ioplastics magazine Vol. 4 ISSN 1862-5258


Films, Flexibles, Bags | 12

Consumer Electronics | 26



Digestion | 42

06 | 2009

bioplastics MAGAZINE

is read in

85 countries

Plastics For Your Future

Another New Resin For a Better World

BIO-FLEX ® For Deep Freeze Packaging

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH | Siemensring 79 | D - 47877 Willich

Tel.: +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 51-0 | Fax: +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 51-51 |

Smoking a PLA-pipe?

... Well, not exactly.

(For details see page 33)




This has been a busy autumn, with lots of exhibitions and conferences, the

biggest one that I attended being the European Bioplastics Conference with

about 380 bioplastics experts meeting in Berlin.

Packaging is still the largest field of applications, as can be seen from the

huge section ’films, flexibles, bags‘ in this issue. But durable applications are

not far behind. Thus our second editorial focus is on ‘consumer electronics‘.

In the basics section we cover ‘anaerobic digestion‘ or ‘biogasification‘ and

we shed light on the important issue of ‘quantity, quality and comparability

of material properties‘. In order to give true comparability it is essential that

the standards used are clearly stated together with specifications that are


Coverphoto courtesy alesco

And finally we received the promised article on ‘oxo-biodegradable plastics‘.

I think it is remarkable that the author, Professor Scott, clearly states that oxobiodegradable

plastics are not marketed for composting, nor are they designed

for anaerobic digestion or landfill. Oxo-biodegradable plastic addresses the

problem caused by plastic waste which gets accidentally or deliberately into

the open environment - i.e. littering.

As always, this issue also brings you a number of industry news items and

details of new applications. For next year I once again encourage all companies offering

bioplastics products or services to contribute to the magazine with articles, news, or

statements of opinion. On page 45 you will find the editorial calendar with all editorial

focus subjects for 2010, as well as the editorial deadlines.

I hope you enjoy reading this issue of bioplastics MAGAzINE.


Michael Thielen

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 3


Editorial 03

News 05

Application News 34

Event Calendar 45

Editorial Planner 2010 45

Glossary 46

Suppliers Guide 48

November/December 06|2009

Event Review

4th European Bioplastics Conference 10

New Record

Conference on Technical Applications 10

Films | Flexibles | Bags

Deep-Freeze Bio Packaging 12

A Holistic Approach 14

PLA Films are a Team Sport 17

PLA Film Applications 18

High-Performance and Biodegradable 19


Oxobiodegradable Plastic 28


Green Nordic Walking – with Biobased Polyamide 32

A Magic Powder in a PLA Powderette 33


Evaluating Quantity, Quality and 38

Comparability of Biopolymer Materials

Basics of

Anaerobic Digestion 42

New Performance Profiles 20

for Food and Non-Food

Bioplastic Films from the Netherlands 23

Consumer Electronics

Biomassbased Bathroom Scale 24

Eco-Centric Mobile Phone 25

New ‘Eco.‘ Cordless Telephone 26

Vacuum Cleaner Housing 26


Publisher / Editorial

Dr. Michael Thielen

Samuel Brangenberg


Mark Speckenbach

Head Office

Polymedia Publisher GmbH

Dammer Str. 112

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany

phone: +49 (0)2161 664864

fax: +49 (0)2161 631045

Media Adviser

Elke Hoffmann

phone: +49(0)2351-67100-0

fax: +49(0)2351-67100-10


Tölkes Druck + Medien GmbH

47807 Krefeld, Germany

Total Print run: 3,500 copies

bioplastics magazine

ISSN 1862-5258

bioplastics magazine is published

6 times a year.

This publication is sent to qualified

subscribers (149 Euro for 6 issues).

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read

in 85 countries.

Not to be reproduced in any form

without permission from the publisher.

The fact that product names may not be

identified in our editorial as trade marks is

not an indication that such names are not

registered trade marks.

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British

spelling. However, in articles based on

information from the USA, American

spelling may also be used.

Editorial contributions are always welcome.

Please contact the editorial office via


A large number of copies of this issue

of bioplastics MAGAZINE is wrapped in

a compostable film manufactured and

sponsored by novamont (

Coverphoto courtesy alesco

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

100% Bio-Sourced Thermoplastic Elastomers


Capitalizing on its long-standing experience in castor oil

chemistry, France based Arkema has now developed Pebax ®

Rnew100, a range of thermoplastic elastomers produced

entirely from renewable raw materials.

By combining a bio-sourced polyol with castor oil chemistry,

Arkema further extends its program to substitute fossil raw

materials with raw materials of plant origin, in line with

its sustainable development policy. Complementing the

Pebax Rnew range which is based on 20 to 95% plant origin

carbon, Pebax Rnew100, Arkema’s latest high performance

thermoplastic elastomer range, is entirely derived from

renewable resources. Thanks to a reduction in fossil energy

requirements during their production and in overall equivalent

CO 2

emissions, these products will find a natural place within

the eco-design programs initiated by many manufacturers.

As with the other Pebax grades, Pebax Rnew100 boasts

outstanding mechanical properties, together with excellent

resistance to thermal and ultra-violet ageing. Light weight

and outstanding dynamic behavior, hence excellent resistance

to both flexural and tensile stress, also set this product

apart. Pebax Rnew100 therefore offers the best possible

compromise between rigidity and mechanical strength at

cold temperature.

Pebax Rnew and Rnew100 have countless industrial

applications involving the manufacture of high added value

products. They fulfil stringent specification requirements in

many sectors, including automotive, electronics and sports


Bio-Based Plastics:

New Study Forecasts

Enormous Potential

New bio-based polymers have been available in the market

for approximately one decade. Recently, standard polymers

like polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC or PET, but also highperformance

polymers like polyamide or polyester have

been totally or partially substituted by their renewable raw

materials equivalents. The starting raw materials are usually

sugars or starches, partially also recycled materials from

food or wood processing.

In a jointly commissioned study, recently published by

the associations European Bioplastics and the European

Polysaccharide Network of Excellence EPNOE, Martin K. Patel,

Li Shen and Juliane Haufe (Utrecht University) demonstrate

that up to 90 % of the current global consumption of polymers

can technically be converted from oil and gas to renewable

raw materials. “Bio-based plastics will not substitute oilbased

polymers in the near future for several reasons

including low oil price, high production cost and restricted

production capacity of biomass-based polymers that limit the

technically possible growth of these plastics in the coming

years“, explains Patrick Navard, Chairman of the Governing

Board of EPNOE.

Based on recent company announcements the production

capacity of bio-based plastics is projected to increase from

360,000 tons in 2007 to about 2.3 million tons by 2013. This

corresponds to an annual growth of 37 %. “We should keep a

close eye on these figures“, says Hasso von Pogrell, Managing

Director of European Bioplastics. “Important major projects

were delayed in the years 2008 and 2009 due to the financial

and economic crisis. Despite the still uncertain data, which of

course has to be further consolidated, we deem such studies

to be very essential. The role that lightweight conventional

plastics played in the past, substituting durable materials

like iron and steel in vast products, could soon be taken over

by bio-based plastics. As the study shows, the potential is

enormous“, adds von Pogrell.

The study discusses for all major groups of bio-based

plastics the production process, the material properties

and the extent to which they could substitute petrochemical

polymers from a technical point of view. Further aspects

covered are the prices of these novel materials and their main

producers. Three scenarios are distinguished to establish

potential future growth trajectories, i.e. a baseline scenario, an

optimistic and a conservative scenario. The results for these

scenarios are also compared to the findings of a previous

study made in 2005. The new study confirms that substantial

technological progress has been made in bio-based plastics

in the past five years. Innovations in material and product

development, environmental benefits as well as the gradual

depletion of crude oil increasingly call for polymers made

from renewable raw materials.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 5



from Algae

California (USA) based Cereplast Inc. recently

announced that it has been developing a breakthrough

technology to transform algae into bioplastics and

intends to launch a new family of algae-based resins

that will complement the company’s existing line of

Compostables ® & Hybrid ® resins.

Cereplast algae-based resins could replace 50%

or more of the petroleum content used in traditional

plastic resins. Currently, Cereplast is using renewable

material such as starches from corn, tapioca, wheat

and potatoes and Ingeo TM PLA.

“Our algae research has shown promising results

and we believe that in the months to come we should

be able to launch this new family of algae-based

resins,” stated Frederic Scheer, Founder, Chairman

and CEO of Cereplast. “Algae-based resins represent

an outstanding opportunity for companies across the

plastic supply chain to become more environmentally

sustainable and reduce the industry‘s reliance on oil.

We are still in the development phase, but we believe

that this breakthrough technology could result in a

significant new line of business in the years to come.”

“Based on our own efforts, as well as recent

commitments by major players in the algae field, we

believe that algae has the potential to become one of

the most important ‘green‘ feedstocks for biofuels, as

well as bioplastics,” continued Mr Scheer. “Clearly, our

focus will be on bioplastics. However, for our algaebased

resins to be successful, we require the production

of substantial quantities of algae feedstock. We are very

encouraged when we see big players entering the algae

production business, including Exxon’s $600 million

investment in Synthetic Genomics and BP’s $10 million

investment in Martek Biosciences.”

Cereplast has initiated contact with several

companies that plan to use algae to minimize the

CO 2

and NO X

gases from polluting smoke-stack

environments. Algae from a typical photo-bioreactor is

harvested daily and may be treated as biomass, which

can be used as biofuel or as a raw material source for

biopolymer feed stock. The company is also in direct

communication with potential chemical conversion

companies that could convert the algae biomass into

viable monomers for further conversion into potential

biopolymers. “Algae as biomass makes sense in that

it helps close the loop on polluting gases and can be a

significant renewable resource,” added Mr. Scheer.

Multilayer Films

Breakthrough for

Food Contact Market

Global sustainable resins supplier Cardia Bioplastics,

headquartered in Mulgrave,VIC, Australia, has announced

a new range of Cardia Biohybrid based films that comply

with the European Commission standard 2002/72 EC for

food contact.

Cardia Bioplastics has lodged new provisional patents

to protect this innovative technology, which expands its

extensive patent portfolio. Cardia Bioplastics Managing

Director Dr Frank Glatz said the multilayer film technology

provides the food industry with excellent clarity, and

mechanical and processing properties.

“This development enables customers to move

confidently into more sustainable packaging solutions

and opens significant new market opportunities for Cardia

Bioplastics, which extend from commodity packaging into

the food packaging industry. The sustainability benefit of

Cardia Biohybrid multilayer film also offers food marketers

packaging solutions with a competitive edge for their

products,“ said Frank Glatz.

Interest from international brands in Cardia Compostable

and Cardia Biohybrid resins has resulted in the company‘s

decision to expand its manufacturing facility in Nanjing,

China. The relocation to a larger site will effectively double

the company‘s manufacturing capacity.

In addition, Cardia Bioplastics has opened a new

Global Application Development Centre at the company‘s

Melbourne, Australia headquarters. This facility focuses

on the application of Cardia Compostable and Cardia

Biohybrid resins to customers‘ specific products.

Frank Glatz said interest in sustainable resins is growing

consistently as international marketers seek a streamlined

path to technologies that meet more demanding

environmental solutions for their packaging and plastics

products. - MT

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


New Joint Venture

in India

A new bioplastics joint venture will be the first of its kind

in India, where Earthsoul India Private Limited, through its

promoters the Bilimoria family, will hold 60% and the balance

of 40% will be held by the state-owned J&K Agro Industries

Development Corporation Ltd, led by Dr. G. N. Qasba, managing


Earthsoul India have been the pioneers in India since 2002

for 100% compostable and biodegradable packaging materials

made from renewable raw materials such as waste stream

starch. Market leaders in the field of biopolymer products, they

have been associated with Novamont (Italy) for the past 8 years.

J&K Agro Industries Development Corporation Ltd has been

involved in the manufacture of food products, cattle feed, etc

in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The corporation is also

proactively engaged in the agricultural and irrigation sectors,

as distributors and facilitators in the supply of machinery and

equipment, fertilizers, mulching films for greenhouses etc.

The two organisations are convinced that they have the

necessary synergies to group together in order to foster and

grow the bioplastics industry in India and South East Asia.

Currently the bioplastics industry worldwide has been enjoying

a growth rate of approximately 20% per year.

The joint venture has earmarked an existing manufacturing

facility, owned by J&K, at Sidco Industrial Area, Bari Brahmna,

which is classified as an industrially backward area. The head

office of the joint venture company will be situated at Srinagar.

Equipped with state-of-the-art plant and machinery, both

domestic and imported, the facility will have a capacity of

approximately 50 tonnes per month and will be J&K’s first

carbon neutral manufacturing facility.

The designated executive chairman of the new joint venture,

Perses M. Bilimoria, is a well-known bioplastics personality

in India. He was the first significant introducer of biopolymer

products into India and has been on various committees of the

Ministry of Enviroment and Forests, New Delhi, for plastics

in waste management and on the BIS committee, New Delhi,

for adopting international standards on compostable and

biodegradable raw materials, made from renewable resources.

The company will be managed by a team of professionals

chosen by the board of directors from a wide spectrum of the

manufacturing industry.

The product range of the new company comprises 100%

compostable and biodegradable bags, mulching films for

agriculture, nursery pots and sapling bags for the horticulture

and floriculture markets.

The facility is due to commence trial production in 12/09 and

to enter the commercial market before 03/10. MT,

Plastics in the

North Pacific Gyre

Commenting on Project Kaisei‘s findings on

plastics in the North Pacific Gyre, the British

Plastics Federation (BPF) believes that plastics

litter is far too common in the marine environment,

it should not be there and more effort is needed by

all concerned to ensure good waste management

on shore and on vessels, and to provide education

on littering. Furthermore, the Federation wishes to

draw attention to a major initiative it has recently

launched to stop any loss of plastics raw material

into the environment.

The United Nations Environmental programme‘s

report last year pointed to the difficulties in

obtaining accurate information but to tackle the

problem of all waste in the oceans they called for:

integrated waste management to tackle litter; raise

public awareness and education; improved port

waste collection facilities; and stronger economic

incentives, fines, and enforcement.

The BPF supports all these objectives and

recently launched an initiative in the UK called

‘Operation Clean Sweep - Plastic Pellet Loss

Prevention’, to ensure that raw material does not

escape into the environment. The BPF hopes to

get the commitment of every company, from top

management to shop floor employees to use the

Operation Clean Sweep manual on prevention,

containment and clean up of plastic materials to

ensure no escape into the environment.

Peter Davis, BPF Director-General says: “The

Plastics industry does not put plastic into the seas.

This is caused by littering, illegal dumping, poor

waste management. We want the plastic back to be

recycled or provide much needed energy through

energy from waste combustion. International cooperation

is needed to make this work, it is a global


Concerning so-called ‘oxo-biodegradable’

plastics the BPF believes that littering is a

behavioural issue and not one related or confined

to the use of specific materials. MT

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 7


Design and

Technology Award

Biograde ® is a transparent, injection

mouldable bioplastic based on cellulose. This

co-developed product from German FKuR and

Fraunhofer UMSICHT combines renewable and

biodegradable cellulose acetate with special

additives and couplers by means of an adapted

biocompounding process from FKuR. Biograde

is transparent (depending on grade), dyeable,

scratch and heat resistant. The cellulose

acetate used is gained from European soft

wood. The Design+Technology Award 2009

has been granted within the framework of

the international fair ‘Materialica‘ in Munich,

Germany on October 13, 2009. An independent

panel of seven experts has determined in a

non-public meeting a total of 20 awardees in

different categories out of approximately 100

international submitted nominations.

