Pixação: São Paulo Signature

francoischastanet

Extracts from the book Pixação: São Paulo Signature, XGpress, 280 pages, 2007 • ISBN 978-2-9528097-1-9 (English) • ISBN 978-2-9528097-0-2 (French)

François Chastanet

Foreword by Steven Heller

XGpress







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9



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160


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Pixação : São Paulo Signature

L’épidémie pixação, avant-propos par Steven Heller 228

Ce qu’il y a à voir, le geste scriptural 231

La signature, le corps & l’architecture 237

Imaginaires typographiques 245

Notes sur les photographies 253

Légendes 255


XGpress

François Chastanet


Pixação: São Paulo Signature

The pixação epidemic, foreword by Steven Heller 229

What’s to be seen: scriptural gestures 231

Signature, body and architecture 237

Typographical fantasies 245

Notes on the photographs 253

Captions 255


*photographs p. 43, 191

the gestural signature, which is the conventional reference

of the tag universe. It is, however, to be noted that the case

of Los Angeles is specific, since it refers to gang names.

The visual control of symbolic space being here accompanied

by the active physical control of the territory concerned.

On the other hand, the New York or São Paulo taggers

constitute groups organized entirely on the basis of their

passion for wild illegal writing, having no connection with

conventional gang activities (i.e. centred around money),

even if they sometimes share the imagery (in the choice

of their di¤erent pseudonyms, pen names often favouring

an aggressive wording, referring to an organization based

on graded series of clans, etc.). They do not concentrate

their writings/signatures on a specific territory, to be controlled

by violence, but extend their invasion by means

of craftwork publicity throughout the town concerned

and beyond to the entire urban area to which they belong.

In both the above cases, it would appear improbable

that this type of image, not readily obtainable ¢ , could have

reached the streets of São Paulo, that a real visual connection

could have been achieved, since the country had been

under dictatorial control until the mid 1980s ∞ . Access to

information and pictures from abroad is all the more improbable

in that the vast majority of the population is at

that time poor and undereducated.

Let us now reconsider more precisely the local conditions

and context which gave birth to the phenomenon.

What was then the first visual substratum of this writing

phenomenon? At the end of the dictatorship, in the early

1980s, the various visual interventions in public places

in São Paulo become more intense (as also in all the main

urban areas throughout the country), their amplitude increases,

encompassing traditional pro-democratic political

demands mingled with poetic fragments based on coded

play on words or on nonsense. But this period, from the

formal standpoint, led to no revolutionary changes in letter

design. Readability constraints, related to the necessity

to transmit di¤erent messages, led to the adoption of Latin

Roman capitals, universal model simplified and narrowed

for this purpose. Simultaneously, the first modern pixadores

appear, departing from vernacular political or advertising

messages and imposing a sole content, i.e. the statement

of their own name or that of their group. juneca was

one of the first celebrities of this illegal writing movement,

the exploits of whom are even related in the local newspapers,

as was the case later on for the legendary tchentcho,

who was the first to open the way to the use of the tops of

architectural façades. They form with xuim, di *, chefe,

os metralhas [the beagle boys] and many others, the first

wave of a writing invasion, organized exclusively around

the signature in São Paulo. The snowball e¤ect has been set

in motion, a large number of young people, mainly (but not

exclusively) from the favelas will now throw themselves into

the name-image battle, giving rise to an endemic explosion

of this type of writing with its characteristic exponential

progression. The first signatures are stylistically of a basic

nature, much simpler than those to be subsequently

observed.

