JISC Design Competition 2020 Book

emmanuel.gye

Jinkai Initiative Shelter Competition Report and Proposals

This is a campaign enlisting and unleashing the creative talents of Nigerian Architecture students to empower, up skill and rehouse internally displaced person (IDPs).

Published by Jinkai Initiative

JISC

Design Competition 2020

Jinkai Initiative

Shelter Competition

Report and Proposals


Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Seeking Wellness Amidst Illness :

Architects + Architecture In Turbulent Times

Very Special Thanks To

-The National Universities Commission of Nigeria -

- Rotary Club of Airdrie, Alberta, Canada -

- Rotary Club of Wuse, Abuja, Nigeria -

- Modern Business Solutions Abuja, Nigeria -

- YCepture Inc. Canada -

- Our Advisors, Donors, Competitors and Jurists -

JISC Design Competition 2020

All rights reserved

First Edition, 2020


Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Contents

Introduction......................................................................................1

The Competition.........................................................................8

First Prize.......................................................................................10

Second Prize................................................................................18

Third Prize.....................................................................................24

Honourable Mentions.............................................................30

Jury and Advisors......................................................................41


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Jinkai Shelter Competition - Unifying

Humanity, Housing and Hope

Our modern times are filled with uncertainty, disruption, chaos, and all too often, crises. Regardless of

nation, nationality, region or race, we all face significant challenges to the ways we live, to the values we hold,

and to the future we desire. And yet, despite the drama and distraction, and the complexity and confusion, we

have cause for optimism and reasons to be encouraged. William Butler Yeats once noted that “Education is not

the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire.” It is through such a spark that imaginations are unleashed, passion

is harnessed, creatively is cultivated and solutions attained. The youth of today, curious, clever, equipped and

ready, are destined to inherit problems of epic proportions yet stand prepared to move our world ahead in novel,

sensational and potent ways. They will be charged with tackling today’s messy situations and wicked catastrophes

to bring us to a bolder, brighter and better tomorrow.

The Jinkai Shelter Initiative had its origins in an inspired coffee chat between a medical doctor and an

architecture professor. Several years back Dr. Emmanuel Gye and Dr. Brian R. Sinclair enjoyed spirited and

energizing conversation, at the crack of dawn, in a bohemian café in Calgary’s inner city. Fuelled with a shared

conviction around humanitarian concerns and a belief in the power of youth, they bounced around ideas

about health, culture, conflict, climate, housing and quality of life. Dr. Ema and his wife Pamela had a vision

to bring affordable housing to displaced people of war-torn Northern Nigeria. Dr. Brian had a track record of

educating students concerning architecture’s power to address rights, wellness, safety and dignity. These two

men, their training, their knowledge, and their inclinations, were woven inextricably together that day in that

urban café. Arising from their dialogues, aspirations and directions was the Jinkai Shelter Competition. Over

the many ensuing months and days, the competition was defined, delineated, shaped and sculpted. The goal was

to craft a unique competition that would bring talented Nigerian Architecture students to the table, with pens,

paper, stylus and computer in hand, with a focus on designing housing for the countless scores of individuals

and families whose lives had been shattered and overturned through conflict, violence, displacement and

discrimination.

As the competition’s requirements were being determined many issues were explored, including matters

of site, materials, size, character and construction. A key goal was to charge students to meet challenges around

culture, affordability, and, crucially, connection to place. While Ema and Brian were shaping the competition

objectives, structure and guidelines, together with adviser Daniela Gusman, they were concurrently assembling a

stellar jury of accomplished professionals to evaluate the competition entries. Joining Dr. Sinclair in his capacity

as Chief Jury Member were a cast of remarkable experts: Samuel Oghale Oboh, James Inedu George, Stephen

Inji Makama and Chika Daniels-Akunekwe. The jury members were deep in knowledge and rich in experience

-- deliberations were intense and spirited, clearly bringing to the fore the passion, convictions, aspirations and

expectations of the judging team. They were like-minded in their dedication to protecting human rights, to

improving quality of life, to seeking excellence in design, and to pursuing sustainable development goals.

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The competition attracted a plethora of compelling, creative and professionally executed design solutions

from students in Nigeria’s Architecture schools. In reviewing submissions, it was clear to the jury that students

had listened to the call, and in response had rallied skills, understanding, innovation and inspiration to develop

their solutions. An overarching feature of the submissions was a desire to connect people and place -- to honour

tradition, to relate to the land, to bring comfort, to use local materials, to celebrate culture, to investigate the

future, and to create ‘home’ above shelter. The task of judging the many submissions proved daunting, in part

due to the high quality of the work and in part due to the passion, heart and soul clearly embedded in the

solutions. In the end the jury identified three winners and several honourable mentions. All competition entries

were intriguing, captivating and meritorious. Those identified by the jury as top in the pool were distinguished

through the strength of their designs, through the balance & harmony of their planning, through the ingenuity

of their architecture, and through their ability to meet the formidable competition demands around the pursuits

of affordability, sustainability and liveability.