Biomaterials Services

from Finland

Based on the long experience in biomaterials Hycail Finland has

evolved from a R&D department into an independent company offering

development and analytical services within the biomaterials field.

Following a management buyout of Hycail Finland the company has

changed the focus from developing own products to help its customers

utilizing the technology it once developed.

“We offer years of experience and expertise in biomaterials

development, we already made all the mistakes and are now able to

make biomaterials easy for our customers” says Svante Wahlbeck,

Managing Director.

The service lab includes polymerization and compounding equipment

as well as characterization and testing equipment.

In addition to development services Hycail Finland offers complete

quality control programs for production processes or end products.

One of Hycail Finland’s unique capabilities is using different PLA-stereo

complex based materials to modify material properties.

“Of course, PLA is a focus area but we also work with blends and

testing of plastics materials in general. Presently our customers range

from big multinational packaging companies to highly specialized

biomedical companies.” says Heikki Siistonen, Sales Manager.

Field Trial of Bioplastic-Producing

Tobacco Crop Successful

Metabolix, Inc., a bioscience company from Cambridge, Massachusetts,

USA, focused on developing sustainable solutions for plastics, chemicals

and energy, recently announced that it has completed a field trial of

tobacco, genetically engineered to express polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)

biobased polymers. Metabolix obtained the necessary permits from the

U.S. Department of Agrculture Animal Plant Health Inspection Service

(APHIS) to perform an open air field trial in March of 2009 and field trial

experiments were completed in early October. The trial was performed on

3,237 m² (0.8 acres) of land and provided valuable data and information

relating to polymer production, with the best plants producing 3-5% PHA.

This furthers development of Metabolix crop technologies for the coproduction

of biobased plastics in non-food bioenergy crops.

Dr. Oliver Peoples, Chief Scientific Officer of Metabolix, commented, “The

experience and knowledge we have gained during our tobacco field trial is

laying the groundwork for planning and permitting activities for field trials

in bioengineered, non-food oilseed and biomass crops producing PHA.

We believe that our crop programs offer a number of commercialization

options and hold significant potential. We are excited to continue to push

this technology forward and believe it will ultimately support a diverse

array of bioengineered, environmentally conscious and economically viable

alternatives to petroleum-based products.“

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4



The highly innovative technical team at

Ultimate Packaging believes it has produced a

world first environmentally-friendly product as

part of a joint venture with Innovia Films and Sun

Chemical. Staff at the North East Lincolnshirebased

company believe that Ultigreen is the first

ever truly biodegradable and home compostable

printed laminate for the food industry.

Using hybrid biodegradable inks, Ultimate

Packaging has reverse-printed Natureflex

and laminated the material using a unique

biodegradable adhesive to metallised Natureflex.

The company has already established itself as

one of the UK‘s flexographic print suppliers to the

food industry, but the experienced team continue

to focus on finding innovative new solutions for

its customers.

Ultimate Packaging Technical Manager,

Derek Gibson, explains “Until now, only a small

coverage of standard inks could be used to enable

products to pass the EN13432 standard and to be

rated as biodegradable. The new Sun Chemical

hybrid inks allow total print coverage on food

packs and the biodegradable adhesive applied

to bond these two Innovia materials means that

this product can be classed as being made from

totally biodegradable components.

“We selected a promotional tea design to prove

that the newly developed biodegradable inks and

adhesive were compatible and then printed the

Ultigreen product on our recently commissioned

Soma Imperia 10 colour press.“

The new product development team at Ultimate

Packaging is now working on further products

using the new ink and adhesive technology to

bring additional completely biodegradable and

home compostable flexible films to their food

industry customers.

“This really is an exciting development for us

and we believe that it has enormous potential,“

says Chris Tonge, Ultimate Packaging Sales

and Marketing Director. “It is only the first of

several new products that will set our family-run

business apart from our competitors.“

New Eco-Label:

OK biobased

Halfway through the 1990s, Vinçotte developed the OK compost

conformity marks for products meeting the European EN 13432

standard, thereby playing a pioneering role during that period

of time. Thanks to the new OK biobased certification system

manufacturers can officially demonstrate the use of renewable raw

materials via the independent OK biobased conformity marks.

This is the first time an official certification body has launched a

similar conformity mark based on exact measurements. Demand

rose in particular from the packaging industry, as it is constantly on

the look-out for renewable materials, owing to growing pressure

on raw material prices and the way environmental regulations

are being changed all over the world. The buying public‘s growing

awareness of environmental concerns is also ensuring an

expanding market for these products. What is more, consumers

are anxious to have a rock-solid guarantee about the claims found

on packaging. Thanks to the new OK biobased eco-label, Vinçotte

can offer a completely independent guarantee about the origin of

products. In this case, ‘biobased‘ refers to products of a biologically

renewable rather than a fossil origin.

Petroplastics versus bioplastics

The keen interest in bioplastics can be summed up in one

concept: carbon footprint. Biobased products help limit our

carbon footprint, while making us less dependent on fossil

fuels. For several years now a whole host of companies have

been marketing bio-resources partly or entirely on the basis of

biologically renewable carbon.

OK biobased certification: clear and straightforward

Apart from fuels, products (partly) made from bioplastics and/

or materials of natural origin are eligible for the OK biobased

certification mark. The basic material is assessed in the light of

exact analyses for determining the renewable organic carbon

content. The same analysis method (C14) is used for dating bones.

A straightforward calculation can be used to convert the analysis

findings into an exact ‘biobased’ percentage.

As a result of promoting correct and documented claims,

Vinçotte is making a contribution to the harmonized development

of alternative and sustainable technologies.

One to four stars


The communication strategy is based on a logo with one to four

stars. The principle is quite straightforward: the more stars there

are, the higher the biobased carbon content: one star means

between 20% and 40% biobased material, two stars between 40%

and 60%, three stars between 60% and 80% and four stars over 80%.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 9

Event review

New Record: Bioplastics

Continue On the Road to Success

The European Bioplastics Conference took place for the fourth time in Berlin on the 10th and 11th of November and despite

the difficult financial situation the event broke all records. 380 visitors and 27 exhibitors attended the conference hosted by

the industry association European Bioplastics. Experts still expect continued growth in the field of compostable and biobased


“Where will the industry be in five years‘ time?“, “What are the trends?“, “Which materials will dominate the market?“,

“How can we communicate the advantages for the environment and what are the optimum utilisation fields for bioplastics?“

28 speakers and 380 participants dealt with these and other questions during the two-day bioplastics conference in Berlin.

Altogether 237 companies from 27 countries attended the event. Approximately 78 % came from Europe, 16 % from Asia and

over 5 % from North and South America.

The European Bioplastics Conference is now in its fourth year and has become an established industry event. “To have broken

attendance records, in spite of the difficult economic background is extremely heartening. Market interest and uptake is very

real and bioplastics producers continue to increase both capacity and the technical capability of their materials“, cheers Andy

Sweetman (left picture above), Chairman of the board of European Bioplastics.

Professor Patel

(Utrecht University)

Conference on

Technical Applications

Biobased materials are today finding a wider usage,

especially for technical (non-packaging) applications. With

this shift from compostable packaging to durable applications

increased demands regarding the material’s performance

and processing properties can be observed. On the subjects

on injection moulding performance, rheological processing

parameters as well as long-term behaviour our knowledge

today is still limited.

Thus these questions and technical applications were the

focus of a conference, ‘bioplastics - technical applications

of biobased materials’, held in Duisburg, Germany in early

October. The conference was chaired by Prof. Hans-Josef

Endres (University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Hanover) and

Prof. Johannes Wortberg (University of Duisburg).

In addition to a general overview of the current situation

experts from raw material suppliers such as DuPont,

Kuraray, Sukano or FKuR informed the conference about

the processing, application and challenges of biopolymers.

Speakers from companies such as KraussMaffei Berstorff,

Huhtamaki, Bosch and Volkswagen discussed the processing

and properties of biopolymers in technical applications.

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Polylactic Acid

Uhde Inventa-Fischer extended its portfolio to technology and production plants for PLA,

based on its long-term experience with PA and PET. The feedstock for our PLA process is lactic acid

which can be produced from local agricultural products containing starch or sugar.

The application range is similar to that of polymers based on fossil resources. Physical properties of

PLA can be tailored to meet the requirements of packaging, textile and other applications.

Think. Invest. Earn.

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159

13509 Berlin


Tel. +49 30 43 567 5

Fax +49 30 43 567 699

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG


7013 Domat/Ems


Tel. +41 81 632 63 11

Fax +41 81 632 74 03

Uhde Inventa-Fischer

A company of ThyssenKrupp Technologies

Films | Flexibles | Bags


Bio Packaging

Article contributed by

Andreas Bergmeier,

Director Development,

Dettmer Verpackungen GmbH,

Lohne, Germany and

Dr. -Ing. Christian Bonten,

Director Technology,

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH,

Willich, Germany

Deep freezing is a method of preserving foodstuffs containing water.

During deep freezing the storage temperature of the food is

set significantly below freezing point (at least -18 °C), thus slowing

down or even stopping the growth of micro-organisms. Chemical

and physical processes in food are also slowed down or avoided completely.

Biochemical, and most notably enzymatic, reactions are also

slowed down [1].

Requirements of deep-freeze packaging plastics materials

Deep-freeze packaging preserves frozen food from drying-up and

protects it against outside influences: light, air (oxygen), moisture

uptake, contamination and infection by micro-organisms, outside odours

and tastes, as well as mechanical damage. It needs to exhibit barrier

properties and mechanical properties, and also needs to be printable

and weldable.

‘Freezer burn‘

‘Freezer burn‘ is a form of dehydration usually caused by improper

packaging. The surface moisture has evaporated, and the food may

appear lighter in colour and ‘dried out‘. While the food is safe to eat, the

quality is lower. It often has an ‘off-flavour‘.

Whilst at home one can manage to package the goods to be frozen

rather carefully, however the filling process under industrial conditions

looks different: frozen goods - some with sharp edges - may fall from a

belt weigher directly into an open bag, which will then be immediately


Bio-Flex – bioplastics for deep-freeze packaging.

FKuR´s trade name Bio-Flex ® stands for copolyester blends based

on PLA which – depending on the respective grade – are produced

from a high amount of natural resources. Bio-Flex does not contain

any starch or starch derivatives. The material’s mechanical properties

at low temperatures are particularly crucial for an overall deep-freeze

packaging performance. High impact strength and dart drop strength at

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags

Tear Rresistance

Modulus of





at Break

Seal Strengh

Tear strength

— PE

— Bio 1. generation

— Bio 2. generation

Fig. 1 Comparison of mechanical properties

these temperatures are a must in order to achieve approval. Low glasstransition

temperature as well as homogeneous material and distribution

of synergetic additives are the keys to meeting these requirements.

Dettmer Verpackungen (Delo) in Lohne, Germany, uses Bio-Flex

F 2110 as a basis for a multilayer system for deep-freeze packaging.

A packaging film has been developed for the market leader in deep

frozen potato products that meets the many and various requirements.

McCain´s philosophy behind this concept is coherent: ‘100 % Bio – inside

and outside’. McCain´s Bio Harvest products derive from certified,

ecologically controlled cultivation. To emphasize this, packaging

made from renewable resources was needed - which also had to be

biodegradable. The biodegradation, including the inks, has been tested

and certified according to EN 13432. High quality printing with up to

10 colours is possible and the packaging carries the well-established

seedling logo. But, what about the mechanical properties?

Astonishing results were achieved when the biofilm was compared

with polyethylene of the same thickness. Delo, as market leader in

deep-freeze packaging, with 13 blown film units, is known for its highly

demanding performance. Delo coextrudes up to seven layers and prints

on 12 flexo print lines, five of which are equipped with 10 colour decks.

The latest generation of biofilms from Delo´s director of development

contains up to 70 % renewable resources, without any compromise.

Fig. 1 shows clearly that by means of Bio-Flex a leap into new dimensions

of mechanical properties of thin packaging films has been achieved.

There is currently no technical obstacle to a broad market launch.

Delo have even managed to offer solutions that have so far not been

possible with PE. Excellent puncture resistance or rigidity previously

only achievable in multilayer systems, open up completely new scopes

for design. High quality raw materials and compounds such as Bio-

Flex today allow for a broad variety off coextruded films as ‘customized



bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 13

Films | Flexibles | Bags

Carbon-Neutral and

Compostable Films -

A Holistic Approach

Sustainability has long been more than just a buzzword at the packaging

film manufacturer alesco from Langerwehe, Germany. The business is

committed to pursuing a holistic approach in this respect – conservation

of resources, environmental protection, carbon neutrality, social responsibility

and environmentally friendly innovation are all factors in this strategy. And

because these issues are a way of life at the company, with its 210 employees,

rather than just being a marketing slogan, the manufacturer of PE and biofilm

packaging is happy to show its cards and be open about its approach in order

to encourage others to follow this responsible path.

“We developed a mission statement and a vision together with our staff in

a number of joint workshops. These provide the basis for our environmental

protection goals, our commitment to development that conserves resources

and also our principle of carbon neutrality,” explains alesco Managing

Director Philipp Depiereux with regard to the emergence of the revamped

corporate philosophy with its focus on sustainability. Depiereux joined the

new management team in 2004 and wanted to do more than merely produce

marketing material focusing on new green products in the company. He wanted

the company to really live and work in a green way on a daily basis.

Not an easy task, as he admits in retrospect: persuading employees that

have worked for decades with products manufactured from the finite resource

that is oil to switch to green and sustainable strategies requires some well

chosen words. However, the results of the drive for holistic sustainability in the

business and in the products are now tangible throughout the company.

For example, in the compostable film produced from sustainable raw

materials. After three years of development work, the first biofilm from alesco

was presented at the special show entitled “Bioplastics in Packaging” at

interpack 2008 in Düsseldorf, and the fruit and vegetable bags proved to be a

real hit at the trade fair.

New areas of application, such as brochure packaging films for direct

mailings and catalogues (e.g. bM 5/2009), compostable shopping bags, deep

freeze films and the new Bioshrink, which was presented at drinktec (Munich,

Germany), show that all the staff at alesco are now right behind this groundbreaking

approach. But alesco has also put a great deal of thought into

issues beyond the actual products themselves; for example, all biofilms are

manufactured exclusively using green electricity produced from hydropower.

And this commitment to green electricity will be extended by alesco to all of its

production facilities in Langerwehe from 2010.

But a holistic approach requires more than environmentally friendly

products alone. alesco pursues its strategy in the production process as well

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags

– such as with the solvent recovery facility in the print shop. This system

allows solvents, which are used in large volumes in the print shop, to

be separated from the paint sludge, after which they are returned to

the production system to be used again. The system led to a reduction

in solvents of 70,000 litres (which therefore did not need to be newly

purchased or expensively disposed of) in 2008 alone - the first year of

operation – and the trend is on an upward trajectory. This means that

important resources are conserved, roads are relieved of traffic due to

reduced freight requirements and CO 2

emissions are also reduced as a

direct consequence of this.

A paint mixing facility was also installed in the print shop in 2008. This

means that alesco now generally only has to order basic colours as it

can mix special colours on-site, and it also means that waste is avoided

as only the required amount of paint has to be mixed. If, for example,

a customer in the consumer goods sector reduces its printing order at

short notice, then already ordered paint does not have to be disposed

of or put into long term storage. In its very first year, this measure led

to a reduction in requirements equating to 40,000 litres of paint, which

would otherwise have had to be transported away and disposed of.

