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ioplastics magazine Vol. 4 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Highlights:<br />

Films, Flexibles, Bags | 12<br />

Consumer Electronics | 26<br />

Basics:<br />

Anaerobic<br />

Digestion | 42<br />

06 | 2009<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

is read in<br />

85 countries

Plastics For Your Future<br />

Another New Resin For a Better World<br />

BIO-FLEX ® For Deep Freeze Packaging<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH | Siemensring 79 | D - 47877 Willich<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 51-0 | Fax: +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 51-51 | sales@fkur.com<br />


Smoking a PLA-pipe?<br />

... Well, not exactly.<br />

(For details see page 33)<br />

Editorial<br />

dear<br />

readers<br />

This has been a busy autumn, with lots of exhibitions and conferences, the<br />

biggest one that I attended being the European Bioplastics Conference with<br />

about 380 bioplastics experts meeting in Berlin.<br />

Packaging is still the largest field of applications, as can be seen from the<br />

huge section ’films, flexibles, bags‘ in this issue. But durable applications are<br />

not far behind. Thus our second editorial focus is on ‘consumer electronics‘.<br />

In the basics section we cover ‘anaerobic digestion‘ or ‘biogasification‘ and<br />

we shed light on the important issue of ‘quantity, quality and comparability<br />

of material properties‘. In order to give true comparability it is essential that<br />

the standards used are clearly stated together with specifications that are<br />

quoted.<br />

Coverphoto courtesy alesco<br />

And finally we received the promised article on ‘oxo-biodegradable plastics‘.<br />

I think it is remarkable that the author, Professor Scott, clearly states that oxobiodegradable<br />

plastics are not marketed for composting, nor are they designed<br />

for anaerobic digestion or landfill. Oxo-biodegradable plastic addresses the<br />

problem caused by plastic waste which gets accidentally or deliberately into<br />

the open environment - i.e. littering.<br />

As always, this issue also brings you a number of industry news items and<br />

details of new applications. For next year I once again encourage all companies offering<br />

bioplastics products or services to contribute to the magazine with articles, news, or<br />

statements of opinion. On page 45 you will find the editorial calendar with all editorial<br />

focus subjects for 2010, as well as the editorial deadlines.<br />

I hope you enjoy reading this issue of bioplastics MAGAzINE.<br />

Yours<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 3

Content<br />

Editorial 03<br />

News 05<br />

Application News 34<br />

Event Calendar 45<br />

Editorial Planner 2010 45<br />

Glossary 46<br />

Suppliers Guide 48<br />

November/December 06|2009<br />

Event Review<br />

4th European Bioplastics Conference 10<br />

New Record<br />

Conference on Technical Applications 10<br />

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Deep-Freeze Bio Packaging 12<br />

A Holistic Approach 14<br />

PLA Films are a Team Sport 17<br />

PLA Film Applications 18<br />

High-Performance and Biodegradable 19<br />

Materials<br />

Oxobiodegradable Plastic 28<br />

Applications<br />

Green Nordic Walking – with Biobased Polyamide 32<br />

A Magic Powder in a PLA Powderette 33<br />

Basics<br />

Evaluating Quantity, Quality and 38<br />

Comparability of Biopolymer Materials<br />

Basics of<br />

Anaerobic Digestion 42<br />

New Performance Profiles 20<br />

for Food and Non-Food<br />

Bioplastic Films from the Netherlands 23<br />

Consumer Electronics<br />

Biomassbased Bathroom Scale 24<br />

Eco-Centric Mobile Phone 25<br />

New ‘Eco.‘ Cordless Telephone 26<br />

Vacuum Cleaner Housing 26<br />

Impressum<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr. Michael Thielen<br />

Samuel Brangenberg<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Mark Speckenbach<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 664864<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Elke Hoffmann<br />

phone: +49(0)2351-67100-0<br />

fax: +49(0)2351-67100-10<br />

eh@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Print<br />

Tölkes Druck + Medien GmbH<br />

47807 Krefeld, Germany<br />

Total Print run: 3,500 copies<br />

bioplastics magazine<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bioplastics magazine is published<br />

6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified<br />

subscribers (149 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read<br />

in 85 countries.<br />

Not to be reproduced in any form<br />

without permission from the publisher.<br />

The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trade marks is<br />

not an indication that such names are not<br />

registered trade marks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Editorial contributions are always welcome.<br />

Please contact the editorial office via<br />

mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

Envelope<br />

A large number of copies of this issue<br />

of bioplastics MAGAZINE is wrapped in<br />

a compostable film manufactured and<br />

sponsored by novamont (www.novamont.com)<br />

Coverphoto courtesy alesco<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

100% Bio-Sourced Thermoplastic Elastomers<br />

News<br />

Capitalizing on its long-standing experience in castor oil<br />

chemistry, France based Arkema has now developed Pebax ®<br />

Rnew100, a range of thermoplastic elastomers produced<br />

entirely from renewable raw materials.<br />

By combining a bio-sourced polyol with castor oil chemistry,<br />

Arkema further extends its program to substitute fossil raw<br />

materials with raw materials of plant origin, in line with<br />

its sustainable development policy. Complementing the<br />

Pebax Rnew range which is based on 20 to 95% plant origin<br />

carbon, Pebax Rnew100, Arkema’s latest high performance<br />

thermoplastic elastomer range, is entirely derived from<br />

renewable resources. Thanks to a reduction in fossil energy<br />

requirements during their production and in overall equivalent<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions, these products will find a natural place within<br />

the eco-design programs initiated by many manufacturers.<br />

As with the other Pebax grades, Pebax Rnew100 boasts<br />

outstanding mechanical properties, together with excellent<br />

resistance to thermal and ultra-violet ageing. Light weight<br />

and outstanding dynamic behavior, hence excellent resistance<br />

to both flexural and tensile stress, also set this product<br />

apart. Pebax Rnew100 therefore offers the best possible<br />

compromise between rigidity and mechanical strength at<br />

cold temperature.<br />

Pebax Rnew and Rnew100 have countless industrial<br />

applications involving the manufacture of high added value<br />

products. They fulfil stringent specification requirements in<br />

many sectors, including automotive, electronics and sports<br />

equipment.<br />

www.arkema.com<br />

Bio-Based Plastics:<br />

New Study Forecasts<br />

Enormous Potential<br />

New bio-based polymers have been available in the market<br />

for approximately one decade. Recently, standard polymers<br />

like polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC or PET, but also highperformance<br />

polymers like polyamide or polyester have<br />

been totally or partially substituted by their renewable raw<br />

materials equivalents. The starting raw materials are usually<br />

sugars or starches, partially also recycled materials from<br />

food or wood processing.<br />

In a jointly commissioned study, recently published by<br />

the associations European Bioplastics and the European<br />

Polysaccharide Network of Excellence EPNOE, Martin K. Patel,<br />

Li Shen and Juliane Haufe (Utrecht University) demonstrate<br />

that up to 90 % of the current global consumption of polymers<br />

can technically be converted from oil and gas to renewable<br />

raw materials. “Bio-based plastics will not substitute oilbased<br />

polymers in the near future for several reasons<br />

including low oil price, high production cost and restricted<br />

production capacity of biomass-based polymers that limit the<br />

technically possible growth of these plastics in the coming<br />

years“, explains Patrick Navard, Chairman of the Governing<br />

Board of EPNOE.<br />

Based on recent company announcements the production<br />

capacity of bio-based plastics is projected to increase from<br />

360,000 tons in 2007 to about 2.3 million tons by 2013. This<br />

corresponds to an annual growth of 37 %. “We should keep a<br />

close eye on these figures“, says Hasso von Pogrell, Managing<br />

Director of European Bioplastics. “Important major projects<br />

were delayed in the years 2008 and 2009 due to the financial<br />

and economic crisis. Despite the still uncertain data, which of<br />

course has to be further consolidated, we deem such studies<br />

to be very essential. The role that lightweight conventional<br />

plastics played in the past, substituting durable materials<br />

like iron and steel in vast products, could soon be taken over<br />

by bio-based plastics. As the study shows, the potential is<br />

enormous“, adds von Pogrell.<br />

The study discusses for all major groups of bio-based<br />

plastics the production process, the material properties<br />

and the extent to which they could substitute petrochemical<br />

polymers from a technical point of view. Further aspects<br />

covered are the prices of these novel materials and their main<br />

producers. Three scenarios are distinguished to establish<br />

potential future growth trajectories, i.e. a baseline scenario, an<br />

optimistic and a conservative scenario. The results for these<br />

scenarios are also compared to the findings of a previous<br />

study made in 2005. The new study confirms that substantial<br />

technological progress has been made in bio-based plastics<br />

in the past five years. Innovations in material and product<br />

development, environmental benefits as well as the gradual<br />

depletion of crude oil increasingly call for polymers made<br />

from renewable raw materials.<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.epnoe.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 5

News<br />

Bioplastic<br />

from Algae<br />

California (USA) based Cereplast Inc. recently<br />

announced that it has been developing a breakthrough<br />

technology to transform algae into bioplastics and<br />

intends to launch a new family of algae-based resins<br />

that will complement the company’s existing line of<br />

Compostables ® & Hybrid ® resins.<br />

Cereplast algae-based resins could replace 50%<br />

or more of the petroleum content used in traditional<br />

plastic resins. Currently, Cereplast is using renewable<br />

material such as starches from corn, tapioca, wheat<br />

and potatoes and Ingeo TM PLA.<br />

“Our algae research has shown promising results<br />

and we believe that in the months to come we should<br />

be able to launch this new family of algae-based<br />

resins,” stated Frederic Scheer, Founder, Chairman<br />

and CEO of Cereplast. “Algae-based resins represent<br />

an outstanding opportunity for companies across the<br />

plastic supply chain to become more environmentally<br />

sustainable and reduce the industry‘s reliance on oil.<br />

We are still in the development phase, but we believe<br />

that this breakthrough technology could result in a<br />

significant new line of business in the years to come.”<br />

“Based on our own efforts, as well as recent<br />

commitments by major players in the algae field, we<br />

believe that algae has the potential to become one of<br />

the most important ‘green‘ feedstocks for biofuels, as<br />

well as bioplastics,” continued Mr Scheer. “Clearly, our<br />

focus will be on bioplastics. However, for our algaebased<br />

resins to be successful, we require the production<br />

of substantial quantities of algae feedstock. We are very<br />

encouraged when we see big players entering the algae<br />

production business, including Exxon’s $600 million<br />

investment in Synthetic Genomics and BP’s $10 million<br />

investment in Martek Biosciences.”<br />

Cereplast has initiated contact with several<br />

companies that plan to use algae to minimize the<br />

CO 2<br />

and NO X<br />

gases from polluting smoke-stack<br />

environments. Algae from a typical photo-bioreactor is<br />

harvested daily and may be treated as biomass, which<br />

can be used as biofuel or as a raw material source for<br />

biopolymer feed stock. The company is also in direct<br />

communication with potential chemical conversion<br />

companies that could convert the algae biomass into<br />

viable monomers for further conversion into potential<br />

biopolymers. “Algae as biomass makes sense in that<br />

it helps close the loop on polluting gases and can be a<br />

significant renewable resource,” added Mr. Scheer.<br />

Multilayer Films<br />

Breakthrough for<br />

Food Contact Market<br />

Global sustainable resins supplier Cardia Bioplastics,<br />

headquartered in Mulgrave,VIC, Australia, has announced<br />

a new range of Cardia Biohybrid based films that comply<br />

with the European Commission standard 2002/72 EC for<br />

food contact.<br />

Cardia Bioplastics has lodged new provisional patents<br />

to protect this innovative technology, which expands its<br />

extensive patent portfolio. Cardia Bioplastics Managing<br />

Director Dr Frank Glatz said the multilayer film technology<br />

provides the food industry with excellent clarity, and<br />

mechanical and processing properties.<br />

“This development enables customers to move<br />

confidently into more sustainable packaging solutions<br />

and opens significant new market opportunities for Cardia<br />

Bioplastics, which extend from commodity packaging into<br />

the food packaging industry. The sustainability benefit of<br />

Cardia Biohybrid multilayer film also offers food marketers<br />

packaging solutions with a competitive edge for their<br />

products,“ said Frank Glatz.<br />

Interest from international brands in Cardia Compostable<br />

and Cardia Biohybrid resins has resulted in the company‘s<br />

decision to expand its manufacturing facility in Nanjing,<br />

China. The relocation to a larger site will effectively double<br />

the company‘s manufacturing capacity.<br />

In addition, Cardia Bioplastics has opened a new<br />

Global Application Development Centre at the company‘s<br />

Melbourne, Australia headquarters. This facility focuses<br />

on the application of Cardia Compostable and Cardia<br />

Biohybrid resins to customers‘ specific products.<br />

Frank Glatz said interest in sustainable resins is growing<br />

consistently as international marketers seek a streamlined<br />

path to technologies that meet more demanding<br />

environmental solutions for their packaging and plastics<br />

products. - MT<br />

www.cereplast.com<br />

www.cardiabioplastics.com<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

News<br />

New Joint Venture<br />

in India<br />

A new bioplastics joint venture will be the first of its kind<br />

in India, where Earthsoul India Private Limited, through its<br />

promoters the Bilimoria family, will hold 60% and the balance<br />

of 40% will be held by the state-owned J&K Agro Industries<br />

Development Corporation Ltd, led by Dr. G. N. Qasba, managing<br />

director.<br />

Earthsoul India have been the pioneers in India since 2002<br />

for 100% compostable and biodegradable packaging materials<br />

made from renewable raw materials such as waste stream<br />

starch. Market leaders in the field of biopolymer products, they<br />

have been associated with Novamont (Italy) for the past 8 years.<br />

J&K Agro Industries Development Corporation Ltd has been<br />

involved in the manufacture of food products, cattle feed, etc<br />

in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The corporation is also<br />

proactively engaged in the agricultural and irrigation sectors,<br />

as distributors and facilitators in the supply of machinery and<br />

equipment, fertilizers, mulching films for greenhouses etc.<br />

The two organisations are convinced that they have the<br />

necessary synergies to group together in order to foster and<br />

grow the bioplastics industry in India and South East Asia.<br />

Currently the bioplastics industry worldwide has been enjoying<br />

a growth rate of approximately 20% per year.<br />

The joint venture has earmarked an existing manufacturing<br />

facility, owned by J&K, at Sidco Industrial Area, Bari Brahmna,<br />

which is classified as an industrially backward area. The head<br />

office of the joint venture company will be situated at Srinagar.<br />

Equipped with state-of-the-art plant and machinery, both<br />

domestic and imported, the facility will have a capacity of<br />

approximately 50 tonnes per month and will be J&K’s first<br />

carbon neutral manufacturing facility.<br />

The designated executive chairman of the new joint venture,<br />

Perses M. Bilimoria, is a well-known bioplastics personality<br />

in India. He was the first significant introducer of biopolymer<br />

products into India and has been on various committees of the<br />

Ministry of Enviroment and Forests, New Delhi, for plastics<br />

in waste management and on the BIS committee, New Delhi,<br />

for adopting international standards on compostable and<br />

biodegradable raw materials, made from renewable resources.<br />

The company will be managed by a team of professionals<br />

chosen by the board of directors from a wide spectrum of the<br />

manufacturing industry.<br />

The product range of the new company comprises 100%<br />

compostable and biodegradable bags, mulching films for<br />

agriculture, nursery pots and sapling bags for the horticulture<br />

and floriculture markets.<br />

The facility is due to commence trial production in 12/09 and<br />

to enter the commercial market before 03/10. MT<br />

www.jkagro.com, www.earthsoulindia.com<br />

Plastics in the<br />

North Pacific Gyre<br />

Commenting on Project Kaisei‘s findings on<br />

plastics in the North Pacific Gyre, the British<br />

Plastics Federation (BPF) believes that plastics<br />

litter is far too common in the marine environment,<br />

it should not be there and more effort is needed by<br />

all concerned to ensure good waste management<br />

on shore and on vessels, and to provide education<br />

on littering. Furthermore, the Federation wishes to<br />

draw attention to a major initiative it has recently<br />

launched to stop any loss of plastics raw material<br />

into the environment.<br />

The United Nations Environmental programme‘s<br />

report last year pointed to the difficulties in<br />

obtaining accurate information but to tackle the<br />

problem of all waste in the oceans they called for:<br />

integrated waste management to tackle litter; raise<br />

public awareness and education; improved port<br />

waste collection facilities; and stronger economic<br />

incentives, fines, and enforcement.<br />

The BPF supports all these objectives and<br />

recently launched an initiative in the UK called<br />

‘Operation Clean Sweep - Plastic Pellet Loss<br />

Prevention’, to ensure that raw material does not<br />

escape into the environment. The BPF hopes to<br />

get the commitment of every company, from top<br />

management to shop floor employees to use the<br />

Operation Clean Sweep manual on prevention,<br />

containment and clean up of plastic materials to<br />

ensure no escape into the environment.<br />

Peter Davis, BPF Director-General says: “The<br />

Plastics industry does not put plastic into the seas.<br />

This is caused by littering, illegal dumping, poor<br />

waste management. We want the plastic back to be<br />

recycled or provide much needed energy through<br />

energy from waste combustion. International cooperation<br />

is needed to make this work, it is a global<br />

problem.”<br />

Concerning so-called ‘oxo-biodegradable’<br />

plastics the BPF believes that littering is a<br />

behavioural issue and not one related or confined<br />

to the use of specific materials. MT<br />

www.bpf.co.uk<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 7

News<br />

Design and<br />

Technology Award<br />

Biograde ® is a transparent, injection<br />

mouldable bioplastic based on cellulose. This<br />

co-developed product from German FKuR and<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT combines renewable and<br />

biodegradable cellulose acetate with special<br />

additives and couplers by means of an adapted<br />

biocompounding process from FKuR. Biograde<br />

is transparent (depending on grade), dyeable,<br />

scratch and heat resistant. The cellulose<br />

acetate used is gained from European soft<br />

wood. The Design+Technology Award 2009<br />

has been granted within the framework of<br />

the international fair ‘Materialica‘ in Munich,<br />

Germany on October 13, 2009. An independent<br />

panel of seven experts has determined in a<br />

non-public meeting a total of 20 awardees in<br />

different categories out of approximately 100<br />

international submitted nominations.<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

