ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEMS 101 & SMART GRID SMART GRID

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ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEMS 101 & SMART GRID SMART GRID

ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEMS 101

&

SMART SMART GRID

GRID

The road between here and there

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND

TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE

September 27 27‐28, 28, 2010

Room 307, State Capitol

R. Clay y Doyle, y PE, PMP

VP – NM Affairs, El Paso Electric Co.

1


Electric Utility Systems 101

“What What would would happen happen if if you you updated

updated

the 20 th century power grid with 21 st

century y technology?” gy

“You’d get the Smart Grid.”

S Smart MMeters

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Th The DOE DOE has h identified id tifi d the th following f ll i properties ti for f the th

21 st Century “Modern” or “Smart” Grid Grid.

The Smart Grid will:

• be self healing

g

• resist attacks (cyber & real)

• deliver power quality desired by 21 st century users

• accommodate all generation and storage options

• enable markets to flourish

• optimize optimize its its assets and operate more efficiently

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

The Th The Th Generation/Transmission G ti /T i i “Grid” “G id”

• Highly Trained &Skilled System Controllers

• State & schedule of all generation

• Generation reserve capacity

• State State of of every every transmission transmission line

line

• Supervisory control of switches

• Schedule Schedule of of all all purchases purchases and and or or sales

• Fault, frequency, thermal, thermal, load alarms

• Crew schedules & availability

• Load, capacity, & state of every substation

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

The Generation/ Transmission Grid:

�� Self healing

�� Resist attacks (cyber & real)

�� Deliver power quality desired by 21

�� E bl k t t fl i h

st century users

�� Accommodate all generation and storage options

�� Enable markets to flourish

�� Optimize its assets and operate more efficiently

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Quick Quick Overview Overview Overview & & Review

Review

Generation/Transmission Systems

• Most M Generation G i is i connected d at the h Transmission T i i Level L l

• Transmission lines are high voltage (38 kV to 500 kV)

• Generation/Transmission System is “Networked” (a “Grid”)

• System Controllers are highly trained in Grid operation

• Operation of Gen/Tran “Grid” regulated regulated by FERC & Others

• Gen/Tran “Grid” highly evolved control and monitoring cap.

• Gen/Tran “Grid” meets all DOE “Smart” Grid requirements

• Customers are not connected to the Gen/Tran “Grid”

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Generation/Transmission “Grid”

L

L

L L

RADIAL ELECTRIC SYSTEM

Distribution System (not not a “Grid”)

L

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Electric Utility Systems 101

L

Distribution System (not not a “Grid”)

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Electric Utility Systems 101

L

LLoad d Substation

S b t ti

N.C. Line Switches

N.O Line Switches

Distribution System (not not a “Grid”)

Load Substation

L

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Electric Utility Systems 101

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Feeder Breaker

Report

Meter Data

Distribution System

Operator

(Distribution Dispatcher) p

Customer Calls

Generation

Resources or

Status

Field Reports

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

Dispatch p Crew

Capability

Li Line LLoad d Data D CControl l

or Status Data Capability

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Quick Quick Overview Overview Overview & & Review

Review

Distribution Systems

• Nearly Nearly all all customers customers are are connected connected at at the the Distribution Distribution level

level

• Distribution System is RADIAL System (not a network or grid)

• Generally, Generally Generally, only 1 path of service to your home or business

• Most Distribution System have limited remote control capability

• Distribution Distribution System System Controllers Controllers are mostly Outage Mgrs Mgrs.

• Outage management: Identify, Isolate, repair

• Do Do not not have have have DOE DOE “Smart” Smart Grid Grid requirements

requirements

• Gen/Tran “Grid” highly evolved control and monitoring cap.

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

The “Smart” Grid

P Part 1 – Smart S SSmart or Ad Advanced d M Metering i

Part 2 – System Control & Monitoring

Part 3 – Distributed Generation

Part 4 – The Challenges g

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Th The DOE DOE has h identified id tifi d the th following f ll i properties ti for f the th

21 st Century “Modern” or “Smart” Grid Grid.

The Smart Grid will:

• be self healing

g

• resist attacks (cyber & real)

• deliver power quality desired by 21 st century users

• accommodate all generation and storage options

• enable markets to flourish

• optimize optimize its its assets and operate more efficiently

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Part 1 1 - Smart Smart Smart or Advanced Metering

Texas PUC Requirements

• Automated or remote meter reading

• Two way communication

• Remote disconnect disconnect and and reconnect capability

capability

• Time stamped and portable meter data capability

• Provide real real-time time customer access to meter data

• Price signaling capability

• 15 minute interval recording capability

• On board meter data storage

• Open standards for future compatibility

• Load side side communication communication capability

capability

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Part 1 1 - Smart Smart Smart or Advanced Metering

Immediate Benefits:

• Better outage management

• Less field crew time for disconnects /reconnects

• Theft & & meter meter tampering tampering reduction

reduction

• Better load modeling

F Future F t B Benefits: B fit

• Potential beyond the meter load control

• Real time time data data & pricing

• Better resource allocation

• More More robust robust rate rate options

options

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Hurdles

Part 1 1 - Smart Smart Smart or Advanced Metering

• Data, D t data, d t and d more data d t

• Implementation Cost ($150 - $400 per meter)

System Control & Monitoring

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Part 2 - System Control & Monitoring

L

Load Substation

N.C. Line Switches

N.O Line Switches

Data P0ints

Load Substation

L

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Part 3 - Distributed Generation

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Part 3 - Distributed Generation

• What is new line extension policy?

• What is new new rate rate policy?

policy?

• Can the sub sub-division division island?

• Who is is selling selling & who is buying?

• Who maintains voltage & freq. standards?

• How do you y start a motor?

• Who determines what load stays on?

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Feeder Breaker

Report

Meter Data

Part 4 4 - The Challenges

Challenges

Distribution System

Operator

Load Control

(Distribution Dispatcher)

Capability

Customer Calls

Generation

Resources or

Status

Field Reports

Line Load Data

or Status Data

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

Dispatch Crew

Capability

Line Control

Capability

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Electric Utility Systems 101

Summary

• Utility is responsible for standards (reliability, voltage, etc.)

• Gen/Tran System is a “Grid” arguably a “Smart” Grid

• Distribution System is Not a “Grid” it is a Radial system

• Al Almost all ll customers connected d to Distribution Di ib i system

• Smart Meters & Dist. Generation don’t make Smart Grid

• Smart Smart Meters Meters & Distribution System System control expensive

expensive

• Dist. Generation not presently capable of islanding

• Will require q new regulatory g y models (p (policy y & rates) )

• No trained personnel or system on which to train

• Will require much research, modeling, experience

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE 27 Sept 2010

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