Lotta, our four year old cover girl says:

„Oh, I loved the yummy carrots and

my daddy made the plastic

bags from bioplastics“.

The company has also worked to achieve environmental optimisation

with regard to the actual paints it uses. This is where solvent free,

water-based paints were the solution. The research and development

team worked for quite some time on these in order to achieve exactly

the right composition and, as a result, it has been possible since

2009 to order print runs for compostable biofilms with this even more

environmentally friendly paint. Printing can be carried out on up to

eight printing units and the use of new paints does not necessarily lead

to a compromise with regard to quality; part of a holistic approach also

involves never losing sight of the needs of customers – who like nice,

glossy printed images.

Regranulation avoids unnecessary transportation

At alesco, film regranulation of edge strips and rejects is handled

internally: an in-house film regranulation system and a service

provider based on-site results in short transportation distances for the

reprocessing. This avoids the emissions that would otherwise have been

produced during transportation to a regranulation plant some distance

away. The entire stock of alesco regranulate material is then returned

to the production process and not sold on to other film manufacturers,

which would also result in transportation emissions.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 15

A CO 2

footprint makes environmental protection

measurable at alesco

In order to be able to measure the overall positive

environmental effects of the innovative developments

and modernisation in the production process, alesco

commissioned the calculation of a corporate carbon footprint

(CCF) for the entire company and a product carbon footprint

(PCF) for all the packaging film products at the beginning

of 2009. These footprints show how much carbon dioxide is

emitted for each kilogramme of film produced.

However, the environmental efforts of the film manufacturer

cannot be gauged from the first CO 2

footprint as this is a

reference from which to measure progress, so stopping at

that would not fit in with the holistic approach of the company.

“We will only be able to see what we have achieved when

we commission the calculation of a new footprint next year

and can compare the values to see by how much our CO 2

emissions per kilogramme of film produced have decreased,”

adds Depiereux.

Although this may sound very simple, it actually requires

a lot of careful planning: as well as the entire energy

consumption at alesco and relevant data from suppliers

(raw material suppliers, paint suppliers, additive suppliers,

suppliers of solvents and also suppliers of other consumables

etc.), all commuting-related CO 2

emissions generated by the

210 members of staff at alesco were also determined – which

involves taking into account the routes taken as well as the use

of cars, bicycles, trains and buses. The PCF also included the

entire supply chain, the processing stages (film production,

film printing, film packaging) and the subsequent route to

their place of utilisation. The footprints were calculated by an

independent climate protection consultancy - ClimatePartner

Deutschland GmbH. Only the process of packaging products

using the film at the customer and the subsequent use and

recycling by consumers could not be taken into account.

“Unfortunately, we do not know if the consumers arrive at

the point of sale on foot or by vehicle in order to acquire the

packaged product,” explains Alexander Rossner, Managing

Director of ClimatePartner Deutschland GmbH.

Carbon neutral packaging

The CO 2

footprint also provides another benefit: if it is

known how much CO 2

is still produced as a result of the

production process despite the implementation of a range

of measures, the film can at least be produced in a carbon

neutral way by means of acquiring the corresponding amount

of climate protection certificates to enable carbon offsetting.

alesco is one of the first packaging film manufacturers in the

world to offer its customers this service. All alesco biofilms

are already produced and supplied carbon neutrally at no

extra cost. And, if customers wish to acquire other types of

film carbon neutrally, then the only additional charge made is

the actual cost of acquiring the necessary climate protection


The number of certificates required is determined using a

climate calculator, which provides alesco with exact emission

figures for the production of each individual type of film. “In

this way, we can offset the emissions in accordance with the

provisions of the Kyoto protocol. For the neutralisation of the

biofilm products, we have chosen an approved and certified

biomass project in India,” comments Depiereux.

alesco has also not forgotten the marketing opportunities

that this approach can provide for customers, who now have

the option with printed films of including information about

the carbon neutrality of the packaging film. And this seems

to be a popular choice: since the certification of the films

was started, numerous orders have been produced carbon

neutrally and a number of customers have chosen to have the

film labelled as being carbon neutral.

There is still a lot of scope for improvement in the


With their holistic approach, the staff at alesco have by

no means exhausted all the potential measures that can be

implemented: hauliers must also consider using trucks with

low fuel consumption figures, and raw material and additive

suppliers can investigate environmentally friendly production

methods. An environmental report is currently being produced

in order to document all alesco’s environmental initiatives and

projects. “The green strategies of conservation of resources,

avoidance of emissions and reduction of emissions will

continue to be pushed, even in tough economic times,” states

Philipp Depiereux as a clear indication of the company’s

steadfast commitment. Rest assured, the alesco staff will

continue to do their utmost to protect the environment.

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags

Fig. 1: PLA film laminated

on paper bags

PLA Films are

a Team Sport

As the supplier base has grown recently, a wide diversity of Ingeo films are being

used in bags, wraps, lids, and labels. Among all the products in the bioplastic

industry, films may best exemplify the supply chain’s team effort through

close engineering cooperation to build innovation into the products delivered to consumers.

For example, French manufacturer Polyfilms, which operates a state-of-the-art

plant for coextruded, bioriented films near Paris, has developed Polybio — a range of

Ingeo-based oriented films. Polybio film is laminated on paper bags for bread or salad

(Fig. 1). It is also used for sealable film lidding and both white and transparent film

labels. Once metalized (either with transparent or white film) the barrier properties are

enhanced and the product has high opacity and brilliance.

Article contributed by

By Stefano Cavallo,

European Marketing Manager,

NatureWorks, LLC

Polyfilms also sells Polybio to a family of converters that add to the film’s barrier

properties to expand the number of potential applications for this product. Metalvuoto

has developed a lacquer coated oxygen-barrier film under the brand name Oxaqua ® .

One of these converters, Alcan Packaging, offers CERAMIS ® -PLA films which are

transparent high barrier films with a silicon oxide coating.

Goglio Cofibox SpA manufactures a printable laminated film, which Sant’Anna ® uses

for the labels on its bottled water. Fres-co System USA has developed a hybrid solution

for coffee packaging. This development incorporates Ingeo film into a multilayer

structure made with traditional materials. The company says this is Kyoto protocol

ready packaging.

Polyfilms is not the only company producing PLA-based oriented films and working

closely with converters. SKC offers its Skywel ® branded film, and Ingeo licensee

Huhtamaki Films Global has developed a wide range of functional and tailor-made

Ingeo film grades characterized by adjustable mechanical properties for a broad

range of applications, e.g. improved impact resistance and high barrier properties.

Sidaplax/Plastic Suppliers offers a range of clear and white films under the EarthFirst ®

brand name(see page 18)

This industry now goes beyond oriented or blown film developers and value added

converters. Sleever International, for example, has developed an Ingeo heat shrink

film under the Biosleeve ® brand. Sleever International provides its food and cosmetic

packaging customers with colorfully vibrant heat shrink labels. Biosleeve can also be

used for tamper evident bands (Fig. 2).

As these examples show, the bioplastic supply chain has invested in innovation. From

these supply chain efforts, brand owners and consumers can expect an expanding

choice of performance Ingeo films that help to reduce the overall environmental impact

of packaging as compared to petroleum-based films.

Fig. 2: Biosleeve heat shrink film

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 17

Films | Flexibles | Bags

PLA Film


The trend toward using biopolymers and environmentally

friendly films continues to expand into traditional

plastic film applications. The flexible packaging, lamination,

bread bag, windowing (envelope and folding carton),

shrink sleeve label and tamper evident band markets are

some of the many applications that currently incorporate the

use of biopolymer films.

The transition to biopolymer films has been slow.

However, the introduction of EarthFirst ® has allowed for

greater penetration into plastic film markets because of its

environmental and mechanical benefits.

Made from Ingeo PLA, EarthFirst is produced using

annually renewable resources, and is a certified compostable

product under the DIN 13432 and ASTM D6400 standards for

industrial composting.

And it is more than just an environmentally friendly

product. While the environmentally friendly attributes make

it attractive to ‘green’ minded companies, the mechanical

properties allow it to run as well as traditional plastic films

on a wide range of processing equipment. Having a natural

dyne level of 38 makes it suitable for printed applications and

its direct food contact (FDA) compliance has opened the door

to the flexible packaging market.

Shrink sleeve label and tamper evident bands are utilizing

EarthFirst TDO film. Low shrink initiation temperatures

and the ability to shrink up to 75% makes EarthFirst the

ideal shrink film. In addition, EarthFirst shrink sleeve film

can be stored up to 40° celsius offering energy savings that

petrochemical films cannot. Jiffy Pot in Europe is using

EarthFirst as a shrink sleeve label around their plant pots. In

the United States, ConAgra has made the switch from PVC to

EarthFirst for their tamper evident bands around their table

spread product offerings.

Large envelope houses in Europe like GPV, Hamelin and the

Mayer Kuvert Network have adopted the use of EarthFirst for

their envelope window film offerings. The film compliments

their full line of FSC paper based envelope offerings. The

crystal clear look of EarthFirst offers envelope windowing

applications an alternative to the traditional films in the

market today.

Bread bags are another market utilizing the EarthFirst

product. Retailers understand the environmental benefits of

EarthFirst as the high moisture vapor transmission rate of

EarthFirst guarantees that the bread inside remains crispy.

EarthFirst can be found in Delhaize, Carrefour and Auchan

bread bag products.

In many cases EarthFirst even outperforms petrochemical

based films when it comes to printing, sealing and overall


Plastic Suppliers, Inc. / Sidaplax v.o.f is committed to

a strong environmental leadership role in protecting the

planet. As active members of the Sustainable Packaging

Coalition (SPC), European Bioplastics, Belgian Biopackaging

and UK Compostable Group, the companies are committed

to understanding the impact of such products upon the

environment. MT

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags

Paper cups and shrink

film are the first two

applications for BASF’s

new biodegradable

plastic Ecovio ® FS


and Biodegradable

At the 4th European Bioplastics Conference (see page 10) BASF presented a new biodegradable plastic branded as

Ecovio ® FS. BASF has optimized this new plastic for two specific applications: for coating paper and for manufacturing

so-called shrink films, which serve to easily wrap packaged goods. For this reason, the first two new plastic types are

called Ecovio FS Paper and Ecovio FS Shrink Film. Sample material is already available. Initial production tests at customers’

facilities have been successful. Introduction into the market at large is scheduled for the first quarter of 2010.

Biodegrading even more quickly

As has been demonstrated in recent composting experiments, the new Ecovio FS biodegrades even more rapidly than its

predecessors, and it has a higher content of renewable raw materials. “Ecovio FS consists of the likewise new, now bio-based

Ecoflex ® FS (a biodegradable polyester made by BASF) and of PLA. The use of the new Ecoflex FS raises the proportion of biobased

material in Ecovio FS Shrink Film to 66% and that of Ecovio FS Paper to a full 75%,” explains Jürgen Keck, who heads

BASF’s global business with biodegradable plastics.

Paper cups and packaging film: high-performance counts

The experts who developed the new Ecovio FS focused on the properties that are required of these special applications. “In

order to obtain effective paper coatings, a film made of the new Ecovio FS Paper has to be easy to process and exhibit good

adhesion to the paper, even when applied in thin layers. Such coatings are used, for example, on paper cups or cardboard

boxes,” explains Gabriel Skupin, who is in charge of technical product development for biodegradable plastics. Ecovio FS

Shrink Film, in contrast, has a selected ratio of shrinkage to strength, so that its mechanical load capacity at a film thickness

of merely 25 μm is greater than that of a conventional polyethylene film that is 50 μm thick.

We want to become more specialized

With this new product family, BASF’s experts for biodegradable plastics are further expanding their assortment. The company

is aiming to become more specialized in this realm, so as to meet the requirements of very specific market segments. This

is reflected in the nomenclature, which will comprise three elements. The first stands for the processing technology – in this

case, F for ‚film‘. The second, S, stands for ‚special‘ and indicates that the new bio-based Ecoflex FS is present. The actual

application itself forms the third element of the name such as, for instance, Paper or Shrink Film. “This consistent designation

method, which will be implemented early next year together with the new products, illustrates the broad potential we anticipate

for technically advanced biodegradable products in this market, which has become very diversified,” explains Andreas Künkel,

head of BASF’s market development for new biodegradable plastic products.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 19

Films | Flexibles | Bags


New Performance Profiles

Article contributed by

Stefano Facco

New Business

Development Manager

Novamont S.p.A.

Novara, Italy

The demand for compostable bioplastics has been steadily growing for

many years at an annual rate of between 20 and 30%. The research

related to these polymers derived from RRM (Renewable Raw Materials),

which in the case of Novamont swallows up 10% of its turnover, today

permits the production of a large range of consumer products. These include

food and non-food packaging, hygiene products, bags and sacks, agricultural

tools and food-service ware, all with a positive environmental impact

(End of Life options) and a positive effect on product performance.

An interesting growth rate has been noticed within the area of films and

flexibles, especially multilayer structures.

At the beginning of the 1990‘s Novamont had already started to understand

that the use of compostable biopolymers would be taking a growing market

share in the area of flexibles, as the following article will describe. The latest

expansion of Novamont’s production capacity is also a demonstration of the

steady growth of this market sector.

Environmental Impact

Novamont’s main mission is to offer original solutions both from the

technical and environmental points of view, starting from renewable raw

materials. Mater-Bi is a generation of established biodegradable and

compostable polymers, continuously evolving, containing compostable

polyesters (based on synthetic and renewable monomers), starch and other

renewable resources. They are able to significantly reduce the environmental

impact in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse effect in specific

closed-loop applications (such as food packaging, catering items, mulch

films, bags for kitchen use and garden waste, etc). They perform as traditional

plastics when in use, and completely biodegrade within a composting cycle

through the action of living organisms when they have been engineered to be

biodegradable and compostable.

The technology that stands behind these new materials has evolved

over the years in various steps: the first based purely on the complexing of

starch, and later the continuous improvement of the environmental profile

of Novamont‘s polymers through the increased use of non-food renewable

resources in various steps, the backwards integration into production of

polyesters and their monomers from RRM’s.

Today we find flexible industrial applications in the areas of waste bags and

liners, shopping bags, loop handles, T-shirts, packaging based on single and

multilayer films, either coextruded or laminated, and of course hygiene and

agricultural applications.

Various process technologies are available, for monolayer or multilayer

structures. The latter variant is used in order to combine different substrates

with each other and to obtain very specific and tailored properties. There

are quite different film families available, which offer very specific properties

(such as puncture resistance, oxygen barrier etc) and, when combined,

suddenly open up a completely new application profile. Suitable new

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags

Film Structures,

for Food and Non-Food

technologies, such as extrusion coating and lamination, are fast growing at a

similar pace as that of the new multilayer (coex) films.


Processing is nowadays no longer subject to critical discussion, as in the

early 90‘s. Today converting these materials may be carried out on standard

extruders, such as LDPE film blowing lines (minimum thickness in the range

of 10-12µm). Productivity, if the line is specifically designed for Mater-Bi,

is similar to that obtained with conventional polyolefines. Other converting

aspects, such as sealing and printing, are also comparable with standard

materials. Recycling is done conventionally by most of the converters.

