpack

5.3.5 Prototype of Backpack Frame Structure II

5.3.6 Interior Bag

5.3.7 Shoulder Strap & Interior Bag Connection

5.4 Chapter Summary

99

99

107

113

118

127

143

151

160

Chapter 4 — Research Methodology 56-85

Chapter 6 — Conclusion and Design Proposal 162-173

4.1 Introduction and Overview

4.2 Research Samples

4.3 Overview of Information Needed

4.4 Research Design

4.5 Data Collection Methods

4.6 Ethical Considerations

4.7 Methods and Data Collection

4.7.1 Research Question 1

4.7.2 Research Question 2

4.7.3 Research Question 3

4.8 Chapter Summary

57

58

60

62

64

65

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70

76

84

Reference List 174-176

Chapter 5 — Analysis and Interpretation of Findings 86-161

5.1 Introduction and Overview

5.2 The Design Brief

5.2.1 Design Intention

5.2.2 Intergration of Taiwanese aboriginal craft and technique

5.2.3 Material

5.2.4 Shape and form

5.2.5 Usability Features

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96

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Abstract

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Abstract

Today's technology provides a more convenient lifestyle that people can rely on to do many

things. Although technology can help live conveniently, it also causes overdependence on it, and

this can develop into an unhealthy relationship. Camping is a popular activity that people enjoy

to ‘get back to nature’ and escape from the city, but in many ways, existing camping products

have failed the core purpose of camping. Modern camping products make camping easier and

more comfortable, but their equipment is designed without meaning and connection to nature.

In Taiwan, camping is a popular activity. There are craftworks created by the Taiwanese

Aboriginal people using traditional methods and materials, which, if integrated into camping

equipment, may create products with the rich meaning associated with Taiwanese Aboriginal

culture and its connection with nature. This research methodology adopts interviews, existing

product analysis, prototyping practice in traditional craft, and modern craft design analysis. The

data collected demonstrates the potential of integrating the Taiwanese Aboriginal methods in

camping equipment design. The design outcome combines traditional Taiwanese elements and

modern design techniques. This research aims to create a camping product with a meaningful

connection to nature and instil responsibility for the environment; allowing the camper to enjoy

camping in the natural environment while building an appreciation for Taiwanese Aboriginal

culture through the product.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Introduction

This project explores how the traditional Taiwanese method can be integrated into the design

of camping equipment to offer an experience closer to nature and a meaningful product with

cultural history. Chapter 1 describes the research components used in the study, including problem

statement, purpose, and research questions, and the involved approaches that deliver the process

of exploring throughout the project of camping in Taiwan. The research problems are centred

around the material used and over-producing the camping equipment, which leads to the camping

purpose running in the opposite direction. The research methods involve the interview, existing

camping equipment analysis, and studying Taiwanese indigenous culture and crafts to collect the

data in order to create more socially and ecologically responsible camping gear. This chapter aims

to provide the overall brief info of this project for the reader.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

1.2 Thesis

1.3 Background & Context

There is craftwork in Taiwan using the traditional

method and material, which should be applied in

camping equipment to offer the real nature camp

experience and create connections with its meaning

of the culture and history, rather than using plastic

equipment and causing pollution.

Recently, people have started paying attention to

entertainment, spending time with family to travel on

the weekend, or a long vacation: Camping. Camping

was the way for human ancestors to survive in the

wild. And then, it was adopted by the army for moving

place-to-place easily during the war. Todays' camping

activity is an event for people to relax and escape from

the busy city and back to nature. In the beginning,

camping became popular because it was considered

as cheap or affordable to start a trip. As technology

advances, there are many products designed to offer

campers a more convenient and glamorous camping

experience. Because of that, several camping equipment

have been designed, even though some of these

products might not be necessary for camping. Kephart

and Nessmuk (as cited in Harmon, 2001) recommend

just carrying the essential survival tools. Furthermore,

not only has advanced technology changed the way

people go camping, but it also causes environmental

issues.

Figure 1: Camping in the wild.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Figure 2: Camping waste.

1.4 Problem statement

The camping equipment aims to design lightweight or saving

space products to provide users a satisfying camping experience.

Advanced technology, like plastic, is an excellent material

presenting a lightweight and easy to shrink storage. However,

this advantage technology has, induces more and more

unnecessary products designed as camping equipment, which

is like "offering as a smorgasbord to hungry campers" (Young,

2010). Due to plastic assembled through the complex technology

process, it is hard to be recycled. It becomes pollution to the

natural environment, which goes against Victor Papanek's (1923-1998, as cited in Skjerven,

2019) design goal that product should be designed with basic needs and have a responsibility to

the environment. Moreover, this kind of material has no meaning or connection to nature while

people go camping to escape from the city. Furthermore, the motivation in camping has changed

from "nature and escape", to causing an impact on nature and bringing modern life to camp for

a more luxurious experience. Overall, the problem caused by modern camping is like a cyclic

effect. There are three main problems in the motivation for camping no longer centering on

coming back to nature. The plastic product has no responsibility for the natural environment,

and the product has no meaning or connection to nature.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

1.5 Statement of Purpose and Research Questions

1.6 Research Approach

The purpose of this design research is to fix the problem resulting from modern

camping, and provide an environmentally friendly product that also connects

with nature and cultural meaning. Traditional craftwork cultures in Taiwan

adopt natural materials such as bamboo, rattan, wood, and even some Taiwanese

Aboriginal peoples, using traditional craftworks weaving their culture. Taiwanese

Indigenous had a long history of living in the natural environment, and it develops

to the culture that living relies on nature with the spirit of humility and respect to

the land (Teyra, 2019), which is good to be inherited and to teach people how to

maintain the natural environment without pollutions in these modern times. In

terms of camping, using the traditional way of creating items with natural material

creates a connection with nature and the cultural meaning of the land, and it also

has a responsibility to the environment.

The research approach covers the user camping requirement

and studying the Aboriginal Taiwanese craftworks. The data

is collected through interviewing, prototyping practices,

existing product analysis, traditional skills practicing, studying

Taiwanese indigenous culture, and case study on modern design

with traditional elements.

Due to the COVID19 lockdown, it might be a challenge to

collect the data in Taiwan and be there to learn the traditional

skills and their culture, so the research methods in practicing

their skills are by online video teaching.

The following are the research questions that frame the exploration of this project:

Research Question 1: What essential elements would be the

priority for people to consider when choosing camping gear?

Research Question 2: Why is it essential to cultivate the skill

of traditional Taiwanese crafts?

Research Question 3: Can the integration of traditional

Taiwanese crafts make camping more socially and

ecologically responsible?

1.7 Assumptions

The project based on camping in Taiwan and the primary

assumption of this project is using the product with the cultural

meaning and responsibility to nature. To offer users a sustainable

product to enjoy the experience of being close to nature without

pollution on the environment while camping in Taiwan.

This research upholds the equipment for lightweight camping, so

the camping equipment can be narrowed down to carrying the

essential equipment for camping.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

1.9 Rationale and Significance

The product evolves with the technology advanced

that makes people rely on technology, and most of

the everyday used product is related to high tech.

For example, people text the message through

mobile phones rather than communicating face-toface,

which makes our life more convenient, but

it also leads to alienation on the distanced. At the

same time, the traditional skills of creating crafts

are fading away.

Figure 3: Personal experience of camping in Taiwan.

1.8 The Researcher

I am a product design student who holds a Bachelor of

Design in Integrated Product Design at the University

of Technology, Sydney. I come from Taiwan, and

although I was studying art in high school, I have a

passion for designing useful products. I aim to design

products to solve real-world problems. During my time

at UTS, I learned research methods to inform a good

design process and acquired technical skills, such as

CAD, computer rendering, and Adobe software.

For this Honours project, I decided camping as the

topic, to design the product that lets people enjoy

camping, feel nature through the material used, and

learn the cultural meaning behind the design. The

reason I choose camping is based on the rich camping

experience I have in Taiwan. I enjoy what I feel from

camping and wish to design the product to connect to

the land and its cultural history.

In terms of camping, a lot of camping equipment

is designed by advanced technology, but some

products that are created are unnecessary for

camping, which means the product is produced

for stimulating consumption rather than campers'

demand. The camping motivation is nature;

however, using this high-tech product does not help

campers get close to nature, and can even become

pollution to the environment.

This project aims to design the camping equipment

by using traditional craftworks methods with local

material in order to reach the camping purpose.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

1.10 Definition of Key Terminology

Camping

Camping is a popular outdoor activity in recent years,

which involves staying overnight out of the home.

Camping usually entails sleeping in a tent or vehicle

and conducting other outdoor activity, such as fishing,

hiking, picnicking, and other similar short-term

activities.

Traditional craft

The defined traditional craft is using the original

methods or materials to create the product for

everyday life. It is typically hand-produced rather than

manufactured by the factory. In terms of the word

"traditional" is defined as the object that has been

more than a hundred years.

Glamping

Glamping word is the combination of "glamorous"

and "camping," which means a luxury experience

camping with beautiful decoration and resort-style

services.

Aborigine or Indigenous

It defines the ethnic groups who are the first people or

earliest known inhabitants of the regions.

Auto camp

Camping in the camping ground provided with the

tents or chalet to stay overnight, and allowing the

customer to park their vehicle in the camping ground.

Figure 4: Yami's (Tao) Craft. Photo by Shutterstock.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Camping activity has become a popular entertainment for people to spend time with family and

friends in the holidays, and to escape from the busy modern life in the city to nature. However,

when the majority of people start camping, and with the improvement of products through

advanced technology, camping has begun to serve different purposes or meanings due to the

camping equipment made by plastic, providing unreal camping experience, lack of connection

to nature, and ending up as non-recyclable trash. This literature review will cover the origin of

camping, the motivation for people to start camping events, the beginning of popular camping

activity, and the development of camping gears with advanced technology. Also, the problems

of camping in order to investigate the changing of camping activity and its advantages and

disadvantages.

The issues of modern camping activity are related to each other and are developing into the cyclic

phenomenon. In order to break the vicious cycle, there are some case studies about Taiwanese

Aboriginal crafts and the modern design with Taiwanese Indigenous traditional methods, which are

not only meaningful and rich in the feeling of nature, but also inherited from the Aboriginal spirit

and culture.

This chapter will analyse modern camping problems and demonstrate the opportunity and the

benefits of using Taiwanese Aboriginal traditional skills with natural materials when designing

camping kits.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

2.2 What is Camping?

Camping is an outdoor entertainment that touches upon

an overnight experience in nature, and comes typically

with other activities (ex: fishing, hiking, or cycling). The

origin of camping can date back to ancient times. It is

a way for human ancestors to survive in the wild; as

the times change, camping is adopted by the nomadic

peoples and the army at various points for moving placeto-place

conveniently.