While our initial plans were to hold a festive award ceremony in Abuja where we could personally meet

and congratulate the future architects who designed these great projects with such imagination, dedication,

enthusiasm and talent, our well laid plans were turned upside down by a global pandemic. Instead of convening

in a conference hall in Nigeria we gathered digitally in a Zoom room, honoured with the presence of many

dignitaries and graced with the company of the winning student teams. While the ceremony was not what was

originally envisioned during Ema and Brian’s early coffee talks, it nonetheless served to duly honour the talented

students and generously showcase the amazing design work of the Jinkai Shelter Competition.

To conclude I return to where I started -- that is, the difficult times in which we live. The world is in

many ways unfair, unjust, inequitable, and increasingly uninhabitable. Our futures can feel bleak, our journeys

can feel hard, and our hearts can feel heavy. However, while there are dark clouds over our heads, the sun shines

brightly above them. The excitement, ability, dedication and drive of the Nigerian Architecture students presents

real cause for optimism and hope. The Jinkai Shelter Competition, through the vision of Dr. Emmanuel Gye and

the wherewithal of his team of international Architects, served as a wonderful vehicle to let talent shine and to

reveal to all of us the achievements that can be realized when clever young people are provided opportunities to

‘show their stuff ’. Kudos!

Dr. Brian R. Sinclair, PhD DrHC FRAIC AIA (Intl)

Professor of Architecture & Former Dean, School of Architecture, Planning + Landscape

University of Calgary, Canada

President - sinclairstudio inc.

brian.sinclair@ucalgary.ca | brian.sinclair@sinclairstudio.ca

https://ucalgary.academia.edu/DrBrianRSinclair

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Jinkai Shelter Competition - Introduction

Over 2 million persons have been displaced in Northeast, Northcentral and Northwest Nigeria due to

ethno-religious violence. Most of this population are women and children, and they bear the brunt of the effects.

Jinkai Initiative is a Canadian organization started by Nigerian-Canadians, Emmanuel and Pamela Gye

from Plateau State, based in Alberta Canada. The Jinkai Initiative, spearheaded by the Gyes, organized a unique

design competition for Nigerian Architecture students that took place in 2020, with prizes awarded to winners

on the 28th of October 2020. (www.jisc.com.ng)

The challenge was for the students to design modern yet simple, affordable, easily replicable, and

culturally appropriate housing which can be built by low skilled individuals. Homes will be built using

compressed earth bricks and other locally available materials. This design initiative is aimed at reducing the

effects of psychological and physical trauma through the provision of one of the most basic human needs -

shelter.

The returnees will be trained on how to build these homes, thereby empowering them with new skills

that can potentially empower them to earn income. Displaced people want and need to work -- some have been

returning to their ancestral homes and rebuilding. The Shelter Competition program presents an opportunity

to provide displaced people with better quality housing while concurrently developing skills that can be used

to earn an income. The new homes will be built using the traditional material, namely mud, with the added

innovation of compression. These new homes will be more durable and resilient than concrete built homes. The

design of the homes is by Nigerian architecture students who have been challenged to take part in a competition

by designing culturally appropriate, innovative, affordable and sustainable structures that can be replicated

widely.

Nigeria presently has at least 17-million-unit housing shortfall according to various sources including the

World Bank. Our shelter initiative has the potential to significantly improve the situation, delivering housing at a

fraction of the cost of conventional approaches. Our initiative focuses on rural housing and, as envisioned, could

potentially halt or slow down rural-urban migration.

Stake holders include the State Government, Federal Government of Nigeria through the FMHDSD,

the displaced communities and their leaders both religious and secular. Others include the Local Governments

Authorities, State Governments, multilateral organizations, tertiary educational institutions, N-Power etc. The

opportunity afforded by the competition is to advance a home-grown solution through harnessing the creative

talents of our youths.

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We also humbly request the Government to:

1.

Approve the designs for mass deployment thereby removing the need to apply individually for building permits

2.

Provide materials and heavy equipment to aid in the CEB homes.

3.

Provide title documents to each family that rebuilds their homes in this scheme.

This project achieves some of the objectives of the Federal Government of Nigeria by empowering

youths, women, and the vulnerable, through skills acquisition. It also provides better quality housing (e.g.,

fireproof, bulletproof, earthquake proof and environmentally friendly). The competition has unleashed and

harnessed Nigerian youths’ creativity, energy and innovation.

To ensure implementation of the project, Jinkai Initiative with support from Rotary District 5360 have

commenced arrangements to train and equip the first batch of internally displaced persons from the most

affected Local Government areas of Plateau State (Barkin Ladi, Bassa, Bokkos and Riyom LGCs). This training

is slated for the first quarter of 2021 and at the end the trainees will build one of the homes from the design

competition for the most vulnerable of those affected.

Emmanuel Gye MD CCFP Pg.Dip

CEO/ Founder Jinkai Initiative

Clinical Assistant Professor Cumming School of Medicine

University of Calgary, Canada

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The Competition

The competition brief asked Nigerian architecture students to design modern yet simple, affordable, and

culturally appropriate housing which can be built by low skilled individuals using compressed earth bricks and

other locally available materials. Designs should also recognize the predominant occupation of the population

-- therefore the need for appropriate crop storage and livestock habitation is important.

Thought should be given as to how individual houses best fit into the wider community that is being

rebuilt. Consideration must be given to how the environment will impact occupants’ health and well-being with

factors such as quality indoor environment, sewage disposal, landscaping, recycling, composting etc.