Biomaterials Services<br />

from Finland<br />

Based on the long experience in biomaterials Hycail Finland has<br />

evolved from a R&D department into an independent company offering<br />

development and analytical services within the biomaterials field.<br />

Following a management buyout of Hycail Finland the company has<br />

changed the focus from developing own products to help its customers<br />

utilizing the technology it once developed.<br />

“We offer years of experience and expertise in biomaterials<br />

development, we already made all the mistakes and are now able to<br />

make biomaterials easy for our customers” says Svante Wahlbeck,<br />

Managing Director.<br />

The service lab includes polymerization and compounding equipment<br />

as well as characterization and testing equipment.<br />

In addition to development services Hycail Finland offers complete<br />

quality control programs for production processes or end products.<br />

One of Hycail Finland’s unique capabilities is using different PLA-stereo<br />

complex based materials to modify material properties.<br />

“Of course, PLA is a focus area but we also work with blends and<br />

testing of plastics materials in general. Presently our customers range<br />

from big multinational packaging companies to highly specialized<br />

biomedical companies.” says Heikki Siistonen, Sales Manager.<br />

www.hycail.fi<br />

Field Trial of Bioplastic-Producing<br />

Tobacco Crop Successful<br />

Metabolix, Inc., a bioscience company from Cambridge, Massachusetts,<br />

USA, focused on developing sustainable solutions for plastics, chemicals<br />

and energy, recently announced that it has completed a field trial of<br />

tobacco, genetically engineered to express polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)<br />

biobased polymers. Metabolix obtained the necessary permits from the<br />

U.S. Department of Agrculture Animal Plant Health Inspection Service<br />

(APHIS) to perform an open air field trial in March of 2009 and field trial<br />

experiments were completed in early October. The trial was performed on<br />

3,237 m² (0.8 acres) of land and provided valuable data and information<br />

relating to polymer production, with the best plants producing 3-5% PHA.<br />

This furthers development of Metabolix crop technologies for the coproduction<br />

of biobased plastics in non-food bioenergy crops.<br />

Dr. Oliver Peoples, Chief Scientific Officer of Metabolix, commented, “The<br />

experience and knowledge we have gained during our tobacco field trial is<br />

laying the groundwork for planning and permitting activities for field trials<br />

in bioengineered, non-food oilseed and biomass crops producing PHA.<br />

We believe that our crop programs offer a number of commercialization<br />

options and hold significant potential. We are excited to continue to push<br />

this technology forward and believe it will ultimately support a diverse<br />

array of bioengineered, environmentally conscious and economically viable<br />

alternatives to petroleum-based products.“<br />

www.metabolix.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Another<br />

World-First<br />

The highly innovative technical team at<br />

Ultimate Packaging believes it has produced a<br />

world first environmentally-friendly product as<br />

part of a joint venture with Innovia Films and Sun<br />

Chemical. Staff at the North East Lincolnshirebased<br />

company believe that Ultigreen is the first<br />

ever truly biodegradable and home compostable<br />

printed laminate for the food industry.<br />

Using hybrid biodegradable inks, Ultimate<br />

Packaging has reverse-printed Natureflex<br />

and laminated the material using a unique<br />

biodegradable adhesive to metallised Natureflex.<br />

The company has already established itself as<br />

one of the UK‘s flexographic print suppliers to the<br />

food industry, but the experienced team continue<br />

to focus on finding innovative new solutions for<br />

its customers.<br />

Ultimate Packaging Technical Manager,<br />

Derek Gibson, explains “Until now, only a small<br />

coverage of standard inks could be used to enable<br />

products to pass the EN13432 standard and to be<br />

rated as biodegradable. The new Sun Chemical<br />

hybrid inks allow total print coverage on food<br />

packs and the biodegradable adhesive applied<br />

to bond these two Innovia materials means that<br />

this product can be classed as being made from<br />

totally biodegradable components.<br />

“We selected a promotional tea design to prove<br />

that the newly developed biodegradable inks and<br />

adhesive were compatible and then printed the<br />

Ultigreen product on our recently commissioned<br />

Soma Imperia 10 colour press.“<br />

The new product development team at Ultimate<br />

Packaging is now working on further products<br />

using the new ink and adhesive technology to<br />

bring additional completely biodegradable and<br />

home compostable flexible films to their food<br />

industry customers.<br />

“This really is an exciting development for us<br />

and we believe that it has enormous potential,“<br />

says Chris Tonge, Ultimate Packaging Sales<br />

and Marketing Director. “It is only the first of<br />

several new products that will set our family-run<br />

business apart from our competitors.“<br />

www.ultimate-packaging.co.uk<br />

New Eco-Label:<br />

OK biobased<br />

Halfway through the 1990s, Vinçotte developed the OK compost<br />

conformity marks for products meeting the European EN 13432<br />

standard, thereby playing a pioneering role during that period<br />

of time. Thanks to the new OK biobased certification system<br />

manufacturers can officially demonstrate the use of renewable raw<br />

materials via the independent OK biobased conformity marks.<br />

This is the first time an official certification body has launched a<br />

similar conformity mark based on exact measurements. Demand<br />

rose in particular from the packaging industry, as it is constantly on<br />

the look-out for renewable materials, owing to growing pressure<br />

on raw material prices and the way environmental regulations<br />

are being changed all over the world. The buying public‘s growing<br />

awareness of environmental concerns is also ensuring an<br />

expanding market for these products. What is more, consumers<br />

are anxious to have a rock-solid guarantee about the claims found<br />

on packaging. Thanks to the new OK biobased eco-label, Vinçotte<br />

can offer a completely independent guarantee about the origin of<br />

products. In this case, ‘biobased‘ refers to products of a biologically<br />

renewable rather than a fossil origin.<br />

Petroplastics versus bioplastics<br />

The keen interest in bioplastics can be summed up in one<br />

concept: carbon footprint. Biobased products help limit our<br />

carbon footprint, while making us less dependent on fossil<br />

fuels. For several years now a whole host of companies have<br />

been marketing bio-resources partly or entirely on the basis of<br />

biologically renewable carbon.<br />

OK biobased certification: clear and straightforward<br />

Apart from fuels, products (partly) made from bioplastics and/<br />

or materials of natural origin are eligible for the OK biobased<br />

certification mark. The basic material is assessed in the light of<br />

exact analyses for determining the renewable organic carbon<br />

content. The same analysis method (C14) is used for dating bones.<br />

A straightforward calculation can be used to convert the analysis<br />

findings into an exact ‘biobased’ percentage.<br />

As a result of promoting correct and documented claims,<br />

Vinçotte is making a contribution to the harmonized development<br />

of alternative and sustainable technologies.<br />

One to four stars<br />

News<br />

The communication strategy is based on a logo with one to four<br />

stars. The principle is quite straightforward: the more stars there<br />

are, the higher the biobased carbon content: one star means<br />

between 20% and 40% biobased material, two stars between 40%<br />

and 60%, three stars between 60% and 80% and four stars over 80%.<br />

www.okbiobased.be<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 9

Event review<br />

New Record: Bioplastics<br />

Continue On the Road to Success<br />

www.conference.european-bioplastics.org<br />

The European Bioplastics Conference took place for the fourth time in Berlin on the 10th and 11th of November and despite<br />

the difficult financial situation the event broke all records. 380 visitors and 27 exhibitors attended the conference hosted by<br />

the industry association European Bioplastics. Experts still expect continued growth in the field of compostable and biobased<br />

materials.<br />

“Where will the industry be in five years‘ time?“, “What are the trends?“, “Which materials will dominate the market?“,<br />

“How can we communicate the advantages for the environment and what are the optimum utilisation fields for bioplastics?“<br />

28 speakers and 380 participants dealt with these and other questions during the two-day bioplastics conference in Berlin.<br />

Altogether 237 companies from 27 countries attended the event. Approximately 78 % came from Europe, 16 % from Asia and<br />

over 5 % from North and South America.<br />

The European Bioplastics Conference is now in its fourth year and has become an established industry event. “To have broken<br />

attendance records, in spite of the difficult economic background is extremely heartening. Market interest and uptake is very<br />

real and bioplastics producers continue to increase both capacity and the technical capability of their materials“, cheers Andy<br />

Sweetman (left picture above), Chairman of the board of European Bioplastics.<br />

Professor Patel<br />

(Utrecht University)<br />

www.hanser-tagungen.de/biokunststoffe<br />

Conference on<br />

Technical Applications<br />

Biobased materials are today finding a wider usage,<br />

especially for technical (non-packaging) applications. With<br />

this shift from compostable packaging to durable applications<br />

increased demands regarding the material’s performance<br />

and processing properties can be observed. On the subjects<br />

on injection moulding performance, rheological processing<br />

parameters as well as long-term behaviour our knowledge<br />

today is still limited.<br />

Thus these questions and technical applications were the<br />

focus of a conference, ‘bioplastics - technical applications<br />

of biobased materials’, held in Duisburg, Germany in early<br />

October. The conference was chaired by Prof. Hans-Josef<br />

Endres (University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Hanover) and<br />

Prof. Johannes Wortberg (University of Duisburg).<br />

In addition to a general overview of the current situation<br />

experts from raw material suppliers such as DuPont,<br />

Kuraray, Sukano or FKuR informed the conference about<br />

the processing, application and challenges of biopolymers.<br />

Speakers from companies such as KraussMaffei Berstorff,<br />

Huhtamaki, Bosch and Volkswagen discussed the processing<br />

and properties of biopolymers in technical applications.<br />

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Polylactic Acid<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer extended its portfolio to technology and production plants for PLA,<br />

based on its long-term experience with PA and PET. The feedstock for our PLA process is lactic acid<br />

which can be produced from local agricultural products containing starch or sugar.<br />

The application range is similar to that of polymers based on fossil resources. Physical properties of<br />

PLA can be tailored to meet the requirements of packaging, textile and other applications.<br />

Think. Invest. Earn.<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH<br />

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159<br />

13509 Berlin<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 43 567 5<br />

Fax +49 30 43 567 699<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG<br />

Reichenauerstrasse<br />

7013 Domat/Ems<br />

Switzerland<br />

Tel. +41 81 632 63 11<br />

Fax +41 81 632 74 03<br />

www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer<br />

A company of ThyssenKrupp Technologies

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Deep-Freeze<br />

Bio Packaging<br />

Article contributed by<br />

Andreas Bergmeier,<br />

Director Development,<br />

Dettmer Verpackungen GmbH,<br />

Lohne, Germany and<br />

Dr. -Ing. Christian Bonten,<br />

Director Technology,<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH,<br />

Willich, Germany<br />

Deep freezing is a method of preserving foodstuffs containing water.<br />

During deep freezing the storage temperature of the food is<br />

set significantly below freezing point (at least -18 °C), thus slowing<br />

down or even stopping the growth of micro-organisms. Chemical<br />

and physical processes in food are also slowed down or avoided completely.<br />

Biochemical, and most notably enzymatic, reactions are also<br />

slowed down [1].<br />

Requirements of deep-freeze packaging plastics materials<br />

Deep-freeze packaging preserves frozen food from drying-up and<br />

protects it against outside influences: light, air (oxygen), moisture<br />

uptake, contamination and infection by micro-organisms, outside odours<br />

and tastes, as well as mechanical damage. It needs to exhibit barrier<br />

properties and mechanical properties, and also needs to be printable<br />

and weldable.<br />

‘Freezer burn‘<br />

‘Freezer burn‘ is a form of dehydration usually caused by improper<br />

packaging. The surface moisture has evaporated, and the food may<br />

appear lighter in colour and ‘dried out‘. While the food is safe to eat, the<br />

quality is lower. It often has an ‘off-flavour‘.<br />

Whilst at home one can manage to package the goods to be frozen<br />

rather carefully, however the filling process under industrial conditions<br />

looks different: frozen goods - some with sharp edges - may fall from a<br />

belt weigher directly into an open bag, which will then be immediately<br />

closed.<br />

Bio-Flex – bioplastics for deep-freeze packaging.<br />

FKuR´s trade name Bio-Flex ® stands for copolyester blends based<br />

on PLA which – depending on the respective grade – are produced<br />

from a high amount of natural resources. Bio-Flex does not contain<br />

any starch or starch derivatives. The material’s mechanical properties<br />

at low temperatures are particularly crucial for an overall deep-freeze<br />

packaging performance. High impact strength and dart drop strength at<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Tear Rresistance<br />

Modulus of<br />

Elasticity<br />

Puncture<br />

Resistance<br />

Elongation<br />

at Break<br />

Seal Strengh<br />

Tear strength<br />

— PE<br />

— Bio 1. generation<br />

— Bio 2. generation<br />

Fig. 1 Comparison of mechanical properties<br />

these temperatures are a must in order to achieve approval. Low glasstransition<br />

temperature as well as homogeneous material and distribution<br />

of synergetic additives are the keys to meeting these requirements.<br />

Dettmer Verpackungen (Delo) in Lohne, Germany, uses Bio-Flex<br />

F 2110 as a basis for a multilayer system for deep-freeze packaging.<br />

A packaging film has been developed for the market leader in deep<br />

frozen potato products that meets the many and various requirements.<br />

McCain´s philosophy behind this concept is coherent: ‘100 % Bio – inside<br />

and outside’. McCain´s Bio Harvest products derive from certified,<br />

ecologically controlled cultivation. To emphasize this, packaging<br />

made from renewable resources was needed - which also had to be<br />

biodegradable. The biodegradation, including the inks, has been tested<br />

and certified according to EN 13432. High quality printing with up to<br />

10 colours is possible and the packaging carries the well-established<br />

seedling logo. But, what about the mechanical properties?<br />

Astonishing results were achieved when the biofilm was compared<br />

with polyethylene of the same thickness. Delo, as market leader in<br />

deep-freeze packaging, with 13 blown film units, is known for its highly<br />

demanding performance. Delo coextrudes up to seven layers and prints<br />

on 12 flexo print lines, five of which are equipped with 10 colour decks.<br />

The latest generation of biofilms from Delo´s director of development<br />

contains up to 70 % renewable resources, without any compromise.<br />

Fig. 1 shows clearly that by means of Bio-Flex a leap into new dimensions<br />

of mechanical properties of thin packaging films has been achieved.<br />

There is currently no technical obstacle to a broad market launch.<br />

Delo have even managed to offer solutions that have so far not been<br />

possible with PE. Excellent puncture resistance or rigidity previously<br />

only achievable in multilayer systems, open up completely new scopes<br />

for design. High quality raw materials and compounds such as Bio-<br />

Flex today allow for a broad variety off coextruded films as ‘customized<br />

products‘.<br />

[1] www.lebensmittellexikon.de<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

www.de-lo.de<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 13

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Carbon-Neutral and<br />

Compostable Films -<br />

A Holistic Approach<br />

Sustainability has long been more than just a buzzword at the packaging<br />

film manufacturer alesco from Langerwehe, Germany. The business is<br />

committed to pursuing a holistic approach in this respect – conservation<br />

of resources, environmental protection, carbon neutrality, social responsibility<br />

and environmentally friendly innovation are all factors in this strategy. And<br />

because these issues are a way of life at the company, with its 210 employees,<br />

rather than just being a marketing slogan, the manufacturer of PE and biofilm<br />

packaging is happy to show its cards and be open about its approach in order<br />

to encourage others to follow this responsible path.<br />

“We developed a mission statement and a vision together with our staff in<br />

a number of joint workshops. These provide the basis for our environmental<br />

protection goals, our commitment to development that conserves resources<br />

and also our principle of carbon neutrality,” explains alesco Managing<br />

Director Philipp Depiereux with regard to the emergence of the revamped<br />

corporate philosophy with its focus on sustainability. Depiereux joined the<br />

new management team in 2004 and wanted to do more than merely produce<br />

marketing material focusing on new green products in the company. He wanted<br />

the company to really live and work in a green way on a daily basis.<br />

Not an easy task, as he admits in retrospect: persuading employees that<br />

have worked for decades with products manufactured from the finite resource<br />

that is oil to switch to green and sustainable strategies requires some well<br />

chosen words. However, the results of the drive for holistic sustainability in the<br />

business and in the products are now tangible throughout the company.<br />

For example, in the compostable film produced from sustainable raw<br />

materials. After three years of development work, the first biofilm from alesco<br />

was presented at the special show entitled “Bioplastics in Packaging” at<br />

interpack 2008 in Düsseldorf, and the fruit and vegetable bags proved to be a<br />

real hit at the trade fair.<br />

New areas of application, such as brochure packaging films for direct<br />

mailings and catalogues (e.g. bM 5/2009), compostable shopping bags, deep<br />

freeze films and the new Bioshrink, which was presented at drinktec (Munich,<br />

Germany), show that all the staff at alesco are now right behind this groundbreaking<br />

approach. But alesco has also put a great deal of thought into<br />

issues beyond the actual products themselves; for example, all biofilms are<br />

manufactured exclusively using green electricity produced from hydropower.<br />

And this commitment to green electricity will be extended by alesco to all of its<br />

production facilities in Langerwehe from 2010.<br />

But a holistic approach requires more than environmentally friendly<br />

products alone. alesco pursues its strategy in the production process as well<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

– such as with the solvent recovery facility in the print shop. This system<br />

allows solvents, which are used in large volumes in the print shop, to<br />

be separated from the paint sludge, after which they are returned to<br />

the production system to be used again. The system led to a reduction<br />

in solvents of 70,000 litres (which therefore did not need to be newly<br />

purchased or expensively disposed of) in 2008 alone - the first year of<br />

operation – and the trend is on an upward trajectory. This means that<br />

important resources are conserved, roads are relieved of traffic due to<br />

reduced freight requirements and CO 2<br />

emissions are also reduced as a<br />

direct consequence of this.<br />

A paint mixing facility was also installed in the print shop in 2008. This<br />

means that alesco now generally only has to order basic colours as it<br />

can mix special colours on-site, and it also means that waste is avoided<br />

as only the required amount of paint has to be mixed. If, for example,<br />

a customer in the consumer goods sector reduces its printing order at<br />

short notice, then already ordered paint does not have to be disposed<br />

of or put into long term storage. In its very first year, this measure led<br />

to a reduction in requirements equating to 40,000 litres of paint, which<br />

would otherwise have had to be transported away and disposed of.<br />

Lotta, our four year old cover girl says:<br />

„Oh, I loved the yummy carrots and<br />

my daddy made the plastic<br />

bags from bioplastics“.<br />

The company has also worked to achieve environmental optimisation<br />

with regard to the actual paints it uses. This is where solvent free,<br />

water-based paints were the solution. The research and development<br />

team worked for quite some time on these in order to achieve exactly<br />

the right composition and, as a result, it has been possible since<br />

2009 to order print runs for compostable biofilms with this even more<br />

environmentally friendly paint. Printing can be carried out on up to<br />

eight printing units and the use of new paints does not necessarily lead<br />

to a compromise with regard to quality; part of a holistic approach also<br />

involves never losing sight of the needs of customers – who like nice,<br />

glossy printed images.<br />

Regranulation avoids unnecessary transportation<br />

At alesco, film regranulation of edge strips and rejects is handled<br />

internally: an in-house film regranulation system and a service<br />

provider based on-site results in short transportation distances for the<br />

reprocessing. This avoids the emissions that would otherwise have been<br />

produced during transportation to a regranulation plant some distance<br />

away. The entire stock of alesco regranulate material is then returned<br />

to the production process and not sold on to other film manufacturers,<br />

which would also result in transportation emissions.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 15