In the 21st century, people do not go camping for the

purpose of army duty or survival, but to pursue different

experiences which were missing in real life; besides,

camping is considered as a “Refuge” from a fast-paced

lifestyle in an urban society, or a movement of “back

to nature” according to Schmitt’s (1969, as cited in

Harmon, 2001) statement.

Figure 5: Today's Camping in Taiwan.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

2.3 Motivation in camping

In Van Heerden’s article, several authors argue

the relation between campers and camping, like

their motivation and behaviour of involvement.

The motivation for camping is considered as

socio-psychological motives, such as escape,

self-exploration, relaxation and enhancement

of kinship or social interaction (Crompton,

1979, as cited in Van Heerden, 2020). Park et

al. (2019, as cited in Van Heerden, 2020) point

out that with previous camping experiences, the

expectation of camping becomes a motivation

for campers who desire to explore their next

trips. Also, Van Heerden (2020) develops a

motivation scale (Table 1) according to the

five main motivations identified by Kyle et al.

(2006, as cited in Van Heerden, 2020) which

were ‘escape’, ‘nature’, ‘bonding’, ‘learning’ and

‘social’.

In Table 1, campers strongly agree with

‘bonding’, ‘nature’ and ‘escape’ as their camping

motivations. In addition to these camping

motivations, campers participate in camping

activity to obtain self-identity affirmation and

identity expression (Dimanche and Samdahl,

1994, as cited in Van Heerden, 2020).

Table 1: The internal consistency reliability of the overall motivation as well as the sub-dimensions of motivation.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Figure 6: Camp-lore and Woodcraft by Daniel Beard.

2.4 Origin of Camping

Figure 7: Open camp in

Adirondacks, ca. 1890. [Courtesy

of the Adirondack Museum]

With those motives, a majority of people start their trip with the exploration of

camping. In the early stage of camping, campers only carry the necessary items for

survival and challenge themselves to develop their survival skills. As an example,

“Woodcraft” (Figure 6) is a primitive camping method described as the result of

survival with the camper’s knowledge of natural science, sense of direction, and basic

instincts (Harmon, 2001). Also, Kephart (1917, as cited in Harmon, 2001) indicates

that “woodcraft” held “the key to Nature’s storehouse” and that campers should have

the ability to live in the wild and the knowledge to meet an emergency.

Figure 7, which is the first publication to demonstrate where and how to camp,

shows that most of the objects were made from the materials at the campsite

rather than carried by campers (Young, 2010), which Hogue (2011) believes

these survival skills imply a meaningful connection between nature and the

camper’s lifestyle. However, Harmon (2001) points out that although both

Kephart and Nessmuk (George Washington Sears) recommend only carrying the

essential equipment for camping, it was considered as “roughing it” because the

technological advancement in equipment and material replaced the traditional

method, so as to satisfy people’s experience in camping. Camping in the wild has

developed into living comfortably with lightweight camping equipment.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

2.5 Today's Camping

The advancement of camping

equipment offers a luxury

experience, but it changes the way

campers connect with nature, and

it can have a negative impact on the

environment (Figure 8).

The plastic camping equipment

is lightweight, easy to carry and

saves space (Figure 9), but it loses

the meaning and connection with

nature. It also betrays the camper’s

motivations of nature for camping

because the material used becomes

an estrangement from the natural

environment.

Young (2010) notes that as the variety of camping

equipment has been created, the camping gear has

developed into the next level which is known as “Autocamping”

(Figure 10). Campers could carry as much

as they can and even stay overnight in a vehicle. In the

21st century, there is “glamping” (Figure 11), which is

a portmanteau of “glamorous” and “camping”. It is

provided by traders to satisfy people who seek the luxury

experience in camping. Young (2010) argues that those

innovations resulted in the questions about the meaning

of escaping away from flashy urban life and embracing

nature in its authenticity. Hogue (2011) claims that these

evolutions imply the great unwillingness to give up on the

modern comfort of living at home.

Figure 8: Messy campsite.

Figure 9: Today's camping equipment.

Figure 10: Auto Camping.

Figure 11: Glamorous Camping.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Overall, while technology can give us a better life, in

terms of camping, advanced camping equipment might

turn camping into a meaningless activity. Nonetheless,

several authors considered that innovative camping

equipment is favourable for more efficiency, portability,

and lightweight despite the loss of skills and knowledge

(Harmon, 2001).

2.6 Problems of Camping Equipment with Advanced Technology

In order to produce lightweight camping gear, most of them

(Figure 12-13) are made of technological materials, such as

nylon, aluminum, polyester (PE) and steel, which is light and

stable, but can also easily see them being abandoned in the

environment. This kind of equipment could be expensive due to

the material used, but campers still purchase them even though

some of the equipment might look the same as the appliance at

home. This high cost of camping equipment subverts the benefits

of previously cheap entertainment, and develops into another

form of motive that appeals to campers. Plastic material has

surrounded everywhere in our daily life by its benefits of being

lightweight and convenient; however, most of the plastic items

can easily become trash and may be difficult to be recycled.

Figure 12: Advanced camping chair with a collapsible structure.

Figure 13: Sturdy material-steel designed to nest within others.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

In the film, Broken - Recycling Sham (De La Rosa et al., 2019), it exposes the sham

that the plastic manufacturers were trying to pull off; firmly believing that they could

continue to produce and sell plastic products as people would be willing to recycle

plastics. The chasing arrows system (Figure 14) demonstrates recyclability and enables

people to recycle plastic by the categories. However, only number one and two plastics

are recyclable, and the rest are not for recycling. Thus, some of the camping equipment

could be unrecyclable.

Furthermore, Young (2010) highlights the modern camping equipment created to “offer

as a smorgasbord to hungry campers” and there is no sense of the system or harmony

within the environment surrounded by nature (Figure 15). This phenomenon might be

caused by advanced technology: Digital Design. This kind of modern design compares

with the traditional design; the former has the advantage of developing many ideas

in a short time with tests through the application software, such as Solidworks or

Meshmixer (DreamPushers, 2012). However, the modern design process lacks the

model of practicing and investigation of the meaning of the product, which results in

some camping gear designed as being meaningless and lacking in cultural and historical

connection to nature.

Figure 15: Franklin M. Reck and William Moss, comp., illustration in Ford Treasury of Station Wagon Living (New York: Simon and

Schuster, 1957), inside covers.

Figure 14: The chasing arrows system from

Recycling Sham.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

2.7 Traditional Craft

From Broken - Recycling Sham, there is a commercial (Figure 16) about environmental issues

sponsored by “Keep America Beautiful”:

"Some people have a deep, abiding respect for the natural beauty that was once this

country.

And some people don't.

People start pollution.

People can stop it."

— in 1971 (De La Rosa et al., 2019).

Victor Papanek (1923-1998, as cited in Skjerven, 2019), who was a designer and educator,

claimed that “design has become the most powerful instrument with which man shapes his tools

and environment (and, by extension, society and himself).” Moreover, he argued that the product

should be designed when it is essential and with the responsibility to the environment. He also

encouraged the designer to create the object with cheap or used material.

There is an excellent example from Taiwan; the

Kuanmiao village people use the natural material

“rattan” to weave the furniture (Figure 17-19).

Through traditional technique and handicraft skills

without any other additional elements, they produce

environmentally friendly furniture with stability

and comfort (Yu, 1984). Yu (1984) also states that

Kuanmiao became the centre of the rattan industry,

but they were also famous for their bamboo crafts.

However, these skills are gradually disappearing due

to the advantage of advanced technology and the low

quality of Taiwan forest rattan.

Figure 16: CA Keep America Beautiful

advertisement by the Ad Council, which

was launched in 1971. (Ad Council) -

Original Credit:(HANDOUT).

Figure 17-19: Rattan furniture industry in Taiwan.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Regardless, some designers still use the traditional way of producing beautiful

crafts, such as the Bamboo chair (Figure 20-23), which is handmade in Jhushan,

Taiwan, and designed by Hong Kong designer Milk Design (Lei, 2015).

Although the chair still has the nail heads which do not belong to nature,

Bamboo chairs demonstrate the natural beauty in a bamboo’s shape and show

the feeling of cultural meaning. This case shows the great opportunity of

designing camping equipment using natural materials and Taiwanese traditional

crafts skills.

2.8 Taiwanese Aboriginal Crafts

Those traditional Taiwanese crafts with natural

materials might have started with Taiwanese

Aboriginal people (Figure 24). Stainton (1999) stated

that Taiwanese Aboriginal peoples are identified

as Austronesian people and speak the languages

most archaic of the Indonesian branch. Although

there was nothing but only the natural environment

when the Indigenous arrived in Formosa (named

by the Portugese which means the beautiful island),

they developed their ways to coexist with nature

by creating the objects with natural materials. The

Taiwan government has officially recognised 16 ethnic

tribes: Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Hla’alua, Kanakanavu,

Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Tao,

Thao, Tsou, Truku, Sakizaya, and Sediq. They all look

similar, but they have a difference in their ‘traditional

cultures’. Their cultures aim to follow ancestral spirits

and respect to the land they rely on, such as hunting,

festivals, apparels and tattoos. The most distinctive is

their weaving skills, which can be recognised in their

clothing (Figure 25). They not only weave by using the

natural material ‘ramie’ with complex processing, but

also engage in dyeing with plants or minerals.

Figure 24: Taiwanese Indigenous people.

Figure 25: Weaving by Taiwanese Indigenous.

Figure 20-23: Bamboo Chair by Milk Design.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Figure 26: Movie

based on the 1930

Wushe Incident in

central Taiwan:

"Warriors of the

Rainbow: Seediq

Bale".

Hence, in order to continue their traditional skills and

cultural spirit, some designers learnt traditional skills and

knowledge of nature from Taiwanese Indigenous in order to

design a beautiful product that would be rich with meaning.

An example of Riyar light (Figure 27), which is designed by

Kamaro’an, is inspired by the Amis tribe’s weaving straw

mats using the ‘umbrella sedge’, which is a common raw

material applied in Amis’ daily products. It displays the

aesthetic of life (Taiwan Panorama, 2018). Furthermore,

Taiwanese designer, Cheng-Tsung Feng, is famous for his

bamboo craft art (Figure 28). He created designs through

learning traditional crafts with handicraft skills, and he

aims to keep the traditional craft and knowledge and to

incorporate them into today’s life.