The cost of each unit should be as low as possible in material, recognizing that labour and compressed

earth bricks (CEB) will be supplied by the community.

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The Objectives

The objectives of the design competition are as follows:

- High quality affordable housing

- Culturally appropriate design

- Functional spaces

- Comparatively easy to construct and maintain

- Durable

- Environmentally friendly

- Psychologically meaningful

The Winning Designs

Twenty (21) teams from various architecture schools across Nigeria entered for the competition and eleven (11)

submitted their designs. The relatively low submission rate is not unconnected to the global pandemic which has

caused major disruption to normal life including school closures. Three top prizes were awarded, together with

two honourable mentions. All the following projects were exemplary and meritorious, showcasing the creativity

and imagination of Nigeria’s Architecture students.

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First Place

Crazy World Trends

JINKAI INITIATIVE SHELTER

Shelter is a number one priority in communities

devastated for safety and wellbeing. It is a basic architectural

structure of building that provides protection from the

environment; therefore, this entity is identified with

a real place, where the people live. Culture, tradition,

geography and history are essential components of the

vernacular architecture. The traditional design is to take

human activities as given, without constraints, and to

create an environment which maximally supports them.

Environmental concerns play an important role within

design, thereby shifting our focus so as to support human

Benjamin Moses

endeavours while using the minimum number of resources

throughout the life of the building, to achieve a goal by finding best-fit formal solutions to both user activities

and environmental changes. All materials and techniques are indigenous to the specific location. They are

materials and techniques that have been passed down from generation to generation. Mud is used for the

construction of walls using the technology of compressed earth bricks, other materials such as thatch, bamboo,

reed will be gathered nearby. Compressed earth bricks will be made mostly from the slightly moistened local

soils of that particular area, which will be compressed with a mechanical hydraulic press or manual lever press.

Small amount of cement binder may be added to stabilize the compressed earth brick. Wood is one of the

most used natural building materials, and it has a number of valuable properties such as low heat conductivity,

small bulk density, relatively high strength. Therefore, timber can be used most economically without wasting

any of the derivative of it. Wood can be shaped to any desired form for easy interpretation of ideas. Bamboo

as a building material has high compressive strength and low weight making it one of the most used building

materials. Bamboo can be transformed into any desired shape, it can be used for roofing, walls, streetlights,

handrail, and ground lights. Thatch uses renewable, local materials requiring minimal or zero artificial energy

input in production and costing less than most other types of roofing, at the end of their useful life, thatching

materials can be mixed with a fine aggregate and water to produce mortar, used as adhesive to bind and fill

the gaps between adjacent bricks. Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter

in the absence of oxygen (anaerobically), primarily consisting of methane gas, carbon dioxide. Biogas can be

agricultural waste, manure, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is primarily composed of methane gas, carbon

dioxide, and trace amounts of nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Biogas is burned to generate heat or

used in combustion engines to produce electricity. Ruga ranch aimed to create reserved communities associated

with the cattle business without having to move around in search of grazing land for their cows. These can also

resolve the conflict between nomadic herdsmen and sedentary farmers, the collection of waste will be in large

quality.

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Construction Process

Excavation is performed for construction of the ground support. The thickness of the excavation is based

on the soil, thickness of the foundation and the type of wall construction. A simple concrete bed of suitable

mix is poured into the excavated area. Once the foundation layer is dried, the brick work is started. The firstclass

bricks with cement mortar of 1:4 ratio are used. This is sufficient to transfer the loads to the foundation

safely. The laying of the bricks must be done only after wetting them. Simple stretcher bond is used when laying

bricks and every course should be truly horizontal, walls should be truly in plumb. Vertical joints of consecutive

courses should not come directly over one another, vertical joints in the alternate course should come directly

over one another. No damaged or broken bricks should be used. Closers should be of clean-cut bricks and should

be placed near the ends of walls but not at the other edge. Mortar joints should not exceed 6mm in thickness and

joints should be fully filled with mortar. Brickwork should be carried out for not more than 1 meter or 3 feet in

height at a time. So as to maintain the shape of the building especially the cylindrical shape adobe building type.

Thatched roof starts with an underlying structure constructed with timber. 2x3inch well-seasoned timber tie

beams are placed horizontally across each other on wall. King posts are nailed side by side to tie beams. Rafters

are placed at an appropriate angle and nailed to the king posts and tie beams. Timber struts are nailed to rafters

and kingpost and braced together. Purlins are placed and nailed above the rafter to have a stable roof. Dried

reeds and straws are harvested from a local source. The best reeds and straw are harvested during the dry season.

This ensures that the reed and straw plant will grow in its place the following year. Reeds and straws are gathered

into bundles about 8inches in diameter and then twisted twice to hold them together until is placeable. Starting

at the bottom corner on one side of the roof, wire and pliers to wire one bunch of reeds and straws at a time to

the cross members, minimal space should be left between each thatch bunch. This process is continued all the

way to the ridge pole, making sure to overlap each upper layer of thatching. A waterproof membrane is placed on

roof member thatching.