As we have seen, certain pixadores, with a view to

distinguishing themselves from their immediate visual

environment, at the same time enriching this narrow

alphabet, organized around a limited formal repertory

¢

Since both media and photographers

focused their attention in the 1980s

on the New York scene, the first

Philadelphia graªtis or those of the

Los Angeles gangs had not appeared

in the various publications and

fanzines circulating in the graªti

world until recently. These pictures

are still rare and diªcult to obtain,

despite the present-day assistance of

internet. However, note the probable

influence of an actual street gang

myth developped in movies such as

The Warriors directed by Walter Hill

(shot in 1979 in New York) or Colors

directed by Dennis Hopper (shot

in 1988 in Los Angeles). These two

full-length films, sometimes quoted

by some pixadores, nonetheless

don’t show in detail the lettering

of di¤erent graªtis observable

in the background of numerous

scenes, used here as a decorative

eªcient stereotype to represent

the atmosphere of urban ghettos

in this kind of production.

The Brazilian dictatorship

(1964–1985) was less bloody than

those endured in Chili or Argentina.

Nevertheless, about 400 political

opponents, in all probability, perished

in the hands of the Brazilian

military police and many others

were victims of torture. Unlike

the other South American countries,

which chose to examine the exactions

perpetrated by the juntas

in power, Brazil had until recently

refused to lay bare these practices.

246


*diagrams 4 to 6, p. 279

*diagram 2, p. 278

*diagram 4, p. 279

of basic and monumental capitals, incorporate, apparently,

di¤erent plastic characteristics derived from Fraktur, Runic,

and Etruscan * scripts. How did this filiation come to exist,

what path was taken by these specific forms of writing?

These various aesthetic borrowings from ancient Latin

written forms (practically unused at present), torn from

their historical context, do not occur in a conscious, scholarly

fashion, but indirectly, since most of the pixadores

evoke and lay claim to the influence of the ‘heavy metal’

record sleeves, and more specifically, the logos of the various

groups, which they attempt to reproduce, using basic

monolinear strokes *. The record sleeve, worldwide image

vector, together with the related stereotyped visual marketing,

with its strictly conforming codes, intended to represent

this musical cosmos, would appear to have led to the

actualization and transplantation of various typographic

‘materials’, i.e. the alternative di¤usion of long lost writing

models. A graphic analysis of these record sleeves e¤ectively

evidences a recurrence in the typographic use of modernized

and simplified Runic or Etruscan-type scriptural

aesthetics, together with frequent recourse to Fraktur-type

blackletters. A historic comparison of the di¤erent capital

letter structures evidences formal similitudes with certain

fairly rare typographic experiments of monolinear Fraktur *.

In addition, it would appear pertinent to link this particular

type of calligraphy, the pixações, with the ‘interrupted

script’ § category, i.e. handwriting where the tracing of each

letter corresponds to an interrupted construction, an alphabet

which could, with a little exaggeration, be termed ‘ultra

light condensed monoline blackletter’, to use the jargon

currently employed at international level in the classification

of typefaces.

What is to be noted here is the originality of this

pixação phenomenon, which, liberating the Runic and

Fraktur scripts from their use as rigid typographic forms

for record packaging, brings about their return to manual

use, in a hybrid form. The process usually observed in type

design consists in ‘freezing’ manual writing practices (calligraphy

or lettering) in set typographic forms, duplicatable

ad infinitum, i.e., prefabricated letters at the disposition of

all. We are here confronted with an inverse phenomenon,

where the desire to reproduce mimetically these fixed typographical

shapes, using di¤erent tools from those initially

employed, and their adaptation to a di¤erent context, gives

birth again to a manual, gestural practice, in other words,

to movement. The back and forth between calligraphy and

type design is nonetheless particularly evident in the blackletter

fonts, like Fraktur, where the relation with the manual

origin of the design is maintained and remains visually

particularly evident . The reproduction and adaptation of

these typographic logos using everyday tools, like the ballpoint

or the felt-tip pen on paper and with a paint roller

or spray can on a wall (‘poor’ drawing tools from the classic

calligraphy viewpoint), appear mainly as monolinear lines.

Our assumption is that this reappropriation facilitated

the emergence of an e¤ective urban environment alphabet.

This hybrid system is organized round a graphic notion

of economy of means, developing a maximum visual e¤ect,

based solely on the structure and skeleton of each letter.