However, Teyra (2019), who is from Taiwan’s Truku Tribal,

claims that Taiwanese Aboriginal people have not only suffered

from colonial oppression, but also the loss of their land, language,

identity and culture. The film “Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq

Bale” (Figure 26) is an example that demonstrates the history

in 1930 that Taiwanese Indigenous resisted and fought when

the Japanese government colonised Taiwan. This film displays

the hard connection the Aboriginal people had with the land

according to their natural material-made daily necessities. As time

changes, some Taiwanese Aboriginal cultures are disappearing,

and even the original traditional skills of creating crafts were lost,

which resulted from part of their culture and activity being banned

during the colonisation by the Japanese government, and then

assimilating to the people living within Taiwan.

Figure 27: Riyar Light by Kamaro’an.

Figure 28: Flow by Cheng-Tsung Feng.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

2.9 Conclusion

In conclusion, as people pursue the experience of living in the

wild, it has changed the original purpose. There are three main

things that have changed; one is the original motivations (escape,

nature and learning) of camping, another is the meaning of

camping, and the last is producing camping gear that has an

impact on the environment. These factors are connected to each

other. People go camping to escape from the city and to get close

to nature. However, as the camping activity becomes increasingly

popular, more and more luxury camping gears are created, and

some of them are designed with plastic materials. Moreover,

camping has developed into ‘glamping’ that is concerned with

only comfort, which is contradictory to the original motivation

and distorts the meaning of camping. The modern camping

equipment has been designed with no connection to nature nor

meaning and it offers an unreal camping experience. Thus, it

results in environmental pollution, which betrays the original

meaning of camping. The commercial, cited in the film: Broken

- Recycling Sham, the crying Indian advertisement explains

that some people still respect and care about the natural beauty

of these natural resources. As an example, there are some

Taiwanese Aboriginal crafts or modern design crafts designed

through learning traditional skills and knowledge of nature

from Taiwanese Aboriginal people. It presents an excellent

example of designing camping equipment with natural materials

to break this cycle, stop the impact on the environment, and

reconnect with nature. Taiwanese Indigenous have lost tradition

that should be preserved, not only to pass on the fundamental

knowledge about nature and the skills of creating crafts, but also

to teach people the spirit of giving, as well as an expression of

humility and respect to the land.

Overall, this research aims to solve the problems that modern camping causes and

to design camping equipment with the Taiwanese Aboriginal crafting style of using

natural material. It provides the environmentally friendly benefits and the tremendous

meaning of Taiwanese Aboriginal culture, history and the reconnection to nature.

Figure 29: Taiwanese Indigenous people.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

2.10 Conceptual Framework

Research Questions 1:

What essential elements would be the

priority for people to consider when

choosing camping gear?

Survival Shelter.

Harmon, D. L. (2001). American camp

culture: a history of recreational vehicle

development and leisure camping in

the United States, 1890-1960.

Yu, M-M. (1984, November 1). Kuanmiao crafts

comfort for the world. Taiwan Today. https://

taiwantoday.tw/news.php?unit=29,45&post=36750.

Problem SpaceSolution Space

De La Rosa, C. (Writer), Mettler, D. (Writer),

Toth, V. (Writer), Johansen, S. H. (Directors),

& Rivo, S. (Director). (2019, November 27).

Recycling Sham (Season 1, Episode 4) [TV Series

Episode]. In N. Carrico (Executive producer) &

J. Jordan (Executive producer), Broken. Netflix

Worldwide Entertainment.

Young, T. (2010). Terence Young

on Camping and Its Equipment.

Environmental History, 15(1), 120-128.

Event Horizon (1992) by

Marc Newson.

1

2

Bamboo Chair (2015) by

Milk Design.

3

Riyar Light (2018) by Kamaro’an.

Teyra, C. (2019, July 26). Who are

the Taiwanese Indigenous Peoples?.

CommonWealth Magazine. https://english.

cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=2495.

Stainton, M. (1999). The politics of

Taiwan aboriginal origins. Taiwan: A

new history, 27-44.

Skjerven, A. (2019). Envisioning versus

realizing products for use in poor

communities: The case of Victor Papanek

and Nordic designers. Sustainable

Development, 27(2), 199-204.

Harmon, D. L. (2001). American camp

culture: a history of recreational vehicle

development and leisure camping in

the United States, 1890-1960.

Quest Lightweight Chair (21th)

by Kathmandu.

Research Questions 2:

Why is it essential to cultivate the skill

of traditional Taiwanese crafts?

Hogue, M. (2011). A short history of

the campsite. Places Journal.

Van Heerden, C. H. (2020). Motivation

and Involvement in Camping–A Gender

Perspective. African Journal of Hospitality,

Tourism and Leisure, 9(1), 1-14.

Fionda (2013) by Jasper

Morrison.

DreamPushers (2012, July 30). Digital

Design Over Traditional Design: Is It an

Advantage or Disadvantage?. LinkedIn

Slideshare. https://www.slideshare.net/

saramiles755/digital-design-over-traditionaldesign-is-it-an-advantage-or-disadvantage.

Research Questions 3:

Can the integration of traditional

Taiwanese crafts make camping more

socially and ecologically responsible?

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Chapter 3

Research Questions &

Hypotheses

3.1 Introduction

Chapter 3 restates the three research questions from the conceptual framework (refer to section

2.10), and for each research question, further research information is collected to fill in the

knowledge gap.

Each research question and research statement filling in the gap becomes a hypothesis for the design

project.

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3.2 Research Question 1

What essential elements would be the priority for people to

consider when choosing camping gear?

The Priority Elements

Purchasing camping gear for living in the wild is

as vital as buying home furniture, because people

need to rely on camping equipment for camping,

and some people might conduct camping for up

to ten days in a row. Furthermore, it is not the

only thing that needs to be carried for camping;

it depends on the type of camping people are

going to experience. For example, the auto camp

contains all the furniture that might be needed for

camping, and it is quite different from other types

of camping. Even though auto camp is designed

to be more like living at home in a vehicle, its

spacious design has a standard feature as with

most camping products, a "collapsible structure"

(Figure 30), which is to design the product as small

as possible for saving space. In this way, people can

bring camping equipment within limited space.

Moreover, according to Kephart's and Nessmuk's

(as cited in Harmon, 2001) statements, they

recommend only carrying the essential survival tools,

especially for people who travel as backpackers.

They need to take all the camping gear with them,

so lightweight becomes one of the crucial elements

to consider. Furthermore, the multifunction is also

an essential factor when campers choose camping

equipment. The plastic product has the advantage

of satisfying these features in terms of being

lightweight and saving space. From Van Heerden's

(2019) research finding of camping motivation, this

novel technology causes more and more inessential

items to be designed as camping gear, which leads

to campers displaying these fancy looking camping

equipment rather than going for the "nature" and

"escape" elements. This phenomenon gives rise to

designing camping gear to meet the consumption of

hungry campers (Young, 2010), and not only does it

have a potential impact on the environment, but it

also shifts away from the purpose of getting close to

nature.

Hypothesis

For the camping necessities, the weight of the

product is the priority to consider as well as its

size. It involves designing camping equipment with

the collapsible function without the use of plastic

or adding in multifunction to maximise benefits for

campers to enjoy the journey within the limitations

of space and physical strength.

Figure 30: Collapsibles: A Design Album of Space-Saving Objects by Per

Mollerup.

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3.3 Research Question 2

Why is it essential to cultivate the skill of traditional

Taiwanese crafts?

Product Manufacturing

As technology continues to advance, product

manufacturing has developed into auto-machine

production to reduce the labour workforce and

increase production efficiency. It is suitable for

the manufacturer to reduce costs while satisfying

the market demand. However, on the other hand,

the traditional way of manufacturing has been

disappearing. Although the traditional way of

producing has no advantage in speed compared

with today's technology, it retains the ancestors'

knowledge and the skills of handmade and

beautiful looks. Every craft was built with different

stories behind the work and attached with its

culture and history. Nonetheless, as time passed

and traditional crafts were replaced by technology,

these skills are being lost or forgotten and could

not find the next generation to pass on the

knowledge of creating a craft. For example, there

is an iron shop (Figure 31) with a hundred years

of history in Shuangxi, Taiwan. It is one of the last

few existing century-old

shops, and the shop is owned by an over 70-yearold

man with no apprentices. It is a broken-hearted

issue that traditional skills could not be inherited,

mainly because these traditional crafts are abundant

in the meaning of cultural history, so it is essential

to cultivate these skills and knowledge to keep on

creating traditional crafts.

For the Taiwanese Indigenous, their cultures

might be harder to pass on because they have been

suffering from colonial oppression, and even loss

of land, language and identity (Teyra, 2019). Their

craftworks have an excellent present, not only the

knowledge of nature but also the culture through

their unique crafting skills. Although some of the

traditional crafts might be considered as outdated,

some designers create products that keep the

elements from traditional Taiwanese crafts to display

the cooperation of traditional crafting design and

modern design.

Figure 31: A hundred history iron shop in Shuangxi, Taiwan.

Hypothesis

In Comparison with the advanced technology, designing products with the combination

of Taiwanese traditional crafting techniques is better in making a secure connection to the

background of the land and demonstrating the cultural history, and to also pass on the

traditional crafting culture.

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3.4 Research Question 3

Can the integration of traditional Taiwanese crafts make

camping more socially and ecologically responsible?

The Use of Material

Based on the first research question, plastic

provides lightweight and is easy to fold or shrink.

However, it has become an unhealthy production

loop with the way many unnecessary camping kits

are designed. These plastic products become landfill

in the end because they go through complicated

processes, which are difficult to be decomposed

and recycled (De La Rosa et al., 2019).

Furthermore, Victor Papanek (1923-1998, as cited

in Skjerven, 2019) stated that products of basic

needs should be designed with pure materials

to offer responsibility to the environment rather

than superfluous design products for stimulating

consumption. According to his statement,

traditional Taiwanese crafts are usually designed

using material from nature such as bamboo, rattan,

wood, or the plant fibre, which makes the product

ecologically responsible.

In terms of camping activity, the product should

provide a connection to nature without the pollution.

The craftworks built by Taiwanese Aboriginal people

could be a reference, because they are able to survive

in the wild or thrive in restricted living conditions

with their life accessories that are made of natural

materials. Taiwanese Indigenous peoples who live

in the wild develop the spirit of giving respect to

the land and the culture of coexistence with the

natural environment. As an example of this, the

most distinctive culture of craftworks from them is

weaving (Figure 32), which is not just about using

the natural material for weaving, but also using

plants for dyeing.