A CO 2<br />

footprint makes environmental protection<br />

measurable at alesco<br />

In order to be able to measure the overall positive<br />

environmental effects of the innovative developments<br />

and modernisation in the production process, alesco<br />

commissioned the calculation of a corporate carbon footprint<br />

(CCF) for the entire company and a product carbon footprint<br />

(PCF) for all the packaging film products at the beginning<br />

of 2009. These footprints show how much carbon dioxide is<br />

emitted for each kilogramme of film produced.<br />

However, the environmental efforts of the film manufacturer<br />

cannot be gauged from the first CO 2<br />

footprint as this is a<br />

reference from which to measure progress, so stopping at<br />

that would not fit in with the holistic approach of the company.<br />

“We will only be able to see what we have achieved when<br />

we commission the calculation of a new footprint next year<br />

and can compare the values to see by how much our CO 2<br />

emissions per kilogramme of film produced have decreased,”<br />

adds Depiereux.<br />

Although this may sound very simple, it actually requires<br />

a lot of careful planning: as well as the entire energy<br />

consumption at alesco and relevant data from suppliers<br />

(raw material suppliers, paint suppliers, additive suppliers,<br />

suppliers of solvents and also suppliers of other consumables<br />

etc.), all commuting-related CO 2<br />

emissions generated by the<br />

210 members of staff at alesco were also determined – which<br />

involves taking into account the routes taken as well as the use<br />

of cars, bicycles, trains and buses. The PCF also included the<br />

entire supply chain, the processing stages (film production,<br />

film printing, film packaging) and the subsequent route to<br />

their place of utilisation. The footprints were calculated by an<br />

independent climate protection consultancy - ClimatePartner<br />

Deutschland GmbH. Only the process of packaging products<br />

using the film at the customer and the subsequent use and<br />

recycling by consumers could not be taken into account.<br />

“Unfortunately, we do not know if the consumers arrive at<br />

the point of sale on foot or by vehicle in order to acquire the<br />

packaged product,” explains Alexander Rossner, Managing<br />

Director of ClimatePartner Deutschland GmbH.<br />

Carbon neutral packaging<br />

The CO 2<br />

footprint also provides another benefit: if it is<br />

known how much CO 2<br />

is still produced as a result of the<br />

production process despite the implementation of a range<br />

of measures, the film can at least be produced in a carbon<br />

neutral way by means of acquiring the corresponding amount<br />

of climate protection certificates to enable carbon offsetting.<br />

alesco is one of the first packaging film manufacturers in the<br />

world to offer its customers this service. All alesco biofilms<br />

are already produced and supplied carbon neutrally at no<br />

extra cost. And, if customers wish to acquire other types of<br />

film carbon neutrally, then the only additional charge made is<br />

the actual cost of acquiring the necessary climate protection<br />

certificates.<br />

The number of certificates required is determined using a<br />

climate calculator, which provides alesco with exact emission<br />

figures for the production of each individual type of film. “In<br />

this way, we can offset the emissions in accordance with the<br />

provisions of the Kyoto protocol. For the neutralisation of the<br />

biofilm products, we have chosen an approved and certified<br />

biomass project in India,” comments Depiereux.<br />

alesco has also not forgotten the marketing opportunities<br />

that this approach can provide for customers, who now have<br />

the option with printed films of including information about<br />

the carbon neutrality of the packaging film. And this seems<br />

to be a popular choice: since the certification of the films<br />

was started, numerous orders have been produced carbon<br />

neutrally and a number of customers have chosen to have the<br />

film labelled as being carbon neutral.<br />

There is still a lot of scope for improvement in the<br />

future.<br />

With their holistic approach, the staff at alesco have by<br />

no means exhausted all the potential measures that can be<br />

implemented: hauliers must also consider using trucks with<br />

low fuel consumption figures, and raw material and additive<br />

suppliers can investigate environmentally friendly production<br />

methods. An environmental report is currently being produced<br />

in order to document all alesco’s environmental initiatives and<br />

projects. “The green strategies of conservation of resources,<br />

avoidance of emissions and reduction of emissions will<br />

continue to be pushed, even in tough economic times,” states<br />

Philipp Depiereux as a clear indication of the company’s<br />

steadfast commitment. Rest assured, the alesco staff will<br />

continue to do their utmost to protect the environment.<br />

www.alesco.net<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Fig. 1: PLA film laminated<br />

on paper bags<br />

PLA Films are<br />

a Team Sport<br />

As the supplier base has grown recently, a wide diversity of Ingeo films are being<br />

used in bags, wraps, lids, and labels. Among all the products in the bioplastic<br />

industry, films may best exemplify the supply chain’s team effort through<br />

close engineering cooperation to build innovation into the products delivered to consumers.<br />

For example, French manufacturer Polyfilms, which operates a state-of-the-art<br />

plant for coextruded, bioriented films near Paris, has developed Polybio — a range of<br />

Ingeo-based oriented films. Polybio film is laminated on paper bags for bread or salad<br />

(Fig. 1). It is also used for sealable film lidding and both white and transparent film<br />

labels. Once metalized (either with transparent or white film) the barrier properties are<br />

enhanced and the product has high opacity and brilliance.<br />

Article contributed by<br />

By Stefano Cavallo,<br />

European Marketing Manager,<br />

NatureWorks, LLC<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

Polyfilms also sells Polybio to a family of converters that add to the film’s barrier<br />

properties to expand the number of potential applications for this product. Metalvuoto<br />

has developed a lacquer coated oxygen-barrier film under the brand name Oxaqua ® .<br />

One of these converters, Alcan Packaging, offers CERAMIS ® -PLA films which are<br />

transparent high barrier films with a silicon oxide coating.<br />

Goglio Cofibox SpA manufactures a printable laminated film, which Sant’Anna ® uses<br />

for the labels on its bottled water. Fres-co System USA has developed a hybrid solution<br />

for coffee packaging. This development incorporates Ingeo film into a multilayer<br />

structure made with traditional materials. The company says this is Kyoto protocol<br />

ready packaging.<br />

Polyfilms is not the only company producing PLA-based oriented films and working<br />

closely with converters. SKC offers its Skywel ® branded film, and Ingeo licensee<br />

Huhtamaki Films Global has developed a wide range of functional and tailor-made<br />

Ingeo film grades characterized by adjustable mechanical properties for a broad<br />

range of applications, e.g. improved impact resistance and high barrier properties.<br />

Sidaplax/Plastic Suppliers offers a range of clear and white films under the EarthFirst ®<br />

brand name(see page 18)<br />

This industry now goes beyond oriented or blown film developers and value added<br />

converters. Sleever International, for example, has developed an Ingeo heat shrink<br />

film under the Biosleeve ® brand. Sleever International provides its food and cosmetic<br />

packaging customers with colorfully vibrant heat shrink labels. Biosleeve can also be<br />

used for tamper evident bands (Fig. 2).<br />

As these examples show, the bioplastic supply chain has invested in innovation. From<br />

these supply chain efforts, brand owners and consumers can expect an expanding<br />

choice of performance Ingeo films that help to reduce the overall environmental impact<br />

of packaging as compared to petroleum-based films.<br />

Fig. 2: Biosleeve heat shrink film<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 17

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

PLA Film<br />

Applications<br />

The trend toward using biopolymers and environmentally<br />

friendly films continues to expand into traditional<br />

plastic film applications. The flexible packaging, lamination,<br />

bread bag, windowing (envelope and folding carton),<br />

shrink sleeve label and tamper evident band markets are<br />

some of the many applications that currently incorporate the<br />

use of biopolymer films.<br />

The transition to biopolymer films has been slow.<br />

However, the introduction of EarthFirst ® has allowed for<br />

greater penetration into plastic film markets because of its<br />

environmental and mechanical benefits.<br />

Made from Ingeo PLA, EarthFirst is produced using<br />

annually renewable resources, and is a certified compostable<br />

product under the DIN 13432 and ASTM D6400 standards for<br />

industrial composting.<br />

And it is more than just an environmentally friendly<br />

product. While the environmentally friendly attributes make<br />

it attractive to ‘green’ minded companies, the mechanical<br />

properties allow it to run as well as traditional plastic films<br />

on a wide range of processing equipment. Having a natural<br />

dyne level of 38 makes it suitable for printed applications and<br />

its direct food contact (FDA) compliance has opened the door<br />

to the flexible packaging market.<br />

Shrink sleeve label and tamper evident bands are utilizing<br />

EarthFirst TDO film. Low shrink initiation temperatures<br />

and the ability to shrink up to 75% makes EarthFirst the<br />

ideal shrink film. In addition, EarthFirst shrink sleeve film<br />

can be stored up to 40° celsius offering energy savings that<br />

petrochemical films cannot. Jiffy Pot in Europe is using<br />

EarthFirst as a shrink sleeve label around their plant pots. In<br />

the United States, ConAgra has made the switch from PVC to<br />

EarthFirst for their tamper evident bands around their table<br />

spread product offerings.<br />

Large envelope houses in Europe like GPV, Hamelin and the<br />

Mayer Kuvert Network have adopted the use of EarthFirst for<br />

their envelope window film offerings. The film compliments<br />

their full line of FSC paper based envelope offerings. The<br />

crystal clear look of EarthFirst offers envelope windowing<br />

applications an alternative to the traditional films in the<br />

market today.<br />

Bread bags are another market utilizing the EarthFirst<br />

product. Retailers understand the environmental benefits of<br />

EarthFirst as the high moisture vapor transmission rate of<br />

EarthFirst guarantees that the bread inside remains crispy.<br />

EarthFirst can be found in Delhaize, Carrefour and Auchan<br />

bread bag products.<br />

In many cases EarthFirst even outperforms petrochemical<br />

based films when it comes to printing, sealing and overall<br />

machinability.<br />

Plastic Suppliers, Inc. / Sidaplax v.o.f is committed to<br />

a strong environmental leadership role in protecting the<br />

planet. As active members of the Sustainable Packaging<br />

Coalition (SPC), European Bioplastics, Belgian Biopackaging<br />

and UK Compostable Group, the companies are committed<br />

to understanding the impact of such products upon the<br />

environment. MT<br />

www.earthfirstpla.com.<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Paper cups and shrink<br />

film are the first two<br />

applications for BASF’s<br />

new biodegradable<br />

plastic Ecovio ® FS<br />

High-Performance<br />

and Biodegradable<br />

At the 4th European Bioplastics Conference (see page 10) BASF presented a new biodegradable plastic branded as<br />

Ecovio ® FS. BASF has optimized this new plastic for two specific applications: for coating paper and for manufacturing<br />

so-called shrink films, which serve to easily wrap packaged goods. For this reason, the first two new plastic types are<br />

called Ecovio FS Paper and Ecovio FS Shrink Film. Sample material is already available. Initial production tests at customers’<br />

facilities have been successful. Introduction into the market at large is scheduled for the first quarter of 2010.<br />

Biodegrading even more quickly<br />

As has been demonstrated in recent composting experiments, the new Ecovio FS biodegrades even more rapidly than its<br />

predecessors, and it has a higher content of renewable raw materials. “Ecovio FS consists of the likewise new, now bio-based<br />

Ecoflex ® FS (a biodegradable polyester made by BASF) and of PLA. The use of the new Ecoflex FS raises the proportion of biobased<br />

material in Ecovio FS Shrink Film to 66% and that of Ecovio FS Paper to a full 75%,” explains Jürgen Keck, who heads<br />

BASF’s global business with biodegradable plastics.<br />

Paper cups and packaging film: high-performance counts<br />

The experts who developed the new Ecovio FS focused on the properties that are required of these special applications. “In<br />

order to obtain effective paper coatings, a film made of the new Ecovio FS Paper has to be easy to process and exhibit good<br />

adhesion to the paper, even when applied in thin layers. Such coatings are used, for example, on paper cups or cardboard<br />

boxes,” explains Gabriel Skupin, who is in charge of technical product development for biodegradable plastics. Ecovio FS<br />

Shrink Film, in contrast, has a selected ratio of shrinkage to strength, so that its mechanical load capacity at a film thickness<br />

of merely 25 μm is greater than that of a conventional polyethylene film that is 50 μm thick.<br />

We want to become more specialized<br />

With this new product family, BASF’s experts for biodegradable plastics are further expanding their assortment. The company<br />

is aiming to become more specialized in this realm, so as to meet the requirements of very specific market segments. This<br />

is reflected in the nomenclature, which will comprise three elements. The first stands for the processing technology – in this<br />

case, F for ‚film‘. The second, S, stands for ‚special‘ and indicates that the new bio-based Ecoflex FS is present. The actual<br />

application itself forms the third element of the name such as, for instance, Paper or Shrink Film. “This consistent designation<br />

method, which will be implemented early next year together with the new products, illustrates the broad potential we anticipate<br />

for technically advanced biodegradable products in this market, which has become very diversified,” explains Andreas Künkel,<br />

head of BASF’s market development for new biodegradable plastic products.<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 19

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Compostable<br />

New Performance Profiles<br />

Article contributed by<br />

Stefano Facco<br />

New Business<br />

Development Manager<br />

Novamont S.p.A.<br />

Novara, Italy<br />

The demand for compostable bioplastics has been steadily growing for<br />

many years at an annual rate of between 20 and 30%. The research<br />

related to these polymers derived from RRM (Renewable Raw Materials),<br />

which in the case of Novamont swallows up 10% of its turnover, today<br />

permits the production of a large range of consumer products. These include<br />

food and non-food packaging, hygiene products, bags and sacks, agricultural<br />

tools and food-service ware, all with a positive environmental impact<br />

(End of Life options) and a positive effect on product performance.<br />

An interesting growth rate has been noticed within the area of films and<br />

flexibles, especially multilayer structures.<br />

At the beginning of the 1990‘s Novamont had already started to understand<br />

that the use of compostable biopolymers would be taking a growing market<br />

share in the area of flexibles, as the following article will describe. The latest<br />

expansion of Novamont’s production capacity is also a demonstration of the<br />

steady growth of this market sector.<br />

Environmental Impact<br />

Novamont’s main mission is to offer original solutions both from the<br />

technical and environmental points of view, starting from renewable raw<br />

materials. Mater-Bi is a generation of established biodegradable and<br />

compostable polymers, continuously evolving, containing compostable<br />

polyesters (based on synthetic and renewable monomers), starch and other<br />

renewable resources. They are able to significantly reduce the environmental<br />

impact in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse effect in specific<br />

closed-loop applications (such as food packaging, catering items, mulch<br />

films, bags for kitchen use and garden waste, etc). They perform as traditional<br />

plastics when in use, and completely biodegrade within a composting cycle<br />

through the action of living organisms when they have been engineered to be<br />

biodegradable and compostable.<br />

The technology that stands behind these new materials has evolved<br />

over the years in various steps: the first based purely on the complexing of<br />

starch, and later the continuous improvement of the environmental profile<br />

of Novamont‘s polymers through the increased use of non-food renewable<br />

resources in various steps, the backwards integration into production of<br />

polyesters and their monomers from RRM’s.<br />

Today we find flexible industrial applications in the areas of waste bags and<br />

liners, shopping bags, loop handles, T-shirts, packaging based on single and<br />

multilayer films, either coextruded or laminated, and of course hygiene and<br />

agricultural applications.<br />

Various process technologies are available, for monolayer or multilayer<br />

structures. The latter variant is used in order to combine different substrates<br />

with each other and to obtain very specific and tailored properties. There<br />

are quite different film families available, which offer very specific properties<br />

(such as puncture resistance, oxygen barrier etc) and, when combined,<br />

suddenly open up a completely new application profile. Suitable new<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Film Structures,<br />

for Food and Non-Food<br />

technologies, such as extrusion coating and lamination, are fast growing at a<br />

similar pace as that of the new multilayer (coex) films.<br />

Processing<br />

Processing is nowadays no longer subject to critical discussion, as in the<br />

early 90‘s. Today converting these materials may be carried out on standard<br />

extruders, such as LDPE film blowing lines (minimum thickness in the range<br />

of 10-12µm). Productivity, if the line is specifically designed for Mater-Bi,<br />

is similar to that obtained with conventional polyolefines. Other converting<br />

aspects, such as sealing and printing, are also comparable with standard<br />

materials. Recycling is done conventionally by most of the converters.<br />

Their properties are also very much comparable to those of standard<br />

polyolefines, except some very special properties in the area of OTR (oxygen<br />

transmission rate) and WVTR (water vapour transmission rate):<br />

MFR (g/10 min) 3.5 – 7 ASTM D 1338<br />

E Modulus (MPa) 90 - 700 ASTM D 882<br />

Stress at break (MPa) 22 – 36 ASTM D 882<br />

Elongation at break (%) 250 – 600 ASTM D 882<br />

COF 0.1 – 0.6 DIN 53375 A<br />

Haze (%) 26 - 90 ASTM D 1003<br />

WVTR (g·30μm/m2·24h) 200 – 900 ASTM E 96; 38°C 90% RH<br />

OTR (cc·30μm)/(m2·24h·atm) 500 - 2000 ISO 15105-1; 23°C 50% RH<br />

Extrusion Coating and Lamination<br />

Newly developed applications are based on the extrusion coating and<br />

lamination processes.<br />

In this case special grades do offer the same processability as for given<br />

polymers on standard lines, offering excellent adhesion on most of the<br />

substrates (paper, cardboard, biopolymers, tissues etc), high line speed, web<br />

stability and low gauges.<br />

The main applications may be found either in the area of light flexible<br />

packaging, such as food wrapping, industrial bags and sacks, or in rigid<br />

packaging, such as the one based on heavy cardboard for containers,<br />

trays, deep freeze boxes and for foodservice ware such as cups and plates.<br />

The barrier to oils and fats is quite good, average WVTR is in the range of<br />