Their properties are also very much comparable to those of standard

polyolefines, except some very special properties in the area of OTR (oxygen

transmission rate) and WVTR (water vapour transmission rate):

MFR (g/10 min) 3.5 – 7 ASTM D 1338

E Modulus (MPa) 90 - 700 ASTM D 882

Stress at break (MPa) 22 – 36 ASTM D 882

Elongation at break (%) 250 – 600 ASTM D 882

COF 0.1 – 0.6 DIN 53375 A

Haze (%) 26 - 90 ASTM D 1003

WVTR (g·30μm/m2·24h) 200 – 900 ASTM E 96; 38°C 90% RH

OTR (cc·30μm)/(m2·24h·atm) 500 - 2000 ISO 15105-1; 23°C 50% RH

Extrusion Coating and Lamination

Newly developed applications are based on the extrusion coating and

lamination processes.

In this case special grades do offer the same processability as for given

polymers on standard lines, offering excellent adhesion on most of the

substrates (paper, cardboard, biopolymers, tissues etc), high line speed, web

stability and low gauges.

The main applications may be found either in the area of light flexible

packaging, such as food wrapping, industrial bags and sacks, or in rigid

packaging, such as the one based on heavy cardboard for containers,

trays, deep freeze boxes and for foodservice ware such as cups and plates.

The barrier to oils and fats is quite good, average WVTR is in the range of

250 g/m²·24h (23°C, 50% RH)

Coextruded films also offer a good barrier against fats and oil (compared

to polyolefines), with WVTR ranging from 300 – 800 g·30μm/m²·24h and OTR

in the range of 700 – 2.000 cc·30μm/m²·24h (23°C, 50%RH). Special sealing

layers are used, characterised by a ∆T above 50°C, which allow easy running

on most of the packaging lines, whether they be VFFS (Vertical Form Fill Seal)

or flowpack. Specific film grades are available here, with improved toughness,

modified COF (coefficient of friction) or transparency. In addition some unique

‘Home Compostable‘ solutions are available, intended for use in specific

markets in which this property might be specifically requested.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 21

Laminated films, as with multilayer compostable and certified

products, were first introduced in the UK. Mater Bi was laminated onto

a cellulose film, achieving a structure which offers a suitable barrier

property, excellent organoleptic and very high mechanical properties in

terms of toughness and tear resistance, which are needed to pack such

‘sharp‘ edged products as müsli flakes. The reverse printed external

cellulose film, which has excellent visual properties, is combined

with a high tenacity Mater-Bi film in order to obtain packaging which

fully covers the mechanical, organoleptic and processing needs of

such products. This is still one of the unique combinations on the

market able to offer compostability under industrial conditions. New

developments are close to being introduced, such as in the case of

coffee packaging.

Beside the applications described above, films dedicated to the

lamination process on various substrates offering selective barrier/

transmission properties, such as a high water vapour transmission

rate, have found interest amongst producers of hygiene products such

as diapers, overalls etc. Specific requirements are based on a soft,

noiseless and highly breathable material. Recent developments, with

films blown in the range of 10µm, are laminated onto cellulose, viscose

and other non-woven substrates. The main applications may be found

in bed linen, mattress covers and overalls used in clean rooms.

Depending on the application, these converting techniques provide

a very efficient and versatile way to build specific, tailor-made,

multilayer structures.

Flexible Applications

Flexible applications, such as organic waste bags, find their logical

EOL (End of Life) option in the waste stream meant for perishable

waste, such as kitchen and food waste. This application has been in

use for many years and is well implemented amongst thousands of

communities spread all over the world. The environmental advantage

of such application has been well demonstrated.

Other sectors have been identified, in which compostability offers

a unique property, such as in the case of highly contaminated food

packaging, where standard recycling loops cannot be used and

compostability offers the solution to maximize material recovery.

Examples may be found in the area of food processing streams,

characterized by a high level of food waste and very short shelf life

products. Furthermore compostability might offer advantageous

solutions in the case of date-expired packaged food, highly

contaminated kitchen waste, as in fast food restaurants, canteens

and schools.

It is becoming increasingly evident that compostable polymers are

finding their industrial use in ‘virtuous waste systems‘, like some of

those described above. Very high technical performance standards

have been reached, which allow these polymers to be used in very

demanding applications, in the food as well as the non-food area.

The performance of these flexible applications, combined with the

renewable content and its compostability, are the criteria that define

the environmental benefit of such products.

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags

Bioplastic Films

from the Netherlands

Responding to the increase in the demand for biodegradable

and compostable films and packaging

Oerlemans Plastics bv, a packaging producer from

Genderen (the Netherlands), is cooperating with FKuR in Germany

in order to better serve the upcoming organic market.

BI-OPL is the brand name for a wide range of biodegradable

and compostable products such as shoppers, bags, films

and sheets. All products are certified according to EN 13432,

NF AFNOR 52001 (France), OK Compost, Ecocert and OF&G

(Organic Farmers & Growers, UK).

All biodegradable and compostable products are based

on special blends of Ecoflex (a co-polyester by BASF) and

Ingeo PLA by NatureWorks. A big advantage compared to

starch is that the PLA blends have a higher water resistance.

This can be very important in more humid applications such

as anti-weed film for horticultural use. Also this indicates

the possibility of using thinner PLA based films compared to

starch based films.

A correct material thickness helps to create a product that

will degrade more slowly or faster according to the application.

BI-OPL is available in thicknesses from 12 to 120 µm. Widths

can be between 10 cm and 205 cm as plain film, and folded

up to 6 metres.

Shoppers, bags, sheets and films

Oerlemans Plastics can produce shopper bags from single

BI-OPL material without a reinforcement inlay or with double

folded topside so that the shoppers are 100 % made from

compostable materials. Bags and sheets, based on BI-OPL

materials, for many different applications can be produced

according to customers‘ demands and can be printed in up to

8 colours. Films for use on shrink and wrapping machines, or

for manual use, are available in many different sizes.

Horticultural films

The fastest growing market in food production is the organic

food market. Especially for this market Oerlemans Plastics

bv developed a large variety of films to help the growers of

organic food. As anti-weed film the BI-OPL is already used

on many different crops throughout the world. Vegetables

and fruits such as pineapples, fennel, strawberry, zucchini,

pickles, onions and also nursery products and cut flowers are

cultivated with the help of BI-OPL. All of these films can be

produced as unfolded film between 10 cm and 205 cm. A

new feature is the possibility to produce pre-perforated plant

holes in these films.

Plant permeable films

Right now Oerlemans Plastics is preparing the introduction

of a type of BI-OPL film which is ‘plant permeable‘. This means

that certain types of plants, like white and green asparagus,

can be covered with this film and due to the properties of the

film the plant can grow through it. It is expected that these

new types will contribute to a better and easier way to grow

vegetables and fruit for organic growers.

Renewable sources

The different types of raw materials used for the production

of biodegradable and compostable products are partly based

on renewable sources. In the future the percentage of

renewable materials will increase significantly. MT

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 23

Consumer Electronics




Unitika Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, has successfully developed a new blend of biomass-based

resin, which has unprecedented properties such as mouldability, heat resistance, durability

and impact resistance. Unitika’s techniques for improving polylactic acid (PLA) and

their accumulated knowledge of producing engineering plastic blends have brought this latest

development to a successful conclusion. The new PLA blend, known as TERRAMAC ® resin, offers

impact properties comparable to those of ABS.

Tanita is a world leader in precision electronic scales. With an almost 50% share of the domestic

market the name of Tanita is now a household word in Japan. Tanita recently introduced their

second generation of ‘green’ products with the HS-302 Solar Digital Scale. This environmentally

conscious scale has built-in solar cells that draw power from sunlight or from ordinary household

light, eliminating the need to buy or recharge batteries, as well as saving landfill sites from

additional battery contamination. The new eco-friendly bathroom scale, nicknamed ECO Living,

is equipped with a chassis made from the new Terramac resin, which contributes to about a 20%

reduction in CO 2

emission for the product compared with the previous model. Tanita has started

selling this new bathroom scale mainly in Europe, where the population is relatively ecologicallyminded,

and plans to expand the sales area step by step.

Technological background of Unitika

In order to improve the properties of PLA, Unitika developed a world-first commercially

available heat resistant PLA sheet in October 2002. After that, the shortcomings with regard to

heat resistance, flame retardation, and impact resistance of PLA resins for injection moulding

and foam were overcome by applying Unitika’s nanotechnology, plant-based reinforcements,

inorganic fillers, etc. Unitika’s PLA-based durable Terramac resins have been used in

commercially available cell phones, dishwasher-proof lacquered bowls, digital printers, copying

machines, and more. These ground-breaking resins have driven the expansion of the PLA

market. The new Terramac alloy type can also be used for high mechanical load conditions.

Unitika’s new Terramac alloy, as used in Tanita’s new bathroom scale, has the following


• heat resistance, durability, impact resistance, and processability equal to or surpassing ABS

• about 20% less emission of CO 2

than ABS

• suitable for many of the same applications as ABS

• compliance with ‘BiomassPla’, which means biomass-based plastics, certified by Japan

Biomass Plastics Association (JBPA)

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Consumer Electronics


Mobile Phone

The North American telephone company Sprint Nextel, headquartered in Overland

Park, Kansas, USA is making it easier than ever for customers to ‘go green‘ with

new eco-friendly products, services and programs and expanding its commitment

as a leader in sustainability. Last August, Sprint and Samsung Telecommunications

America (Samsung Mobile) announced Samsung Reclaim as the first phone

in the U.S. constructed from eco-centric bio-plastic materials. Made from 80 %

recyclable materials, Samsung Reclaim is a feature-rich messaging phone that

offers environmentally conscious customers a perfect blend of responsibility

without sacrificing the latest in network speeds and must-have features.

When customers purchase Samsung Reclaim from Sprint, $2 of the proceeds

will benefit the Nature Conservancy‘s Adopt an Acre program, which supports

land conservation across the United States and protects some of the world‘s most

beautiful and important natural habitats.

“Sprint is proud of our leadership with environmentally-responsible initiatives,“

said Dan Hesse, Sprint CEO, “and Samsung Reclaim enables customers to go green

without sacrificing the latest in wireless technology.“

Up 40 % of the Reclaim’s outer casing is made of a blend of PLA (40%), a bioplastic

material, made from renewable resources (corn) and Polycarbonate (60%).

This material is mostly used on the rear side and battery cover of the device.

Samsung Reclaim is free of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and phthalates, and nearly

free of brominated flame retardants (BFR) three materials commonly targeted on

green electronics guidelines.

The outer packaging and the phone tray inside the box are made from 70 %

recycled materials, printed with soy-based ink. The typical thick paper user manual

has been replaced with a virtual manual that users can access online. The Energy

Star approved charger. It consumes 12 times less power than the Energy Star

standard for standby power consumption.

”Samsung Reclaim is more than just an eco-centric device, its also a powerful

and stylish phone that’s easy-to-use,” said Omar Khan, senior vice president of

Strategy and Product Management for Samsung Mobile. “When you combine the

Reclaim’s impressive feature set with its bio-plastic hardware and eco-centric

packaging, you’re using a phone that is good for you and the environment.”

Reclaim has been available from August 16, 2009 in all Sprint retail channels,

including Best Buy, Radio Shack, internet and telesales. It‘s also available at Wal-

Mart since early September.

Reclaim is Samsung’s latest contribution toward its commitment to the

environment. Samsung Electronics Co. was recently named as the second highest

rated company in Greenpeace International’s Guide to Greener Electronics

scorecard. MT

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Consumer Electronics

(Photo: Philips)

New ‘Eco.‘






The latest innovation for Ingeo bioplastic is Telecom

Italia’s environmentally friendly ‘Eco.‘ cordless telephone.

NatureWorks PLA material forms the exterior

shell of the new cordless which matches high technical

performance with sustainability and energy savings. Eco.’s

advanced features include backlight display, handsfree, an

integrated backlight keypad and polyphonic ringtones. This

cordless is also projected to minimize energy consumption.

Telecom Italia’s Eco. cordless has been designed and made

real with the cooperation of Telecom Italia Lab, the University

of Palermo and the MID design studio. In addition to providing

certified environmental credentials, Ingeo provides a naturebased

innovation which enhances the Eco.’s performance

and aesthetics.

This initiative can be marked among those that will surely

improve energy efficiency. As an example, NatureWorks

notes that for 30.000 cordless units, the savings which result

from replacing conventional oil based material with Ingeo

bioplastic, are equivalent to 36 barrels of oil, a full month

of electrical energy for 108 European citizens or driving the

average car 75.000 km.

In addition to its low carbon footprint benefits, Ingeo

biopolymer offers more disposal options than conventional

oil-based plastics, such as composting in controlled industrial

systems when available locally, feedstock recovery which

enables reuse in all end products and markets as well as

matching conventional incineration or landfill routes where

they are appropriate. MT

In early 2009 the Dutch company Philips started to

use a durable PLA-based polymer for the housing

of the Performer EnergyCare FC9178 vacuum

cleaner. And even the packaging consists of about

90% recycled material.

Durable bioplastics applications in Europe became

possible with a specially developed ’Nanoalloy’

technology from the Japanese Toray Industries.

“Conventional PLA-based polymers were not

suitable for the manufacturing process because of

their physical properties and mouldability,“ said a

spokesperson from Toray Industries. Toray were

able to solve the challenge with ‘Ecodear’, a specially

developed bioplastic material. Thus it was possible

to meet the technical demands of the application -

namely heat resistance, impact strength, durability,

mouldabilty and shrinkage factors equivalent to

the standard materials which are currently used in

the market. Finally this led to the first adoption in a

consumer electronics application in Europe.

With this new generation of bio durable bioplastics

Toray has taken an important step into the future for the

next generation of developments for environmentally

friendly products. MT,

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 27


Oxobiodegradable Plastic

Article contributed by

Professor Gerald Scott DSc,


Professor Emeritus

in Chemistry and Polymer Science

of Aston University UK

Chairman of the

British Standards Institute Committee

on Biodegradability of Plastics

Chairman of the

Scientific Advisory Board of the

Oxo-biodegradable Plastics



have been asked by Symphony Environmental Technologies (UK) to respond

to a request from Bioplastics Magazine for an article about their d2w Controlled-life

plastics, which degrade by a process of oxo-biodegradation 1 . My

views are based on the research carried out in my own and in many other laboratories

throughout the world since my original patent was filed in 1971, and on my

review of independent test reports carried out on d2w products.

Let us be clear at the outset that oxo-biodegradable plastic is not normally

marketed for composting, and it is not designed for anaerobic digestion nor for

degradation deep in landfill. Let us also be clear that oxo-biodegradable plastic is

not designed to merely fragment – it is designed to be completely bioassimilated

by naturally-occurring micro-organisms in a timescale longer than that required

for composting (180 days) but shorter than for nature’s wastes such as leaves

and twigs (10 years or more), and much shorter than for normal plastics (many

decades). All plastics will eventually become embrittled, and will fragment and

be bioassimilated, but the difference made by oxo-biodegradable technology is

that the process is accelerated.