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Cost Summary

Materials Quantity Price (N) Total (N)

Bricks

Readily Available

Cement 40 Bags 2 600 104 000

Sand

Stone (Hardcore, Gravels)

Readily Available

Readily Available

12mm Reinforcement

Bars

20 Pieces 2 100 42 000

Stirrups 20 Pieces 500 10 000

Binding wWre 4 000 4 000

Reeds and Straws

2x2 mm Well-Seasoned

Timber

Bamboo

Readily Available

50 Pieces 250 12 500

Readily Available

Total 161 100

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Jury Comments

The scheme was comprehensive, well-conceived, well-balanced, and well-delineated. The design

demonstrated fresh thinking, a good choice of materials, cultural sensitivity, and attention to sustainability. The

project exhibited an impressive interplay of creativity with constructability, and traditional forms with modern

directions.

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Second Place

Team Jarumai

Project Green Muhalli Jos

Two design prototypes are proposed due to variation

in the family size: Prototype I cater for family of six, while

Prototype II caters for family of four. The Site amenities are

zoned according to noise generation with respect to trade

wind directions, and equidistant proximity to all households.

Infrastructure such as Security Outposts, Clinic, Market

space, Worship centres, Primary school, and Incinerator are

all provided.

Mohammed H. Abdul

Concept Development

The form concept (cuboid) was born out of the

regular plot shape (rectangle) and oriented towards the

North-South axis for optimum daylighting and reduced

thermal gain. Void was carved out in order to create an

open courtyard system that will permit more daylight, air

for cross ventilation, and a private open space for domestic

chores. The resultant form was then divided into the three

major quarters: Maigida (husband’s) quarters, Yaran gida

(children’s) quarters, and Matan gida (wives’ & daughters’)

quarters. Cultural & Social factors such as need for privacy

and seclusion of private space from the public space was

duly considered. High level windows are used on the

external walls of the Matan gida’s quarters due to security

and privacy reasons. The traditional granary system is still

maintained.

Buhari Abdulrasheed Issa

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Building Material Application

Stone is employed for the foundation walls due to its abundance in Jos North and its durability. Due to

the temperate climate for most part of the year in the Plateau state, compressed earth brick provides thermal

confort. Facing bricks is used as the wall finishing material due to its less need for frequent maintenance, reduced

cost of heating and cooling, and aesthetics quality. Timber and thatch are used for the suspended ceiling system.

Corrugated aluminium roofing sheets and well treated timber roof system is used for the butterfly and shed

roofs. Well treated timber is used as screen walls and sculptured columns.

Oven baked clay tiles are used as floor finish on cement screed floor. Timber and glass are used for horizontal

pivoted windows, while steel and timber are used for doors. Used kerosene lanterns are innovatively used

as suspended lighting pendants/chandeliers. Stone pebbles and shrubs are used to landscape the perimeter of

the building.

Sustainability

Renewable sources of energy (photovoltaic panels) are used to generate power. Stormwater is harvested

into underground reservoirs via the roof gutters, which passes through three separate filters. Septic tanks are

shared between two households in order to cut cost and save space.

Vertical gardens are placed around the externals of the kitchen walls in order to increase thermal comfort

and air quality, and also a daily source of fresh vegetables for the household. Wall creepers are planted on screen

walls and timber wall trellis in order to increase privacy and sieve the inflow air. Thatch is also used as an additional

thermal insulation and aesthetic material.

Construction Method

The Modular and Frame structure method of construction is employed for easier and faster delivery of

housing. Foundation trenches are dug using manual labour to a Civil Engineer’s satisfactory depth. Concrete is

used for foundation footing, and stones are used for foundation walls. Industrial nylon is used as Damp proof

membrane, after compacting the hardcore.

Reinforced concrete columns are erected at strategic points and compressed earth bricks are laid to lintel

level (while taking note of the various fenestrations). Reinforced concrete lintel is then casted. Compressed earth

brick is then laid to the wall plate level. Timber roof system is then assembled and anchored to the wall plate.

Corrugated aluminium roofing sheets are then carefully laid on the purlins and rafter with the aid of nails. Concrete

is used for underground reservoir.

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Material Application and Construction Method

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Cost Summary

Materials Quantity Price (N) Total (N)

Foundation Footing

(Cement)

15 2 000/Bag 30 000

Foundation Wall (Stone) - Readily Available -

Precast Column (Cement

& R.C

Precast Beam (Cement &

R.C

10 4 000/Column 40 000

13 4 500/Beam 58 500

Compressed Earth Brick - Readily Available -

Mortar (Cement) 50 2 000/Bag 100 000

Timber (Roof Members &

Screen Wall)

- Readily Available -

Thatch - Ready Available -

Aluminium roofing sheets 1.5 21 000/Bundle 31 500

Solar Panels 5 30 000/200W 150 000

Water Reservior

Concreting

36 3 000/sqm 108 000

Hardcore Filling - Readily Available -

Wooden Columns - Readily Available -

Bamboo - Readily Available -

Doors (Wooden) - Readily Available -

Windows (Wooden Frame

Glass Panel)

14 1 000/sqft (Glass) 14 000

PVC Pipes 4.5 500/Length 2 500

Workmanship - Locals -

Total 534 500

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Jury Comments

The scheme was strong in many ways, including site development, structural approach, roof articulation,

materiality, and sustainability. The expressional quality of the design was bold and novel, conveying a welcomed

sense of excitement. Graphically the competition entry was compelling and persuasive.