250 g/m²·24h (23°C, 50% RH)<br />

Coextruded films also offer a good barrier against fats and oil (compared<br />

to polyolefines), with WVTR ranging from 300 – 800 g·30μm/m²·24h and OTR<br />

in the range of 700 – 2.000 cc·30μm/m²·24h (23°C, 50%RH). Special sealing<br />

layers are used, characterised by a ∆T above 50°C, which allow easy running<br />

on most of the packaging lines, whether they be VFFS (Vertical Form Fill Seal)<br />

or flowpack. Specific film grades are available here, with improved toughness,<br />

modified COF (coefficient of friction) or transparency. In addition some unique<br />

‘Home Compostable‘ solutions are available, intended for use in specific<br />

markets in which this property might be specifically requested.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 21

Laminated films, as with multilayer compostable and certified<br />

products, were first introduced in the UK. Mater Bi was laminated onto<br />

a cellulose film, achieving a structure which offers a suitable barrier<br />

property, excellent organoleptic and very high mechanical properties in<br />

terms of toughness and tear resistance, which are needed to pack such<br />

‘sharp‘ edged products as müsli flakes. The reverse printed external<br />

cellulose film, which has excellent visual properties, is combined<br />

with a high tenacity Mater-Bi film in order to obtain packaging which<br />

fully covers the mechanical, organoleptic and processing needs of<br />

such products. This is still one of the unique combinations on the<br />

market able to offer compostability under industrial conditions. New<br />

developments are close to being introduced, such as in the case of<br />

coffee packaging.<br />

Beside the applications described above, films dedicated to the<br />

lamination process on various substrates offering selective barrier/<br />

transmission properties, such as a high water vapour transmission<br />

rate, have found interest amongst producers of hygiene products such<br />

as diapers, overalls etc. Specific requirements are based on a soft,<br />

noiseless and highly breathable material. Recent developments, with<br />

films blown in the range of 10µm, are laminated onto cellulose, viscose<br />

and other non-woven substrates. The main applications may be found<br />

in bed linen, mattress covers and overalls used in clean rooms.<br />

Depending on the application, these converting techniques provide<br />

a very efficient and versatile way to build specific, tailor-made,<br />

multilayer structures.<br />

Flexible Applications<br />

Flexible applications, such as organic waste bags, find their logical<br />

EOL (End of Life) option in the waste stream meant for perishable<br />

waste, such as kitchen and food waste. This application has been in<br />

use for many years and is well implemented amongst thousands of<br />

communities spread all over the world. The environmental advantage<br />

of such application has been well demonstrated.<br />

Other sectors have been identified, in which compostability offers<br />

a unique property, such as in the case of highly contaminated food<br />

packaging, where standard recycling loops cannot be used and<br />

compostability offers the solution to maximize material recovery.<br />

Examples may be found in the area of food processing streams,<br />

characterized by a high level of food waste and very short shelf life<br />

products. Furthermore compostability might offer advantageous<br />

solutions in the case of date-expired packaged food, highly<br />

contaminated kitchen waste, as in fast food restaurants, canteens<br />

and schools.<br />

It is becoming increasingly evident that compostable polymers are<br />

finding their industrial use in ‘virtuous waste systems‘, like some of<br />

those described above. Very high technical performance standards<br />

have been reached, which allow these polymers to be used in very<br />

demanding applications, in the food as well as the non-food area.<br />

The performance of these flexible applications, combined with the<br />

renewable content and its compostability, are the criteria that define<br />

the environmental benefit of such products.<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Films | Flexibles | Bags<br />

Bioplastic Films<br />

from the Netherlands<br />

Responding to the increase in the demand for biodegradable<br />

and compostable films and packaging<br />

Oerlemans Plastics bv, a packaging producer from<br />

Genderen (the Netherlands), is cooperating with FKuR in Germany<br />

in order to better serve the upcoming organic market.<br />

BI-OPL is the brand name for a wide range of biodegradable<br />

and compostable products such as shoppers, bags, films<br />

and sheets. All products are certified according to EN 13432,<br />

NF AFNOR 52001 (France), OK Compost, Ecocert and OF&G<br />

(Organic Farmers & Growers, UK).<br />

All biodegradable and compostable products are based<br />

on special blends of Ecoflex (a co-polyester by BASF) and<br />

Ingeo PLA by NatureWorks. A big advantage compared to<br />

starch is that the PLA blends have a higher water resistance.<br />

This can be very important in more humid applications such<br />

as anti-weed film for horticultural use. Also this indicates<br />

the possibility of using thinner PLA based films compared to<br />

starch based films.<br />

A correct material thickness helps to create a product that<br />

will degrade more slowly or faster according to the application.<br />

BI-OPL is available in thicknesses from 12 to 120 µm. Widths<br />

can be between 10 cm and 205 cm as plain film, and folded<br />

up to 6 metres.<br />

Shoppers, bags, sheets and films<br />

Oerlemans Plastics can produce shopper bags from single<br />

BI-OPL material without a reinforcement inlay or with double<br />

folded topside so that the shoppers are 100 % made from<br />

compostable materials. Bags and sheets, based on BI-OPL<br />

materials, for many different applications can be produced<br />

according to customers‘ demands and can be printed in up to<br />

8 colours. Films for use on shrink and wrapping machines, or<br />

for manual use, are available in many different sizes.<br />

Horticultural films<br />

The fastest growing market in food production is the organic<br />

food market. Especially for this market Oerlemans Plastics<br />

bv developed a large variety of films to help the growers of<br />

organic food. As anti-weed film the BI-OPL is already used<br />

on many different crops throughout the world. Vegetables<br />

and fruits such as pineapples, fennel, strawberry, zucchini,<br />

pickles, onions and also nursery products and cut flowers are<br />

cultivated with the help of BI-OPL. All of these films can be<br />

produced as unfolded film between 10 cm and 205 cm. A<br />

new feature is the possibility to produce pre-perforated plant<br />

holes in these films.<br />

Plant permeable films<br />

Right now Oerlemans Plastics is preparing the introduction<br />

of a type of BI-OPL film which is ‘plant permeable‘. This means<br />

that certain types of plants, like white and green asparagus,<br />

can be covered with this film and due to the properties of the<br />

film the plant can grow through it. It is expected that these<br />

new types will contribute to a better and easier way to grow<br />

vegetables and fruit for organic growers.<br />

Renewable sources<br />

The different types of raw materials used for the production<br />

of biodegradable and compostable products are partly based<br />

on renewable sources. In the future the percentage of<br />

renewable materials will increase significantly. MT<br />

www.oerlemansplastics.nl<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 23

Consumer Electronics<br />

Biomassbased<br />

Bathroom<br />

Scale<br />

Unitika Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, has successfully developed a new blend of biomass-based<br />

resin, which has unprecedented properties such as mouldability, heat resistance, durability<br />

and impact resistance. Unitika’s techniques for improving polylactic acid (PLA) and<br />

their accumulated knowledge of producing engineering plastic blends have brought this latest<br />

development to a successful conclusion. The new PLA blend, known as TERRAMAC ® resin, offers<br />

impact properties comparable to those of ABS.<br />

Tanita is a world leader in precision electronic scales. With an almost 50% share of the domestic<br />

market the name of Tanita is now a household word in Japan. Tanita recently introduced their<br />

second generation of ‘green’ products with the HS-302 Solar Digital Scale. This environmentally<br />

conscious scale has built-in solar cells that draw power from sunlight or from ordinary household<br />

light, eliminating the need to buy or recharge batteries, as well as saving landfill sites from<br />

additional battery contamination. The new eco-friendly bathroom scale, nicknamed ECO Living,<br />

is equipped with a chassis made from the new Terramac resin, which contributes to about a 20%<br />

reduction in CO 2<br />

emission for the product compared with the previous model. Tanita has started<br />

selling this new bathroom scale mainly in Europe, where the population is relatively ecologicallyminded,<br />

and plans to expand the sales area step by step.<br />

Technological background of Unitika<br />

In order to improve the properties of PLA, Unitika developed a world-first commercially<br />

available heat resistant PLA sheet in October 2002. After that, the shortcomings with regard to<br />

heat resistance, flame retardation, and impact resistance of PLA resins for injection moulding<br />

and foam were overcome by applying Unitika’s nanotechnology, plant-based reinforcements,<br />

inorganic fillers, etc. Unitika’s PLA-based durable Terramac resins have been used in<br />

commercially available cell phones, dishwasher-proof lacquered bowls, digital printers, copying<br />

machines, and more. These ground-breaking resins have driven the expansion of the PLA<br />

market. The new Terramac alloy type can also be used for high mechanical load conditions.<br />

Unitika’s new Terramac alloy, as used in Tanita’s new bathroom scale, has the following<br />

features:<br />

• heat resistance, durability, impact resistance, and processability equal to or surpassing ABS<br />

• about 20% less emission of CO 2<br />

than ABS<br />

• suitable for many of the same applications as ABS<br />

• compliance with ‘BiomassPla’, which means biomass-based plastics, certified by Japan<br />

Biomass Plastics Association (JBPA)<br />

www.unitika.co.jp<br />

www.tanita.com<br />

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Consumer Electronics<br />

Eco-Centric<br />

Mobile Phone<br />

The North American telephone company Sprint Nextel, headquartered in Overland<br />

Park, Kansas, USA is making it easier than ever for customers to ‘go green‘ with<br />

new eco-friendly products, services and programs and expanding its commitment<br />

as a leader in sustainability. Last August, Sprint and Samsung Telecommunications<br />

America (Samsung Mobile) announced Samsung Reclaim as the first phone<br />

in the U.S. constructed from eco-centric bio-plastic materials. Made from 80 %<br />

recyclable materials, Samsung Reclaim is a feature-rich messaging phone that<br />

offers environmentally conscious customers a perfect blend of responsibility<br />

without sacrificing the latest in network speeds and must-have features.<br />

When customers purchase Samsung Reclaim from Sprint, $2 of the proceeds<br />

will benefit the Nature Conservancy‘s Adopt an Acre program, which supports<br />

land conservation across the United States and protects some of the world‘s most<br />

beautiful and important natural habitats.<br />

“Sprint is proud of our leadership with environmentally-responsible initiatives,“<br />

said Dan Hesse, Sprint CEO, “and Samsung Reclaim enables customers to go green<br />

without sacrificing the latest in wireless technology.“<br />

Up 40 % of the Reclaim’s outer casing is made of a blend of PLA (40%), a bioplastic<br />

material, made from renewable resources (corn) and Polycarbonate (60%).<br />

This material is mostly used on the rear side and battery cover of the device.<br />

Samsung Reclaim is free of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and phthalates, and nearly<br />

free of brominated flame retardants (BFR) three materials commonly targeted on<br />

green electronics guidelines.<br />

The outer packaging and the phone tray inside the box are made from 70 %<br />

recycled materials, printed with soy-based ink. The typical thick paper user manual<br />

has been replaced with a virtual manual that users can access online. The Energy<br />

Star approved charger. It consumes 12 times less power than the Energy Star<br />

standard for standby power consumption.<br />

”Samsung Reclaim is more than just an eco-centric device, its also a powerful<br />

and stylish phone that’s easy-to-use,” said Omar Khan, senior vice president of<br />

Strategy and Product Management for Samsung Mobile. “When you combine the<br />

Reclaim’s impressive feature set with its bio-plastic hardware and eco-centric<br />

packaging, you’re using a phone that is good for you and the environment.”<br />

Reclaim has been available from August 16, 2009 in all Sprint retail channels,<br />

including Best Buy, Radio Shack, internet and telesales. It‘s also available at Wal-<br />

Mart since early September.<br />

Reclaim is Samsung’s latest contribution toward its commitment to the<br />

environment. Samsung Electronics Co. was recently named as the second highest<br />

rated company in Greenpeace International’s Guide to Greener Electronics<br />

scorecard. MT<br />

www.sprint.com<br />

www.samsungmobileusa.com<br />

www.samsung.com<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Consumer Electronics<br />

(Photo: Philips)<br />

New ‘Eco.‘<br />

Cordless<br />

Telephone<br />

Vacuum<br />

Cleaner<br />

Housing<br />

The latest innovation for Ingeo bioplastic is Telecom<br />

Italia’s environmentally friendly ‘Eco.‘ cordless telephone.<br />

NatureWorks PLA material forms the exterior<br />

shell of the new cordless which matches high technical<br />

performance with sustainability and energy savings. Eco.’s<br />

advanced features include backlight display, handsfree, an<br />

integrated backlight keypad and polyphonic ringtones. This<br />

cordless is also projected to minimize energy consumption.<br />

Telecom Italia’s Eco. cordless has been designed and made<br />

real with the cooperation of Telecom Italia Lab, the University<br />

of Palermo and the MID design studio. In addition to providing<br />

certified environmental credentials, Ingeo provides a naturebased<br />

innovation which enhances the Eco.’s performance<br />

and aesthetics.<br />

This initiative can be marked among those that will surely<br />

improve energy efficiency. As an example, NatureWorks<br />

notes that for 30.000 cordless units, the savings which result<br />

from replacing conventional oil based material with Ingeo<br />

bioplastic, are equivalent to 36 barrels of oil, a full month<br />

of electrical energy for 108 European citizens or driving the<br />

average car 75.000 km.<br />

In addition to its low carbon footprint benefits, Ingeo<br />

biopolymer offers more disposal options than conventional<br />

oil-based plastics, such as composting in controlled industrial<br />

systems when available locally, feedstock recovery which<br />

enables reuse in all end products and markets as well as<br />

matching conventional incineration or landfill routes where<br />

they are appropriate. MT<br />

In early 2009 the Dutch company Philips started to<br />

use a durable PLA-based polymer for the housing<br />

of the Performer EnergyCare FC9178 vacuum<br />

cleaner. And even the packaging consists of about<br />

90% recycled material.<br />

Durable bioplastics applications in Europe became<br />

possible with a specially developed ’Nanoalloy’<br />

technology from the Japanese Toray Industries.<br />

“Conventional PLA-based polymers were not<br />

suitable for the manufacturing process because of<br />

their physical properties and mouldability,“ said a<br />

spokesperson from Toray Industries. Toray were<br />

able to solve the challenge with ‘Ecodear’, a specially<br />

developed bioplastic material. Thus it was possible<br />

to meet the technical demands of the application -<br />

namely heat resistance, impact strength, durability,<br />

mouldabilty and shrinkage factors equivalent to<br />

the standard materials which are currently used in<br />

the market. Finally this led to the first adoption in a<br />

consumer electronics application in Europe.<br />

With this new generation of bio durable bioplastics<br />

Toray has taken an important step into the future for the<br />

next generation of developments for environmentally<br />

friendly products. MT<br />

www.toray.com<br />

www.natureworksllc.com, www.telecomitalia.it<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 27

Materials<br />

Oxobiodegradable Plastic<br />

Article contributed by<br />

Professor Gerald Scott DSc,<br />

FRSC, C.Chem, FIMMM<br />

Professor Emeritus<br />

in Chemistry and Polymer Science<br />

of Aston University UK<br />

Chairman of the<br />

British Standards Institute Committee<br />

on Biodegradability of Plastics<br />

Chairman of the<br />

Scientific Advisory Board of the<br />

Oxo-biodegradable Plastics<br />

Association.<br />

I<br />

have been asked by Symphony Environmental Technologies (UK) to respond<br />

to a request from Bioplastics Magazine for an article about their d2w Controlled-life<br />

plastics, which degrade by a process of oxo-biodegradation 1 . My<br />

views are based on the research carried out in my own and in many other laboratories<br />

throughout the world since my original patent was filed in 1971, and on my<br />

review of independent test reports carried out on d2w products.<br />

Let us be clear at the outset that oxo-biodegradable plastic is not normally<br />

marketed for composting, and it is not designed for anaerobic digestion nor for<br />

degradation deep in landfill. Let us also be clear that oxo-biodegradable plastic is<br />

not designed to merely fragment – it is designed to be completely bioassimilated<br />

by naturally-occurring micro-organisms in a timescale longer than that required<br />

for composting (180 days) but shorter than for nature’s wastes such as leaves<br />

and twigs (10 years or more), and much shorter than for normal plastics (many<br />

decades). All plastics will eventually become embrittled, and will fragment and<br />

be bioassimilated, but the difference made by oxo-biodegradable technology is<br />

that the process is accelerated.<br />

Oxo-biodegradable plastic is intended to address the environmental problem<br />

caused by plastic waste which gets accidentally or deliberately into the open<br />

environment. This is a well known problem in all countries, and cannot be<br />

ignored by calling it a behavioural issue. Oxo-biodegradable plastic is designed<br />

to harmlessly degrade then biodegrade in the presence of oxygen and to return<br />

the carbon in the plastic to the natural biological cycle. Accordingly, tests in<br />

anaerobic conditions or in composting conditions are not appropriate<br />

Industrial composting is not the same as biodegradation in the environment,<br />

as it is a process operated according to a much shorter timescale than the<br />

processes of nature. EN13432 (and similar composting standards such as ISO<br />

17088, ASTM D6400, ASTM D6868, and Australian 4736-2006) are not relevant to<br />

oxo-biodegradable plastic. Indeed EN13432 itself says that is not appropriate<br />

for plastic waste which may end up in the environment through uncontrolled<br />

means.<br />

Oxo-biodegradable plastic products are normally tested according to ASTM<br />

D6954-04 ‘Standard Guide for Exposing and Testing Plastics that Degrade in the<br />

Environment by a Combination of Oxidation and Biodegradation’. There are two<br />

types of Standards – Standard Guides and Standard Specifications ASTM 6954 is<br />

an acknowledged and respected Standard Guide for performing laboratory tests<br />

on oxo-biodegradable plastic. It has been developed and published by ASTM<br />

International – the American standards organisation – and the second Tier is<br />

directed specifically to proving biodegradation.<br />

Tests performed according to ASTM D6954-04 tell industry and consumers<br />

what they need to know – namely whether the plastic is (a) degradable<br />

(b) biodegradable and (c) non phyto-toxic. It is not necessary to refer to a<br />

Standard Specification unless it is desired to use the material for a particular<br />

purpose such as composting, and ASTM D6954-04 provides that if composting is<br />

the designated disposal route, ASTM D6400 should be used.<br />

ASTM D6954-04 not only provides detailed test methods but it also provides<br />

pass/fail criteria. The oxobiodegradable plastics most commonly used consist of<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Materials<br />

single polymers to which section 6.6.1 applies. This section requires that 60<br />