Figure 32: Weaving by Taiwanese Indigenous.

Hypothesis

There are craftworks in Taiwan that use traditional methods and natural materials

to produce socially and ecologically responsible products. If applied to the

production of camping equipment, people could better experience and connect

with nature while camping in the wild.

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Chapter 4

Research Methodology

4.1 Introduction and Overview

Chapter 4 illustrates the methodology used to collect the data and analysis of each research

question:

Research Question 1: What essential elements would be the priority for people to consider

when choosing camping gear?

Research Question 2: Why is it essential to cultivate the skill of traditional Taiwanese

crafts?

Research Question 3: Can the integration of traditional Taiwanese crafts make camping

more socially and ecologically responsible?

This chapter explores the information based on these research questions through various methods,

such as interviews, prototyping practices, existing product analysis, traditional skills practice,

studying Taiwanese Aboriginal culture, and case study on modern design with traditional elements.

The process of the research methodology is step-by-step. It conducts the next research with a

previous research outcome, so after each research method, the design concept is formed according

to the data collected.

These research methods investigate the data of the user’s requirements in camping and learn

the meaning and skills of traditional crafts, followed by designing camping equipment based on

the knowledge from research methods to achieve the product that is socially and ecologically

responsible.

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4.2 Research Samples

The sample population involved in interviewing for

this research is those who have camping experience.

The participants split into two different groups of the

camper to analyze what they pursue or want to get

from camping, and what camping equipment they

think is the most important during their journey. One

is having a camping experience but seldom spends

time on camping; another is having a rich camping

experience and loves camping. To understand the

market on camping equipment, the sample population

condenses to adults who have the ability to purchase

the camping gear and to investigate the priority feature

they consider.

The context of this research is restricted to Taiwan,

so the participants selected are Taiwan citizens or

long-term residents of Taiwan. This study is based on

the people who go camping in Taiwan and how they

interact when camping in the natural environment.

Moreover, because of that, Taiwanese Aboriginal

people are also part of the research sample population.

Taiwanese indigenous are the early people who live

in Taiwan, and they have developed a completely

different style of camping with nothing from today’s

technology.

Figure 33: Traditional method of making table.

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4.3 Overview of Information Needed

Contextual

This study is based on people who have experience

of camping in Taiwan. Camping activity intends to

go back to nature, so the research is conducted based

on camping with essential life equipment. In today’s

advanced technology, there are many kinds of camping

equipment being offered to users, but it breaks the

intention of camping and results in the unhealthy

production loop. In the Taiwanese culture context,

Taiwanese Aboriginal people create traditional crafts

that have been made of local natural materials and

have a hard connection to the land.

Perceptual

The background environment selected for this

research bases on camping in the Taiwan environment.

The local traditional crafts start from Taiwanese

Indigenous peoples, and it well presents the story

behind the craftwork and relates to its culture and

history of the field. Thus, the prototyping of this study

is by practicing the skills of the traditional crafts and

investigating the modern design product involved in

traditional ways to understand the cultural meanings

and explore the connection and possible outcome that

might be with camping in Taiwan.

Demographic

The particular population age defined in this research

is over 20 years old with camping experience in Taiwan

and have the ability to purchase the product they

choose. The information needed from the participants

includes the feeling of camping and their decision to

select the gear from various types of products. This

research aims to provide the product for the camper

with meaning and connection to the environment, and

the primary users are the people who look forward to

outdoor activities like camping.

Theoretical

The research finding in chapter 3 analyzes the aims of

camping and the lack of today’s camping equipment.

By understanding the background of craft design and

the environment in Taiwan, there is an opportunity

to design camping gear more socially and ecologically

responsible, and to also build the affiliation to

Taiwanese Aboriginal culture and the land.

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4.4 Research Design

Define research info needs for

Reseach questions

The data collection methods are presented

as the following diagram to outline the

process of the approach for research design

information needed. It demonstrates the

methods used to collect the data and analysis

and frames a clear path to gather various

data in order to cover the information

significant to the research questions and

hypotheses.

Research questions 1

• Interview

• Existed camping analysis

Research questions 2

• Prototyping the Aboriginal weaving skills

Early concept sketch based on research

finding from the methods used in research

questions 1 and 2

Research questions 3

• Analyze the modern product involving traditional

Taiwanese methods

• Investigating of using traditional method in

backpack

Design concept sketch

Bamboo material testing

• Cutting test

• Bending test

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4.5 Data Collection Methods

4.6 Ethical Considerations

To collect the data needed for the particular research

area: Taiwan, it includes various methods, such as

interview, research background, practicing traditional

techniques, product analysis, early product concept

through sketching, and comparing the elements between

existing products and traditional crafts.

The research project centres around Taiwanese Aboriginal culture on the solution side. Because Taiwanese

Aboriginal people live to rely on the natural environment and develop the cultural link to the place they stay,

their traditional crafts have presented the story behind it and the relationship between the people and the land.

Moreover, there are 16 ethnic groups (Figure 34), which have been recognized by the Taiwan official government,

and have different features in their culture. The resulting product for this project involved the Aboriginal culture,

so it is crucial to follow and learn their cultural meaning with respect in order to avoid offending their culture.

The theme focuses on camping, but divides the product

with advanced technology (existing camping equipment)

and the craft designed with traditional methods to

find features from existing products and what can be

replaced by practicing the skills of creating traditional

crafts. In order to investigate the opportunity that

traditional craftworks can be in terms of camping, the

particular product design for the project is decided after

a series of prototyping of practicing the skills from the

traditional craftworks.

Due to the selected area, it causes a limited method to learn about their culture and traditional skills used with

the local materials. Thus, after the discussion with school leaders, the skills information of Taiwanese Aboriginal

craftworks collects through the video uploaded on YouTube and includes all ethnicities rather than choosing one

particular group for studying.

Figure 34: 16 ethnics of Taiwanese

Indigenous.

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4.7 Methods and Data Collection

Research Question 1:

What essential elements would be the priority for people to consider when choosing camping

gear?

Hypothesis

For the camping necessities, the weight of the product is the priority to consider as well as its

size. It involves designing camping equipment with the collapsible function without the use

of plastic or adding in multifunction to maximise benefits for campers in order to enjoy the

journey within the limitations of space and physical strength.

Methods

Interviewing the campers in Taiwan

The mode used in the interview for this project is informal and unstructured, by using phone conversation,

texting and Facetime to collect feedback from the camper and analysis of their most needed elements.

Aim

Investigate the camping request and the experience from the camper in Taiwan and how they

make decisions on their camping equipment.

A. April/ 21/ female/auto camping

- tired but fun with the feeling of

camping

- enjoy living without 3C product

B. Xiang/ 23/ Male/ camping while hiking

- hiking with 30kg camping equipment

- camping gear for six days

Camping equipment consideration list:

- Weight

- the sleep quality with the equipment

Camping equipment consider list:

- needed item: sleeping bag, sleeping

mat, tent, light, cook kit

- price (most of them are second hand)

- multifunction

- waterproof

- Moisture-proof

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Analysis the existed camping gear

The existing product selected for this study is based on the camping and hiking purpose and

analyzes the feature and its material used. The investigated product includes the backpack, chair,

and camp kitchen set.

Backpack

Materials: The fabric of 100% Polyester in

main, lining, and mesh.

Feature: - stretch pockets

- hip belt pockets

- contoured hip belt

- shoulder straps

- breathable air light harness

Chair

Results

From the interview information, people are camping

in various ways, such as auto camping, lightweight

camping, and glamping, which makes the range in

camping equipment wider for researching. In analyzing

the existing camping gear, the selected product is

based on the second participant who camps while

also mountain hiking. These products are usually

for lightweight camping, which means camping with

necessary items and packing all the gears in the bag.

The material normally employed for camping is using

polyester for fabric and steel tubes for the frame

or as a stable structure. The standard features are

the lightweight design as a small size, but with full

functions and folding or nesting techniques to save

space.

Materials: steel tube and polyester

Feature: - lightweight (820g)

- stable

- easily foldable and contained

Cook set

Materials: hard-anodized aluminum and silicone

covered handle

Feature: - weigh little

- sturdy material-steel

- nesting design

Discussion

The data collected indicates that most of the camping

gear is provided with features such as lightweight

and saving space. Although the material is good to

offer the lightweight feature, it leads to manufacturers

starting a wide variety of products made for camping

(Young, 2010), but the material is unfriendly to the

environment and blocks the connection to nature.

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Research Question 2

Why is it essential to cultivate the skill of traditional Taiwanese crafts?

Figure 39-43: Practicing

traditional weaving in straps.

Hypothesis

In Comparison with the advanced technology, designing products with the combination

of Taiwanese traditional crafting techniques is better in making a secure connection to the

background of the land and demonstrating the cultural history, as well as passing on the

traditional crafting culture.

Aim

To practice and learn the traditional craft skill from Taiwanese Aboriginal culture and to

study how their traditional craftworks relate to cultural meanings and Taiwan.

Methods

The research method used in this part includes analyzing skills through the video and

replacing the material to build prototypes.

Atayal’s weaving skills in the straps for baskets

The Chinese name of this weaving skill is named with the bows in it

because it needs the bow to complete the weaving. For the straps, the

material typically used is ramie, which colors through plant dyeing or

mineral dyeing.

This prototyping will use the yarn to practice weaving the straps (Figure

39-43).

Atayal weaving uses the color of red, yellow, black, and blue, typically intertwined to form the special patterns

with cultural meanings. These patterns present their culture and relationship with nature (Figure 44).

Figure 44: The meaning of

Taiwanese Aboriginal patterns.

Figure 38: Traditional weaving in straps.

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Figure 45: Atayal basket weaving (Left).

Figure 46: Saysiyat basket weaving (Right).

Figure 47-52: Prototyping in Atayal basket weaving.

The weaving skills in basket

The practicing prototype of basket weaving is using the

skills from Atayal and Saysiyat (Figure 45-46).

However, the prototype uses ribbons to practice

weaving skills. Both structures build from the bottom

with the shape of a hexagon (Figure 47-55).

Figure 53-55: Prototyping in Saysiyat basket weaving.

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In the traditional way of weaving, baskets are usually

weaved by bamboo skin that is cut into strips (Figure 56-59).

The prototype uses ribbons due to the COVID19 lockdown.

Results

The prototyping of baskets is softer than using bamboo, but the structure is still strong with a hexagon, and the

traditional weaving interweaves well without any other elements. Saysiyat weaving skill in the basket has a more

robust structure compared with Atayal’s. The material used for prototyping strap weaving is too soft, and can

use the original material to go deeper while practicing.