Oxo-biodegradable plastic is intended to address the environmental problem

caused by plastic waste which gets accidentally or deliberately into the open

environment. This is a well known problem in all countries, and cannot be

ignored by calling it a behavioural issue. Oxo-biodegradable plastic is designed

to harmlessly degrade then biodegrade in the presence of oxygen and to return

the carbon in the plastic to the natural biological cycle. Accordingly, tests in

anaerobic conditions or in composting conditions are not appropriate

Industrial composting is not the same as biodegradation in the environment,

as it is a process operated according to a much shorter timescale than the

processes of nature. EN13432 (and similar composting standards such as ISO

17088, ASTM D6400, ASTM D6868, and Australian 4736-2006) are not relevant to

oxo-biodegradable plastic. Indeed EN13432 itself says that is not appropriate

for plastic waste which may end up in the environment through uncontrolled


Oxo-biodegradable plastic products are normally tested according to ASTM

D6954-04 ‘Standard Guide for Exposing and Testing Plastics that Degrade in the

Environment by a Combination of Oxidation and Biodegradation’. There are two

types of Standards – Standard Guides and Standard Specifications ASTM 6954 is

an acknowledged and respected Standard Guide for performing laboratory tests

on oxo-biodegradable plastic. It has been developed and published by ASTM

International – the American standards organisation – and the second Tier is

directed specifically to proving biodegradation.

Tests performed according to ASTM D6954-04 tell industry and consumers

what they need to know – namely whether the plastic is (a) degradable

(b) biodegradable and (c) non phyto-toxic. It is not necessary to refer to a

Standard Specification unless it is desired to use the material for a particular

purpose such as composting, and ASTM D6954-04 provides that if composting is

the designated disposal route, ASTM D6400 should be used.

ASTM D6954-04 not only provides detailed test methods but it also provides

pass/fail criteria. The oxobiodegradable plastics most commonly used consist of

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


single polymers to which section 6.6.1 applies. This section requires that 60

% of the organic carbon must be converted to carbon dioxide. Therefore if the

material does not achieve 60% mineralisation the test cannot be completed

and the material cannot be certified.

Having achieved 60% mineralisation, the Note to 6.6.1 provides that testing

may be continued to better determine the length of time the materials will take

to biodegrade. It is not however necessary to continue the test until 100% has

been achieved, because it is possible, by applying the Arrhenius relationship 2

to the test results, to predict the time at which that is likely to occur.

There is no requirement in ASTM D6954-04 for the plastic to be converted to

C0 2

in 180 days because, while timescale is critical for a commercial composting

process, it is not critical for biodegradation in the environment. Timescale in

the natural environment depends on the amount of heat, light, and stress to

which the material is subjected, and as indicated above, nature’s wastes such

as leaves twigs and straw may take ten years or more to biodegrade.

The requirement in EN13432, ASTM D6400 and similar standards for 90%

conversion to CO 2

gas within 180 days is not useful even for composting,

because it contributes to climate change instead of contributing to the fertility

of the soil. ‘Compostable’ plastic, 90% of which has been converted to CO 2

gas, is virtually useless in compost, and nature‘s lignocellulosic wastes do not

behave in this way.

The applications for which oxo-biodegradable plastics are normally used can

vary from very short-life products such as bread-wrappers intended to last a

few months, to durable shopping bags intended to last five years or more. The

conditions under which they are likely to be discarded can also vary from cold

and wet conditions to hot and dry desert conditions. It is for the companies

producing or using these products to evaluate the test results to judge the

suitability of the tested material for those applications and conditions, and to

market them accordingly.

The pro-oxidant additives which cause accelerated degradation are usually

compounds of iron, nickel, cobalt, or manganese together with carefullyformulated

stabilisers, and are added to conventional plastics at the extrusion

stage. These reduce the molecular weight of the material – causing it to be

ultimately consumed by bacteria and fungi. Symphony’s d2w additives have

been tested and proved not to be phyto-toxic, and they do not contain ‘heavy


Oxo-biodegradable technology is commonly used for Polyethylene and

Polypropylene products, but it can also be used for Polystyrene. Experiments

are continuing with PET but I am not as yet satisfied that the technology will

work satisfactorily with PET. Experiments are also continuing with PVC.

Tests on oxo-biodegradable plastic products are usually conducted by

independent laboratories such as Smithers-RAPRA (US/UK), Pyxis (UK),

Applus (Spain), etc, according to the test methods prescribed by ASTM D6954-

04. Conditions in the laboratory are designed to simulate so far as possible

conditions in the real world, but have to be accelerated in order that tests may

be done in a reasonable time. Pre-treatment does not invalidate the results.

1: Oxo-biodegradation is defined by CEN/

TR15351-06 as “degradation identified as

resulting from oxidative and cell-mediated

phenomena, either simultaneously or


2: See eg. Jakubowicz, :Polym. Deg. Stab.

80,39-43 (2003)

3: See D. Gilead and G. Scott “Developments

in Polymer Stabilisation”-5. App. sci. Pub.,

1982, Chapter 4 and references therein

for details of environmental effects on


4: There is insufficient space here for all

the relevant publications, but visit www.

to see reference to some reviews for

some of the recent papers

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 29

In the real world the temperature of the soil varies between 0 and

50°C depending on the location. The rate of molar-mass reduction

and biodegradation can be extrapolated for any soil temperature by

means of the Arrhenius relationship 3 .

I have read many independent laboratory test reports on oxobiodegradable

materials supplied by Symphony and by other

manufacturers, which are entirely consistent with the published

scientific literature 4 and with my own research. These manufacturers

are not surprisingly unwilling to disclose their data to their

competitors, but having seen the reports I am satisfied that if properly

manufactured, oxo-biodegradable products will totally biodegrade in

the presence of oxygen.

I am aware of suggestions that fragments of plastic (whether oxobiodegradable,

compostable, or normal plastic) attract toxins in a

marine environment and are ingested by marine creatures. I am not

however persuaded that fragments of plastic are any more likely to

attract toxins than fragments of dead seaweed or any of the other

trillions of fragments which are always present in the sea.

I regard it as a positive factor that oxo-biodegradable plastics are

made from naphtha - a by-product of oil, which used to be wasted.

For so long as the world needs petroleum fuels and lubricants for

engines it makes good environmental sense to use this by-product.

I agree with the June 2009 report from Germany’s Institute for

Energy and Environmental Research, which concluded that oil-based

plastics, especially if recycled, have a better Life-cycle Analysis than

compostable plastics. They added that “The current bags made from

bioplastics have less favourable environmental impact profiles than

the other materials examined” and that this is due to the process

of raw-material production.” (see eg. www.bioplasticsmagazine.


Compostable plastics are designed to be deliberately destroyed in

the composting process, but oxobiodegradable plastics can be reused

many times and can be recycled if collected during their useful

lifespan, which in the case of shopper-bags is about 18 months.

Plastics of any kind should not be used for home-composting as they

are often contaminated with meat and fish residues and temperatures

may not rise high enough to kill the pathogens.

Editor‘s note:

This article is based on a counterstatement

by Michael Stephen, Symphony Environmental

in bM issue 03/2009 page 40, which included

an offer by bM to contribute a scientifically

based paper and to present data (e.g. ‘reports’

as required in section 7 of ASTM D6954-04).

However, no data using the referenced standard

was provided. The literature we received,

is a list of publications that can be seen at


It is not desirable to send otherwise recoverable plastic to landfill,

as plastic is a valuable resource. Nor is it desirable for anything

to degrade in landfill unless the landfill is designed to collect the

resulting gases, which most are not. However if oxo-biodegradables

do end up in landfill, they are designed to disintegrate and partially

biodegrade at or near the surface. Any particles deep in anaerobic

landfill are minimal, and will remain inert indefinitely. They can never

emit methane – unlike compostable plastics, paper, etc.

So far as recycling is concerned, oxo-biodegradable plastic

can be recycled in the same way as ordinary plastic (see www. By contrast, ‘compostable’ plastic

cannot be recycled with ordinary plastic, and will ruin the recycling

process if it gets into the waste stream.

Please see for a

comprehensive list of Key scientific papers on the biodegradation of


30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

magnetic_148, 175.00 lpi 15.00° 75.00° 0.00° 45.00° 14.03.2009 10:13:31

Prozess CyanProzess MagentaProzess GelbProzess Schwarz

Biopolymere_210*148.indd 1





23.10.2009 8:46:50 Uhr

for Plastics

• International Trade

in Raw Materials,

Machinery & Products

Free of Charge

• Daily News

from the Industrial Sector

and the Plastics Markets

• Current Market Prices

for Plastics.






• Buyer’s Guide

for Plastics & Additives,

Machinery & Equipment,


and Services.

• Job Market

for Specialists and

Executive Staff in the

Plastics Industry

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional


Green Nordic Walking –

with Biobased Polyamide

The first commercial, injection-molded use of renewablysourced

DuPont Zytel ® RS polyamide in Europe is for the

hand grip, tip, cap and inter-locking elements of the new ‘Exel

NW ECO Trainer’ Nordic walking stick from EXEL Sports Brands

(ESB), Stephanskirchen, Germany. The unreinforced polyamide 610

is produced using sebacic acid extracted from castor oil plants. The

renewably-sourced content of unreinforced Zytel RS is 58 % by wt.

This was a crucial factor in the sports equipment manufacturer decision

to not only base its production in Europe, but to also launch

its own competence model made in the material.

“Both sustainability and the responsible handling of resources are

strongly encouraged within our company. This includes the use of

products with a reduced environmental footprint products offering

the best levels of performance based on high quality standards.

Accordingly, innovative products developments, such as Zytel

RS from DuPont, fit perfectly into our corporate strategy,” states

Richard Holzner, product manager at ESB for the Exel walking

sticks. “All the components are solvent- and toxin-free. Thus, we

are able to guarantee that our customers receive environmentallyfriendly

products offering the best performance according to

European quality standards.”

For the hand grip, a cork or wooden shell can be used on top of

the Zytel RS, enhancing its feel for the user. Carbide is overmolded

with Zytel RS for the tip. Beyond its very good surface finish, the

long chain polyamide 610 offers excellent chemical resistance, low

moisture absorption and temperature resistance between -40°C

and 50° C. The parts were designed and manufactured by Metall

und Plastikwaren Putz GmbH (MPP) of Abtenau in Austria. “The

processability of unreinforced Zytel RS is similar to that of polyamide

66. The material is also easy to color,” reports Georg Putz, managing

director of MPP. “The only differences were an approximately

40°C lower melt temperature and minor variations in shrinkage

behavior. The technical support provided by the polymer distributor

Biesterfeld-Interowa was very helpful during the transition.”

Following its launch at the relevant sporting goods trade shows

such as the ispo winter 2010, the ‘Exel NW ECO Trainer’ will be

available to consumers from specialist sports shops from spring


The DuPont portfolio of engineering polymers includes a series of

products based on renewable resources. They are either entirely or

partially produced using agriculturally-sourced raw materials such

as corn or castor-oil beans instead of crude oil, thereby helping

reduce the industry’s dependence on increasingly limited crude oil

reserves. - MT

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


A Magic Powder

in a PLA Powderette

by Rainer



In Austria a new product was launched in October based on an aromatic powder which puts the consumer

in a state of ‘relaxed alertness’, according to Rouven Haas the inventor of Blue Elph ® . It is an

absolutely new and innovative edible leisure product - just unwrap the Powderette, tap the capsule,

and suck in the powder - but whatever does it have to do with bioplastics? OK, the powder consists exclusively

of harmless, edible substances and the capsule is made of gelatine, but the Powderette is made

from NatureWorks PLA and additives from Sukano and Polyone.

The development started in 2005 together with the Institute of Natural Materials Technology at the

University Research Institute at Tulln (IFA-Tulln) in Austria. After screening various bioplastics for injection

moulding, PLA was selected because of its high transparency and excellent mechanical properties. The

product design and recipe development took a long time but ended with a perfect shape and excellent


During the project the properties of PLA in the injection moulding process were investigated. The high

flowability, transparency and rigidity allowed the adoption of a special design that could not be easily

realised using standard polymers. The high variation in wall thickness and the sharp point necessary for

piercing the powder-filled capsule should also be noted here. Thanks to different additives the ejection

and constant colour at a constant transparency level could also be achieved in the end. The next step will

be the construction of a 32-cavity tool to reach the planned output (300,000 for the next 6 months).

For the launch and rapid penetration into the market over 600 people – including press, partners, friends

and celebrities - were invited to the launch party in the ‘Skykitchen‘ club, up above the rooftops of Vienna,

to experience the world of Blue Elph.

The novelty of Blue Elph is not so much its effect as the way of ingesting it, and the associated benefits.

The powder in the capsule is sucked into the mouth using the patented Powderette and acts directly over

the oral mucosa. Caffeine and guarana immediately awaken and sharpen the senses, L-Phenylalanin has

the effect of lifting the mood and passion flower is relaxing. Because of the absorption of Blue Elph via

the oral mucosa the active substances enter the body faster and more directly. The concentration of these

substances is up to 10 times lower than in products that can be drunk or eaten, and so are harmless to

the body.

The inventor Rouven Haas first had the idea for the product eleven years ago. At that time he asked

himself why he didn‘t stop smoking. To cut out such a habit without finding a substitute is very hard, and

with smoking in particular a very personal need is satisfied. This was the moment of birth. He wanted to

create a harmless substitute that combines the fascination and feel of a cigarette with a stimulating effect

as well as an extraordinary taste.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 33

Application News

Naturalmente Cosmestics

‘Naturalmente‘ is a brand created and registered in Europe in 2004 by the

Italian company Artec, whose logistic and head offices are based in Brescia

and research, innovation, development and production laboratory in Tuscany.

The company is specialized in vegetal cosmetic products for hair, body and

environment derived derived from the botanical kingdom: plants, flowers, roots,

seeds, oils, fruits, spices and resins cultivated in their countries of origin, from

all over the world, with biological, biodynamic and spontaneous agricultural.

Thanks to a continuous research of sustainable ingredients and materials,

Naturalmente has made a responsible choice: converting 22 bottles from

polypropylene to Ingeo PLA bottles. For its launch about 30.000 pieces have

been distributed in hairstyling shops. An annual consumption of 115.000 pieces

is expected. The bottle of 250 ml, which is opaque, is made from PLA while the

cap still is in polypropylene. There is no label on the packaging, all information

is printed directly on the bottle. Product shelf life is 12 months.

Green Cups in the Skies over Asia

High technology lies behind a seemingly simple innovation led by All Nippon Airways (ANA), which

aims to be the number one airline group in Asia and also to be a leader of environmental action in

the aviation industry. ANA’s passengers will now enjoy their drinks in an Ingeo natural plastic cup.

The cup was planned and developed jointly by NatureWorks and ANA for ANA’s fourth environmental

flights campaign, ‘e-flight‘, which went from October 1 - 31, 2009.

The drinking cups consist of NatureWorks’ Ingeo PLA. ANA held its first ‘e-flight‘ campaign in 2006.

Under the catchphrase “Think about the earth and human beings”, the fourth ‘e-flight‘ promotes

these public awareness initiatives that feature eco-friendly services and products like the PLA cup in

addition to other steps, which include wine in PET bottles and an optional passenger carbon offset

program. The programs will enable ANA to realize its environmental goals both on the ground and

in flight.

Plans call for the Ingeo natural plastic cup to be used on all the domestic flights in Japan and for

coach class passengers on the Narita-Singapore route as a part of ‘e-flight‘ programs.

ANA group is an innovator in environmental action. The company has set targets to significantly

reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the end of 2011 with its domestic flights

in Japan, and has been saving fuel during the flights to achieve this corporate

goal. In addition, ANA is deeply involved in a number of forest and marine

environment restoration projects. As a result of these activities, ANA was the

first company in the aviation industry to be certified as an ‘Eco-First Company‘

by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment.