% of the organic carbon must be converted to carbon dioxide. Therefore if the<br />

material does not achieve 60% mineralisation the test cannot be completed<br />

and the material cannot be certified.<br />

Having achieved 60% mineralisation, the Note to 6.6.1 provides that testing<br />

may be continued to better determine the length of time the materials will take<br />

to biodegrade. It is not however necessary to continue the test until 100% has<br />

been achieved, because it is possible, by applying the Arrhenius relationship 2<br />

to the test results, to predict the time at which that is likely to occur.<br />

There is no requirement in ASTM D6954-04 for the plastic to be converted to<br />

C0 2<br />

in 180 days because, while timescale is critical for a commercial composting<br />

process, it is not critical for biodegradation in the environment. Timescale in<br />

the natural environment depends on the amount of heat, light, and stress to<br />

which the material is subjected, and as indicated above, nature’s wastes such<br />

as leaves twigs and straw may take ten years or more to biodegrade.<br />

The requirement in EN13432, ASTM D6400 and similar standards for 90%<br />

conversion to CO 2<br />

gas within 180 days is not useful even for composting,<br />

because it contributes to climate change instead of contributing to the fertility<br />

of the soil. ‘Compostable’ plastic, 90% of which has been converted to CO 2<br />

gas, is virtually useless in compost, and nature‘s lignocellulosic wastes do not<br />

behave in this way.<br />

The applications for which oxo-biodegradable plastics are normally used can<br />

vary from very short-life products such as bread-wrappers intended to last a<br />

few months, to durable shopping bags intended to last five years or more. The<br />

conditions under which they are likely to be discarded can also vary from cold<br />

and wet conditions to hot and dry desert conditions. It is for the companies<br />

producing or using these products to evaluate the test results to judge the<br />

suitability of the tested material for those applications and conditions, and to<br />

market them accordingly.<br />

The pro-oxidant additives which cause accelerated degradation are usually<br />

compounds of iron, nickel, cobalt, or manganese together with carefullyformulated<br />

stabilisers, and are added to conventional plastics at the extrusion<br />

stage. These reduce the molecular weight of the material – causing it to be<br />

ultimately consumed by bacteria and fungi. Symphony’s d2w additives have<br />

been tested and proved not to be phyto-toxic, and they do not contain ‘heavy<br />

metals’.<br />

Oxo-biodegradable technology is commonly used for Polyethylene and<br />

Polypropylene products, but it can also be used for Polystyrene. Experiments<br />

are continuing with PET but I am not as yet satisfied that the technology will<br />

work satisfactorily with PET. Experiments are also continuing with PVC.<br />

Tests on oxo-biodegradable plastic products are usually conducted by<br />

independent laboratories such as Smithers-RAPRA (US/UK), Pyxis (UK),<br />

Applus (Spain), etc, according to the test methods prescribed by ASTM D6954-<br />

04. Conditions in the laboratory are designed to simulate so far as possible<br />

conditions in the real world, but have to be accelerated in order that tests may<br />

be done in a reasonable time. Pre-treatment does not invalidate the results.<br />

1: Oxo-biodegradation is defined by CEN/<br />

TR15351-06 as “degradation identified as<br />

resulting from oxidative and cell-mediated<br />

phenomena, either simultaneously or<br />

successively.”<br />

2: See eg. Jakubowicz, :Polym. Deg. Stab.<br />

80,39-43 (2003)<br />

3: See D. Gilead and G. Scott “Developments<br />

in Polymer Stabilisation”-5. App. sci. Pub.,<br />

1982, Chapter 4 and references therein<br />

for details of environmental effects on<br />

oxo-biodegradation<br />

4: There is insufficient space here for all<br />

the relevant publications, but visit www.<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com/20<strong>0906</strong>/2.pdf<br />

to see reference to some reviews for<br />

some of the recent papers<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 29

In the real world the temperature of the soil varies between 0 and<br />

50°C depending on the location. The rate of molar-mass reduction<br />

and biodegradation can be extrapolated for any soil temperature by<br />

means of the Arrhenius relationship 3 .<br />

I have read many independent laboratory test reports on oxobiodegradable<br />

materials supplied by Symphony and by other<br />

manufacturers, which are entirely consistent with the published<br />

scientific literature 4 and with my own research. These manufacturers<br />

are not surprisingly unwilling to disclose their data to their<br />

competitors, but having seen the reports I am satisfied that if properly<br />

manufactured, oxo-biodegradable products will totally biodegrade in<br />

the presence of oxygen.<br />

I am aware of suggestions that fragments of plastic (whether oxobiodegradable,<br />

compostable, or normal plastic) attract toxins in a<br />

marine environment and are ingested by marine creatures. I am not<br />

however persuaded that fragments of plastic are any more likely to<br />

attract toxins than fragments of dead seaweed or any of the other<br />

trillions of fragments which are always present in the sea.<br />

I regard it as a positive factor that oxo-biodegradable plastics are<br />

made from naphtha - a by-product of oil, which used to be wasted.<br />

For so long as the world needs petroleum fuels and lubricants for<br />

engines it makes good environmental sense to use this by-product.<br />

I agree with the June 2009 report from Germany’s Institute for<br />

Energy and Environmental Research, which concluded that oil-based<br />

plastics, especially if recycled, have a better Life-cycle Analysis than<br />

compostable plastics. They added that “The current bags made from<br />

bioplastics have less favourable environmental impact profiles than<br />

the other materials examined” and that this is due to the process<br />

of raw-material production.” (see eg. www.bioplasticsmagazine.<br />

com/20<strong>0906</strong>/1.pdf).<br />

Compostable plastics are designed to be deliberately destroyed in<br />

the composting process, but oxobiodegradable plastics can be reused<br />

many times and can be recycled if collected during their useful<br />

lifespan, which in the case of shopper-bags is about 18 months.<br />

Plastics of any kind should not be used for home-composting as they<br />

are often contaminated with meat and fish residues and temperatures<br />

may not rise high enough to kill the pathogens.<br />

Editor‘s note:<br />

This article is based on a counterstatement<br />

by Michael Stephen, Symphony Environmental<br />

in bM issue 03/2009 page 40, which included<br />

an offer by bM to contribute a scientifically<br />

based paper and to present data (e.g. ‘reports’<br />

as required in section 7 of ASTM D6954-04).<br />

However, no data using the referenced standard<br />

was provided. The literature we received,<br />

is a list of publications that can be seen at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/20<strong>0906</strong>/3.pdf<br />

MT<br />

It is not desirable to send otherwise recoverable plastic to landfill,<br />

as plastic is a valuable resource. Nor is it desirable for anything<br />

to degrade in landfill unless the landfill is designed to collect the<br />

resulting gases, which most are not. However if oxo-biodegradables<br />

do end up in landfill, they are designed to disintegrate and partially<br />

biodegrade at or near the surface. Any particles deep in anaerobic<br />

landfill are minimal, and will remain inert indefinitely. They can never<br />

emit methane – unlike compostable plastics, paper, etc.<br />

So far as recycling is concerned, oxo-biodegradable plastic<br />

can be recycled in the same way as ordinary plastic (see www.<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com/20<strong>0906</strong>). By contrast, ‘compostable’ plastic<br />

cannot be recycled with ordinary plastic, and will ruin the recycling<br />

process if it gets into the waste stream.<br />

Please see www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/20<strong>0906</strong>/3.pdf for a<br />

comprehensive list of Key scientific papers on the biodegradation of<br />

polyolefins.<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

magnetic_148,5x105.ai 175.00 lpi 15.00° 75.00° 0.00° 45.00° 14.03.2009 10:13:31<br />

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Applications<br />

Green Nordic Walking –<br />

with Biobased Polyamide<br />

www.esb-sport.de<br />

www.mpp-austria.at<br />

www.dupont.com<br />

The first commercial, injection-molded use of renewablysourced<br />

DuPont Zytel ® RS polyamide in Europe is for the<br />

hand grip, tip, cap and inter-locking elements of the new ‘Exel<br />

NW ECO Trainer’ Nordic walking stick from EXEL Sports Brands<br />

(ESB), Stephanskirchen, Germany. The unreinforced polyamide 610<br />

is produced using sebacic acid extracted from castor oil plants. The<br />

renewably-sourced content of unreinforced Zytel RS is 58 % by wt.<br />

This was a crucial factor in the sports equipment manufacturer decision<br />

to not only base its production in Europe, but to also launch<br />

its own competence model made in the material.<br />

“Both sustainability and the responsible handling of resources are<br />

strongly encouraged within our company. This includes the use of<br />

products with a reduced environmental footprint products offering<br />

the best levels of performance based on high quality standards.<br />

Accordingly, innovative products developments, such as Zytel<br />

RS from DuPont, fit perfectly into our corporate strategy,” states<br />

Richard Holzner, product manager at ESB for the Exel walking<br />

sticks. “All the components are solvent- and toxin-free. Thus, we<br />

are able to guarantee that our customers receive environmentallyfriendly<br />

products offering the best performance according to<br />

European quality standards.”<br />

For the hand grip, a cork or wooden shell can be used on top of<br />

the Zytel RS, enhancing its feel for the user. Carbide is overmolded<br />

with Zytel RS for the tip. Beyond its very good surface finish, the<br />

long chain polyamide 610 offers excellent chemical resistance, low<br />

moisture absorption and temperature resistance between -40°C<br />

and 50° C. The parts were designed and manufactured by Metall<br />

und Plastikwaren Putz GmbH (MPP) of Abtenau in Austria. “The<br />

processability of unreinforced Zytel RS is similar to that of polyamide<br />

66. The material is also easy to color,” reports Georg Putz, managing<br />

director of MPP. “The only differences were an approximately<br />

40°C lower melt temperature and minor variations in shrinkage<br />

behavior. The technical support provided by the polymer distributor<br />

Biesterfeld-Interowa was very helpful during the transition.”<br />

Following its launch at the relevant sporting goods trade shows<br />

such as the ispo winter 2010, the ‘Exel NW ECO Trainer’ will be<br />

available to consumers from specialist sports shops from spring<br />

2010.<br />

The DuPont portfolio of engineering polymers includes a series of<br />

products based on renewable resources. They are either entirely or<br />

partially produced using agriculturally-sourced raw materials such<br />

as corn or castor-oil beans instead of crude oil, thereby helping<br />

reduce the industry’s dependence on increasingly limited crude oil<br />

reserves. - MT<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Applications<br />

A Magic Powder<br />

in a PLA Powderette<br />

by Rainer<br />

Bittermann,<br />

IFA-Tulln<br />

www.blue-elph.com<br />

www.ifa-tulln.ac.at<br />

In Austria a new product was launched in October based on an aromatic powder which puts the consumer<br />

in a state of ‘relaxed alertness’, according to Rouven Haas the inventor of Blue Elph ® . It is an<br />

absolutely new and innovative edible leisure product - just unwrap the Powderette, tap the capsule,<br />

and suck in the powder - but whatever does it have to do with bioplastics? OK, the powder consists exclusively<br />

of harmless, edible substances and the capsule is made of gelatine, but the Powderette is made<br />

from NatureWorks PLA and additives from Sukano and Polyone.<br />

The development started in 2005 together with the Institute of Natural Materials Technology at the<br />

University Research Institute at Tulln (IFA-Tulln) in Austria. After screening various bioplastics for injection<br />

moulding, PLA was selected because of its high transparency and excellent mechanical properties. The<br />

product design and recipe development took a long time but ended with a perfect shape and excellent<br />

processability.<br />

During the project the properties of PLA in the injection moulding process were investigated. The high<br />

flowability, transparency and rigidity allowed the adoption of a special design that could not be easily<br />

realised using standard polymers. The high variation in wall thickness and the sharp point necessary for<br />

piercing the powder-filled capsule should also be noted here. Thanks to different additives the ejection<br />

and constant colour at a constant transparency level could also be achieved in the end. The next step will<br />

be the construction of a 32-cavity tool to reach the planned output (300,000 for the next 6 months).<br />

For the launch and rapid penetration into the market over 600 people – including press, partners, friends<br />

and celebrities - were invited to the launch party in the ‘Skykitchen‘ club, up above the rooftops of Vienna,<br />

to experience the world of Blue Elph.<br />

The novelty of Blue Elph is not so much its effect as the way of ingesting it, and the associated benefits.<br />

The powder in the capsule is sucked into the mouth using the patented Powderette and acts directly over<br />

the oral mucosa. Caffeine and guarana immediately awaken and sharpen the senses, L-Phenylalanin has<br />

the effect of lifting the mood and passion flower is relaxing. Because of the absorption of Blue Elph via<br />

the oral mucosa the active substances enter the body faster and more directly. The concentration of these<br />

substances is up to 10 times lower than in products that can be drunk or eaten, and so are harmless to<br />

the body.<br />

The inventor Rouven Haas first had the idea for the product eleven years ago. At that time he asked<br />

himself why he didn‘t stop smoking. To cut out such a habit without finding a substitute is very hard, and<br />

with smoking in particular a very personal need is satisfied. This was the moment of birth. He wanted to<br />

create a harmless substitute that combines the fascination and feel of a cigarette with a stimulating effect<br />

as well as an extraordinary taste.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 33

Application News<br />

Naturalmente Cosmestics<br />

‘Naturalmente‘ is a brand created and registered in Europe in 2004 by the<br />

Italian company Artec, whose logistic and head offices are based in Brescia<br />

and research, innovation, development and production laboratory in Tuscany.<br />

The company is specialized in vegetal cosmetic products for hair, body and<br />

environment derived derived from the botanical kingdom: plants, flowers, roots,<br />

seeds, oils, fruits, spices and resins cultivated in their countries of origin, from<br />

all over the world, with biological, biodynamic and spontaneous agricultural.<br />

Thanks to a continuous research of sustainable ingredients and materials,<br />

Naturalmente has made a responsible choice: converting 22 bottles from<br />

polypropylene to Ingeo PLA bottles. For its launch about 30.000 pieces have<br />

been distributed in hairstyling shops. An annual consumption of 115.000 pieces<br />

is expected. The bottle of 250 ml, which is opaque, is made from PLA while the<br />

cap still is in polypropylene. There is no label on the packaging, all information<br />

is printed directly on the bottle. Product shelf life is 12 months.<br />

www.naturalmente-artec.com<br />

Green Cups in the Skies over Asia<br />

High technology lies behind a seemingly simple innovation led by All Nippon Airways (ANA), which<br />

aims to be the number one airline group in Asia and also to be a leader of environmental action in<br />

the aviation industry. ANA’s passengers will now enjoy their drinks in an Ingeo natural plastic cup.<br />

The cup was planned and developed jointly by NatureWorks and ANA for ANA’s fourth environmental<br />

flights campaign, ‘e-flight‘, which went from October 1 - 31, 2009.<br />

The drinking cups consist of NatureWorks’ Ingeo PLA. ANA held its first ‘e-flight‘ campaign in 2006.<br />

Under the catchphrase “Think about the earth and human beings”, the fourth ‘e-flight‘ promotes<br />

these public awareness initiatives that feature eco-friendly services and products like the PLA cup in<br />

addition to other steps, which include wine in PET bottles and an optional passenger carbon offset<br />

program. The programs will enable ANA to realize its environmental goals both on the ground and<br />

in flight.<br />

Plans call for the Ingeo natural plastic cup to be used on all the domestic flights in Japan and for<br />

coach class passengers on the Narita-Singapore route as a part of ‘e-flight‘ programs.<br />

ANA group is an innovator in environmental action. The company has set targets to significantly<br />

reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the end of 2011 with its domestic flights<br />

in Japan, and has been saving fuel during the flights to achieve this corporate<br />

goal. In addition, ANA is deeply involved in a number of forest and marine<br />

environment restoration projects. As a result of these activities, ANA was the<br />

first company in the aviation industry to be certified as an ‘Eco-First Company‘<br />

by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment.<br />

“The new ANA Ingeo plastic drinking cups will give airline passengers<br />

the opportunity to hold a product symbolic of greater sustainability through<br />

innovative thinking and technology,” said Marc Verbruggen, president and<br />

CEO, NatureWorks LLC. “We are proud to have Ingeo playing a role in the<br />

ANA e-flight program.”<br />

BP Consulting, Japan, headed by President Takeyuki Yamamatsu, an<br />

unwavering advocate for sustainability and sustainable products, also worked<br />

closely with both ANA and NatureWorks to develop, produce, and implement<br />

the Ingeo plastic cups concept. - MT<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

www.ana.co.jp<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

New Sunglasses<br />

made from<br />

Clear Bio-Polyamide<br />

Sport and fashion sunglasses (photo) have become high<br />

performance objects by being adapted to consumer‘s comfort<br />

and fashion evolution.<br />

Glass frames are subjected to various requirements like<br />

expanded decoration possibilities, lightness and comfort.<br />

They must also be easy to process while having excellent<br />

chemical and stress cracking-resistance.<br />

At the Outdoor Retailer Summer fair in Salt Lake City,<br />

Utah last summer Smith Optics ® and Arkema unveiled the<br />

new ‘Evolve’ sunglasses collection using Rilsan ® Clear G830<br />

Rnew.<br />

Rilsan Clear G830 Rnew offers all the necessary<br />

characteristics to provide Smith Optics with the required<br />

quality for their new ‘Evolve’ sunglasses collection: optimal<br />

comfort, lightness, good impact resistance, superior<br />

durability, and nice flexibility. A total of 20 new ‘Evolve’<br />

sunglass frame models are made entirely of Rilsan Clear<br />

G830 Rnew, a bio-renewable sourced polymer derived from<br />

castor oil. This new collection perfectly fits in with Smith<br />

Optics‘s durable eco-design strategy.<br />

Rilsan Clear G830 Rnew uses 54% bio-based raw material,<br />

thus helping reduce CO 2<br />

emissions. It naturally offers the<br />

same key benefits as classical Rilsan Clear G350, namely a<br />

combination of key properties such as chemical resistance and<br />

mechanical performance. It allows new design possibilities<br />

for injection-molded eyewear, especially thanks to its easy<br />

processing and its higher flexibility increasing comfort of<br />

wear and durability.<br />

The use of Rilsan Clear G830 Rnew in the new Smith Optics<br />

models marks the start of a new adventure and a close<br />

collaboration between Arkema and Smith Optics.<br />

www.arkema.com<br />

www.smithoptics.com<br />

Hair Care Products<br />

in PLA bottles<br />

Nature‘s Organics began in the late 1950‘s as a small business pioneering naturally based products, such as bath cubes,<br />

hair colourants, and various toiletry ranges in Australia. Since then it has rapidly become the forefront of the business. The<br />

company provides their consumers with a choice of naturally enriched products that are pure, gentle and effective. They use<br />

plant-derived ingredients as far as possible that helps to produce extremely efficient, biodegradable formulas. All products are<br />

stringently controlled to reduce unnecessary waste of non-renewable resources, offering ‘Sustainable development through<br />

responsible environmental management’. In early 2008, Nature‘s Organics introduced an Ingeo PLA bottle which offers an<br />

improved environmental footprint. With the continued success of this brand and proven track record of the Ingeo bottle,<br />