Discussion

It is interesting to practice Taiwanese Aboriginal traditional skills, despite there being a limited way to get the

original materials for weaving. From the research finding, Taiwanese Indigenous own the knowledge of using the

materials from nature. Even so, they respect the natural environment and cherish what they have from nature.

Although advanced technology is developing, their culture should keep on going so as to pass the knowledge and

keep intact.

There is an early concept (Figure 60), which is the backpack and the small stool, based on the prototyping

weaving practice in this stage. After the discussion with the school leader, the final research product will present

the backpack for outdoor purposes.

Figure 56-59: Bamboo crafts through traditional methods.

Figure 60: Early concept.

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Chapter 4: Research Methodology

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Research Question 3

Can the integration of traditional Taiwanese crafts make camping more socially and ecologically responsible?

Hypothesis

There are craftworks in Taiwan that use traditional methods and natural materials to produce socially and

ecologically responsible products. If applied to the production of camping equipment, people could better

experience and connect with nature while camping in the wild.

Figure 62-63: Bamboo craft designed by Cheng-

Tsung Feng.

Aim

To explore the opportunity to integrate traditional Taiwanese skills in camping equipment to connect with the

cultural meaning of camping in Taiwan.

Methods

Analyze the modern product involving traditional Taiwanese methods:

A. Riyar light by Kamaro’an

Riyar light design is inspired by Amis (one of Taiwanese Aboriginal

ethnic groups) when conducting the material of Umbrella Sedge

processing.

Umbrella Sedge is the raw material used in the traditional straw

mat. Translating it into the shape of the wave becomes a modern

design combining the traditional method, and has the story.

B. Bamboo design by Cheng-Tsung Feng

Cheng-Tsung is a famous bamboo designer who is fascinated by the traditional skills and wisdom to

integrate modern design.

Figure 61: Riyar light by Kamaro’an.

In figure 62-63, the bamboo stool and the bamboo mirror open up the bamboo craft’s possibilities, and

it is a successful example of applying traditional craft elements in modern design.

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Chapter 4: Research Methodology

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Research on what element of the backpack can be replaced with traditional techniques and material (Figure 64).

Results

A. Straps: using Atayal’s weaving

skills in the straps

B. Polyester material fabric:

- using the weaving skill in the mesh bag. It is

generally for hunting and putting animals in the

bag, and because it is a mesh structure, it can

contain huge animals or many different items.

- using the weaving skills in the basket.

The traditional craft style usually exudes Old-fashioned feelings or impressions. From the case study in the

modern design, which cultivated the traditional elements, it properly presents the meaning of its story, and

accords with modern style.

Although it is not all the backpack material that can be supplanted with traditional methods, it can combine

with today’s technology to achieve the purpose of socially and ecologically responsible materials.

Discussion

After the research method used in 4.7.2 and 4.7.3, there are several design concepts in terms of backpack

presented through the sketching (Figure 65).

C. The internal-frame sheet of

backpacks uses bamboo, which is

inspired by the vertical cut bamboo of

Feng’s bamboo stool.

Figure 64: Backpack design with traditional

methods.

Figure 65: Early concept sketching.

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Design concept 2

- using mesh design inspired by the traditional mesh bag

with hard material to stabilize the contained items, which is inspired by Feng’s

bamboo stool.

- Ramie weaving straps with Taiwanese Aboriginal patterns

Design concept 1

- using 100% recycled materials

- Ramie weaving straps with Taiwanese Aboriginal patterns

- the side meshes using the weaving skills of basket

- hook buckle to seal the slash pocket, replacing the zipper and thereby more flexible with the mesh design

Based on the second concept, these are the testings conducted in bamboo cutting and bending.

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Bamboo Bending

Bamboo grows up as straight, and is deemed to be strong

and stable, so the only possibility to bend it might be to take

off the fiber by using the sandpaper in the machine. The

result is that it works in this way, but one-eighth is flatter so

as to bend and take off the fiber more easily, compared with

the one-sixth.

Figure 68-70: Bamboo cutting test.

Vertical cutting

Circular cutting

Bamboo Cutting

Bamboo cut in Feng’s bamboo stool is vertical cutting.

However, bamboo is cut circularly in this test because

it needs the specific machine to cut vertically, and

bamboo was cut in one-eighth and one-sixth to

conduct the bending test.

1/8 cutting

Figure 71-72: One-eighth bending test.

Figure 73-74: One-sixth bending test.

1/6 cutting

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Chapter 4: Research Methodology

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4.8 Chapter Summary

Chapter 4 demonstrated the project research through

the various methods and collected the information

gathered from Chapter 3 research questions in order

to explore the possibility of applying the traditional

Taiwanese method in camping. Although it might be a

challenge to design a backpack with all traditional ways

or natural materials, it can be created when there is a

healthy combination of modern design and traditional

elements, which can subsequently help achieve a

connection to cultural meaning, responsibility to the

environment, and realization of the camping motivation

to go back to nature.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Chapter 5

Analysis and

Interpretation of Findings

5.1 Introduction and Overview

With all the information needed from chapter 4 research, the purpose of Chapter 5 is to conduct

the product design development. Firstly, this chapter starts with the design brief, which analyzes the

design guidelines from the research information from chapter 2-4. After that, chapter 5 includes the

process of project development, which is the development of key features. In this part, the section

divides into seven different stages to discover the parts of the camping backpack.

The development of designing a backpack focuses on the Taiwanese Aboriginal cultural craft

methods, so the backpack contains their methods, craft meaning, and material from nature. It

delivers their craft spirit, story, and respect to the land with no pollution to our environment.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

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5.2 The Design Brief

The design brief explains the criteria of the backpack design based on the research finding from Chapter 2-4.

This section introduces five main ideas of the product: design intention, integration of Taiwanese Aboriginal

crafts and techniques, materials, shapes and forms, and usability features. Also, the information has been

collected and developed as design guidelines for each idea.

Figure 75: Taiwanese Aboriginal basket.

5.2.1 Design Intention

Design Guidelines

This project intends to reconnect the relationship

between people and the land by using Traditional

Taiwanese Aboriginal crafting methods. From the

literature review, camping is defined as a “refuge” from

the urban lifestyle, or a movement of “back to nature”

(Schmitt 1969, as cited in Harmon, 2001). However, in

recent years, this activity has resulted in environmental

pollution due to the usage of high-tech materials for

camping equipment.

1. The backpack size will be a medium capacity (25-

28L), such as the everyday bag size.

2. The backpack would be able to carry things like a

water bottle and some essential items.

3. The backpack is designed for light trips, such as a

day trip of picnic, camping, or hiking. It can also be

for everyday use.

Based on this, the project will design a backpack to

provide a sustainable and meaningful product. Not

only is the backpack a critical feature of camping

equipment in a modern way, but it can also be used in

many different types of camping or outdoor activity.

Furthermore, the research evidence demonstrated

that there is a traditional technique adopted in the

making of baskets to create soft and hard structures,

in the Taiwanese Aboriginal crafting culture, which is

appropriate for construction of the backpack (Figure

75). It can be the basis of reference in designing a

modern backpack with this technique.

4. The backpack aims to deliver the knowledge of the

traditional skill and its culture, and to reduce pollution

to our environment by using appropriate materials.

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5.2.2 Integration of Taiwanese Aboriginal Crafts and Techniques

Taiwanese Aboriginal culture has developed within the natural

environment, and because of this, they know the fundamental

knowledge of nature and they create the craft with natural

materials. Research Question 2 of this study asks, “Why is it

essential to cultivate the skill of traditional Taiwanese crafts?”.

With reference to the crying Indian in the 1971 commercial,

cited in Broken - Recycling Sham (De La Rosa et al., 2019),

people should stop pollution and learn the spirit of humility and

respect for the land. Taiwanese Aboriginal craft is created with

this spirit, and there are many modern craftworks that have been

designed by learning from their culture. Thus, the backpack will

be designed with learning from Taiwanese Aboriginal craft and

technique to deliver their cultural spirit.

From the research and the practicing Taiwanese indigenous

traditional methods (refer to section 4.7.2 pp. 56-57), the

craftworks are usually involved in weaving skills with the

material of plant fiber and even create the weaving pattern

representing nature and people (Figure 76). The basket, which

is the most representative craftwork, is built with the rattan

frame, bamboo weaving around, and ramie weaving the straps'

meaningful pattern. It also presents as a great reference of the

basic structure for designing a backpack, into further evolution.

For cultural reasons, the Taiwanese Aboriginal traditional craft

and method have a limitation in waterproofing or rainproofing

in terms of the backpack, which means the waterproofing

feature might be dealt with by other techniques.

Figure 76: Traditional weaving method.

Design Guidelines

1. The backpack will be designed based on learning from Taiwanese Aboriginal culture and technique.

2. The primary traditional skill used in weaving and their meaningful patterns.

3. Respect their culture and avoid violating their custom.

4. For cultural reasons, the waterproofing feature might be hard to achieve with the traditional approach,

so it might apply a different method, which needs to be with the least polluting material.

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5.2.3 Materials

Design Guidelines

The choice of backpack material is based on the

material used in traditional Taiwanese crafts. This

design decision is built from the research question

3, which asks, 'Can the integration of traditional

Taiwanese crafts make camping more socially and

ecologically responsible?' As Victor Papanek (1923-

1998, as cited in Skjerven, 2019) claimed, the product

should be designed with the essential requirement

and responsibility to the environment. Although the

material chosen might tie the product functionality

limitation, it displays a tremendous cultural

significance. The method of making a backpack will

involve bamboo or rattan to frame a support structure,

and the fibre from fresh bamboo or ramie to weave

the surface to achieve the feature of flexible fabric

(Figure 77). It might also need to combine with some

modern materials or elements to attain waterproofing

or to resolve the opening and closing issues of the

backpack, which could be hard to achieve based on the

Aboriginal culture and methods. Due to the traditional

methods of designing a product or craftwork, the

backpack cannot be produced as quickly as in a

mass production industrial system, and it might end

up being an expensive product with rich cultural

meanings for people and with the least impact to the

environment.

1. The materials used in traditional Taiwanese

Aboriginal culture, for example, bamboo, rattan and

ramie.

2. The main structure will be made with natural

bamboo.

3. Fresh bamboo with more fibre than dry bamboo will

be used, so it will be in a perfect condition for bending

and shaping.

4. The modern materials combined with the traditional

methods to assist in achieving the backpack features of

waterproofing and opening and closing systems.