‘One thing leads to another’ • : creation of a new universe,

this time in the lettering field, using existing shapes, actualized

by the hazard of identificatory fashions. It all happens

§

See the article establishing the

reflections of Gerrit Noordzij,

‘Broken Scripts and The Classification

of Typefaces’, Journal

of Typographic Research (Visible

Language), vol. iv, no. 3, 1970,

pp. 213–240. The author, in his

theory of writing, proposes a binary

classification system, discerning two

main categories of layout in the history

of writing: the drawn construction

of each sign being either continuous

(‘running hand’ or cursive),

or interrupted, i.e. performed with

several distinct strokes, with the

hand raised at linkage between the

di¤erent vertical stems composing

a glyph, thus ‘interrupting’ contact

of the pen with the writing medium.

He moreover makes no separation

between the study of calligraphic

shapes and that of typographic

shapes, practices apprehended

simultaneously as having the

overall shape of the letter as object:

‘A history of writing is a history of

shapes and not a history of meaning’

(take a look at ‘Upsetting The Table.

A Dialogue Between Nicolette Gray

and Gerrit Noordzij’ in LetterLetter.

An inconsistent collection of tentative

theories that do not claim any

other authority than that of common

sense, Hartley & Marks Publishers,

Vancouver, 2000, p. 48). By the

same author, read The Stroke of

The Pen: Fundamental Aspects

of Western Writing, Koninklijke

Academie van Beeldende Kunsten,

The Hague, 1982 and The Stroke:

Theory of Writing (English translation

by Peter Enneson), Hyphen

Press, 2005.

See Paul Shaw, ‘The Calligraphic

Tradition in Blackletter Type’,

Scripsit, no. 1 & 2, volume 22,

summer 1999.

See Bruno Munari, Da cosa nasce

cosa, Biblioteca di cultura moderna

849, Rome and Bari, Laterza, 1981,

5 th edition, 1992.

247


with a roller, o.g.t.s, m (moby), below,

the grifes círculo vicioso and

o+f (os mais fortes), then os+cr

(os mais caretas) [the cleanest

ones], 2000, and under the window,

neca p. 107, on top, traced in black

with a roller, the grife to em cima

[reach the top], prag (pragas)

[plague], rvtd (revotados) [the

rebellious], lower, to the center,

escadão, below, to the left ld7

(loucos da sete) [madmen from 7]

and volume 3, at last poca and

imagen [image] in the lower part

of the façade p. 109, at the top of

the façade, in blue, escadão by pqn

and ngs, 01 (2001), underneath,

in black, ritimos [rhythms],

note, in white on a red background

under the balcony, the emblem of

the group s.s (skate sujera) [dirty

skate] p. 111, at the top, on the concrete

extension, grife drawn in blue

paint ar (adolescência rebelde)

meaning also arruaceiros [the

ones who chill in the street],

then in blue on a green background

h2o by brasa, tribus and mamaue,

in the middle of the façade in black,

farus [smell, clue, evidence] and

os grafes [the graffs] p. 113,

in white with a roller above the

window, escadão, note the white

vertical aerosol inscription to the left

of the double portal, lin ii p. 117,

in the centre of the façade, lin, den,

hbt 97, down below, 8 (8 batalhão)

[the 8 th battalion] and t44 (turma

44) [gang 44] 95, lower down, to the

right, baroes [the barons], den, hbt

p. 119, at the top of the façade, in

black, ebolas [the ebola virus]

by rg and xaradas [literally the

charades, xarada being in fact a

character, one of the ‘villains’ in the

Batman universe named enigma]

by vn, on the ground floor level

canab2’s, with, to the right, the grife

os rgs, represented by the symbol

with the bat contours of Batman,

followed by the expression ‘de dia’