Nature‘s Organics has begun exporting this organic hair care line to Europe as well. The company produces the PLA bottles in<br />

their Ferntree Gully, Victoria, Australia factory.<br />

www.naturesorganics.com.au<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 35

Application News<br />

‘Organic Plug’<br />

made from Bio PA<br />

The fischer group of companies of Waldachtal, Germany<br />

recently presented its first prototype of an<br />

‘organic plug’. The material of the fischer Universal<br />

Plug UX consists of polyamide by DuPont which is mainly<br />

made of renewable substances.<br />

UX with staying power<br />

The fischer UX Universal Plug made of conventional<br />

nylon has been established in the market for many years,<br />

giving users the feeling of reliability and safety. With every<br />

turn of the screw, the plug tightens more and more – until<br />

it is safely expanded inside the drill hole or knotted inside<br />

the cavity. A true all-rounder, the plug gets a perfect grip in<br />

any wall, whether in plasterboard, solid bricks, perforated<br />

bricks or concrete.<br />

Same retaining power as the standard plug<br />

The ‘Organic Plug’ is made of the Zytel ® RS polyamide<br />

by DuPont, 58 % by wt. of which consist of renewable<br />

base materials. “Extensive tests and long-term trials<br />

have shown that the UX made of this new material has<br />

the same values as the tried and tested product made<br />

of conventional nylon”, says Rainer Fischer, head of<br />

synthetics development at fischer. In continuous tests,<br />

the ‘Organic Plug’ consistently shows the same retaining<br />

values as the conventional UX. Investigations involving the<br />

performance at high temperatures also show the same<br />

temperature resistance for both plugs.<br />

The UX Plugs recently shown at FAKUMA, a German<br />

plastics trade fair, are the first prototypes presented to<br />

a wider public. “Our aim is not only to demonstrate that<br />

we can make plugs from sustainable and renewable<br />

materials”, says Rainer Fischer. “We also want to fathom<br />

out the market acceptance because the ‘Organic Plugs’<br />

can currently not be made with the same cost structure as<br />

the standard plug”.<br />

www.fischer.de<br />

www.renewable.dupont.com<br />

Gourmet<br />

Canadian Packaging<br />

A<br />

Canadian company, Nature’s Farm, is going to wrap<br />

its range of gourmet pasta products in NatureFlex NE<br />

from Innovia Films.<br />

Founded in 1987 in Steinbach, Manitoba, Nature’s Farm is a<br />

family-owned business with a poultry operation producing eggs.<br />

In 1993 after several years of careful research and some time as<br />

a ‘designer-egg’ wholesaler, they introduced Nature’s Pasta,<br />

which now appears on the menus of some of North America’s<br />

best eating establishments.<br />

The farm’s fresh free-range eggs (from hens fed an allnatural<br />

vegetarian diet) go through a stringent quality inspection<br />

before being shipped to the nearby pasta-making facility. Strict<br />

adherence to old-world, small-batch production methods has<br />

created gourmet pasta that is setting new standards in taste,<br />

texture, and quality. The products are packed in-house on a<br />

Bosch Terra 25 VFFS machine set up to run at 15ppm.<br />

According to company founder, Hermann Grauer, NatureFlex<br />

is an ideal packaging choice, “We are committed to ecological<br />

sustainability and stewardship. NatureFlex has fitted into our<br />

production line process with only minimal adjustment required.<br />

The reaction of our customers’ to the packaging has also been<br />

very positive and enthusiastic.”<br />

“NatureFlex is a very versatile product,” stated Christopher<br />

Tom, Innovia Films’ Account Executive, Canada, “we are delighted<br />

to support Nature’s Farm by providing packaging that aligns<br />

with their environmentally and socially responsible values.” For<br />

a packaging like a pasta bag, a good sealability is important.<br />

NatureFlex NE was used in this application as it offers the best<br />

seal performance in the NatureFlex range of products.<br />

www.innoviafilms.com<br />

www.naturesfarm.ca<br />

(Photo: fischerwerke)<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Basics383<br />

Evaluating Quantity,<br />

Quality and Comparability<br />

of Biopolymer Materials<br />

Article contributed by<br />

Hans-Josef Endres,<br />

Andrea Siebert-Raths,<br />

and Maren Bengs,<br />

all University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts, Hanover, Germany<br />

Rather than biodegradability the focus of current material development<br />

in the field of biopolymers is increasingly on a biobased raw material input<br />

to produce durable products, i.e. the use of resistant biopolymers in<br />

technical applications. And the properties required of the materials are increasing<br />

in parallel with the number of these different applications.<br />

As a result of this current development more and more manufacturers<br />

are publishing material specifications. At first glance this can be seen as a<br />

positive move from the point of view of technical marketing support, however,<br />

the quantity, quality and comparability of available material data are still very<br />

unsatisfactory. When establishing such product data it is often the case, for<br />

example, that different standards are used for the tests, as well as different<br />

testing conditions, such as the prevailing environment when the sample was<br />

taken, the temperature conditions or humidity before and during the test, or the<br />

period of time over which the test was conducted. A further problem area lies in<br />

the fact that too little experience has been gained with new types of biopolymer<br />

to be able to lay down the optimum test conditions. Furthermore many of the<br />

published test results do not specify any standard test methods or conditions, or<br />

do not adequately define the selected conditions. Unfortunately consequence it<br />

is often in the case that the material performance specifications published until<br />

now have limited informative value.<br />

The intention of this article is, with the help of various concrete examples, to<br />

point out some of the common mistakes made when attempting to ascertain the<br />

performance characteristics of biopolymers and to increase the understanding<br />

of testing of biopolymers.<br />

Melt Index<br />

An important value for plastics processors is, for example, the melt flow index<br />

(Melt mass flow rate = MFR [g/10 min]) as specified in DIN EN ISO 1133. Without<br />

quoting a temperature and the pressure applied as the significant parameters<br />

for the test, the readings cannot be evaluated. These data, which complement the<br />

values quoted, are therefore essential but are left out by many manufacturers and<br />

are missing from numerous published documents. In addition, with biopolymers<br />

there is often the problem that, unlike conventional plastics, the MFR of these<br />

new polymers no recommendations are given with regard to the test parameters<br />

when measuring. This leads to different companies choosing different test<br />

parameters, hence making it even more difficult to compare readings.<br />

Temperature Resistance<br />

Another very sensitive figure that should be known for practical application<br />

of a biopolymer is its resistance to temperature. In many documents published<br />

about biopolymers, or in press releases, we more and more often read, for<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Basics<br />

instance, about PLA/PLA blends with a temperature resistance of<br />

around 100°C. Since the low temperature resistance of PLA often<br />

seriously limits its use, this increase from the figure of about 60°C<br />

(which is normally quoted for this material) to values around 100°C is<br />

extremely significant. Unfortunately it has emerged that this impressive<br />

figure is not supported by the facts but can largely be traced back to<br />

widely varying test methods that are not really comparable. Here too it<br />

is absolutely essential that one is given details of the test method and<br />

conditions with regard to heat resistance values.<br />

To measure heat resistance the following two different standard test<br />

methods are generally used:<br />

Measuring HDT (Heat Deflection Temperature or Heat Distortion<br />

Temperature) in accordance with DIN EN ISO 75 and measuring the<br />

VST (Vicat Softening Temperature) in accordance with DIN EN ISO<br />

306. For the HDT test a standard sample is placed in an oil bath and<br />

subjected to a defined and constant bending force under a constantly<br />

increasing temperature (120°C/h). The HDT is reached when the<br />

outer fibre distortion of the material reaches 0.2 %. In the Vicat test<br />

the sample is also placed in an oil bath with a defined temperature<br />

gradient. However the Vicat test is not based on bending but on point<br />

load deflection. The Vicat softening temperature is reached when a<br />

flat-ended needle of a defined geometry, penetrates 1 mm into the<br />

sample under a defined pressure [1].<br />

Both methods permit variations of the load and temperature<br />

gradient within the norm. With the HDT method the central bending<br />

load can be chosen from the following values: 1.85 MPa (HDT A),<br />

0.45 MPa (HDT B) and 8.0 MPa (HDT C). This means that even within one<br />

method there can be significant variations in the value depending on<br />

the chosen loading, which is often not specified in the quoted results,<br />

as can be seen in Fig. 1. If, for example, the temperature resistance of<br />

polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is published it may seem high, returning<br />

a value of 140°C, or, with a greater loading, be as much as 60°C lower<br />

at about 80°C.<br />

The situation is similar with the VST temperature resistance test.<br />

Here too the piercing needle force can be selected from either 10 N<br />

(VST A) or 50 N (VST B). In the VST method A represents a lower loading<br />

and hence higher resistance values, whilst method B, uses higher<br />

loading and hence a lower resistance value in contrast to method A.<br />

When comparing the temperature resistance of biopolymers the two<br />

methods can return figures that vary by as much as 100°C.<br />

Furthermore when testing temperature resistance either of two<br />

temperature gradients may be selected; either 50°C/h or 120°C/h. At<br />

the faster rate the thermodynamic loading time of the biopolymer before<br />

reaching a certain temperature is less than at a lower temperature<br />

gradient. Hence the resulting values at the higher temperature gradient<br />

are likewise correspondingly higher.<br />

It is therefore essential that the exact and full methodology used<br />

when measuring temperature resistance is specified. Where adequate<br />

data on the test methods is not supplied the temperature resistance<br />

cannot be properly evaluated.<br />

[°C]<br />

160<br />

140<br />

120<br />

100<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

HDT A (1.85 Mpa)<br />

PLA<br />

Starch blend<br />

HDT B (0.45 Mpa)<br />

Copolyester blend<br />

Fig.1: The influence of different bending loads<br />

on the measured temperature resistance<br />

using the HDT test.<br />

Temperature gradient in each case = 120°C/h<br />

(incomplete, just as an example)<br />

PHA<br />

PHB<br />

PCL<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 39

Basics<br />

[°C]<br />

160<br />

140<br />

120<br />

100<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

45<br />

40<br />

35<br />

30<br />

25<br />

20<br />

15<br />

10<br />

5<br />

0<br />

90<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

PLA<br />

VSTA (10N), 120°C/h)<br />

Starch blend<br />

Copolyester<br />

HDT A (1.85 Mpa, 120°C/h)<br />

Fig.2: Influence of the test method used<br />

to determine temperature resistance<br />

(incomplete, just as an example)<br />

Moisture content [%]<br />

Copolyester blend<br />

Tensile strength (Mpa)<br />

PCL<br />

Fig.3: The effect of conditioning and<br />

storage on the tensile strength of a<br />

PLVA based polymer<br />

Storage time not<br />

exceeded<br />

Storage time exceeded<br />

(about 9 months)<br />

PHB<br />

Storage period: 4 months<br />

(23°C/ 50% RH)<br />

Storage period: 4 months<br />

(23°C/ 50% RH) - before<br />

testing dried to about 1%<br />

moisture content<br />

Storage period: 24 hours<br />

(23°C/ 50% RH)<br />

Melt Mass Flow Rate<br />

(190°C, 2.16kg)<br />

in [g/10min]<br />

Tensile strength (in Mpa)<br />

Fig. 4: Effect of extended storage period<br />

on the material (23°C, 50% RH)<br />

For the values obtained using the VST test it is thus necessary to<br />

clearly distinguish between results obtained using, for example, VST<br />

A 50 (load applied to the needle = 10 N and temperature gradient =<br />

50°C/h), VST A 120 (10 N @ 120°C/h), VST B 50 (50 N @ 50°C/h) and VST<br />

B 120 (50 N @ 120°C/h) [1].<br />

Without these data mistakes are often made in the practical<br />

application of biopolymers, such as PLA, due to a lack of understanding<br />

of this problem and directly comparing temperature resistance values<br />

that have been obtained using different test methods and/or under<br />

different test parameters. As shown in the table of temperature<br />

resistance figures obtained using Vicat A and HDT A for various<br />

biopolymers (Fig. 2), these results are not at all comparable.<br />

Alongside the often inadequate data concerning the test parameters<br />

there are other factors (such as storage time and/or conditioning/<br />

drying) that are not given with regard to the biopolymers being tested.<br />

The chart in Fig 3 uses as an example the tensile strength of a polyvinyl<br />

alcohol (PVAL) based biopolymer to demonstrate the significant effect<br />

that humidity and/or length of storage may have on the mechanical<br />

properties of the material. It is important, when testing in line with<br />

an international standard, to supply information on the storage and<br />

conditioning of the sample as well as how much time elapsed between<br />

preparation of the sample and the actual test.<br />

Fig. 4 also shows that with biopolymers it is not only conditioning<br />

and the age of the finished components that have a significant impact,<br />

but that also the effect of exceeding recommended storage times of<br />

the resins before processing is a factor not to be underestimated. The<br />

following chart shows the impact on a starch based biopolymer of<br />

exceeding the storage times.<br />

The starch based polymer was tested immediately on delivery and<br />

then after a clearly excessive storage period. The almost quadruple<br />

melt flow index points to a reduction in the length of the molecular<br />

chain as a result of the polymer degradation. The same applies to the<br />

tensile strength. Here again the material was tested immediately upon<br />

delivery and again after an extended storage period. The significant<br />

drop of the mechanical specification also points clearly to a molecular<br />

breakdown.<br />

Barrier Properties of Films<br />

Further examples of a lack of data when evaluating biopolymers is<br />

also seen in the area of biopolymer films. This can be testing oxygen<br />

permeability in line with DIN 53380 for example. In this process a<br />

permeation cell is separated by a sample of the film. The test gas, i.e.<br />

the oxygen, is introduced into one half of the cell. It will permeate to a<br />

greater or less degree through the film and into the other half of the<br />

cell where it is perceived by a carrier gas. A sensor and appropriate<br />

software are used to measure the amount of oxygen in the carrier gas<br />

and so determine the oxygen permeability of the film. In addition to<br />

temperature, the relative humidity of the oxygen and the carrier gas<br />

can also be regulated. When stating the barrier property of a film, i.e.<br />

the coefficient of permeation, the temperature and relative humidity<br />

parameters often fail to be supplied, but as can be seen in Fig. 5 the<br />

moisture content of the oxygen (or other gases being tested), and the<br />

carrier gas have a significant influence on the permeability especially<br />

of biopolymers.<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Basics<br />

Film Thickness<br />

Another difficulty with biopolymer film lies in the presentation of<br />

performance data without mentioning the film thickness. With barrier<br />

performance in particular it is important to state the film thickness<br />

concerned or to adhere to a recognised standard with a unified film<br />

thickness. In some published data we still find barrier properties of<br />

film being quoted without any mention of the thickness.<br />

Test Speed<br />

A further shortcoming with regard to biopolymer film lies in the<br />

testing of its mechanical performance and in particular the tensile<br />

test. With regard to the speed applied during the tensile test there<br />

is no specific standard laid down by DIN EN ISO 527; several speeds<br />

(1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 mm/min) may be applied by the tester.<br />

In practice a speed of 1, 2 or 5 mm/min is chosen to determine the<br />

secant modulus. For other mechanical values (e.g. tensile strength)<br />

higher speeds are usually selected. The chart in Fig. 6 shows the effect<br />

of test speed on the secant modulus of a regenerated cellulose film.<br />

As is clear from the illustration, the secant modulus measured at<br />

1 mm/min lies well below that of the modulus measured at the higher<br />

speed by almost 1000 MPa. At the lower speeds the molecular chains<br />

have more time to change shape and orient themselves. Hence the<br />

film is less resistant to elastic deformation.<br />

The effect of testing speed on mechanical values is also seen with<br />

injection moulded parts, but the effect on films, due to their much<br />

reduced thickness, is more significant. Hence, when tensile testing<br />

films in particular, it is very important to have information on the<br />

test speed in order to be better able to assess and compare data on<br />

different materials.<br />

For the future it can be assumed that the development of biopolymers<br />

will move ahead swiftly and more and more materials will be presented<br />

to the market. It is however important at this stage that the performance<br />

characteristics published for new types of biopolymers are comparable<br />

and meaningful.<br />

Help on this whole topic is available from a freely accessible<br />

database at www.materialdatacenter.com, assembled by the authors<br />

of this article in collaboration with the company M-Base GmbH and<br />

with support of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture<br />

and Consumer Protection (the BMELV). All commercially available<br />

polymers are tested under standardised conditions in line with the<br />

published norms here, and are can find all of the necessary information<br />

regarding the relevant test parameters in parallel with the numerical<br />

specifications of biopolymers.<br />

More information about biopolymer testing can be found in the<br />

book ‘Technical Biopolymers’ [1]. This book can be ordered via the<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE website. It is available in German language, an<br />