Figure 77: Bamboo weaving.

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5.2.4 Shape and Form

The backpack's specific dimension and size will be

the medium size in L480x W320x D140 (Figure 78).

However, it might be slightly different, depending

on the product's overall shape and dimension due

to combining hard and soft woven elements. With

learning from Taiwanese Aboriginal culture and using

their methods of creating crafts, the ideation of the

shape and form in the early stage will be using the

bamboo as the backpack support and structure (hard

material), and soft and flexible element woven around

the backpack structure from the bottom to top, with

the straps also woven in meaningful patterns with

colorful fibres. The study of existing modern products

designed with traditional methods (refer to pages 64-

65), the project will explore the different cutting or

bending techniques to achieve a unique aesthetic craft

in a modern design (Figure 79).

320mm

480mm

140mm

Design Guidelines

1. The specific dimension of the backpack is L480x

W320x D140, but with the combination of hard and

soft materials used, it might have a deviation.

2. The industrial tool or machine will be used to

explore the potential that the bamboo can be shaped

and formed.

Figure 78: Backpack size.

Figure 79: Modern design with bamboo

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5.2.5 Usability Features

There are interior storage sections of the backpack for storing

small items. The backpack with the weaving around the surface

can create a flexible feature for storing large items. Because there

might be another modern material for waterproofing for which

the Aboriginal crafting method could not achieve, the backpack's

main body and waterproofing parts can be separated for drying

separately and maintaining the backpack’s durability after being

exposed to the rain. Bamboo is a natural material that can be

maintained by storing in cool, dry and ventilated locations to avoid

moulding, and to increase its service life.

Design Guidelines

1. Users should store the backpack in cool, dry and ventilated

locations to avoid moulding when they get home.

2. Users should apply maintenance oil to the backpack every month

to prevent the bamboo from getting cracked.

3. Protect surfaces from heavy object scratching or hitting.

Figure 80: Bamboo Forest.

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5.3 Development of Key Features

This project's backpack design focuses on three main elements: camping backpack, Taiwanese Aboriginal

culture, and modern design. The backpack development of key features will be presented following the

steps of the process, which is ideation and exploration of the backpack, bamboo material experiments

in bending, prototype of backpack frame structure I, type of camping backpack, prototype of backpack

frame structure II, interior bag and shoulder strap, and interior bag connection.

5.3.1 Ideation and Exploration of the Backpack

The main idea is to design the backpack with Taiwanese Aboriginal culture elements and modern aesthetic

shape and form design. The first step of development will start with sketching, research on the modern

craft product, and some early prototype or experiments in PVC material and paper.



Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

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Sketching

At the first step of the backpack development, I tried many different

sketches of shapes and forms, and I explored how the three elements could

integrate into a camping backpack. In figure 81, some sketching seems like

the combination of backpack and the Aboriginal culture. However, some

of them look more like the modern backpack with less of the Aboriginal

culture element.

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Modern Craft Product

To find the balance of using the traditional method and

the modern style, so that the backpack can correspond to

the design intention and the look of modern design. The

research on modern products, which integrates traditional

methods, can explore how Taiwanese Aboriginal craft

methods can be used modernly in camping backpack design.

In modern design with bamboo material, bamboo is usually

presented as a woven panel (Figure 83) or in different cutting

and bending styles (Figure 84) to achieve the aesthetic shape

and form. Figure 85-93 shows that several products designed

to integrate traditional style and modern design demonstrate

the camping backpack's design possibility.

Figure 83: The woven panel.

Figure 84: The bamboo chair.

Figure 85-93: Modern craft product.

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Early Experiment and Prototype

Based on the research finding on modern craft design,

bamboo is usually involved as a woven panel, or in

different cutting and bending. Thus, to develop the

initial idea from cutting and bending, there are some

prototypes with PVC material (Figure 94-96) to help

develop various shapes or forms before using bamboo

material. Furthermore, the scaled model (Figure 97)

helps to simulate the early concept of the backpack's

shape in bamboo material.

Summary

From the early ideation, the sketching of the backpack shows the limits of merged elements

(Camping backpack, Taiwanese Aboriginal culture and modern design). Thus, some modern

craft product research has been done and conducted in the early experiment and prototype, to

investigate the potential of using traditional methods in modern backpack design.

In this section, there are some key findings:

- The traditional culture can cooperate with the modern product as different cutting

and bending or the woven panel.

- The PVC experiment simulates the beautiful curve and shape that the bamboo can

achieve.

- From the paper model, the initial backpack design might use bamboo slats with the

bending methods.

Figure 94-96: PVC cutting test.

Figure 97: Scaled model.

The ideation and exploration discovered the early concept, so the next section will analyze the

bamboo material experiment to test if the material can achieve the shape bent.

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5.3.2 Bamboo Material Experiment in Bending

The material used for this experiment is the bamboo

slate, which needs to cut bamboo into slate pieces. Before

the bending test, some cutting and sanding hand work

practiced the traditional way of processing (Figure 98).

Figure 98: Bamboo cutting in traditional methods.

The experiment uses various bamboo slats to test the

different widths of bamboo that can be bent. The

experiment includes several ways of testing the bamboo

bending, such as boiled in water, steam, heat gun and

oven. All the methods are trying to rely on the high

temperature to make bamboo soft for bending. The

Taiwanese Indigenous people routinely made use of the

campfire to heat the point that needed bending.

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Boiled in Water

In this experiment, the bamboo has been boiled in the water for up to 6 hours (Figure 99).

Experiment start at 9:20 am

Check 10:50 am

- Soft

- Can be bent

Check 1:30 pm

- Soft

- Easy to bend

- Bamboo can be twisted

- Some bamboo becomes Green

Check 3:30 pm

- Same as the result of the second check

Steam

The steam experiment is similar to the boil in the

water experiment.

The result of the steam experiment is:

- Quick get soft

- Good bending condition

Furthermore, this specific machine can contain a long

length of bamboo to conduct a bending test.

With high temperature, the bent bamboo straightens back.

Some width bamboo slate split.

Figure 99: Bamboo experiment.

Figure 100-101: Bamboo experiment.

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Heat Gun

For this experiment, the bamboo uses the three different widths: 16mm, 25mm and 30mm, to do the

bending test. Because this approach is unlike boiling in water and steam to make the whole piece soft,

it needs to sand out the wall thickness more than other experiments. The three different widths of

bamboo slat are bent by using a heat gun (Figure 102-104).

Figure 102-104: Bamboo experiment.

Summary

Overall, the bamboo experiment finds the approach to bend the bamboo slat successfully. Both

boiling in the water and steam experiment have the bamboo getting soft to bend. However, the

bamboo needs to be quickly bent so as to hold the shape, or the bamboo will cool down fast and

get hard. The heat gun experiment has an excellent bending outcome, but it needs more sanding

hand work before bending. There are all excellent bent shapes in these four different bamboo

experiments, except the oven experiment that the high temperature takes the water away from

the bamboo fiber, and it becomes dry and split.

In this section, there are some key findings:

- The process of bending experiments is closer to the traditional methods of processing

bamboo material by handwork.

- The bamboo experiment presents a strong structure to become the backpack frame.

- Some width bamboo slate split.

Oven

The experiment is to leave the bamboo in the oven. However, the

result is not as expected, or the result of the previous experiment.

The oven experiment takes the water away from the bamboo, so it

does not get soft, but cracks when bends.

After the bamboo bending experiment's success, the next section is to discover and develop the

backpack structure prototype.

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5.3.3 Prototype of Backpack Frame Structure I

The developing prototype will try different cuts to shape

and form the backpack structure from understanding the

bamboo bending condition. The prototype will start with

the scaled models as the smaller scale to simulate shape

and form and then move to the one-to-one scale with

PVC material. Once the paper and PVC prototype can

present the backpack frame structure as well-looking, the

prototype will use bamboo material to test if the bamboo

can achieve the shape and form.

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PVC Prototype

PVC material uses the bigger scale (32mm; 2182mm)

too close to the backpack's actual size to create the

shape and form based on the two paper models.

Figure 106 shows the two different shapes of cutting

off, which is based on the two paper models. The

shape of cutting off at the top is hard to bend

because the completed arc creates a strong structure.

However, it is easier to bend the PVC material with

the bottom shape cutting, because this cutting off

distributes the strength.

Thus, the PVC prototype keeps developing with

the second shape of cutting, creating an excellent

backpack's frame structure prototype (Figure 107).

Figure 105: Scaled Models.

Scaled Models

The scaled models for this section are to explore the version from the early

concept (refer to section 5.3.1 Ideation and exploration-paper model).

In figure 105, there are six different paper models of the backpack frame

structure, and the length of the paper used is 297mm.

After the tutor's discussion, two of the paper models were considered in good

shape and form to develop further.

Figure 106: Two ways of cutting off.

Figure 107: Backpack frame structure prototype.

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Bamboo Prototype

This section moves on to the real material for this project: Bamboo. This prototype's

bamboo size is 1800mm length in dimension 62.5mm, shorter than the last PVC

prototype. To get this bamboo in pieces, the bamboo pole has been cut into three pieces

because of the diameter and 6mm wall thickness (Figure 108). This bamboo prototype's

primary purpose is to test the cut-off shape bending can be achieved in bamboo material,

and the way of bending uses the steam (refer to section 5.3.2), which can contain

1800mm length bamboo and may get the whole piece soft.

The prototype material has been steamed for 2.5 hours, and it is soft enough to bend.

However, the cut-off results in the structure split at the bending point (Figure 109-110).

Summary

In this section of the prototype, from paper material to PVC pipe, the idea of the cut off shape

was developing a good backpack structure and integrating Taiwanese Aboriginal traditional

culture and methods into the modern design. However, the real material prototype found out

that this particular cutting shape might reduce the strong structure. Moreover, the scale of the

backpack size has resulted from the material length. For example, the PVC prototype (2182mm)

can only create the backpack's medium size, which might be too small as a camping backpack.

Figure 108: Bamboo slates.

Figure 109-110: Bamboo prototype.

In this section, there are some key findings and some need to develop further:

- Size: The PVC prototype creates a sample model that simulates the 1:1 scale of the

backpack frame, but the size is more for a daypack user. It needs to be 20% bigger.

- The specific type of user and camping: The backpack design's size relates to user and

camping type, which needs to be further analyzed to confirm the backpack size (refer

to 5.3.4).

- Backpack Frame Structure I: At the end of the prototype, it failed in bamboo material

because of cutting. Thus, the structure will develop another structure that avoids

unnecessary cutting (refer to 5.3.5).