signifing that the inscription was

made in full day light. Note at the

top, to the right, the following

sentence placed side by side with the

inscription of names: sem perceber

larguei a escola e fui pra rua

aprender, andar de skate, pixar

e corri pra ver o mar [without

learning much, i left school and

went to the street to learn how

to skate, do tags and run to see

the ocean] p. 123, at the top of the

façade, in black, tribunal, vadios

[the lazy buggers, the vagrants]

and túmulos, center above, grife os

m (os melhores), to the left grife ar

(adolescência rebelde) meaning

also arruaceiros [the ones who

chill in the street] 2002, above

in yellow spmanos [the guys of

são paulo], over the metal shutter

cagic’s and canab2’s [cannabis],

then in black, túmulos, primos

[the cousins], jamaica, vudus

[the voodoos] 02! (2002), below,

in black, over a white inscription,

hotcity, written in salmon pink the

grife turma de mão and ebolas, in

white on the lower part of the metal

shutter, escadão, reais, and prds

(os procurados) [wanted], etc.

p. 125, at the top of the façade, in

orange, with a roller, os+imun (os

mais imundos), 2000, this inscription

intentionally covering the adverse

grife os rgs, here represented

by the groups a’firma and os rvs

(os rivais) [the opponents];

lower down, in black with a spray

can, c.tropa, psicose and ajatos

p. 127, at the top of the façade with

a black spray can, pda (pixadores

da altura) [high-level pixadores,

of excellence, also signifying

on the peak, able to reach the

summits of buildings], note also the

inscription mfs (os mafiosos) where

the letters are drawn separately on

the red metal shutters p. 129,

at the top of the façade, in black,

apaches with the grife união bola

de gude and rapa [raid, dragnet]

z.n (zona norte), 01 (2001), below,

separated by the windows, gms

p. 131, above the window, in black

on a red background, novinhas

[young girls], fk, 2003 p. 133, at

the top of the façade, the inscription

begins with the paint roller symbol

and then continues with the name

pesadelos [nightmares] where the

‘o’ is both a letter and a human face

with horns and a halo; on the metal

shutter in black, rdu (roedores de

unha) [the nail biters] p. 135,

black inscription, over the window

on a blue background, collos by

clo, the center window ajatos, at

the same level on the right, enigma

by mnh, note below, to the right,

over the balcony, the inscription

s.s (skate sujera) by ot comprising

in the center the grife união bola

de gude p. 137, at the top of the

façade: gênios by cb and os dbs by

dg, further down, with a black spray

can, netiboys and aboa, lower down,

to the left, arrotos then apoca

(apocalipse), pav (pavor) and in

two colors, black and blue, cripta

p. 139, at the top of the edifice,

painted in grey with a roller, cns

(canais) [televison channels]

and px9, then in the middle of

the façade, over the center window,

cripta [crypt], then to the right

novinhas; to the left, set back,

os gs (os garutos sujos) [the dirty

boys] comprising in the middle

of the inscription, the grife união

bola de gude (a circle cut with a

vertical stroke between two sets of

quotation marks), and below, hot

city by r p. 141, at the top of the

façade, in black, written with a paint

roller, the grife os inquebraveis (see

diagram no. 21, p. 264), c c [carol

& caroline] by n, kpg (kapangas)

[the henchmen, the bodyguards]

by e, again the grife os inquebraveis

at the end of the inscription p. 143,

at the top of the façade, in dark blue,

os maldosos [the wicked, the bad

guys] p. 145, in the upper central

part of the façade, in black with a

spray can, c.tropa and homens.