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Third Place

Team PSBC

Pelumi Oriola

Chigbo Okafor

Sharon Nwoke

Brian Ugo

Portrait

Unavailable

SABUNTAWA

From time immemorial, shelter has been one of the

most basic need of mankind and several conditions need to

be satisfied to be able to provide a conducive and healthy

environment. It is a known fact that the human environment

plays a significant role in his state of mind (psychology), it

shapes his behaviour and character.

The design theme is “RESTORATION”,

SABUNTAWA in Hausa language, it aims at providing

comfort and relief for internally displaced people in

northern Nigeria. The objective is to integrate them back

into the community while affording them a new lease of life

at an affordable cost. As such, the provision of this design

is cultural appropriateness, integrating the traditional

architecture style as both the abstract idea and also the

physical structure. Local materials are employed in the

construction processes.

Chigbo The Okafor design is a simple one, modern, affordable and also can be replicated across the region, the

construction does not require expertise or highly skilled labour, as all the materials to be used throughout the

construction process are locally sourced. There is special consideration for climatic conditions, culture and

religion of the people, with the provision of barns for storing crops and pens for their livestock. The spaces

provided are such that will help the users overcome every form of trauma they have been through in the past.

Introduction of courtyard architecture which is one of the very important features of the northern

Nigerian traditional architecture, the courtyard serves several functions which includes play area, prayer area

or special ceremonies and/ or rituals. Special consideration was also given to waste management so as to keep

the environment clean and free from infections as much as possible through the provision of squat toilets, squat

toilets require less water and are therefore suitable for the scope of this design.

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Continued Project Description

Different materials were employed in different stages of the design, for the foundation, it is proposed

that car tires filled with concrete and large bamboos serve as a frame system to hold the whole building together.

Majorly, compressed earth bricks were used for the exterior walls and interior partitioning for security reasons

and also to keep heat from the interior spaces. Corrugated roofing sheet is used placed on a bamboo framework

and strongly tied together in grid form. Other materials used in the interiors are local handmade carpets, wooden

board for the ceiling and floor, bamboo for some of the interior furniture, with painted decorative motifs. It

is estimated that the cost of construction ranges between 2000 US Dollars to 3750 US dollars or its equivalent in

Naira as most of the materials are locally sourced.

The concept used in the design is based on the Hausa traditional architecture and it’s called “the concept

of triple space”. The triple space concept tries to separate the living area in Hausa traditional architecture into

three stages; they are the public area, which includes the living room, ‘zaure’ in hausa language, it is the external

reception that accommodates guest, they ensure the safety of the host and one important feature of this public

area is the ‘dakali’ which is considered the first level of hospitality. Then the second of the triple spaces is the

semi-private space, ‘salemuck area’ this houses the master area, dining and the garden or the courtyard. The head

of the family unit is called ‘turaka’ which can be likened to the master bedroom and the location of this room is

based on the ruling and supervisory possibility and also to defend against any intruder. And the third and the

most important of the triple spaces is the private area, ‘hameli area’ it is the family area, and it houses the wife

and children. The peculiarity of Hausa architecture is that it is influenced by the need to separate the men from

the women and also protect them in case of danger which is why the room for the women and females are situated

away from the main entrance and also allows the mother to look after the children, especially the female ones.

A sense of community plays an important role for the people. Therefore, the need for open spaces such

as a courtyard or ‘rumfa.’ This space can be where the women gather, join games for children, a place for prayers

and other rituals and ceremonies. In addition to this, a kitchen was provided which is usually separated from the

living area to protect the building from fire and also heat transfer to neighbouring spaces, this was well addressed

in the design solutions. There was also a space for keeping livestock and farm produce. The space for this was

separated from the main building but is positioned close to the exit door for easy accessibility from the building.

In conclusion, the design incorporates the modular form of design while also ensuring that the aim and

objectives are achieved. As much as possible the drawings are well detailed as it also in itself describes the intent

of the designers. It is affordable, modular and can easily be duplicated in any part of the region. This design, if

actualized, can restore hope to the displaced people. It is not only comfortable, but it will also appeal to their

emotions as their shelter needs.

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Jury Comments

The design was remarkable in its simplicity – developing a strong concept into thoughtful architecture.

Attention to culture was commendable, including deployment of local materials and communication of character

& identity. The project captured human dimensions, aesthetic quality & sustainability.

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Honourable Mention

Team @ K

JINKAI INITIATIVE SHELTER

The concept of the design comes from three important goals

of the process.

1. Analysis of the weather condition and climate

2. Cost consideration

3. Sustainability

Weather and climate consideration and its effect on the

design.

Godman Agbo

Wind: This region is prone to dry dusty wind from the

Sahara Desert. Hence building is shaped circular in nature

to cushion the effect of the wind.

The animal pen is located on the northeast side (where the wind comes from) to shield the building while

putting no windows on the wall to that end.

Sunshine: To deal with this, all openings (doors and windows) on the exterior walls are retracted while walls

without opening extrude to serve as shading devices for the openings. Hence openings admit light and air but

not Sunrays or glare. Roofing sheet is also made of reflective material (zinc) to put away the sunlight.