“The new ANA Ingeo plastic drinking cups will give airline passengers

the opportunity to hold a product symbolic of greater sustainability through

innovative thinking and technology,” said Marc Verbruggen, president and

CEO, NatureWorks LLC. “We are proud to have Ingeo playing a role in the

ANA e-flight program.”

BP Consulting, Japan, headed by President Takeyuki Yamamatsu, an

unwavering advocate for sustainability and sustainable products, also worked

closely with both ANA and NatureWorks to develop, produce, and implement

the Ingeo plastic cups concept. - MT

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

New Sunglasses

made from

Clear Bio-Polyamide

Sport and fashion sunglasses (photo) have become high

performance objects by being adapted to consumer‘s comfort

and fashion evolution.

Glass frames are subjected to various requirements like

expanded decoration possibilities, lightness and comfort.

They must also be easy to process while having excellent

chemical and stress cracking-resistance.

At the Outdoor Retailer Summer fair in Salt Lake City,

Utah last summer Smith Optics ® and Arkema unveiled the

new ‘Evolve’ sunglasses collection using Rilsan ® Clear G830


Rilsan Clear G830 Rnew offers all the necessary

characteristics to provide Smith Optics with the required

quality for their new ‘Evolve’ sunglasses collection: optimal

comfort, lightness, good impact resistance, superior

durability, and nice flexibility. A total of 20 new ‘Evolve’

sunglass frame models are made entirely of Rilsan Clear

G830 Rnew, a bio-renewable sourced polymer derived from

castor oil. This new collection perfectly fits in with Smith

Optics‘s durable eco-design strategy.

Rilsan Clear G830 Rnew uses 54% bio-based raw material,

thus helping reduce CO 2

emissions. It naturally offers the

same key benefits as classical Rilsan Clear G350, namely a

combination of key properties such as chemical resistance and

mechanical performance. It allows new design possibilities

for injection-molded eyewear, especially thanks to its easy

processing and its higher flexibility increasing comfort of

wear and durability.

The use of Rilsan Clear G830 Rnew in the new Smith Optics

models marks the start of a new adventure and a close

collaboration between Arkema and Smith Optics.

Hair Care Products

in PLA bottles

Nature‘s Organics began in the late 1950‘s as a small business pioneering naturally based products, such as bath cubes,

hair colourants, and various toiletry ranges in Australia. Since then it has rapidly become the forefront of the business. The

company provides their consumers with a choice of naturally enriched products that are pure, gentle and effective. They use

plant-derived ingredients as far as possible that helps to produce extremely efficient, biodegradable formulas. All products are

stringently controlled to reduce unnecessary waste of non-renewable resources, offering ‘Sustainable development through

responsible environmental management’. In early 2008, Nature‘s Organics introduced an Ingeo PLA bottle which offers an

improved environmental footprint. With the continued success of this brand and proven track record of the Ingeo bottle,

Nature‘s Organics has begun exporting this organic hair care line to Europe as well. The company produces the PLA bottles in

their Ferntree Gully, Victoria, Australia factory.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 35

Application News

‘Organic Plug’

made from Bio PA

The fischer group of companies of Waldachtal, Germany

recently presented its first prototype of an

‘organic plug’. The material of the fischer Universal

Plug UX consists of polyamide by DuPont which is mainly

made of renewable substances.

UX with staying power

The fischer UX Universal Plug made of conventional

nylon has been established in the market for many years,

giving users the feeling of reliability and safety. With every

turn of the screw, the plug tightens more and more – until

it is safely expanded inside the drill hole or knotted inside

the cavity. A true all-rounder, the plug gets a perfect grip in

any wall, whether in plasterboard, solid bricks, perforated

bricks or concrete.

Same retaining power as the standard plug

The ‘Organic Plug’ is made of the Zytel ® RS polyamide

by DuPont, 58 % by wt. of which consist of renewable

base materials. “Extensive tests and long-term trials

have shown that the UX made of this new material has

the same values as the tried and tested product made

of conventional nylon”, says Rainer Fischer, head of

synthetics development at fischer. In continuous tests,

the ‘Organic Plug’ consistently shows the same retaining

values as the conventional UX. Investigations involving the

performance at high temperatures also show the same

temperature resistance for both plugs.

The UX Plugs recently shown at FAKUMA, a German

plastics trade fair, are the first prototypes presented to

a wider public. “Our aim is not only to demonstrate that

we can make plugs from sustainable and renewable

materials”, says Rainer Fischer. “We also want to fathom

out the market acceptance because the ‘Organic Plugs’

can currently not be made with the same cost structure as

the standard plug”.


Canadian Packaging


Canadian company, Nature’s Farm, is going to wrap

its range of gourmet pasta products in NatureFlex NE

from Innovia Films.

Founded in 1987 in Steinbach, Manitoba, Nature’s Farm is a

family-owned business with a poultry operation producing eggs.

In 1993 after several years of careful research and some time as

a ‘designer-egg’ wholesaler, they introduced Nature’s Pasta,

which now appears on the menus of some of North America’s

best eating establishments.

The farm’s fresh free-range eggs (from hens fed an allnatural

vegetarian diet) go through a stringent quality inspection

before being shipped to the nearby pasta-making facility. Strict

adherence to old-world, small-batch production methods has

created gourmet pasta that is setting new standards in taste,

texture, and quality. The products are packed in-house on a

Bosch Terra 25 VFFS machine set up to run at 15ppm.

According to company founder, Hermann Grauer, NatureFlex

is an ideal packaging choice, “We are committed to ecological

sustainability and stewardship. NatureFlex has fitted into our

production line process with only minimal adjustment required.

The reaction of our customers’ to the packaging has also been

very positive and enthusiastic.”

“NatureFlex is a very versatile product,” stated Christopher

Tom, Innovia Films’ Account Executive, Canada, “we are delighted

to support Nature’s Farm by providing packaging that aligns

with their environmentally and socially responsible values.” For

a packaging like a pasta bag, a good sealability is important.

NatureFlex NE was used in this application as it offers the best

seal performance in the NatureFlex range of products.

(Photo: fischerwerke)

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


Evaluating Quantity,

Quality and Comparability

of Biopolymer Materials

Article contributed by

Hans-Josef Endres,

Andrea Siebert-Raths,

and Maren Bengs,

all University of Applied Sciences

and Arts, Hanover, Germany

Rather than biodegradability the focus of current material development

in the field of biopolymers is increasingly on a biobased raw material input

to produce durable products, i.e. the use of resistant biopolymers in

technical applications. And the properties required of the materials are increasing

in parallel with the number of these different applications.

As a result of this current development more and more manufacturers

are publishing material specifications. At first glance this can be seen as a

positive move from the point of view of technical marketing support, however,

the quantity, quality and comparability of available material data are still very

unsatisfactory. When establishing such product data it is often the case, for

example, that different standards are used for the tests, as well as different

testing conditions, such as the prevailing environment when the sample was

taken, the temperature conditions or humidity before and during the test, or the

period of time over which the test was conducted. A further problem area lies in

the fact that too little experience has been gained with new types of biopolymer

to be able to lay down the optimum test conditions. Furthermore many of the

published test results do not specify any standard test methods or conditions, or

do not adequately define the selected conditions. Unfortunately consequence it

is often in the case that the material performance specifications published until

now have limited informative value.

The intention of this article is, with the help of various concrete examples, to

point out some of the common mistakes made when attempting to ascertain the

performance characteristics of biopolymers and to increase the understanding

of testing of biopolymers.

Melt Index

An important value for plastics processors is, for example, the melt flow index

(Melt mass flow rate = MFR [g/10 min]) as specified in DIN EN ISO 1133. Without

quoting a temperature and the pressure applied as the significant parameters

for the test, the readings cannot be evaluated. These data, which complement the

values quoted, are therefore essential but are left out by many manufacturers and

are missing from numerous published documents. In addition, with biopolymers

there is often the problem that, unlike conventional plastics, the MFR of these

new polymers no recommendations are given with regard to the test parameters

when measuring. This leads to different companies choosing different test

parameters, hence making it even more difficult to compare readings.

Temperature Resistance

Another very sensitive figure that should be known for practical application

of a biopolymer is its resistance to temperature. In many documents published

about biopolymers, or in press releases, we more and more often read, for

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


instance, about PLA/PLA blends with a temperature resistance of

around 100°C. Since the low temperature resistance of PLA often

seriously limits its use, this increase from the figure of about 60°C

(which is normally quoted for this material) to values around 100°C is

extremely significant. Unfortunately it has emerged that this impressive

figure is not supported by the facts but can largely be traced back to

widely varying test methods that are not really comparable. Here too it

is absolutely essential that one is given details of the test method and

conditions with regard to heat resistance values.

To measure heat resistance the following two different standard test

methods are generally used:

Measuring HDT (Heat Deflection Temperature or Heat Distortion

Temperature) in accordance with DIN EN ISO 75 and measuring the

VST (Vicat Softening Temperature) in accordance with DIN EN ISO

306. For the HDT test a standard sample is placed in an oil bath and

subjected to a defined and constant bending force under a constantly

increasing temperature (120°C/h). The HDT is reached when the

outer fibre distortion of the material reaches 0.2 %. In the Vicat test

the sample is also placed in an oil bath with a defined temperature

gradient. However the Vicat test is not based on bending but on point

load deflection. The Vicat softening temperature is reached when a

flat-ended needle of a defined geometry, penetrates 1 mm into the

sample under a defined pressure [1].

Both methods permit variations of the load and temperature

gradient within the norm. With the HDT method the central bending

load can be chosen from the following values: 1.85 MPa (HDT A),

0.45 MPa (HDT B) and 8.0 MPa (HDT C). This means that even within one

method there can be significant variations in the value depending on

the chosen loading, which is often not specified in the quoted results,

as can be seen in Fig. 1. If, for example, the temperature resistance of

polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is published it may seem high, returning

a value of 140°C, or, with a greater loading, be as much as 60°C lower

at about 80°C.

The situation is similar with the VST temperature resistance test.

Here too the piercing needle force can be selected from either 10 N

(VST A) or 50 N (VST B). In the VST method A represents a lower loading

and hence higher resistance values, whilst method B, uses higher

loading and hence a lower resistance value in contrast to method A.

When comparing the temperature resistance of biopolymers the two

methods can return figures that vary by as much as 100°C.

Furthermore when testing temperature resistance either of two

temperature gradients may be selected; either 50°C/h or 120°C/h. At

the faster rate the thermodynamic loading time of the biopolymer before

reaching a certain temperature is less than at a lower temperature

gradient. Hence the resulting values at the higher temperature gradient

are likewise correspondingly higher.

It is therefore essential that the exact and full methodology used

when measuring temperature resistance is specified. Where adequate

data on the test methods is not supplied the temperature resistance

cannot be properly evaluated.











HDT A (1.85 Mpa)


Starch blend

HDT B (0.45 Mpa)

Copolyester blend

Fig.1: The influence of different bending loads

on the measured temperature resistance

using the HDT test.

Temperature gradient in each case = 120°C/h

(incomplete, just as an example)




bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 39

































VSTA (10N), 120°C/h)

Starch blend


HDT A (1.85 Mpa, 120°C/h)

Fig.2: Influence of the test method used

to determine temperature resistance

(incomplete, just as an example)

Moisture content [%]

Copolyester blend

Tensile strength (Mpa)


Fig.3: The effect of conditioning and

storage on the tensile strength of a

PLVA based polymer

Storage time not


Storage time exceeded

(about 9 months)


Storage period: 4 months

(23°C/ 50% RH)

Storage period: 4 months

(23°C/ 50% RH) - before

testing dried to about 1%

moisture content

Storage period: 24 hours

(23°C/ 50% RH)

Melt Mass Flow Rate

(190°C, 2.16kg)

in [g/10min]

Tensile strength (in Mpa)

Fig. 4: Effect of extended storage period

on the material (23°C, 50% RH)

For the values obtained using the VST test it is thus necessary to

clearly distinguish between results obtained using, for example, VST

A 50 (load applied to the needle = 10 N and temperature gradient =

50°C/h), VST A 120 (10 N @ 120°C/h), VST B 50 (50 N @ 50°C/h) and VST

B 120 (50 N @ 120°C/h) [1].

Without these data mistakes are often made in the practical

application of biopolymers, such as PLA, due to a lack of understanding

of this problem and directly comparing temperature resistance values

that have been obtained using different test methods and/or under

different test parameters. As shown in the table of temperature

resistance figures obtained using Vicat A and HDT A for various

biopolymers (Fig. 2), these results are not at all comparable.

Alongside the often inadequate data concerning the test parameters

there are other factors (such as storage time and/or conditioning/

drying) that are not given with regard to the biopolymers being tested.

The chart in Fig 3 uses as an example the tensile strength of a polyvinyl

alcohol (PVAL) based biopolymer to demonstrate the significant effect

that humidity and/or length of storage may have on the mechanical

properties of the material. It is important, when testing in line with

an international standard, to supply information on the storage and

conditioning of the sample as well as how much time elapsed between

preparation of the sample and the actual test.

Fig. 4 also shows that with biopolymers it is not only conditioning

and the age of the finished components that have a significant impact,

but that also the effect of exceeding recommended storage times of

the resins before processing is a factor not to be underestimated. The

following chart shows the impact on a starch based biopolymer of

exceeding the storage times.

The starch based polymer was tested immediately on delivery and

then after a clearly excessive storage period. The almost quadruple

melt flow index points to a reduction in the length of the molecular

chain as a result of the polymer degradation. The same applies to the

tensile strength. Here again the material was tested immediately upon

delivery and again after an extended storage period. The significant

drop of the mechanical specification also points clearly to a molecular


Barrier Properties of Films

Further examples of a lack of data when evaluating biopolymers is

also seen in the area of biopolymer films. This can be testing oxygen

permeability in line with DIN 53380 for example. In this process a

permeation cell is separated by a sample of the film. The test gas, i.e.

the oxygen, is introduced into one half of the cell. It will permeate to a

greater or less degree through the film and into the other half of the

cell where it is perceived by a carrier gas. A sensor and appropriate

software are used to measure the amount of oxygen in the carrier gas

and so determine the oxygen permeability of the film. In addition to

temperature, the relative humidity of the oxygen and the carrier gas

can also be regulated. When stating the barrier property of a film, i.e.

the coefficient of permeation, the temperature and relative humidity

parameters often fail to be supplied, but as can be seen in Fig. 5 the

moisture content of the oxygen (or other gases being tested), and the

carrier gas have a significant influence on the permeability especially

of biopolymers.

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


Film Thickness

Another difficulty with biopolymer film lies in the presentation of

performance data without mentioning the film thickness. With barrier

performance in particular it is important to state the film thickness

concerned or to adhere to a recognised standard with a unified film

thickness. In some published data we still find barrier properties of

film being quoted without any mention of the thickness.

Test Speed

A further shortcoming with regard to biopolymer film lies in the

testing of its mechanical performance and in particular the tensile

test. With regard to the speed applied during the tensile test there

is no specific standard laid down by DIN EN ISO 527; several speeds

(1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 mm/min) may be applied by the tester.

In practice a speed of 1, 2 or 5 mm/min is chosen to determine the

secant modulus. For other mechanical values (e.g. tensile strength)

higher speeds are usually selected. The chart in Fig. 6 shows the effect

of test speed on the secant modulus of a regenerated cellulose film.