pizza (the second part of the name

here is obliterated), the letter ‘o’ here

being a symbol for pizza, underneath,

in the center, vgn (vagner),

os bv (os bicho vivo), tms, and

just above the balcony, note lemão

[lemon] and santuario [sanctuary]

p. 147, in the central part of

the façade, vudus [the voodoos],

c.tropa [troop c], then, in yellow,

am (a máfia) [the mafia], lower

down, on the grey garage door, in

white, note tiras [cops] and ativos

[the active ones] p. 149, at the

top of the façade, in blue, maionese,

mutants, profecia, 95 (1995),

below, at the top of the metal shutter,

top left, rivais [the opponents] ,

and in the center, with a black spray

can, over the door, collos [phonetic

transcription into Portuguese of the

movie title Colors, which is also the

title of the famous song that Ice-T

made for the original soundtrack

of the same movie] p. 151, at the

top of the façade, agster and alma,

in the middle, above the windows,

in thin strokes with a black spray

can, escadão and a’firma [the

gang], 98 (1998), with the figure

eight transformed into a small

animal ; on the projecting edge of the

balcony, skate sujera with the grife

união bola de gude, then collos

p. 153, upper part of the façade,

black lines on a white background,

a grife in the shape of a human

figure followed by rtms (ritimos)

[rhythms], ocdt + adi p. 155, at

the top with a roller, partly erased, a

grife then the inscription 8 batalhão

[the 8 th battalion] by killer,

1995, zl (zona leste), on the white

metal shutter, beginning at the top,

primos [the cousins], psycoboys,

réplicas, t44 (turma 44) [gang

44] p. 159, in grey at the top, on

the left, n!s (nada somos), then

enemy’s, maloca 03, below in white,

axs by rf, 2003 p. 160, in black

with a roller, profecia by guto

p. 161, in blue with a roller, the

grife i (os infernais) then espião,

2004; note on this photo and the

previous one, the single letter,

drawn perfectly centred at the top

of this fragment of façade, letters

belonging to a name developing

all-over this industrial building of

which we have only reproduced here

two modules p. 163, a church in

Taipas, district of the West zone:

in blue with a roller, pgm (pinguim)

[the penguins] and pdm (pixadores

do morro) [pixadores from

the hill, from the shantytown].

Above, is inscribed a phrase from

a song of the racionais mc’s,

a São Paulo rap group: so sei que

deus é mais eu tó vivo pela fé [all

i know is that god is the greatest,

i live by my faith] p. 165,

a wall in Consolação neighbourhood,

central zone of São Paulo

p. 167, a façade in the surroundings

of the train station Lapa,

in white with a roller, with widely

spaced letters prds (os procurados)

[wanted], underneath, in grey,

plenos [full, lots], then lower

down, still in white with a roller,

os grafes, raros and os mds (os

maldosos); note in the upper right

part of the photo, in black, with

a spray can on grey concrete, the

name hiv in extremely complex

lettering p. 171, on the wagon

to the left, os+imun (os mais imundos)

followed by the grife dk (dead

256


kennedys) and lower down, teoria;

on the wagon to the right, ma (os

melhores amigos) [the best

friends] next ousadia [audacious]

p. 173, inscription by the group

spcrimes [the são paulo crimes]

over the painted publicity for a local

politician, seen in Capão Redondo

neighbourhood p. 173, criminais

[the criminals] by pnd p. 177,

lixo/man/ia! by zé, urban motor

way through the center of São Paulo,

closed on Sunday, when its access

is stricly reserved for pedestrians,

for walking or jogging p. 181, in

the center of Capão Redondo shantytown,

back façade of a building

which, by its strategic location in

the urban landscape, is used as a

monument-support for local names:

in black, on the right spcrimes,

in white, malas [the damned

nuisances] p. 183, the blind façade

(in the center of the photo) o¤ers an

exceptional inscription surface in

terms of visibility in the surroundings,

it constitutes an authentic

‘signature-monument’ of the Taipas

neighbourhood, West zone area.