2. Cost consideration: Due to cost, design is made to be achievable through vernacular Architecture.

That is, all materials and skills required can be got from very close proximity to the project location. All walls

are made of mud block which a lot of individuals within the area are very skillful at building. Columns and roof

trusses are made of bamboo stems and it is readily available all over the place. Floors are made of suspended

hardwood with short mud walls serving as floor joists and rock scraps laid with mud (stone flooring) for spaces

prone to moisture. Bamboo is also used as reinforcement where necessary and also to form the ceilings. And all

these materials are got free of charge from the neighborhood. Hence most of the construction cost will go into

labor which will also be very minimal since there construction skills required is widely known by the inhabitants

of these areas.

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3. Sustainability: is a major consideration in the design as it cuts from materials used for construction, through

how the occupants get social amenities to how waste is treated or recycled.

a. Materials Used: The major material here is mud bricks which can last between 100-120 years without

any significant maintenance.

Well-seasoned (dried) Bamboo and hardwood used for columns and floors respectively can last for a

significantly long periods of time (Up to 100year) without needing any serious maintenance.

The stone flooring and interlocking are the most sustainable of them all. It can still be in good shape even after

the whole building has dilapidated.

b. Social Amenities (water and electricity)

Water: The main source of water is a local well to be dug on the eastern side of the building. This will be possible

because underground water table here is not far from the surface. Water is also collected from all the roofs and

stored in tanks during the rainy season which last anything from between 6-7 months per year. This water is

later used during the dry season alongside with what the well provides. Each community should have a manually

operated borehole as an alternative source of water.

Electricity: here is got from solar energy using the photovoltaic cells placed on the roof of the animal pen

(since it’s considerably flat) and then stored up in the batteries located in the battery room and later use to run

household appliances.

c. Waste Disposal and recycling: All household wastes are piped into the septic tank where it dissipates

via anaerobic respiration. The moisture then passes into the soak away pit where it gets absorbed into the

ground. This facility (septic tank & soak away) must be located at least 30m from the well and can be shared by

several households.

Animal waste on the other hand is swept, dried and later used as manure for crop production. If all the above

is done properly it will not only create a sustainable home but also a sustainable society where these displaced

persons con build a good life for themselves.

Jury Comments

The design utilized simple geometry in an expressive and persuasive manner. Through pure forms

and thoughtful design this project successfully united disparate features, resulting in a sensitive and mature

architectural solution. Materiality, constructability, and sustainability were high points of the scheme.

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Honourable Mention

Team Maestro

SABON FARAWA

At the core of our design proposal is the belief that

no one deserves not to have a home. Shelter, apart from

being a basic human need, is also a fundamental human

right. Faced with the challenge of designing a home for the

resettlement of displaced individuals, we decided that a key

factor to the success of this project was to fully understand

the essential special configurations that these people

recognize as their own so we can ensure its continuity

through a carefully thought out design and construction

Chuka Uwakwe

process, hence the decision to choose “RESTART “as the

concept. Inspiration for this project is drawn from the

restart icon. Two arrows, one starting where the other stops were literally inscribed as the building forms as a

way of literally symbolizing the theme of the project. SABON FARAWA literally translates to ‘a fresh start’, and

to achieve the intent of this project, we chose elements that will provide an initial frame that can be further

developed by the families, at their own pace and that are based on a simple construction detail that is easy to

replicate.

After thorough research into the life and culture of these areas, we were able to provide a response to

the housing need by ensuring that important aspects of their lifestyle (occupation, religious affiliations, privacy

and security) are all accommodated within the design. We started by properly zoning the spaces with regards

to cultural appropriation and the spaces were tailored to meet specific needs. The public zone (for guests and

the head of the family), the intermediate zone (the courtyard and some other unifying spaces) and then the

private zone reserved basically for women and the children. Visitors are received either at the entrance foyer

of the house (dakali) or in the visitor reception room (zaure) away from the actual living room occupied by

the family. The last part of the public zone is the unit of the head of the family (Turaka) which is most times

a small sitting area that precedes the main bedroom. The remaining spaces are organized around a central

courtyard which serves as the central activity zone of the family. The courtyard is also some sort of a healing

space for traumatized individuals, as it offers an open yet secure space to contemplate, as well as perform group

activities with the entire family. A common shed (rumfa) is also provided as a common space for women and

children, and also for activities like prayers and rituals. The bedrooms are designed such that the occupants

have the freedom to introduce design elements that appeal to them. From the locally made cane furniture, to

the colorful hand sewn traditional carpets and fabrics used to adorn the walls and beautify the interior and

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make them feel more at home. As is traditional to northern Nigeria, the toilet facilities are located at the back of

the house which is the root of its name “bayan gida”. Located about 15 meters away from the main building to

control odor and offer some degree of privacy to the users. Composting toilet was chosen for its low construction

and maintenance costs, low water consumption rate and the fact that it is used to produce fertilizer for the crop

farm nearby. Provisions were also made for livestock and crop farming as it is the predominant occupation of

the local residents. Water needs are catered for with the provision of 500 liter water storage. This ensures that

cooking, cleaning and washing needs are well taken care of. A ground water well is also provided closer to the

farm for irrigation purposes.