As is clear from the illustration, the secant modulus measured at

1 mm/min lies well below that of the modulus measured at the higher

speed by almost 1000 MPa. At the lower speeds the molecular chains

have more time to change shape and orient themselves. Hence the

film is less resistant to elastic deformation.

The effect of testing speed on mechanical values is also seen with

injection moulded parts, but the effect on films, due to their much

reduced thickness, is more significant. Hence, when tensile testing

films in particular, it is very important to have information on the

test speed in order to be better able to assess and compare data on

different materials.

For the future it can be assumed that the development of biopolymers

will move ahead swiftly and more and more materials will be presented

to the market. It is however important at this stage that the performance

characteristics published for new types of biopolymers are comparable

and meaningful.

Help on this whole topic is available from a freely accessible

database at, assembled by the authors

of this article in collaboration with the company M-Base GmbH and

with support of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture

and Consumer Protection (the BMELV). All commercially available

polymers are tested under standardised conditions in line with the

published norms here, and are can find all of the necessary information

regarding the relevant test parameters in parallel with the numerical

specifications of biopolymers.

More information about biopolymer testing can be found in the

book ‘Technical Biopolymers’ [1]. This book can be ordered via the

bioplastics MAGAZINE website. It is available in German language, an

English version is expected for spring 2010.


Fig.5: Oxygen permeability in relation to the

relative humidity of the gas being tested

(oxygen) and the carrier gas.

Secant modulus (Mpa)



















Starch based film PLA based film

(standardised to 100 μm) (standardised to 100 μm)

Test speed 1 mm/min

Test speed 5 mm/min

Test speed 1 mm/min

23°C/0% RH

23°C/50% RH

Test speed 1 mm/min

[1] Endres, H.-J.; Siebert-Raths, A.: Technische Biopolymere, Carl Hanser

Verlag, München 2009

Fig.6: Effect of test speed on the

secant modulus

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 41


Basics of

Anaerobic Digestion

Article contributed by

Bruno de Wilde

Organic Waste Systems nv, Ghent, Belgium

Anaerobic digestion: another way of biological solid

waste treatment

Within biological solid waste treatment a distinction can

be made between two major categories, one being aerobic

composting and the other being anaerobic digestion (AD) or

biogasification .

In composting, organic matter is degraded by a microbial

population consisting of bacteria and fungi, that consume the

organic matter together with oxygen and produce CO 2

, water,

biomass (compost or humus) and a lot of heat. Due to this

exothermic process, the temperature in a composting pile

increases significantly. In anaerobic digestion, organic matter

is degraded by a microbial population consisting of bacteria

in the absence of oxygen and producing CH 4

(methane) and

CO 2

(this mixture often being referred to as ‘biogas‘) and

compost with practically no exothermic heat. When collected

properly this biogas can be exploited in a CHP (Combined

Heat and Power) system, producing electricity and heat, or

can be upgraded to biomethane. To put it simply, the energy

present in wet, organic waste is released as biogas instead

of heat as in composting. Typically from 1 tonne of biowaste

120 m 3 of biogas can be produced, with a total electricity yield of

250 kWh and a net electricity yield of 200 kWh.

In industrial composting the different technologies are

rather similar and the differences lie in relatively minor

aspects (e.g. aeration by over- pressure or under-pressure,

Aerobic composting (open windrow) at Tenneville (Belgium)

the form of the waste heaps, etc) with little or no consequence

for the treatment of bioplastics. In contrast, rather different

technologies can be distinguished in anaerobic digestion. One

distinction between different technologies is the temperature

at which the anaerobic digestion is operated. Temperature

is externally controlled and digesters are run either at

mesophilic temperature (35-40°C), or at thermophilic

temperature (50-55°C). These are two distinct temperature

zones at which different types of anaerobic bacteria show

maximum activity (namely mesophilic and thermophilic

bacteria). The rate of activity is higher at thermophilic

temperature. Further, anaerobic digestion can be a singlephase

or a two-phase process. In a single-phase process

the complete digestion takes place in one unit or digester.

In two-phase fermentation the first phase (hydrolysis and

acidification) and the subsequent methanogenic phase are

run in separate tanks. The distinction between single-phase

and two-phase is referred to as a distinction between dry and

wet fermentation systems. In dry anaerobic digestion the

process is run at a moisture content of < 85%, while in wet

systems the process is run at a moisture level of >85%.

These technical differences have rather far-reaching

consequences with regard to the treatment of bioplastics.

For example, certain bioplastics (e.g. PLA) need an elevated

temperature (50-60°C) to start biodegrading. In thermophilic

anaerobic digestion this temperature is met and these

bioplastics will degrade. However, in mesophilic anaerobic

digestion where the temperature is lower, these bioplastics

will not readily biodegrade.

Practically all commercial anaerobic digestion systems

feature a combination of an anaerobic fermentation first step,

and a subsequent, aerobic composting, stabilisation second

step. Since fermentation is something of a mixed process

the output is not fully stabilised or fermented (note: mixing

can be done in the reactor or outside the reactor by blending

residue output with new feedstock input). In order to reduce

the residual biological activity and to obtain complete maturity

of the compost end product, the residue from the anaerobic

digestion phase is therefore aerobically composted for a short

time (typically for 2-4 weeks).

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


Anaerobic digestion plant (single-phase) at Würselen (Germany)

Even though anaerobic digestion can be applied to very

different types of waste streams, it is particularly suited to

organic waste with a high moisture content such as kitchen

waste and food waste. Anaerobic digestion plants have

been built and have been operational for many years for

the treatment of mixed, municipal solid waste, for biowaste

(obtained after source separated waste collection), for

residual waste and for many types of industrial waste.

The major differences from aerobic composting include

the production of energy, less odour production, less health

risk (i.e. killing off of pathogens, typical for thermophilic

digestion), less need for surface area (smaller footprint), and a

higher level of technology. Consequently, anaerobic digestion

is often the preferred biological waste treatment option in

densely populated areas such as big cities or countries such

as Japan or Korea.

Recently, anaerobic digestion has also become an important

player in the area of renewable energy production from energy

crops (e.g. corn). The net energy yield per hectare is higher

compared to the production of bio-diesel or bio-ethanol. Also,

in bio-refineries, anaerobic digestion could play an important

role with high-value plant parts being used for green chemistry

and residual vegetable matter (after processing of low-value

plant parts, such as stems and leaves or straw) being treated

in anaerobic digestion for production of energy and compost.

Current distribution and prospective of technology

Figure 1 below gives an overview of the development of

biogasification capacity in Europe in the last two decades.

From just three plants in Europe with a total capacity of

87,000 tonnes per year in 1990, European anaerobic digestion

facilities have now grown to a total of 171 plants with a

digestion capacity of more than 5 million tonnes per year

in 2010. Figure 2 gives an overview of the AD capacities in

different European countries. Both the total capacity in a

given country is quoted as well as the average capacity per

plant. As can be seen, some countries tend to have smaller

plants (e.g. Germany, Switzerland, Austria, …) while others

have larger installations (e.g. Spain, France).

These graphs also show that the anaerobic digestion

capacity in Europe is increasing rapidly. Many digesters are

being built in Mediterranean countries such as Spain and

France. Most plants are dry and single-phase, and run at

mesophilic temperatures.

The evolution for the coming years can be deduced from

the two graphs, the data for which are based on the bids for

proposals published in the European Journal.

Bioplastics and anaerobic digestion

First of all, just as with aerobic composting, since anaerobic

digestion is a biological waste treatment process, bioplastics

Total Capacity

Average Capacity

87.000 tpa

3 plants

281.000 tpa

18 plants

1.400.000 tpa

62 plants

3.470.000 tpa

116 plants

5.204.000 tpa

171 plants

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

Installed Capacity (t/y)










Figure 1. Evolution of AD capacity in Europe (EU + EFTA

countries) (with tpa = tons per annum) Figure 2. AD capacity in various European countries (2010)



























bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 43


should be biodegradable in order to be compatible. Whether bioplastics are produced from

renewable resources or not, doesn‘t matter. The key element is that they must be biodegradable

under anaerobic conditions or at least be compatible with an anaerobic digestion process.

Anaerobic digestion plant

in (two-phase) at Vitoria

(Spain) (all photos: OWS nv)

Concerning technical preconditions of treating bioplastics in anaerobic digestion plants, a

distinction must be made between wet and dry technologies. In general, wet technologies,

especially in the pretreatment phase, cannot treat bioplastics easily: in the first pulping and

hydrolysis phase they are removed either by flotation or by sedimentation and therefore are not

really entering the digestion (except when bioplastics are quickly soluble or dispersible, which is

rarely the case). A solution could be to add the bioplastics directly to the second step, the aerobic

composting step (considering the retention time in this second step is much shorter than the

residence time in a typical composting process). Another solution might be new developments

in the pretreatment phase. In most dry systems, bioplastics can be added when some random

conditions are fulfilled: they should be shredded (to reduce the particle size) before entering the

digestion (just like biowaste itself) and sieving is better located at the end of the process in order

to enable as much biodegradation and disintegration as possible in both the anaerobic digestion

and the aerobic composting step.

The major underlying reason why several bioplastics show a different biodegradation behavior

in aerobic composting from their behavior in anaerobic digestion is the influence of fungi. Fungi

are abundantly available and very active in aerobic composting while in anaerobic fermentation no

fungi are active. Some polymers are mainly (or even only) degraded by fungi and not by bacteria

and will therefore biodegrade in aerobic composting and not in anaerobic digestion - or only much

slower. As a matter of fact, this is also the case for the natural polymer lignin which can be found

in wood, straw, shells, etc.

On the other hand, when bioplastics do also biodegrade in anaerobic fermentation there is

a double benefit. First of all, energy is produced from the bioplastics in the form of biogas that

can be converted to electricity. Secondly, as most bioplastics are very rich in carbon and do not

contain nitrogen (or very little), the addition of bioplastics to biowaste will improve the C/N ratio

of the mixture. Biowaste tends to be low in C/N, which is sometimes a problem in anaerobic

digestion, by adding a carbon-rich substrate the C/N ratio is increased.

So far, the knowledge of anaerobic biodegradation and treatability of bioplastics is limited and

further research would be welcome. Ideally, bioplastics would biodegrade and also disintegrate

during the anaerobic phase in an anaerobic digestion plant, just as the major part of ‘natural‘

biowaste does. However, if the bioplastic disintegrates during the anaerobic phase and then

afterwards biodegrades completely during the aerobic stabilization phase or during the use of

digestate or compost in soil, it can also considered to be compatible with anaerobic digestion.

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4




December 2-3, 2009

Dritter Deutscher WPC-Kongress

Maritim Hotel, Cologne, Germany

December 2-3, 2009

Sustainable Plastics Packaging

Sheraton Hotel, Brussels, Belgium

March 8-10, 2010

GPEC 2010

Global Plastics Environmental Conference

The Florida Hotel & Conference Center

Orlando, Florida, USA

March 15-17, 2010

4th annual Sustainability in Packaging

Conference & Exhibition

Rosen Plaza Hotel, Orlando, Florida, USA

March 16-17, 2010

EnviroPlas 2010

Brussels, Belgium

April 13-15, 2010

Innovation Takes Root 2010

The Four Seasions - Dallas, Texas, USA

June 22-23, 2010

8th Global WPC and Natural

Fibre Composites Congress an Exhibition

Fellbach (near Stuttgart), Germany

You can meet us!

Please contact us in advance by e-mail.

Editorial Planner 2010

# - Month Publ.-Date Edit/Ad/Deadl. Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics Fair Specials

01 - Jan/Feb 08.02.2010 15.01.2010 Automotive Foams Basics of Cellulosics

02 - Mar/Apr 05.04.2010 12.03.2010 Rigid Packaging Material Combinations Basics of Certification

03 - May/Jun 07.06.2010 14.05.2010 Injection Moulding Natural Fibre composites Basics of Bio-Polyamides

04 - Jul/Aug 02.08.2010 09.07.2010

Additives /

Materbatches / Adhesives

Bottles / Labels / Caps

Compounding of Bioplastics

05 - Sep/Oct 04.10.2010 10.09.2010 Fiber Applications Polyurethanes / Elastomers Basics of Bio-Polyolefins K‘2010 preview

06- Nov/Dec 06.12.2010 12.11.2010 Films / Flexibles / Bags Consumer Electronics Recycling of Bioplastics K‘2010 review

Further topics to be covered in 2010:

Beauty and Healthcare

Non-Food Bioplastics

Printing inks



and much more …

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 45



In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again

the same expressions appear that some of our

readers might (not yet) be familiar with. This

glossary shall help with these terms and shall

help avoid repeated explanations such as ‘PLA

(Polylactide)‘ in various articles.

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics

e.V.) is a term used to define two different

kinds of plastics:

a. Plastics based on renewable resources (the

focus is the origin of the raw material used)

b. à Biodegradable and compostable plastics

according to EN13432 or similar standards

(the focus is the compostability of the final

product; biodegradable and compostable

plastics can be based on renewable (biobased)

and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources).

Bioplastics may be

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;

- based on renewable resources but not be

biodegradable; and

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch

molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer,

monomer is à Glucose).

Amyloseacetat | Linear polymeric glucosechains

are called à amylose. If this compound

is treated with ethan acid one product

is amylacetat. The hydroxyl group is connected

with the organic acid fragment.

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,

monomer is à Glucose).

Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable

Plastics are plastics that are completely assimilated

by the à microorganisms present a

defined environment as food for their energy.

The carbon of the plastic must completely be

converted into CO 2 during the microbial process.

For an official definition, please refer to

the standards e.g. ISO or in Europe: EN 14995

Plastics- Evaluation of compostability - Test

scheme and specifications. [bM 02/2006 p.

34f, bM 01/2007 p38].

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly

distributed base polymers.

Carbon neutral | Carbon neutral describes a

process that has a negligible impact on total

atmospheric CO 2 levels. For example, carbon

neutrality means that any CO 2 released when

a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset by an

equal amount of CO 2 absorbed by the plant

through photosynthesis when it is growing.

Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of à cellulose.

Cellulose | Polymeric molecule with very high

molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is

à Glucose), industrial production from wood

or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and


Compost | A soil conditioning material of

decomposing organic matter which provides

nutrients and enhances soil structure.

(bM 06/2008, 02/2009)

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are biodegradable

under ‘composting’ conditions:

specified humidity, temperature, à microorganisms

and timefame. Several national

and international standards exist for clearer

definitions, for example EN 14995 Plastics

- Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme

and specifications [bM 02/2006 p. 34f, bM

01/2007 p38].

Composting | A solid waste management

technique that uses natural process to convert

organic materials to CO 2 , water and humus

through the action of à microorganisms

[bM 03/2007].

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different


Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system

boundaries of an environmental àLife Cycle

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities

from the ‘cradle’ (i.e., the extraction of raw

materials, agricultural activities and forestry)

up to the factory gate

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated

as C2C): Is an expression which communicates

the concept of a closed-cycle economy,

in which waste is used as raw material (‘waste

equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term

that is typically used in àLCA studies.

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system

boundaries of a full àLife Cycle Assessment

from manufacture (‘cradle’) to use phase and

disposal phase (‘grave’).

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled

by à microorganisms or enyzmes (e.g.

the transformation of sugar into lactic acid).

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,

colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless

and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside

animals‘ connective tissue.

Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar).

G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar)

in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or

hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.

Humus | In agriculture, ‘humus’ is often used

simply to mean mature à compost, or natural

compost extracted from a forest or other

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.