In the next section, it will be discussed the type of backpack or user that this project is designed

for.

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5.3.4 Type of Camping Backpack

This section covers the research on the specific type of camping

and user, and the comparison of daypack and camping backpack

so that the backpack can be designed based on these features.

Moreover, this project starts with camping in Taiwan and using

the Taiwanese Aboriginal culture and design method, so the

backpack is designed following Taiwan's possible camping

situation.

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Bushcraft Camping

Bushcraft camping (Figure 112) intends to carry lightweight

equipment, which is like surviving in the wild and close to the

origin of camping (refer to 2.4).

People who pursue bushcraft camping learn the traditional skill

or surviving skills and reduce pollution to our environment by

the material used, which corresponds to this project's intention.

"The more you know,

the less you need."

Figure 113: Hiking in Taiwan (Photoed by Amedee Fornalique).

Leave No Trace

The backpack design is in concert with the few camping ideas called Leave no trace. Its main

idea is to care about the natural environment and keep it the same as it was after camping. Thus,

the backpack is more designed for this type of camping and the user would like this idea of

camping.

Figure 112: Bushcraft camping.

There are seven principles consisting of LNT camping:

1. Plan ahead and prepare

2. Travel and camp on durable surfaces

3. Dispose of waste properly

4. Leave what you find

5. Minimize campfire impacts

6. Respect wildlife

7. Be considerate of other visitors

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Camping in Taiwan

According to the project research, the backpack design

starts from camping, and there are many types of camping

that happen in Taiwan.

Figure 114: Lightweight

Camping.

Figure 115: Over five days

camping.

Because Taiwanese Aboriginal people were camping while

surviving in the wild, which were located typically in the

high mountains, the backpack is designed for camping

while hiking or any other outdoor activity related to the

mountain.

In figure 114, this camping backpack's volume is suitable

for 1-2 days hiking and camping, which is lightweight

camping and usually without carrying the tent.

Lightweight camping is unlike the camping in figure 115

that they are also doing hiking activity, but the backpack

used is for intense hiking of the high mountain in Taiwan,

which might be a trip for over five days.

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Daypack

Camping Backpack

General 15-35L

Little or No Back Support

No Padded Shoulder Straps

Open at the Top

Canvas, Leather or

another Synthetic Materials

Table 2: Comparison of daypack and camping backpack.

35L + For a Long Days Trip

Do Have Internal Frame

Do Have Padded Shoulder Straps

Usually Have a Side Opening

and Bottom Section

Need to be Water and Weatherproof

for Overnight Trips or Extended Travel

Summary

After researching the specific type of people and camping and understanding the two backpack

features, the backpack will be daypack volume with camping backpack features. The backpack

can be multi-functional to carry the stuff, such as the back support, shoulder support, and some

nylon straps.

The key findings for this section:

- The backpack is designed based on the camping condition in Taiwan.

- The backpack size will be medium size with a volume of around 25L.

- Backpack will have the camping backpack feature to provide a comfortable user

experience and multi-function to carry the stuff.

Comparison of Daypack and Camping Backpack

This section lists the features of the daypack and the camping backpack, and

then conducts the comparison. Table 2 shows the differences between these two

backpacks: the volume, back and shoulder support, way of opening, and material

used.

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5.3.5 Prototype of Backpack Frame Structure II

After prototype I (refer to 5.3.3), this section is to develop

a new frame structure without any cut-off shape. The

process is the same as prototype I that starts with the

scaled model, PVC for a bigger scale, bending the curve,

and then the bamboo prototype for a more significant

model with the binding joints. Moreover, the backpack

structure's size needs to be made bigger after researching

the type of camping used.

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Scaled Models

Another idea of structure is to use two pieces of

material rather than one piece of material to create

the frame structure, and the length of the paper

used is 297mm like prototype I. The scaled model

(Figure 116) displays an excellent structure, and the

pieces come around and meet at one point.

Figure 116: Scaled Model.

Figure 117-119: PVC prototype.

PVC Prototype

For this PVC prototype, the size used is 2700mm length, creating

a bigger or closer to 1:1 scale of the backpack structure than the

prototype I. In figure 117-119, the PVC prototype achieves the idea

of shape and form completely. Since the structure can be done, the

next step is to adjust the size to a real scale. The end confirmed size

and dimension is 525 / 350-400 / 200 (LxWxD)mm.

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G

G

G

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED:

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

SURFACE FINISH:

TOLERANCES:

LINEAR:

ANGULAR:

DRAWN

CHK'D

APPV'D

MFG

Q.A

FINISH:

NAME SIGNATURE DATE

MATERIAL:

WEIGHT:

DEBURR AND

BREAK SHARP

EDGES

TITLE:

DWG NO.

DO NOT SCALE DRAWING

SCALE:1:5 SHEET 1 OF 1

REVISION

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED:

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

SURFACE FINISH:

TOLERANCES:

LINEAR:

ANGULAR:

DRAWN

CHK'D

APPV'D

MFG

Q.A

FINISH:

NAME SIGNATURE DATE

MATERIAL:

WEIGHT:

DEBURR AND

BREAK SHARP

EDGES

TITLE:

DWG NO.

DO NOT SCALE DRAWING

SCALE:1:5 SHEET 1 OF 1

REVISION

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Figure 120-122: Bending the curve.

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Bending the curve

Bending the curve on bamboo material experiments to test

bamboo can achieve the second bamboo frame structure's

beautiful curve (Figure 120-122). Moreover, to have the

bamboo bent to bilateral symmetry, it needs the mold to

help shape the form.

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There are many types of material considered for mold

makings, such as foam, PVC, and wood. However,

according to the bending method adopted, it needs to be

high-temperature resistant and removed after bending.

Then, after discussing the workshop staff, I decided to use

plywood with the structure as figure 123, so that the mold

can be assembled and taken out easily by making it into

three parts.

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The mold pieces cutting is completed with a CNC

machine (Figure 124-125), so every piece is cut

accurately and assembled well for the bamboo

prototype.

Figure 126-129: Bamboo cutting process.

Bamboo Prototype

The bamboo used for the second prototype is 2800mm in length

and dimension 50-60 mm, which is the right size for a 1:1

scale, and the bamboo slats are around 30mm width. With the

plywood mold as a support structure, the bamboo is bent like

the shape shown in the scale model and PVC prototype.

Bamboo (joint) is sanded by hand, so it will not have the black

burn color and will create a smooth surface (Figure 126-129).

Figure 124-125: Plywood mold.

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The bending method used from the experiment (refer

to 5.3.2) is by using a heat gun. The first bamboo

frame structure prototype is bent by the steaming

method, which is soft, but it cools down easily

and is hard to control. With the heat gun bending

method, the bamboo can be properly shaped and

controlled well. (Figure 130-133).

Figure 130-133: Bamboo bending process.

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In figure 130, the last two pieces of bamboo down the bottom

were heated too dry that the condition of bamboo shows like the

oven experiment, which is not enough water and cracks when

K

bent it. In that case, using some wet towel wraps around it lets

the parts get rest for

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30mins (Figure 134-136). After that, the

bamboo can then curve without cracking.

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mold removed shows as the process in figure 137.

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Figure 137: Diagram of removing the mold.

Figure 134-136: Bamboo bending process.

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Step 1: Unscrew them.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

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Figure 138: Bamboo frame structure II.

Bamboo prototype has bent symmetrically with the

plywood mold support structure (Figure 138).

Figure 139: Karangu (Basket) by Payuan.

Figure 140-141: Binding process.

The binding skill used in Aboriginal craft (Figure

139) usually has a neat and continuous pattern. The

bamboo frame structure joints have used the binding

with the bamboo skin to integrate this feature into the

backpack, but it uses the cotton rope for the model

(Figure 140-141).

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The triangle binding method (Illustration a) creates

the triangle pattern with visual texture on the side

(Figure 142-143); the middle connection binding

(Figure 144-145) as a different pattern, which can

be seen in Illustration b.

Summary

The bamboo used for the section uses 2.8m in length, which creates the 1:1 scale of the backpack

frame, and the size is close to the backpack for camping purposes based on the research study on

p. 122. Compared with the first bamboo frame structure, the structure used two bamboo slats to

reduce the possibility of crack.

Figure 142-143: The upper connection (Illustration a).

Figure 144-145: The middle connection (Illustration b).

The key findings from bamboo frame structure II:

- Size of the backpack is defined as 525 / 350-400 / 200 (LxWxD) mm.

- Having the mold, bamboo may bend symmetrically and will achieve the shape.

- The binding in the connection creates the pattern which uses the traditional craft

feature.

Overall, this bamboo frame structure prototype includes the Taiwanese Aboriginal culture,

camp-used backpack, and modern design. The backpack will be explored further about the

interior bag in the next section.

(a)

(b)

Illustration a & b

Visible

Unvisible

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5.3.6 Interior Bag

The interior bag is assembled with three main fabric

pieces, and the pattern cut considers the bamboo frame

structure II. The illustration is the cutting pattern idea

of the interior bag. A big opening at the front can

contain large camping equipment or hiking accessories.

The material used for the inside bag of the model is

a cotton fabric close to natural looks and texture.

However, it could also be materials like the leather

and bamboo woven panel. The internal bag process

is divided into few parts: paper pattern cut practicing,

cutting fabric with the paper pattern, and conducting

sewing the fabric.

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Paper Pattern Cut Practicing

To get the right pattern of these three fabric pieces, use

the paper to practice the shape and the pattern with

the mold as the model, and leave it with more space

for the bottom. Paper is not quite the right pattern

because it can only be controlled as two dimensional,

but it is a good start to get the basic shape. The process

can be viewed in figure 146-157 (From top to bottom,

from left to right). The paper pattern has 1.5mm gaps

for sewing the pieces together. Once the paper pattern

is right, it can move on to the next step: cutting fabric.

Figure 146-157: Process of paper pattern cut practicing.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Figure 158-166: Process of cutting

fabric.

Cutting Fabric with the Paper Pattern

In this section, the paper pattern transfers to the fabric (Figure 158-

166). The fabric is flexible for a 3D surface. The overall shape is

right, but it needs to leave more space for the bag's bottom. By this

section, the shape is more accurate and uses the pins to connect the

pieces for further sewing works.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Figure 167-171: The sewing

works.

Figure 172: Final interior bag.

Summary

Conducting Sewing the Fabric

Figure 167-171 is the process of sewing the fabric. The sewing work is assisted by a friend

who is studying Fashion Design at UTS.

The key findings from shoulder straps and interior bag connection:

- The inside bag cut pattern follows the bamboo frame, so it looks

connected when both are assembled.