Using materials available in the region, this modular project addresses major construction challenges

with the use of simple yet effective design and construction techniques. The first step involves the sub structure,

which are basically short concrete columns for adequate structural support. Once the reinforced perimeter

foundations are set, broken bricks and stones are gathered to constitute the elevated floor. The structural walls

are primarily from compressed earth bricks (CEB), and are essentially finished with mud plaster within the

interior spaces for thermal control.

Metal roofing sheets are used because they are essential for gathering rain water effectively, as well as

providing a safe and dry living space beneath it. Wooden structural members are also used to provide structural

support for the roof, as well as a thin insulation layer of discarded fabric for sound and heat insulation. Parapet

walls are raised to conceal the roof and plastic bottles are utilized to construct scupper drains for effective

roof drainage as well as ensuring adequate rain water collection. Religious beliefs are also incorporated with

inscriptions and decorative motif designs are made on the entrance walls as a way of signifying their religious

inclination.

Finally, while ensuring a suitable home is provided, adequate attention was also paid towards the cost

implication, as the building was made to not only be sustainable, but also cost friendly. Bulk of the building

materials is locally sourced (Compressed earth bricks, plastic bottles, natural mud plaster), and the labour

is supplied by the community, which sees the total construction cost drop within the range of 2million – 2.5

million naira (about $5000). The substructure and the roofing bear the bulk of the cost, as they involve concrete,

aluminum roofing sheets and skilled man power to ensure the structural stability of the building. From

calculation, about 1.5million naira goes into the construction of the sub structure and the roof members. The

remaining budget is just about enough to take care of other construction aspects like external works, drainage,

water supply and the animal pen. Other elements such as furniture, wall finishes (mud plaster), decorative

wall motifs are done from readily available materials and do not require skilled labour. Hence community

involvement is at a maximum, and cost implication is at a minimum.

Jury Comments

The project was well connected to place, exhibiting thoughtful floor plans, homage to vernacular

architecture and attention to sustainability. The design is culturally sensitive and elegantly simple. Overall, the

scheme was visually strong and well communicated graphically.

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Awards Ceremony

Due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, the

planned grand awards ceremony was moved from an onground

Abuja function to an online event. Our virtual

award ceremony occurred on the 28th of October 2020 and

was attended by a global audience with participants from

Canada, United Kingdom, Nigeria and Lesotho.

Patience Bentu

Agenda of Event

1.

National anthems of Canada and Nigeria

It was a convivial event that was masterfully

moderated by Patience Bentu a Wales UK based

multitalented media personality, social activist and a

proud daughter of Plateau State, Nigeria which is one of

the affected communities. The event was live-streamed on

Facebook and YouTube allowing a wider audience to attend.

2.

3.

Welcome address by- Host and convener – Emmanuel Gye

Good will messages from Rotary Club - Airdrie and Wuse Central Abuja -

4.

Remarks by the Guest - Executive Secretary National Universities Commission, Prof Abubakar Adamu

Rasheed.

5.

6.

Opening remarks by the Executive Governor Plateau State-Barr. Simon Lalong

Remarks by the Mother of the day Hon. Dame Pauline Tallen, Minister of Women Affairs.

7.

Remarks by the Special Guest of Honour – Hon. Sadiya Umar Farouq- Minister of Humanitarian

Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development

8.

9.

10.

Recognition of winning designs and teams - Judges and Daniela Gusman

Guest lecture / keynote address by the chief judge - Prof. Brian Sinclair.

Closing remarks by Arc. Sam Oboh.

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In Attendance at the Event

1.

2.

3.

The deputy Executive Secretary of the Nigerian National Universities Commision (NUC) Mr. Christopher

Maiyaki who represented the Executive Secretary Professor A. Rasheed.

The Hon. Commissioner for Housing Plateau State Mr. Bitrus Rimven who represented the Executive

Governor of Plateau State.

The Hon. Minister of Women Affairs Dame Pauline Tallen was represented by her Special Assistant

Princess Joan Jummai Idonije.

4.

Keynote address delivered by Prof. Sinclair, titled “Seeking Wellness Amidst Illness: Architects +

Architecture in Turbulent Times”, was a thought provoking deep dive into the impact of architecture on

wellness and peace building.

The Jury

The jury was made up of five members, all of whom have already obtained qualifications aimed at by

the student participants. This group of judges was representative of the architectural community, duly capable

of delivering fair, professional, and expert decisions by evaluating how well participant’s meet the overall goals

of the competition and completed the requirements of the submission package. Some of the evaluation metrics

included: design innovation + excellent, cultural sensitivity, cost effectiveness, performance analysis, technical

documentation, and sustainability.

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Dr. Brian R. Sinclair, PhD DrHC FRAIC AIA (Intl) is a

Professor of Architecture + Environmental Design, and former

Dean, at the University of Calgary’s School of Architecture,

Planning + Landscape. Brian is president of sinclairstudio inc.,

a multi-disciplinary design|research corporation engaged in

an array of global projects. He holds postgraduate degrees in

architecture and psychology. An educator and practitioner,

Sinclair`s expertise and explorations span from science to

art. Professional memberships include American Institute

of Architects, Union of Mongolian Architects, Society of

Nepalese Architects, Council for Tall Buildings + Urban

Habitat, and Fellowship in the Royal Architectural Institute of

Canada. His doctoral degree (University of Missouri) focused

on an innovative holistic design + planning framework to

improve quality of life for some of world’s poorest people.