English version is expected for spring 2010.<br />

www.fakultaet2.fh-hannover.de<br />

www.materialdatacenter.com<br />

[cm³/(m²*d*bar)]<br />

Fig.5: Oxygen permeability in relation to the<br />

relative humidity of the gas being tested<br />

(oxygen) and the carrier gas.<br />

Secant modulus (Mpa)<br />

400<br />

350<br />

300<br />

250<br />

200<br />

150<br />

100<br />

50<br />

0<br />

6200<br />

6000<br />

5800<br />

5600<br />

5400<br />

5200<br />

5000<br />

4800<br />

4600<br />

Starch based film PLA based film<br />

(standardised to 100 μm) (standardised to 100 μm)<br />

Test speed 1 mm/min<br />

Test speed 5 mm/min<br />

Test speed 1 mm/min<br />

23°C/0% RH<br />

23°C/50% RH<br />

Test speed 1 mm/min<br />

[1] Endres, H.-J.; Siebert-Raths, A.: Technische Biopolymere, Carl Hanser<br />

Verlag, München 2009<br />

Fig.6: Effect of test speed on the<br />

secant modulus<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 41

Basics<br />

Basics of<br />

Anaerobic Digestion<br />

Article contributed by<br />

Bruno de Wilde<br />

Organic Waste Systems nv, Ghent, Belgium<br />

Anaerobic digestion: another way of biological solid<br />

waste treatment<br />

Within biological solid waste treatment a distinction can<br />

be made between two major categories, one being aerobic<br />

composting and the other being anaerobic digestion (AD) or<br />

biogasification .<br />

In composting, organic matter is degraded by a microbial<br />

population consisting of bacteria and fungi, that consume the<br />

organic matter together with oxygen and produce CO 2<br />

, water,<br />

biomass (compost or humus) and a lot of heat. Due to this<br />

exothermic process, the temperature in a composting pile<br />

increases significantly. In anaerobic digestion, organic matter<br />

is degraded by a microbial population consisting of bacteria<br />

in the absence of oxygen and producing CH 4<br />

(methane) and<br />

CO 2<br />

(this mixture often being referred to as ‘biogas‘) and<br />

compost with practically no exothermic heat. When collected<br />

properly this biogas can be exploited in a CHP (Combined<br />

Heat and Power) system, producing electricity and heat, or<br />

can be upgraded to biomethane. To put it simply, the energy<br />

present in wet, organic waste is released as biogas instead<br />

of heat as in composting. Typically from 1 tonne of biowaste<br />

120 m 3 of biogas can be produced, with a total electricity yield of<br />

250 kWh and a net electricity yield of 200 kWh.<br />

In industrial composting the different technologies are<br />

rather similar and the differences lie in relatively minor<br />

aspects (e.g. aeration by over- pressure or under-pressure,<br />

Aerobic composting (open windrow) at Tenneville (Belgium)<br />

the form of the waste heaps, etc) with little or no consequence<br />

for the treatment of bioplastics. In contrast, rather different<br />

technologies can be distinguished in anaerobic digestion. One<br />

distinction between different technologies is the temperature<br />

at which the anaerobic digestion is operated. Temperature<br />

is externally controlled and digesters are run either at<br />

mesophilic temperature (35-40°C), or at thermophilic<br />

temperature (50-55°C). These are two distinct temperature<br />

zones at which different types of anaerobic bacteria show<br />

maximum activity (namely mesophilic and thermophilic<br />

bacteria). The rate of activity is higher at thermophilic<br />

temperature. Further, anaerobic digestion can be a singlephase<br />

or a two-phase process. In a single-phase process<br />

the complete digestion takes place in one unit or digester.<br />

In two-phase fermentation the first phase (hydrolysis and<br />

acidification) and the subsequent methanogenic phase are<br />

run in separate tanks. The distinction between single-phase<br />

and two-phase is referred to as a distinction between dry and<br />

wet fermentation systems. In dry anaerobic digestion the<br />

process is run at a moisture content of < 85%, while in wet<br />

systems the process is run at a moisture level of >85%.<br />

These technical differences have rather far-reaching<br />

consequences with regard to the treatment of bioplastics.<br />

For example, certain bioplastics (e.g. PLA) need an elevated<br />

temperature (50-60°C) to start biodegrading. In thermophilic<br />

anaerobic digestion this temperature is met and these<br />

bioplastics will degrade. However, in mesophilic anaerobic<br />

digestion where the temperature is lower, these bioplastics<br />

will not readily biodegrade.<br />

Practically all commercial anaerobic digestion systems<br />

feature a combination of an anaerobic fermentation first step,<br />

and a subsequent, aerobic composting, stabilisation second<br />

step. Since fermentation is something of a mixed process<br />

the output is not fully stabilised or fermented (note: mixing<br />

can be done in the reactor or outside the reactor by blending<br />

residue output with new feedstock input). In order to reduce<br />

the residual biological activity and to obtain complete maturity<br />

of the compost end product, the residue from the anaerobic<br />

digestion phase is therefore aerobically composted for a short<br />

time (typically for 2-4 weeks).<br />

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Basics<br />

Anaerobic digestion plant (single-phase) at Würselen (Germany)<br />

Even though anaerobic digestion can be applied to very<br />

different types of waste streams, it is particularly suited to<br />

organic waste with a high moisture content such as kitchen<br />

waste and food waste. Anaerobic digestion plants have<br />

been built and have been operational for many years for<br />

the treatment of mixed, municipal solid waste, for biowaste<br />

(obtained after source separated waste collection), for<br />

residual waste and for many types of industrial waste.<br />

The major differences from aerobic composting include<br />

the production of energy, less odour production, less health<br />

risk (i.e. killing off of pathogens, typical for thermophilic<br />

digestion), less need for surface area (smaller footprint), and a<br />

higher level of technology. Consequently, anaerobic digestion<br />

is often the preferred biological waste treatment option in<br />

densely populated areas such as big cities or countries such<br />

as Japan or Korea.<br />

Recently, anaerobic digestion has also become an important<br />

player in the area of renewable energy production from energy<br />

crops (e.g. corn). The net energy yield per hectare is higher<br />

compared to the production of bio-diesel or bio-ethanol. Also,<br />

in bio-refineries, anaerobic digestion could play an important<br />

role with high-value plant parts being used for green chemistry<br />

and residual vegetable matter (after processing of low-value<br />

plant parts, such as stems and leaves or straw) being treated<br />

in anaerobic digestion for production of energy and compost.<br />

Current distribution and prospective of technology<br />

Figure 1 below gives an overview of the development of<br />

biogasification capacity in Europe in the last two decades.<br />

From just three plants in Europe with a total capacity of<br />

87,000 tonnes per year in 1990, European anaerobic digestion<br />

facilities have now grown to a total of 171 plants with a<br />

digestion capacity of more than 5 million tonnes per year<br />

in 2010. Figure 2 gives an overview of the AD capacities in<br />

different European countries. Both the total capacity in a<br />

given country is quoted as well as the average capacity per<br />

plant. As can be seen, some countries tend to have smaller<br />

plants (e.g. Germany, Switzerland, Austria, …) while others<br />

have larger installations (e.g. Spain, France).<br />

These graphs also show that the anaerobic digestion<br />

capacity in Europe is increasing rapidly. Many digesters are<br />

being built in Mediterranean countries such as Spain and<br />

France. Most plants are dry and single-phase, and run at<br />

mesophilic temperatures.<br />

The evolution for the coming years can be deduced from<br />

the two graphs, the data for which are based on the bids for<br />

proposals published in the European Journal.<br />

Bioplastics and anaerobic digestion<br />

First of all, just as with aerobic composting, since anaerobic<br />

digestion is a biological waste treatment process, bioplastics<br />

Total Capacity<br />

Average Capacity<br />

87.000 tpa<br />

3 plants<br />

281.000 tpa<br />

18 plants<br />

1.400.000 tpa<br />

62 plants<br />

3.470.000 tpa<br />

116 plants<br />

5.204.000 tpa<br />

171 plants<br />

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010<br />

Installed Capacity (t/y)<br />

1.600.000<br />

1.400.000<br />

1.200.000<br />

1.000.000<br />

800.000<br />

600.000<br />

400.000<br />

200.000<br />

0<br />

Figure 1. Evolution of AD capacity in Europe (EU + EFTA<br />

countries) (with tpa = tons per annum) Figure 2. AD capacity in various European countries (2010)<br />

Germany<br />

Spain<br />

France<br />

Italy<br />

NL<br />

UK<br />

Switzerland<br />

Belgium<br />

Portugal<br />

Austria<br />

Sweden<br />

Malta<br />

Luxemburg<br />

Norway<br />

Denmark<br />

Poland<br />

Finland<br />

80.000<br />

70.000<br />

60.000<br />

50.000<br />

40.000<br />

30.000<br />

20.000<br />

10.000<br />

0<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 43

Basics<br />

should be biodegradable in order to be compatible. Whether bioplastics are produced from<br />

renewable resources or not, doesn‘t matter. The key element is that they must be biodegradable<br />

under anaerobic conditions or at least be compatible with an anaerobic digestion process.<br />

Anaerobic digestion plant<br />

in (two-phase) at Vitoria<br />

(Spain) (all photos: OWS nv)<br />

Concerning technical preconditions of treating bioplastics in anaerobic digestion plants, a<br />

distinction must be made between wet and dry technologies. In general, wet technologies,<br />

especially in the pretreatment phase, cannot treat bioplastics easily: in the first pulping and<br />

hydrolysis phase they are removed either by flotation or by sedimentation and therefore are not<br />

really entering the digestion (except when bioplastics are quickly soluble or dispersible, which is<br />

rarely the case). A solution could be to add the bioplastics directly to the second step, the aerobic<br />

composting step (considering the retention time in this second step is much shorter than the<br />

residence time in a typical composting process). Another solution might be new developments<br />

in the pretreatment phase. In most dry systems, bioplastics can be added when some random<br />

conditions are fulfilled: they should be shredded (to reduce the particle size) before entering the<br />

digestion (just like biowaste itself) and sieving is better located at the end of the process in order<br />

to enable as much biodegradation and disintegration as possible in both the anaerobic digestion<br />

and the aerobic composting step.<br />

The major underlying reason why several bioplastics show a different biodegradation behavior<br />

in aerobic composting from their behavior in anaerobic digestion is the influence of fungi. Fungi<br />

are abundantly available and very active in aerobic composting while in anaerobic fermentation no<br />

fungi are active. Some polymers are mainly (or even only) degraded by fungi and not by bacteria<br />

and will therefore biodegrade in aerobic composting and not in anaerobic digestion - or only much<br />

slower. As a matter of fact, this is also the case for the natural polymer lignin which can be found<br />

in wood, straw, shells, etc.<br />

On the other hand, when bioplastics do also biodegrade in anaerobic fermentation there is<br />

a double benefit. First of all, energy is produced from the bioplastics in the form of biogas that<br />

can be converted to electricity. Secondly, as most bioplastics are very rich in carbon and do not<br />

contain nitrogen (or very little), the addition of bioplastics to biowaste will improve the C/N ratio<br />

of the mixture. Biowaste tends to be low in C/N, which is sometimes a problem in anaerobic<br />

digestion, by adding a carbon-rich substrate the C/N ratio is increased.<br />

So far, the knowledge of anaerobic biodegradation and treatability of bioplastics is limited and<br />

further research would be welcome. Ideally, bioplastics would biodegrade and also disintegrate<br />

during the anaerobic phase in an anaerobic digestion plant, just as the major part of ‘natural‘<br />

biowaste does. However, if the bioplastic disintegrates during the anaerobic phase and then<br />

afterwards biodegrades completely during the aerobic stabilization phase or during the use of<br />

digestate or compost in soil, it can also considered to be compatible with anaerobic digestion.<br />

www.ows.be<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Events<br />

Event<br />

Calender<br />

December 2-3, 2009<br />

Dritter Deutscher WPC-Kongress<br />

Maritim Hotel, Cologne, Germany<br />

www.wpc-kongress.de<br />

December 2-3, 2009<br />

Sustainable Plastics Packaging<br />

Sheraton Hotel, Brussels, Belgium<br />

http://sustainableplasticspackaging.com<br />

March 8-10, 2010<br />

GPEC 2010<br />

Global Plastics Environmental Conference<br />

The Florida Hotel & Conference Center<br />

Orlando, Florida, USA<br />

www.4spe.org<br />

March 15-17, 2010<br />

4th annual Sustainability in Packaging<br />

Conference & Exhibition<br />

Rosen Plaza Hotel, Orlando, Florida, USA<br />

www.sustainability-in-packaging.com<br />

March 16-17, 2010<br />

EnviroPlas 2010<br />

Brussels, Belgium<br />

www.ismithers.net<br />

April 13-15, 2010<br />

Innovation Takes Root 2010<br />

The Four Seasions - Dallas, Texas, USA<br />

www.InnovationTakesRoot.com<br />

June 22-23, 2010<br />

8th Global WPC and Natural<br />

Fibre Composites Congress an Exhibition<br />

Fellbach (near Stuttgart), Germany<br />

www.wpc-nfk.de<br />

You can meet us!<br />

Please contact us in advance by e-mail.<br />

Editorial Planner 2010<br />

# - Month Publ.-Date Edit/Ad/Deadl. Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics Fair Specials<br />

01 - Jan/Feb 08.02.2010 15.01.2010 Automotive Foams Basics of Cellulosics<br />

02 - Mar/Apr 05.04.2010 12.03.2010 Rigid Packaging Material Combinations Basics of Certification<br />

03 - May/Jun 07.06.2010 14.05.2010 Injection Moulding Natural Fibre composites Basics of Bio-Polyamides<br />

04 - Jul/Aug 02.08.2010 09.07.2010<br />

Additives /<br />

Materbatches / Adhesives<br />

Bottles / Labels / Caps<br />

Compounding of Bioplastics<br />

05 - Sep/Oct 04.10.2010 10.09.2010 Fiber Applications Polyurethanes / Elastomers Basics of Bio-Polyolefins K‘2010 preview<br />

06- Nov/Dec 06.12.2010 12.11.2010 Films / Flexibles / Bags Consumer Electronics Recycling of Bioplastics K‘2010 review<br />

Further topics to be covered in 2010:<br />

Beauty and Healthcare<br />

Non-Food Bioplastics<br />

Printing inks<br />

Lignin<br />

Paper-Coating<br />

and much more …<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 45

Basics<br />

Glossary<br />

In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again<br />

the same expressions appear that some of our<br />

readers might (not yet) be familiar with. This<br />

glossary shall help with these terms and shall<br />

help avoid repeated explanations such as ‘PLA<br />

(Polylactide)‘ in various articles.<br />

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics<br />

e.V.) is a term used to define two different<br />

kinds of plastics:<br />

a. Plastics based on renewable resources (the<br />

focus is the origin of the raw material used)<br />

b. à Biodegradable and compostable plastics<br />

according to EN13432 or similar standards<br />

(the focus is the compostability of the final<br />

product; biodegradable and compostable<br />

plastics can be based on renewable (biobased)<br />

and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources).<br />

Bioplastics may be<br />

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;<br />

- based on renewable resources but not be<br />

biodegradable; and<br />

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.<br />

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch<br />

molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer,<br />

monomer is à Glucose).<br />

Amyloseacetat | Linear polymeric glucosechains<br />

are called à amylose. If this compound<br />

is treated with ethan acid one product<br />

is amylacetat. The hydroxyl group is connected<br />

with the organic acid fragment.<br />

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch<br />

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,<br />

monomer is à Glucose).<br />

Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable<br />

Plastics are plastics that are completely assimilated<br />

by the à microorganisms present a<br />

defined environment as food for their energy.<br />

The carbon of the plastic must completely be<br />

converted into CO 2 during the microbial process.<br />

For an official definition, please refer to<br />

the standards e.g. ISO or in Europe: EN 14995<br />

Plastics- Evaluation of compostability - Test<br />

scheme and specifications. [bM 02/2006 p.<br />

34f, bM 01/2007 p38].<br />

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at<br />

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly<br />

distributed base polymers.<br />

Carbon neutral | Carbon neutral describes a<br />

process that has a negligible impact on total<br />

atmospheric CO 2 levels. For example, carbon<br />

neutrality means that any CO 2 released when<br />

a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset by an<br />

equal amount of CO 2 absorbed by the plant<br />

through photosynthesis when it is growing.<br />

Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of à cellulose.<br />

Cellulose | Polymeric molecule with very high<br />

molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is<br />

à Glucose), industrial production from wood<br />

or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and<br />

fibres.<br />

Compost | A soil conditioning material of<br />

decomposing organic matter which provides<br />

nutrients and enhances soil structure.<br />

(bM 06/2008, 02/2009)<br />

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are biodegradable<br />

under ‘composting’ conditions:<br />

specified humidity, temperature, à microorganisms<br />

and timefame. Several national<br />

and international standards exist for clearer<br />

definitions, for example EN 14995 Plastics<br />

- Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme<br />

and specifications [bM 02/2006 p. 34f, bM<br />

01/2007 p38].<br />

Composting | A solid waste management<br />

technique that uses natural process to convert<br />

organic materials to CO 2 , water and humus<br />

through the action of à microorganisms<br />

[bM 03/2007].<br />

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different<br />

monomers.<br />

Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of an environmental àLife Cycle<br />