To the foreground, pgm (pinguim)

[the penguins] and pdm (pixadores

do morro) [pixadores from

the hill, from the shantytown]

p. 185, detail of the mural inscription

of the previous photo: one of

the rare examples comprising a

contour, here cdp (caras de pau)

[literally faces of wood, Portuguese

expression that can be translated

by the hypocritical ones] in yellow

and black, at the top in blue fdr

(os federais) [the federate ones],

in black in the lower part pinguim

[the penguins] p. 187, to the left

in red, ruins, on the right in green,

novinhas and jamaica, fk, adr,

02 (2002) p. 189, trilhos [the

rails], inscription made with a roller

from the roof of this low building

p. 191, in grey at the top, kidão,

kiko and di, at the bottom di, kidão

and kiko again; note on the upper

part of the wall, to the right, a human

silhouette whose limbs end in

arrows, composing the grife pixar é

humano, 91 (1991); di, deceased in

1996, is one of the greatest legends

of the pixadores world p. 193, three

grifes (monograms): não me siga,

os+im (os mais imundos), os+a

(os mais antigos) p. 195, lixomania!

by z (zé); note how each of the

di¤erent signatures clings to the

rough patches of the architecture,

whatever the scale p. 197, z/o

(zona oeste) jamaica by fnd (fernando),

note the particularly complex

grife (apparently a monogram

composed of the letters fqp) in

the upper part of this inscription in

white done with a roller; to the right,

with a spray can in beige os crs

p. 199, the names bebados [the

drunkards], absolutas and chits

[the shits] drawn with a roller;

note the right-left justifying aimed

at occupying the entire width of the

wall (see also diagrams no. 11 and 12,

p. 277) p. 201, at the top kito, then

on the third line down from the top,

partly obliterated, the inscription os

d(e) sempre [those of always], then

below, rbo, 2001, z.o (zona oeste) ;

note the triangular grife (monogram)

at (atropelos) at the beginning of

the second line p. 203, note, in the

upper part of the metal shutter, various

grifes followed by the emblem

am (a máfia), where the hyphen also

represents a mouth with a joint (the

eyes are sketched in above), then

klts (kaloteiros) [the bad payers];

it is extremely rare to observe utilization

of the notion of shadowed surface

as here, where the stroke in fact

marks the shadow of an invisible

letter; another a máfia inscription

is observable p. 147, drawn in yellow

with a spray can, on the right-hand

side of the photograph p. 205,

first line, os bichovivo [the living

animals] by n, second line vitimas

[the victims] by c, z.s (zona sul),

third line the grife humilidad faz

a diferença, 2003; produced with

a spray can in black, this inscription

is of remarkable calligraphic rigour,

spacing requirements and the constant

width of each sign are exceptionally

well mastered p. 207,

lixo/ma, abreviated form of lixomania

[the dustbin madmen] by z (zé)

p. 208, lixoma (lixomania) at the

bottom, on the ground; higher the

grife tm (turma da mão) [the hand

gang] followed by primos [the

cousins] p. 209, letter ‘c’ comprising

an arrow, then os f.d.l ®

(os foras de lei) [the outlaws]

p. 211, at the top, to the right,

spreading around the center point,

which is the window, escadão

[stairs] by ngs and japão [japan],

03 (2003), below, blecaut [phonetic

transcription into Portuguese of the

English expression black-out] by

jlc and viseras [the visors (of baseball

caps)], 02 (2002) p. 213, fatos

[the facts] inscribed with a black

spray can p. 215, olo (olodum)

[musical rhythm, type of music

from the area of Bahia], drawn with

a black spray can p. 216, detail

of the grife os+a (os mais antigos)

[the elders] p. 217, group symbol,

probably the figure ‘2’ p. 219,

grife (monogram) mts (mestres)

[the masters] p. 221, cabeças e..,

the inscription cabeças [the heads]

is a group name, which was traced

by one of its members, whose name

or personal surname begins with an

‘e’, here end p. 223, detail of a ‘p’:

photography here clearly evidences

the constraints attached to use of a

roller as writing instrument, in that

one is obliged to use wide radius

curves.