- The inside bag's material can be any materials, such as leather and

the bamboo woven panel, but not the unbleached canvas used for

the model.

- There is a big opening on the top, which meets the camping

backpack's feature.

-There are four pockets for placing a water bottle and some small

items.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

5.3.7 Shoulder Straps & Interior Bag Connection

Figure 173: The Taiwanese Aboriginal handmade basket.

This section is the development of shoulder straps, and

the connection of shoulder straps and the interior bag to

the bamboo frame structure. Figure 173 is a reference to

the traditional Taiwanese Aboriginal handmade basket,

in which the shoulder straps use their pattern and tie with

the main bag as the connection. The last section mentions

that the interior bag can be taken apart for changing any

other material; thus, the connections need to be designed

with this demand. This section will start from shoulder

straps making, shoulder straps connection, and interior

bag connection.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Figure 180: The celebrate festival costume of Taiwanese Aboriginal people.

Figure 174-175: Fabric cut for shoulder straps.

Figure 176-177: Shoulder support.

Figure 178-179: Bamboo made buckles.

Shoulder Straps Making

The shoulder straps making section divides into materials being prepared and

assembled (sewing). The shoulder straps are made of canvas cotton (Figure 174), and

the adjusted straps use the pattern fabric (Figure 175), which is similar to the color

and the pattern that Taiwanese Aboriginal people would use (Figure 180). In the

Aboriginal culture, they have nearly no shoulder support for their basket; however,

for the camping backpack, it is necessary to have shoulder support. The material

in this part uses multi-layers to create support and softness. The shoulder support

material uses the dishwashing mats for the model. Moreover, the buckle for length

adjustment uses bamboo material rather than plastic (Figure 178-179).

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Shoulder Straps Connection

The way of connection of shoulder straps uses the Aboriginal

basket as a reference (Figure 187). The traditional method

usually connects the shoulder straps and the main bag with the

additional rope. These camping backpack shoulder straps are

sewed additional straps on the top to connect to the bamboo

frame structure based on the traditional craft methods. Rather

than connecting to the interior bag, connecting to the frame

structure creates a stable and rigid connection to bear the

weight for camping (Figure 188-190).

Figure 181-186: The process of sewing the shoulder straps.

The process of sewing the fabric views from left to right (Figure 181-186):

1. The pattern straps need to be completed; go through the bamboo buckle and sew on pieces

of shoulder strap materials to be adjustable bag straps.

2. Sew the shoulder straps with the wrong sides facing, and then turn the inside out.

3. Put the soft panel material inside.

Figure 187: The Aboriginal basket.

Figure 188-190: The shoulder straps connections.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Interior Bag Connection

The interior bag's connection uses buttons made of bamboo material (Figure

191-192), so the inside bag can be easily assembled and taken apart. The

cotton rope, which is dyed with boysenberry, is used for connecting the inside

bag and the bamboo frame structure (Figure 193-196).

The natural plant dyeing needs to take more than 24 hours, starting the

boiling within the water from normal temperature and then adding the salt

so that the pigment can stay on the cotton rope for as long as possible.

Figure 191-192: Bamboo made

buttons connection.

Figure 197: Dioscorea

cirrhosa.

In the traditional Taiwanese Aboriginal methods, they used the pigment from

the natural plant's roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits, such as Dioscorea

cirrhosa (Figure 197), the most representative. However, the natural pigment is

chosen as boysenberry to match the shoulder straps' color.

Figure 193-196: Process of dyeing cotton rope with boysenberry.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Summary

The shoulder straps and the mainframe structure's connections used the traditional method

to make the basket as a reference. The product can deliver their cultural background and

knowledge of making things with natural material, or providing products without pollution.

Figure 198-200: The components of

shoulder straps and connections.

The key findings from shoulder straps and interior bag connection (Figure 198-200):

- The shoulder straps are designed based on the traditional Aboriginal basket.

- The buckles and the buttons are made with bamboo material rather than plastic.

- Adjustable straps have used the pattern and color that would appear in Aboriginal

culture.

- The connection of the interior bag design is easy to take apart for replacing or

cleaning.

- Some connection cotton ropes apply the knowledge of the Aboriginal wild dyeing

methods.

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Chapter 5: Analysis and Interpretation of Finding

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

5.4 Chapter Summary

Chapter 5 develops the backpack design through various

research, sketching, craft practicing, and experiments to

investigate the design idea applied in a camping backpack.

Although the development outcome is slightly different from the

set of design guidelines, the key findings accord to the project's

main idea, using traditional Taiwanese Aboriginal craft methods

in the backpack to create meaningful camping equipment for

users. Users can learn from its craft knowledge and the culture

and reduce the destructive materials to the environment.

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Chapter 6: Conclusion and Design Proposal

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Chapter 6

Conclusion and Design

Proposal

The project poses the question: “why do people go

camping?” And the answer is usually “to get back

to nature.” However, the camping equipment they

use has no meaning and connection to the natural

environment. And as a result, it does not offer the

camper an authentic sense of the environment they are

visiting, its history, or its cultural relevance.

In Chapter 2, the literature review identifies that

the trend of camping and the materials used for

camping equipment have a significant impact on the

environment. Research suggests that products should

be designed with a responsibility to the environment

(Victor Papanek, 1923-1998, as cited in Skjerven,

2019). With this as the design direction, the project is

based on the camping situation in Taiwan. There are

many traditional craft skills in Taiwan, but they have

been slowly replaced by advancing technology - the

knowledge of materials and craft by the Taiwanese

Aboriginal people is under threat. These traditional

craftworks represent the cultural history or story of a

place, and it is essential to keep the culture alive for

future generations.

The Taiwanese Aboriginal people are the first group

of people living in Taiwan. They have developed

unique skills for creating equipment for surviving in

nature. They cherish what they get from nature and

respect nature, forging a friendly relationship between

people and the land. As a design opportunity, it makes

sense to employ traditional Taiwanese Aboriginal

craft methods, especially for the design of camping

equipment, because these are the first people camping

to survive in the Taiwanese wilderness.

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Chapter 6: Conclusion and Design Proposal

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Smangus - A backpack honouring

Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Camping Backpack

Taiwanese Aboriginal Craft Methods

Modern Design

The information collected in the literature review led

to three research questions and a statement of design

intent (refer to 2.10, p. 44-45).

The research questions are:

1. What essential elements would be the priority for

people to consider when choosing camping gear?

2. Why is it essential to cultivate the skill of traditional

Taiwanese crafts?

3. Can the integration of traditional Taiwanese

crafts make camping more socially and ecologically

responsible?

The overarching hypothesis of the project is that

camping equipment designed with only essential

functions and made using Taiwanese traditional

crafting techniques helps forge a secure connection to

the land's background and cultural history, thereby

passing down the traditional crafting culture. It

produces socially and ecologically responsible products

that connect people with their natural environment

while camping in the wild.

An investigation of Taiwanese Aboriginal Craft

methods and materials has led to the design of a

camping backpack. The backpack is made by using

Taiwanese Aboriginal crafts, although it adopts a

modern shape and form. In chapter 5, the development

of key features includes exploratory sketches, forming

experiments with bamboo, and technical development

of the backpack features.

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Chapter 6: Conclusion and Design Proposal

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Final Design

The final overview of the backpack in figure 201

has used the traditional Taiwanese Aboriginal

craft methods, and the size of the backpack is

defined as 525 / 350-400 / 200 (LxWxD) mm.

This backpack is designed based on Taiwan's

camping situation for the user who camps while

conducting hiking activity and prefers bushcraft

camping or the camping idea of 'Leave no Trace'.

The backpack material is bamboo and cotton

canvas fabric as an interior bag that can reduce

pollution and become a friendly connection

to nature. Moreover, it is designed with the

Taiwanese Aboriginal culture feature, like

bamboo, the pattern, and the traditional craft

methods. It provides a cultural value that

delivers the cultural history to the users, thereby

keeping their culture going. The users can learn

from their culture and the land while using the

backpack.

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Chapter 6: Conclusion and Design Proposal

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Figure 203-204: The detailed views of the backpack.

Functionality of the Design

Figure 202: Smangus Backpack.

The backpack frame structure is designed as

the back support and weight support, which

is usually made with the metals for camping

backpack. The frame structure also creates

a stable system that can be used as a handle.

The interior bag is connected with the frame

structure with six buckles around it that can be

set on the frame structure or can be taken apart

to clean and change. There are four pockets to

contain the water bottle and some small items.

Moreover, the big opening on the top is designed

for carrying large items during the trip.

The shoulder straps also can be replaced or

cleaned by the buttons' connections and the

cotton rope. There are adjustable buckles for the

user to adjust the length. The shoulder straps

have the daisy chain to offer a multi-function use

feature.

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Chapter 6: Conclusion and Design Proposal

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

6

2

1

7

8

3

5

9

10

4

Design Details

1. There are four pockets on the side for

containing the water bottle and small items.

2. The big cover for the top opening system

provides a flexible space organized.

3. The cotton ropes are designed as the opening

and closing, and they can be bound around the

backpack frame structure. The cotton ropes used

as the connection with the frame are conducted

with natural plant dye: boysenberry. It not only

provides the knowledge of wild dyeing, but the

color matches the one used in shoulder straps.

4. There are six buttons made of bamboo

material designed to connect the interior bag

to the backpack frame structure. This simple

assembly function is also easy to take apart for

cleaning or changing the bag fabric to other

interior bags made with different materials.

5. Bamboo made buckles for users to adjust the

length of the shoulder straps.

6. The connection of shoulder straps is designed

based on the traditional basket craft, which

usually binds with ramie rope.

7. The backpack frame structure is made

with bamboo material, which is used widely

in Taiwanese Indigenous culture. It is

manufactured with two-piece bamboo slats and

the shape is bent with high temperature.

8. There is the daisy chain design that is used to

hook the item.

9. The method of cotton rope binding for

connecting to the bamboo frame creates the

visual texture.

10. The adjustable straps used a pattern and

color that appears in Taiwanese Aboriginal

culture.

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Chapter 6: Conclusion and Design Proposal

Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

Overall, the Smangus backpack inherited the Taiwanese

Aboriginal culture and spirit by applying the material

and traditional methods. With this backpack, users can

experience the nature made product which is no pollution to

the earth and can learn the culture from the craft.

This backpack design represents the spirit of the Taiwanese

Aboriginal people from Smangus. They are always humble

and respectful of the land, and so does this backpack.

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Smangus - A backpack honouring Aboriginal Taiwanese Culture

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