Scholarship includes professional practice, design methods,

open building, agile architecture, strategic planning, integrated

design, environmental psychology, international development,

systems & sustainability, and the collision of science + spirit.

Dr. Brian R. Sinclair

Samuel Óghale Oboh is a Canadian architect,

manager, leader and the 2015 President of the Royal

Architectural Institute of Canada. Oboh is the first African-

Canadian to be elected as President of the Alberta Chapter

of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada in 2007. In

2015, Alberta Venture named him as one of the Top 50 Most

Influential People in Alberta. In 2016, Oboh assumed a

diplomatic role in Canada with his as the Honorary Consul

for the Republic of Botswana in Canada. Born in Lagos,

Nigeria, Samuel Oboh studied architecture at the Bendel

State University - now Ambrose Alli University - for his

bachelor’s degree (B.Sc) and he earned a Master of Science

degree in architecture from the Ahmadu Bello University,

Zaria, Nigeria. He graduated from the University of Alberta

with a Master of Arts where he was a recipient of the Herbert

Marshall McLuhan Graduate Student Award.

Samuel Oghale Oboh

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Chika Daniels-Akunekwe, PhD(c) is a Teaching &

Research Assistant in the School of Architecture, Planning

+ Landscape in the University of Calgary. She is being

supervised for her PHD by Dr. Brian Sinclair. Chika, together

with her husband, are CEOs/Presidents of 3volution Homes

Group Inc. (a land development, real estate purchase and

sales, and digital marketing business), and franchise owners

of InXpress (a Calgary-based global shipping and logistics

business). Chika’s professional experience spans the fields

of Architecture, Planning, Investment, Private Equity, and

Research. Her Doctoral specialization in Social Housing

Policy has afforded her the opportunity to both publish and

present papers on related issues (including architectural

design, architectural phenomenology, stakeholder

engagement and social housing integration) across

Canada and internationally. Chika studied Architecture

at Olabisi Onabanjo University (O.O.U) in Nigeria for her

bachelor’s degree and earned a Master of Architecture,

Planning + Urban Design from Newcastle University in the

United Kingdom. The recipient of numerous awards and

scholarships at various levels academically and professionally,

Chika brings a wealth of knowledge to every role.

Chika Daniels-Akunekwe

James Inedu George

James Inedu_George, is an architect and Design

Director of HTL practicing internationally from Nigeria,

Dubai, Melbourne and South Africa, where his immediate

focus is on Innovative Sustainable Solutions and Future

Cities. He is a nominee for the prestigious Rolex Mentor

and Protégé architecture initiative, and a TedX Speaker

amongst other things. James has also been invited to

lecture at the University of Pennsylvania, University of

Cape Town, Department for International Development

(DFID), University of Lagos, Ahmadu Bello University,

Zaria, the Venice Bienalle, Sanegbaa Show in Ghana, The

Ghana Institute of Architects 2018, The Nigerian Institute

of Architects 2015, University of Florida, The Africa Centre

of the University of Florida, Miami International University,

and the University of Southern California, etc. James also

periodically writes a column in the online magazine, YNaija,

where he writes a series of letters to the president about how

architecture can help solve the economic issues in Africa and

beyond, and runs a weekly ideas podcast called An African

Conquering the World. His current interests revolve on the

multilayering of City Space and how the infrastructure of the

city can be invaded and interrupted with architecture, and

mining typologies for Affordable Futuristic Constructions,

from traditional African Architecture for Global use.

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Stephen Inji Makama is an Architect specializing

in Mud Architecture, with an advanced knowledge of

compressed earth brick technology (CEB). Stephen is

an Innovative Architect driven to push creative limits by

experimenting with cutting edge design concepts and

exploration of alternative earthen walling systems. He is

a motivated self-starter with a purpose driven mindset

and orientation. He is married with three boys and enjoys

reading, cycling, hiking, baking, watching movies and the

outdoors.

Stephen Inji Makama

Advisor

Daniela Gusman is the Founder and Executive

Director of rise international - a non-profit social enteprise

that focuses on economic development through job creation,

skills development and entrepreneurship specifically in the

built environment by linking aspiring African entrepreneurs

with essential resources needed in order for their enterprises

to flourish.

Daniela is a seasoned executive with over 20 years of

professional experience in the private sector as well as the

international development sector. She has worked extensively

throughout Europe, Australia, Africa and the USA in

International Sales & Marketing, PR, Business Development

and Social Entrepreneurship. She has provided strategic

growth planning for companies, designed and launched social

enterprises and led diverse teams in various sectors from

educational services, manufacturing to corporate B2B events.

Daniela Gusman

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The Founders :

Pamela and Emmanuel Gye

Jinkai Initiative was conceived by Emmanuel and Pamela Gye from their passionate desire to ease the challenges

faced by the most vulnerable in society. They are a Nigerian-Canadian couple who were born in the Jos area

of Plateau State, Nigeria. The design competition was borne out of a vision to sustainably address some of the

daunting challenges faced by the internally displaced persons (IDP’s) through harnessing the creativity and talent

of Nigerian youths. The couple plan to work with development partners, like Rotary International, local not for

profits, and various tiers of government in Nigeria, to translate the designs into homes which will alleviate the

trauma and suffering of the IDPs.

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