Inscriptions in detail p. 265 # ¡ lnx

by d, dig ®, nbs by davi, inscription

traced with a roller: lnx signifies

the union of three names comprising

the original group members

(lino+neto+xand) but also loucos

no xadrez [the madmen from

prison], this part of the inscription

is carried out by danis, of whom

only the first letter appears bracketted

in smaller letters to the group

name; dig is the name of a person;

nbs is a group called night boys,

the inscription is made by davi, the

drawing presented here reproduces

more accurately the inscription observable

p. 25 at the top of the edifice

# * (marijuana) zo (zona oeste)

tensão [tension] v3, inscription

traced with a roller. The star symbol

is in fact an extremely stylized cannabis

leaf, frequently encountered in

the di¤erent inscriptions-signatures.

This symbol often replaces a zero

in indicating the year or an ‘o’ in

a name. The group or the person

nicknamed tension comes from the

West zone of the town, as indicated

by the sign ‘zo’; note the presence

of an emblem or grife seemingly v3,

sign of a membership of a larger

group of the same name # £ sonambulos

[the sleepwalkers], inscription

traced with a roller, is the name

of a group belonging to a larger

group called união bola de gude

[the pinball union], as shown by

the presence of the circular barred

grife in the internal space of the ‘m’,

see also the photo p. 169 # ¢ escadão

[stairs], inscription traced with a

paint roller, is the name of a particularly

active pixadores group, see

notably the following photographs

p. 85, 109, 113, 123, 151, 155, 211

# ∞ tribunal, inscription inscribed

with a spray can, is a group name,

see also the photo p. 123 # § apaches,

inscription traced with spray can, is

the name of a group, which belongs,

like case no. 3, to a larger group

called união bola de gude [the

pinball union], as indicated by the

barred round grife (monogram) between

the lower parts of the ‘e’ and

the ‘s’, see also the photographs

p. 84, 129 p. 266 # os mds,

inscription inscribed with a roller,

is a group name composed of three

letters, a contraction of os maldosos,

see also the photographs

p. 143, 167 # • perdidos [the lost

ones], inscription traced with a

roller, group name # ª peraltas,

inscription traced with a roller

# ¡º reprise, inscription traced

with a roller, group name, see the

photographs p. 47, 71 # ¡¡ túmulos,

inscription traced with a spray can,

is a group name, where the ‘o’ is

replaced by the symbol of a coªn,

marked with a Christian cross, wich

is the specific grife (monogram) of

this group, see also the photograph

p. 123 # ¡ fdt, inscription traced

with a spray can, is a group name,

‘s’ was responsible for this signature,

as shown by the presence

of his initial between the ‘d’ and

the ‘t’ p. 267 # ¡£ trombadas

[pick-pockets], inscription traced

with a roller, is a group name, pt

257


ª

¡º

¡¡

¡

266


¡£

¡¢

¡∞

¡§

¡

¡•

267






‘Pixadores have have coined coined a a gestural written written language

Despite Despite laws, laws, ‘pixações’ have have invaded São São Paulo. Paulo. all their all their own, own, using using the the buildings of São of São Paulo Paulo as as

A true A true calligraphic shock, shock, that that has has caused caused a deep a deep

veritable signboards for for their their messages. The The astute astute

aesthetic transformation of the of the city. city. Through more more

analysis which which is is expanded upon upon in this in this volume,

than than 125 125 photos photos taken taken at the at the core core of the of the Brazilian

opened my myopic myopic eyes eyes to a to system a system of writing of writing and and

megalopolis as well as well as a as a detailed analysis of the of the ethic ethic of of creation that that rises rises above above even even the the most most

phenomenon, ‘São ‘São Paulo Paulo Signature’ deciphers for for

high-spirited and and emblematic American graffiti. graffiti.

the the very very first first time time an an unparalleled graphic graphic universe, For For residents of São of São Paulo Paulo it may it may contribute to to

strictly strictly reserved to to initiates before before today. today. blight, blight, but but in its in its massiveness it is it an is urban urban wonder’.

Fr

Ch

Pi

Si

XG

ISBN ISBN 978-2-9528097-1-9 | 280 | 280 pages pages

Steven Steven Heller Heller | author, | author, critic, critic, New New York York Times Times

senior senior art art director

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