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities<br />

from the ‘cradle’ (i.e., the extraction of raw<br />

materials, agricultural activities and forestry)<br />

up to the factory gate<br />

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated<br />

as C2C): Is an expression which communicates<br />

the concept of a closed-cycle economy,<br />

in which waste is used as raw material (‘waste<br />

equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term<br />

that is typically used in àLCA studies.<br />

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of a full àLife Cycle Assessment<br />

from manufacture (‘cradle’) to use phase and<br />

disposal phase (‘grave’).<br />

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled<br />

by à microorganisms or enyzmes (e.g.<br />

the transformation of sugar into lactic acid).<br />

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,<br />

colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless<br />

and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside<br />

animals‘ connective tissue.<br />

Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar).<br />

G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar)<br />

in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or<br />

hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.<br />

Humus | In agriculture, ‘humus’ is often used<br />

simply to mean mature à compost, or natural<br />

compost extracted from a forest or other<br />

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.<br />

Hydrophilic | Property: ‘water-friendly’, soluble<br />

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used<br />

in conjunction with a plastic which is not waterresistant<br />

and weatherproof or that absorbs<br />

water such as Polyamide (PA).<br />

Hydrophobic | Property: ‘water-resistant’, not<br />

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is waterresistant<br />

and weatherproof, or that does not<br />

absorb any water such as Polethylene (PE) or<br />

Polypropylene (PP).<br />

LCA | Life Cycle Assessment (sometimes also<br />

referred to as life cycle analysis, ecobalance,<br />

and àcradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation<br />

and valuation of the environmental<br />

impacts of a given product or service caused<br />

(bM 01/2009).<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

Basics<br />

Readers who know better explanations or who<br />

would like to suggest other explanations to be<br />

added to the list, please contact the editor.<br />

[*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article<br />

previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)<br />

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic<br />

size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast.<br />

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil<br />

based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as<br />

a blend component.<br />

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters<br />

produced in nature by bacterial fermentation<br />

of sugar or lipids. The most common<br />

type of PHA is à PHB.<br />

PHB | Polyhydroxyl buteric acid (better poly-<br />

3-hydroxybutyrate), is a polyhydroxyalkanoate<br />

(PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters<br />

class. PHB is produced by micro-organisms<br />

apparently in response to conditions of physiological<br />

stress. The polymer is primarily a<br />

product of carbon assimilation (from glucose<br />

or starch) and is employed by micro-organisms<br />

as a form of energy storage molecule to<br />

be metabolized when other common energy<br />

sources are not available. PHB has properties<br />

similar to those of PP, however it is stiffer and<br />

more brittle.<br />

PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA) is<br />

a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic<br />

polyester from lactic acid. Lactic acid is made<br />

from dextrose by fermentation. Bacterial fermentation<br />

is used to produce lactic acid from<br />

corn starch, cane sugar or other sources.<br />

However, lactic acid cannot be directly polymerized<br />

to a useful product, because each polymerization<br />

reaction generates one molecule<br />

of water, the presence of which degrades the<br />

forming polymer chain to the point that only<br />

very low molecular weights are observed.<br />

Instead, lactic acid is oligomerized and then<br />

catalytically dimerized to make the cyclic lactide<br />

monomer. Although dimerization also<br />

generates water, it can be separated prior to<br />

polymerization. PLA of high molecular weight<br />

is produced from the lactide monomer by<br />

ring-opening polymerization using a catalyst.<br />

This mechanism does not generate additional<br />

water, and hence, a wide range of molecular<br />

weights are accessible (bM 01/2009).<br />

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or<br />

carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family.<br />

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar<br />

units. For example, there are known mono-,<br />

di- and polysaccharose. à glucose is a monosaccarin.<br />

They are important for the diet and<br />

produced biology in plants.<br />

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction<br />

of glucose changing the aldehyde group<br />

to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as a<br />

plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.<br />

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting<br />

of à amylose and à amylopectin,<br />

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca<br />

etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains<br />

in definite way the result (product) is<br />

called starch. Each molecule is based on 300<br />

-12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection,<br />

there are two types à amylose and<br />

à amylopectin known.<br />

Starch (-derivate) | Starch (-derivates) are<br />

based on the chemical structure of à starch.<br />

The chemical structure can be changed by<br />

introducing new functional groups without<br />

changing the à starch polymer. The product<br />

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the<br />

hydrophilic character is not the same.<br />

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every<br />

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When<br />

every hydroxyl group is connect with ethan<br />

acid one product is starch-ester with different<br />

chemical properties.<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can<br />

be synthesised by treating the à starch with<br />

propane or butanic acid. The product structure<br />

is still based on à starch. Every based à<br />

glucose fragment is connected with a propionate<br />

or butyrate ester group. The product is<br />

more hydrophobic than à starch.<br />

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best<br />

outcomes for the human and natural environments<br />

both now and into the indefinite future.<br />

One of the most often cited definitions of sustainability<br />

is the one created by the Brundtland<br />

Commission, led by the former Norwegian<br />

Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The<br />

Brundtland Commission defined sustainable<br />

development as development that ‘meets the<br />

needs of the present without compromising<br />

the ability of future generations to meet their<br />

own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the continuity<br />

of economic, social, institutional and<br />

environmental aspects of human society, as<br />

well as the non-human environment).<br />

Sustainability | (as defined by European<br />

Bioplastics e.V.) has three dimensions: economic,<br />

social and environmental. This has<br />

been known as “the triple bottom line of<br />

sustainability”. This means that sustainable<br />

development involves the simultaneous pursuit<br />

of economic prosperity, environmental<br />

protection and social equity. In other words,<br />

businesses have to expand their responsibility<br />

to include these environmental and social<br />

dimensions. Sustainability is about making<br />

products useful to markets and, at the same<br />

time, having societal benefits and lower environmental<br />

impact than the alternatives currently<br />

available. It also implies a commitment<br />

to continuous improvement that should result<br />

in a further reduction of the environmental<br />

footprint of today’s products, processes and<br />

raw materials used.<br />

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or<br />

melt when heated and solidify when cooled<br />

(solid at room temperature).<br />

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,<br />

garden residue.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 47

10<br />

20<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

1. Raw Materials<br />

2. Additives /<br />

Secondary raw materials<br />

30<br />

40<br />

50<br />

60<br />

70<br />

80<br />

90<br />

100<br />

110<br />

120<br />

130<br />

140<br />

150<br />

160<br />

170<br />

BASF SE<br />

Global Business Management<br />

Biodegradable Polymers<br />

Carl-Bosch-Str. 38<br />

67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany<br />

Tel. +49-621 60 43 878<br />

Fax +49-621 60 21 694<br />

plas.com@basf.com<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

www.basf.com/ecoflex<br />

1.1 bio based monomers<br />

Du Pont de Nemours International S.A.<br />

2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50<br />

CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex,<br />

Geneva, Switzerland<br />

Tel. + 41 22 717 5428<br />

Fax + 41 22 717 5500<br />

jonathan.v.cohen@che.dupont.com<br />

www.packaging.dupont.com<br />

PURAC division<br />

Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21<br />

4200 AA Gorinchem -<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 (0)183 695 695<br />

Fax: +31 (0)183 695 604<br />

www.purac.com<br />

PLA@purac.com<br />

1.2 compounds<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.225.6600<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@natur-tec.com<br />

www.natur-tec.com<br />

Transmare Compounding B.V.<br />

Ringweg 7, 6045 JL<br />

Roermond, The Netherlands<br />

Tel. +31 475 345 900<br />

Fax +31 475 345 910<br />

info@transmare.nl<br />

www.compounding.nl<br />

1.3 PLA<br />

Division of A&O FilmPAC Ltd<br />

7 Osier Way, Warrington Road<br />

GB-Olney/Bucks.<br />

MK46 5FP<br />

Tel.: +44 844 335 0886<br />

Fax: +44 1234 713 221<br />

sales@aandofilmpac.com<br />

www.bioresins.eu<br />

1.4 starch-based bioplastics<br />

Plantic Technologies Limited<br />

51 Burns Road<br />

Altona VIC 3018 Australia<br />

Tel. +61 3 9353 7900<br />

Fax +61 3 9353 7901<br />

info@plantic.com.au<br />

www.plantic.com.au<br />

PSM Bioplastic NA<br />

Chicago, USA<br />

www.psmna.com<br />

+1-630-393-0012<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

Telles, Metabolix – ADM joint venture<br />

650 Suffolk Street, Suite 100<br />

Lowell, MA 01854 USA<br />

Tel. +1-97 85 13 18 00<br />

Fax +1-97 85 13 18 86<br />

www.mirelplastics.com<br />

Tianan Biologic<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

1.6 masterbatches<br />

Du Pont de Nemours International S.A.<br />

2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50<br />

CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex,<br />

Geneva, Switzerland<br />

Tel. + 41(0) 22 717 5428<br />

Fax + 41(0) 22 717 5500<br />

jonathan.v.cohen@che.dupont.com<br />

www.packaging.dupont.com<br />

3. Semi finished products<br />

3.1 films<br />

Huhtamaki Forchheim<br />

Herr Manfred Huberth<br />

Zweibrückenstraße 15-25<br />

91301 Forchheim<br />

Tel. +49-9191 81305<br />

Fax +49-9191 81244<br />

Mobil +49-171 2439574<br />

Maag GmbH<br />

Leckingser Straße 12<br />

58640 Iserlohn<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. + 49 2371 9779-30<br />

Fax + 49 2371 9779-97<br />

shonke@maag.de<br />

www.maag.de<br />

www.earthfirstpla.com<br />

www.sidaplax.com<br />

www.plasticsuppliers.com<br />

Sidaplax UK : +44 (1) 604 76 66 99<br />

Sidaplax Belgium: +32 9 210 80 10<br />

Plastic Suppliers: +1 866 378 4178<br />

180<br />

190<br />

200<br />

210<br />

220<br />

230<br />

240<br />

250<br />

260<br />

270<br />

BIOTEC Biologische<br />

Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32<br />

46446 Emmerich<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2822 92510<br />

Fax +49 2822 51840<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Cereplast Inc.<br />

Tel: +1 310-676-5000 / Fax: -5003<br />

pravera@cereplast.com<br />

www.cereplast.com<br />

European distributor A.Schulman :<br />

Tel +49 (2273) 561 236<br />

christophe_cario@de.aschulman.com<br />

BIOTEC Biologische<br />

Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32<br />

46446 Emmerich<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2822 92510<br />

Fax +49 2822 51840<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients<br />

ZAC „Les Portes de Riom“ - BP 173<br />

63204 Riom Cedex - France<br />

Tel. +33 (0)4 73 67 17 00<br />

Fax +33 (0)4 73 67 17 10<br />

www.biolice.com<br />

PolyOne<br />

Avenue Melville Wilson, 2<br />

Zoning de la Fagne<br />

5330 Assesse<br />

Belgium<br />

Tel. + 32 83 660 211<br />

info.color@polyone.com<br />

www.polyone.com<br />

Sukano Products Ltd.<br />

Chaltenbodenstrasse 23<br />

CH-8834 Schindellegi<br />

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77<br />

Fax +41 44 787 57 78<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

3.1.1 cellulose based films<br />


Wigton<br />

Cumbria CA7 9BG<br />

England<br />

Contact: Andy Sweetman<br />

Tel. +44 16973 41549<br />

Fax +44 16973 41452<br />

andy.sweetman@innoviafilms.com<br />

www.innoviafilms.com<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

alesco GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Schönthaler Str. 55-59<br />

D-52379 Langerwehe<br />

Sales Germany: +49 2423 402 110<br />

Sales Belgium: +32 9 2260 165<br />

Sales Netherlands: +31 20 5037 710<br />

info@alesco.net | www.alesco.net<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

6.2 Laboratory Equipment<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

Arkhe Will Co., Ltd.<br />

19-1-5 Imaichi-cho, Fukui<br />

918-8152 Fukui, Japan<br />

Tel. +81-776 38 46 11<br />

Fax +81-776 38 46 17<br />

contactus@ecogooz.com<br />

www.ecogooz.com<br />

Postbus 26<br />

7480 AA Haaksbergen<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 616 121 843<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

Forapack S.r.l<br />

Via Sodero, 43<br />

66030 Poggiofi orito (Ch), Italy<br />

Tel. +39-08 71 93 03 25<br />

Fax +39-08 71 93 03 26<br />

info@forapack.it<br />

www.forapack.it<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, Marketing Manager<br />

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,<br />

Taichung County<br />

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)<br />

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888<br />

Fax +883(4)2277 6989<br />

Mobil +886(0)982-829988<br />

esmy325@ms51.hinet.net<br />

Skype esmy325<br />

www.minima-tech.com<br />

natura Verpackungs GmbH<br />

Industriestr. 55 - 57<br />

48432 Rheine<br />

Tel. +49 5975 303-57<br />

Fax +49 5975 303-42<br />

info@naturapackaging.com<br />

www.naturapackagign.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.0321.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.0321.699.611<br />

Info@novamont.com<br />

President Packaging Ind., Corp.<br />

PLA Paper Hot Cup manufacture<br />

In Taiwan, www.ppi.com.tw<br />

Tel.: +886-6-570-4066 ext.5531<br />

Fax: +886-6-570-4077<br />

sales@ppi.com.tw<br />


8752 Näfels - Am Linthli 2<br />


Tel. +41 55 618 44 99<br />

Fax +41 55 618 44 98<br />

www.wiedmer-plastic.com<br />

4.1 trays<br />

5. Traders<br />

5.1 wholesale<br />

6. Equipment<br />

6.1 Machinery & Molds<br />

FAS Converting Machinery AB<br />

O Zinkgatan 1/ Box 1503<br />

27100 Ystad, Sweden<br />

Tel.: +46 411 69260<br />

www.fasconverting.com<br />

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey<br />

Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic<br />

Container Industry<br />

284 Pinebush Road<br />

Cambridge Ontario<br />

Canada N1T 1Z6<br />

Tel. +1 519 624 9720<br />

Fax +1 519 624 9721<br />

info@hallink.com<br />

www.hallink.com<br />

Roll-o-Matic A/S<br />

Petersmindevej 23<br />

5000 Odense C, Denmark<br />

Tel. + 45 66 11 16 18<br />

Fax + 45 66 14 32 78<br />

rom@roll-o-matic.com<br />

www.roll-o-matic.com<br />

MODA : Biodegradability Analyzer<br />

Saida FDS Incorporated<br />

3-6-6 Sakae-cho, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka, Japan<br />

Tel : +81-90-6803-4041<br />

info@saidagroup.jp<br />

www.saidagroup.jp<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH<br />

Holzhauser Str. 157 - 159<br />

13509 Berlin<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (0)30 43567 5<br />

Fax +49 (0)30 43567 699<br />

sales.de@thyssenkrupp.com<br />

www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

8. Ancillary equipment<br />

9. Services<br />

9. Services<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

47877 Willich, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-0 , Fax: -51<br />

carmen.michels@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

www.polymediaconsult.com<br />

Wirkstoffgruppe Imageproduktion<br />

Tel. +49 2351 67100-0<br />

luedenscheid@wirkstoffgruppe.de<br />

www.wirkstoffgruppe.de<br />

10. Institutions<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 02351 67100-0<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be present among top suppliers in<br />

the field of bioplastics.<br />

For Example:<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

35mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 210,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 210,00 EUR = 1,260.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and<br />

extends automatically if it’s not canceled<br />

three month before expiry.<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Department of Chemical<br />

Engineering & Materials Science<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

Faculty II, Department<br />

of Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans-Josef Endres<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (0)511-9296-2212<br />

Fax +49 (0)511-9296-2210<br />

hans-josef.endres@fh-hannover.de<br />

www.fakultaet2.fh-hannover.de<br />

35 mm<br />

10<br />

20<br />

30<br />

35<br />

Pland Paper ®<br />


2F, No.57, Singjhong Rd.,<br />

Neihu District,<br />

Taipei City 114, Taiwan, R.O.C.<br />

Tel. + 886 - 2 - 27953131<br />

Fax + 886 - 2 - 27919966<br />

sales@weimon.com.tw<br />

www.plandpaper.com<br />

MANN+HUMMEL ProTec GmbH<br />

Stubenwald-Allee 9<br />

64625 Bensheim, Deutschland<br />

Tel. +49 6251 77061 0<br />

Fax +49 6251 77061 510<br />

info@mh-protec.com<br />

www.mh-protec.com<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 49

Companies in this issue<br />

Company Editorial Advert<br />

A&O Filmpac 48<br />

Alcan Packaging 17<br />

alesco 14 48<br />

All Nippon Airways ANA 34<br />

Arkema 5, 35<br />

Arkhe Will 49<br />

Artec 34<br />

Auchan 18<br />

BASF 19, 23 48<br />

Best Buy 26<br />

BIO4PACK 49<br />

bioplastics24 31<br />

Biotec 48<br />

BlueElph 33<br />

Bosch 10<br />

BP Consulting 34<br />

BPI 49<br />

British Plastics Federation BPF 7<br />

Cardia Bioplastics 6<br />

Carrefour 18<br />

Cereplast 6 48<br />

Delhaize 18<br />

Dettmer Verpackungen 12<br />

DuPont 10, 32, 36 48<br />

Earthsoul 7<br />

EPNOE 5<br />

European Bioplastics 5, 10 49<br />

EXEL Sports Brands 32<br />

FAS Converting Machinery 49<br />

Fres-co Systems USA 17<br />

FH Hannover 10, 38 49<br />

fischer group 36<br />

FKuR 8, 10, 12 2, 48<br />

Forapack 49<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 8 49<br />

Goglio Cofibox 17<br />

GPV 18<br />

Hallink 49<br />

Hamelin 18<br />

Huhtamaki 10, 17 48<br />

Hycail Finland 8<br />

IFA Tulln 33<br />

Innovia Films 36 48<br />

J&K Agro Industries 7<br />

Jiffy Pot 18<br />

Krauss Maffei Berstorff 10<br />

Kuraray 10<br />

Limagrain 48<br />

Maag 48<br />

Mann + Hummel Protech 49<br />

Mayer Kuvert Network 18<br />

McCain 12<br />

Company Editorial Advert<br />

Metabolix 8 48, 51<br />

Metalnuovo 17<br />

Michigan State University 49<br />

Minima Technology 49<br />

natura Verpackung 49<br />

Nature‘s Farm 36<br />

Nature‘s Organics 35<br />

NatureWorks 17, 23, 27, 33, 34<br />

NaturTec 48<br />

Novamont 7, 20 49, 52<br />

Oerlemans Plastics 23<br />

Organic Waste Systems 42<br />

Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-<br />

31<br />

Institut<br />

Philips 27<br />

Plantic 48<br />

Plastic Suppliers 17, 18 48<br />

Plasticker 31<br />

Plastikwaren Putz 32<br />

Polyfilms 17<br />

Polymediaconsult 49<br />

Polyone 33<br />

President Packaging 49<br />

PSM 48<br />

Purac 48<br />

Radio Shack 26<br />

Saida 25<br />

Samsung 26<br />

Sidaplax 17, 18 48<br />

SKC 17<br />

Sleever International 17<br />

Smith Optics 35<br />

Sprint Nextel 26<br />

Sukano 10, 33 48<br />

Symphony Environmental 28<br />

Tanita 24<br />

Telecom Italia 27<br />

Telles 48, 51<br />

Tianan Biologic 48<br />

Toray Industries 27<br />

Transmare 48<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer 11<br />

Ultimate Packaging 9<br />

Unitika 24<br />

Universität Duisburg 10<br />

Utrecht University 5, 10<br />

Vinçotte 9<br />

Volkswagen 10<br />

Wal-Mart 26<br />

Wei Mon 37, 49<br />

Wiedmer 49<br />

Next Issue<br />

For the next issues of bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

(among others) the following subjects are scheduled:<br />

Month Publication Date Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics<br />

Jan/Feb 01 Feb 2010 Automotive Applications Foam Basics of Cellulosics<br />

Mar/Apr 05 Apr 2010 Rigid Packaging Material Combinations Certification<br />

May/June 07 Jun 2010 Injection Moulding Natural Fibre Composites Polyamides<br />

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

EcoComunicazione.it<br />

Salone del Gusto and Terra Madre 2008<br />

Visitors of Salone del Gusto 180,000<br />

Meals served at Terra Madre 26,000<br />

Compost produced* kg 7,000<br />

CO 2<br />

saved kg 13,600<br />

* data estimate – Novamont projection<br />

The future,<br />

with a different flavour:<br />

sustainable<br />

Mater-Bi® means biodegradable<br />

and compostable plastics made<br />

from renewable raw materials.<br />

Slow Food, defending good things,<br />

from food to land.<br />

For the “Salone del Gusto” and “Terra Madre”, Slow Food<br />

has chosen Mater-Bi® for bags, shoppers, cutlery,<br />

cups and plates; showing that good food must also<br />

get along with the environment.<br />

Sustainable development is a necessity for everyone.<br />

For Novamont and Slow Food, it is already a reality.<br />

info@novamont.com<br />


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