Hydrophilic | Property: ‘water-friendly’, soluble

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used

in conjunction with a plastic which is not waterresistant

and weatherproof or that absorbs

water such as Polyamide (PA).

Hydrophobic | Property: ‘water-resistant’, not

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is waterresistant

and weatherproof, or that does not

absorb any water such as Polethylene (PE) or

Polypropylene (PP).

LCA | Life Cycle Assessment (sometimes also

referred to as life cycle analysis, ecobalance,

and àcradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation

and valuation of the environmental

impacts of a given product or service caused

(bM 01/2009).

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4


Readers who know better explanations or who

would like to suggest other explanations to be

added to the list, please contact the editor.

[*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article

previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic

size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast.

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil

based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as

a blend component.

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters

produced in nature by bacterial fermentation

of sugar or lipids. The most common

type of PHA is à PHB.

PHB | Polyhydroxyl buteric acid (better poly-

3-hydroxybutyrate), is a polyhydroxyalkanoate

(PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters

class. PHB is produced by micro-organisms

apparently in response to conditions of physiological

stress. The polymer is primarily a

product of carbon assimilation (from glucose

or starch) and is employed by micro-organisms

as a form of energy storage molecule to

be metabolized when other common energy

sources are not available. PHB has properties

similar to those of PP, however it is stiffer and

more brittle.

PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA) is

a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic

polyester from lactic acid. Lactic acid is made

from dextrose by fermentation. Bacterial fermentation

is used to produce lactic acid from

corn starch, cane sugar or other sources.

However, lactic acid cannot be directly polymerized

to a useful product, because each polymerization

reaction generates one molecule

of water, the presence of which degrades the

forming polymer chain to the point that only

very low molecular weights are observed.

Instead, lactic acid is oligomerized and then

catalytically dimerized to make the cyclic lactide

monomer. Although dimerization also

generates water, it can be separated prior to

polymerization. PLA of high molecular weight

is produced from the lactide monomer by

ring-opening polymerization using a catalyst.

This mechanism does not generate additional

water, and hence, a wide range of molecular

weights are accessible (bM 01/2009).

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or

carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family.

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar

units. For example, there are known mono-,

di- and polysaccharose. à glucose is a monosaccarin.

They are important for the diet and

produced biology in plants.

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction

of glucose changing the aldehyde group

to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as a

plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting

of à amylose and à amylopectin,

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca

etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains

in definite way the result (product) is

called starch. Each molecule is based on 300

-12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection,

there are two types à amylose and

à amylopectin known.

Starch (-derivate) | Starch (-derivates) are

based on the chemical structure of à starch.

The chemical structure can be changed by

introducing new functional groups without

changing the à starch polymer. The product

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the

hydrophilic character is not the same.

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When

every hydroxyl group is connect with ethan

acid one product is starch-ester with different

chemical properties.

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can

be synthesised by treating the à starch with

propane or butanic acid. The product structure

is still based on à starch. Every based à

glucose fragment is connected with a propionate

or butyrate ester group. The product is

more hydrophobic than à starch.

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best

outcomes for the human and natural environments

both now and into the indefinite future.

One of the most often cited definitions of sustainability

is the one created by the Brundtland

Commission, led by the former Norwegian

Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The

Brundtland Commission defined sustainable

development as development that ‘meets the

needs of the present without compromising

the ability of future generations to meet their

own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the continuity

of economic, social, institutional and

environmental aspects of human society, as

well as the non-human environment).

Sustainability | (as defined by European

Bioplastics e.V.) has three dimensions: economic,

social and environmental. This has

been known as “the triple bottom line of

sustainability”. This means that sustainable

development involves the simultaneous pursuit

of economic prosperity, environmental

protection and social equity. In other words,

businesses have to expand their responsibility

to include these environmental and social

dimensions. Sustainability is about making

products useful to markets and, at the same

time, having societal benefits and lower environmental

impact than the alternatives currently

available. It also implies a commitment

to continuous improvement that should result

in a further reduction of the environmental

footprint of today’s products, processes and

raw materials used.

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or

melt when heated and solidify when cooled

(solid at room temperature).

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,

garden residue.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 47



Suppliers Guide

1. Raw Materials

2. Additives /

Secondary raw materials

















Global Business Management

Biodegradable Polymers

Carl-Bosch-Str. 38

67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany

Tel. +49-621 60 43 878

Fax +49-621 60 21 694

1.1 bio based monomers

Du Pont de Nemours International S.A.

2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50

CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex,

Geneva, Switzerland

Tel. + 41 22 717 5428

Fax + 41 22 717 5500

PURAC division

Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21

4200 AA Gorinchem -

The Netherlands

Tel.: +31 (0)183 695 695

Fax: +31 (0)183 695 604

1.2 compounds

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH

Siemensring 79

D - 47 877 Willich

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies

4201 Woodland Road

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA

Tel. +1 763.225.6600

Fax +1 763.225.6645

Transmare Compounding B.V.

Ringweg 7, 6045 JL

Roermond, The Netherlands

Tel. +31 475 345 900

Fax +31 475 345 910

1.3 PLA

Division of A&O FilmPAC Ltd

7 Osier Way, Warrington Road


MK46 5FP

Tel.: +44 844 335 0886

Fax: +44 1234 713 221

1.4 starch-based bioplastics

Plantic Technologies Limited

51 Burns Road

Altona VIC 3018 Australia

Tel. +61 3 9353 7900

Fax +61 3 9353 7901

PSM Bioplastic NA

Chicago, USA


1.5 PHA

Telles, Metabolix – ADM joint venture

650 Suffolk Street, Suite 100

Lowell, MA 01854 USA

Tel. +1-97 85 13 18 00

Fax +1-97 85 13 18 86

Tianan Biologic

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0

1.6 masterbatches

Du Pont de Nemours International S.A.

2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50

CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex,

Geneva, Switzerland

Tel. + 41(0) 22 717 5428

Fax + 41(0) 22 717 5500

3. Semi finished products

3.1 films

Huhtamaki Forchheim

Herr Manfred Huberth

Zweibrückenstraße 15-25

91301 Forchheim

Tel. +49-9191 81305

Fax +49-9191 81244

Mobil +49-171 2439574

Maag GmbH

Leckingser Straße 12

58640 Iserlohn


Tel. + 49 2371 9779-30

Fax + 49 2371 9779-97

Sidaplax UK : +44 (1) 604 76 66 99

Sidaplax Belgium: +32 9 210 80 10

Plastic Suppliers: +1 866 378 4178











BIOTEC Biologische

Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG

Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32

46446 Emmerich


Tel. +49 2822 92510

Fax +49 2822 51840

Cereplast Inc.

Tel: +1 310-676-5000 / Fax: -5003

European distributor A.Schulman :

Tel +49 (2273) 561 236

BIOTEC Biologische

Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG

Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32

46446 Emmerich


Tel. +49 2822 92510

Fax +49 2822 51840

Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients

ZAC „Les Portes de Riom“ - BP 173

63204 Riom Cedex - France

Tel. +33 (0)4 73 67 17 00

Fax +33 (0)4 73 67 17 10


Avenue Melville Wilson, 2

Zoning de la Fagne

5330 Assesse


Tel. + 32 83 660 211

Sukano Products Ltd.

Chaltenbodenstrasse 23

CH-8834 Schindellegi

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77

Fax +41 44 787 57 78

3.1.1 cellulose based films



Cumbria CA7 9BG


Contact: Andy Sweetman

Tel. +44 16973 41549

Fax +44 16973 41452

4. Bioplastics products

alesco GmbH & Co. KG

Schönthaler Str. 55-59

D-52379 Langerwehe

Sales Germany: +49 2423 402 110

Sales Belgium: +32 9 2260 165

Sales Netherlands: +31 20 5037 710 |

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

6.2 Laboratory Equipment

Suppliers Guide

Arkhe Will Co., Ltd.

19-1-5 Imaichi-cho, Fukui

918-8152 Fukui, Japan

Tel. +81-776 38 46 11

Fax +81-776 38 46 17

Postbus 26

7480 AA Haaksbergen

The Netherlands

Tel.: +31 616 121 843

Forapack S.r.l

Via Sodero, 43

66030 Poggiofi orito (Ch), Italy

Tel. +39-08 71 93 03 25

Fax +39-08 71 93 03 26

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.

Esmy Huang, Marketing Manager

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,

Taichung County

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888

Fax +883(4)2277 6989

Mobil +886(0)982-829988

Skype esmy325

natura Verpackungs GmbH

Industriestr. 55 - 57

48432 Rheine

Tel. +49 5975 303-57

Fax +49 5975 303-42


Via Fauser , 8

28100 Novara - ITALIA

Fax +39.0321.699.601

Tel. +39.0321.699.611

President Packaging Ind., Corp.

PLA Paper Hot Cup manufacture

In Taiwan,

Tel.: +886-6-570-4066 ext.5531

Fax: +886-6-570-4077


8752 Näfels - Am Linthli 2


Tel. +41 55 618 44 99

Fax +41 55 618 44 98

4.1 trays

5. Traders

5.1 wholesale

6. Equipment

6.1 Machinery & Molds

FAS Converting Machinery AB

O Zinkgatan 1/ Box 1503

27100 Ystad, Sweden

Tel.: +46 411 69260

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey

Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic

Container Industry

284 Pinebush Road

Cambridge Ontario

Canada N1T 1Z6

Tel. +1 519 624 9720

Fax +1 519 624 9721

Roll-o-Matic A/S

Petersmindevej 23

5000 Odense C, Denmark

Tel. + 45 66 11 16 18

Fax + 45 66 14 32 78

MODA : Biodegradability Analyzer

Saida FDS Incorporated

3-6-6 Sakae-cho, Yaizu,

Shizuoka, Japan

Tel : +81-90-6803-4041

7. Plant engineering

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH

Holzhauser Str. 157 - 159

13509 Berlin


Tel. +49 (0)30 43567 5

Fax +49 (0)30 43567 699

8. Ancillary equipment

9. Services

9. Services

Siemensring 79

47877 Willich, Germany

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-0 , Fax: -51

Bioplastics Consulting

Tel. +49 2161 664864

Wirkstoffgruppe Imageproduktion

Tel. +49 2351 67100-0

10. Institutions

10.1 Associations

BPI - The Biodegradable

Products Institute

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415

New York, NY 10019, USA

Tel. +1-888-274-5646

Simply contact:

Tel.: +49 02351 67100-0

Stay permanently listed in the

Suppliers Guide with your company

logo and contact information.

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you

can be present among top suppliers in

the field of bioplastics.

For Example:

Polymedia Publisher GmbH

Dammer Str. 112

41066 Mönchengladbach


Tel. +49 2161 664864

Fax +49 2161 631045

Sample Charge:

35mm x 6,00 €

= 210,00 € per entry/per issue

Sample Charge for one year:

6 issues x 210,00 EUR = 1,260.00 €

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is

bookable for one year (6 issues) and

extends automatically if it’s not canceled

three month before expiry.

10.2 Universities

Michigan State University

Department of Chemical

Engineering & Materials Science

Professor Ramani Narayan

East Lansing MI 48824, USA

Tel. +1 517 719 7163

University of Applied Sciences

Faculty II, Department

of Bioprocess Engineering

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans-Josef Endres

Heisterbergallee 12

30453 Hannover, Germany

Tel. +49 (0)511-9296-2212

Fax +49 (0)511-9296-2210

35 mm





Pland Paper ®


2F, No.57, Singjhong Rd.,

Neihu District,

Taipei City 114, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Tel. + 886 - 2 - 27953131

Fax + 886 - 2 - 27919966


Stubenwald-Allee 9

64625 Bensheim, Deutschland

Tel. +49 6251 77061 0

Fax +49 6251 77061 510

European Bioplastics e.V.

Marienstr. 19/20

10117 Berlin, Germany

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350

Fax +49 30 284 84 359

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 49

Companies in this issue

Company Editorial Advert

A&O Filmpac 48

Alcan Packaging 17

alesco 14 48

All Nippon Airways ANA 34

Arkema 5, 35

Arkhe Will 49

Artec 34

Auchan 18

BASF 19, 23 48

Best Buy 26


bioplastics24 31

Biotec 48

BlueElph 33

Bosch 10

BP Consulting 34

BPI 49

British Plastics Federation BPF 7

Cardia Bioplastics 6

Carrefour 18

Cereplast 6 48

Delhaize 18

Dettmer Verpackungen 12

DuPont 10, 32, 36 48

Earthsoul 7


European Bioplastics 5, 10 49

EXEL Sports Brands 32

FAS Converting Machinery 49

Fres-co Systems USA 17

FH Hannover 10, 38 49

fischer group 36

FKuR 8, 10, 12 2, 48

Forapack 49

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 8 49

Goglio Cofibox 17

GPV 18

Hallink 49

Hamelin 18

Huhtamaki 10, 17 48

Hycail Finland 8

IFA Tulln 33

Innovia Films 36 48

J&K Agro Industries 7

Jiffy Pot 18

Krauss Maffei Berstorff 10

Kuraray 10

Limagrain 48

Maag 48

Mann + Hummel Protech 49

Mayer Kuvert Network 18

McCain 12

Company Editorial Advert

Metabolix 8 48, 51

Metalnuovo 17

Michigan State University 49

Minima Technology 49

natura Verpackung 49

Nature‘s Farm 36

Nature‘s Organics 35

NatureWorks 17, 23, 27, 33, 34

NaturTec 48

Novamont 7, 20 49, 52

Oerlemans Plastics 23

Organic Waste Systems 42

Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-



Philips 27

Plantic 48

Plastic Suppliers 17, 18 48

Plasticker 31

Plastikwaren Putz 32

Polyfilms 17

Polymediaconsult 49

Polyone 33

President Packaging 49

PSM 48

Purac 48

Radio Shack 26

Saida 25

Samsung 26

Sidaplax 17, 18 48

SKC 17

Sleever International 17

Smith Optics 35

Sprint Nextel 26

Sukano 10, 33 48

Symphony Environmental 28

Tanita 24

Telecom Italia 27

Telles 48, 51

Tianan Biologic 48

Toray Industries 27

Transmare 48

Uhde Inventa-Fischer 11

Ultimate Packaging 9

Unitika 24

Universität Duisburg 10

Utrecht University 5, 10

Vinçotte 9

Volkswagen 10

Wal-Mart 26

Wei Mon 37, 49

Wiedmer 49

Next Issue

For the next issues of bioplastics MAGAZINE

(among others) the following subjects are scheduled:

Month Publication Date Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics

Jan/Feb 01 Feb 2010 Automotive Applications Foam Basics of Cellulosics

Mar/Apr 05 Apr 2010 Rigid Packaging Material Combinations Certification

May/June 07 Jun 2010 Injection Moulding Natural Fibre Composites Polyamides

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Salone del Gusto and Terra Madre 2008

Visitors of Salone del Gusto 180,000

Meals served at Terra Madre 26,000

Compost produced* kg 7,000

CO 2

saved kg 13,600

* data estimate – Novamont projection

The future,

with a different flavour:


Mater-Bi® means biodegradable

and compostable plastics made

from renewable raw materials.

Slow Food, defending good things,

from food to land.

For the “Salone del Gusto” and “Terra Madre”, Slow Food

has chosen Mater-Bi® for bags, shoppers, cutlery,

cups and plates; showing that good food must also

get along with the environment.

Sustainable development is a necessity for everyone.

For Novamont and Slow Food, it is already a reality.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines