bioplasticsMAGAZINE_0902

biomag

bioplasticsMAGAZINE_0902

ioplastics magazine Vol. 4 ISSN 1862-5258

Highlights:

Beauty and Healthcare | 10

End of Life Options | 20

Basics:

Industrial Composting | 34

02 | 2009

bioplastics MAGAZINE

is read in

85 countries


Plastics For Your Future

Another New Resin For a Better World

Bio-Flex® A 4100 CL for transparent blown fi lm applications

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH | Siemensring 79 | D - 47877 Willich

Tel.: +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 51-0 | Fax: +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 51-51 | sales@fkur.com

www.fkur.com


dear

Editorial

readers

Travelling is usually fun and interesting, at least for me. However, being absent

from the office always runs the risk of finding a huge pile of work on the desk,

waiting to be done, when returning. However, during the last few weeks it was worth

it. At conferences in Orlando, Brussels and Cologne I made some very good new

contacts and renewed a lot of valued old contacts, and the visit to the composting

plant in Dortmund was very informative.

In the course of preparing the material on ‘End of Life Options’ and ‘Industrial

Composting’ I held some lengthy discussions with different experts. Now, my

personal opinion at this time is as follows:

As for all plastics, including bioplastics, the 3R-Rule (or one of the several variants)

should be applied: Reduce – Re-use – Recycle. This includes to re-use and to

recycle as often as possible.

Where, and as long as, the volumes are too small to allow specific collection,

separation and recycling of bioplastics, or where contamination is too high for

recycling, incineration with energy recovery is a favourable option. At the Technical

University of Aachen, Germany, many years ago my Professor Menges said to us

(talking about traditional plastics of course): “plastics contain borrowed energy”.

And this is also absolutely true for bioplastics.

Composting, in my opinion, is a very good, new and additional end-of-life option

for bioplastics in cases where it really brings additional benefits. Examples are

compostable shopping bags that can be used for the collection of compostable

kitchen waste, compostable bioplastic tableware and cutlery for events, fast

food, catering or canteens. Another good example is the packaging of fruit and

vegetables, which means that the contents can be disposed of together with the

packaging if they are spoilt or are out of date. Mulch film or tomato clips to support

the climbing of tomatoes in greenhouses, both offering the benefit of significantly

reducing disposal cost, are examples from agri/horticulture. And there are many

more such examples.

I know that this is a controversial topic and so I gladly solicit other opinions to be

published in bioplastics MAGAZINE, be it as a ‘Letter to the Editor’ or an article in the

‘Opinion’ rubric.

Now – let’s talk about the other editorial focus in this issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE.

Beauty, healthcare and hygiene are areas where, when developing new products,

more and more attention is given to natural based ingredients. The companies

marketing such products are also starting to look closely at the packaging material,

and also sometimes the product itself if made of plastic, with the idea of using

plastics based on renewable resources. Take a look at the following pages …

I hope you enjoy reading this issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE and look forward to

comments, opinions or contributions.

Yours,

Michael Thielen

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Content

Editorial 03

News 05

Application News 24

Event Review 08

Event Calendar 41

Suppliers Guide 44

Glossary 42

March/April 02|2009

Beauty & Healthcare

Beautiful Plastics Made by Nature 10

PHBV for Beauty and Healthcare Applications 12

Performance of PHA in Cosmetics and 14

Personal Care Packaging

It Started With the World’s First PLA Lipstick 16

Opinion

End of Life Options for Biodegradable & 32

Compostable Biopolymers

Basics

Industrial Composting 34

The Added Value of ‘Bio-Plastics’ 38

‘Vegetal Plastic’ Cosmetics Packaging 17

Range Made From PLA

Biopackaging for Biocosmetics 18

Natural Floss Picks 19

Biodegradable Tampon Wrap 19

End of Life

End-of-Life: Recovery Options 20

From Science & Research

Use of Biopolymers in Antimicrobial Food Packaging 30

Impressum

Publisher / Editorial

Dr. Michael Thielen

Samuel Brangenberg

Layout/Production

Mark Speckenbach, Jörg Neufert

Cover Photo:

Philipp Thielen

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bioplastics magazine

ISSN 1862-5258

bioplastics magazine is published

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bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on

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bioplastics MAGAZINE is read

in 85 countries.

Not to be reproduced in any form

without permission from the publisher.

The fact that product names may not

be identified in our editorial as trade

marks is not an indication that such

names are not registered trade marks.

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British

spelling. However, in articles based on

information from the USA, American

spelling may also be used.

Editorial contributions are always

welcome. Please contact the

editorial office via

mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Australian Kmart offers

Compostable Bags

News

Biograde Limited, an Australian international supplier of packaging resins

derived from renewable resources, has been appointed as supplier of compostable

shopping bags for Kmart stores.

The Biograde bags are part of a trial being conducted by Kmart across the

retailer’s 12 stores in South Australia from 20 March 2009. South Australian

Minister for Environment and Conservation Jay Weatherill launched the customer

trial, which is being conducted by Kmart to determine what kind of bags will

be offered to customers after the South Australian Government ban on plastic

checkout bags takes effect on 4 May 2009.

Melbourne based Biograde makes the compostable bags from a proprietary

blend of resins and corn starch, which undergoes biodegradation by natural

biological processes and does not leave any toxic residue. The Biograde bags are

the same shape and size as existing plastic bags, and are suitable for disposal in

council collected green waste bins.

Labelled with the Australian Standard, the

Biograde compostable bags are ready to roll

out of Kmart stores.

Biograde managing director Dr Frank Glatz said the company is privileged to

be part of this important Kmart project. “We thank Kmart for this opportunity to have consumers genuinely trial our product in

a situation of heightened awareness – they will be thinking about how and why they use shopping bags,” he said.

“Our product has been extensively tested and is now accredited by the major international testing authorities. We source our

own raw materials, formulate and manufacture the resin and produce the bags ourselves, so we know that we are providing

a product that performs to those standards. Most importantly, these compostable bags will decompose safely in the council

waste management system,” Dr Frank Glatz said.

The rigorously tested Biograde materials comply with Australian Standards AS 4736-2006 and also meet European EN13432,

USA/Canada ASTM D6400, Japanese GreenPla and China Environment Label standards. This high level of certification of its

products was critical to Biograde being appointed exclusive supplier of biodegradable packaging to the Beijing 2008 Olympic

and Paralympic Games.

During the Kmart trial, customers requiring a bag will select from compostable bags produced by Biograde or reusable

paper bags at a charge of 15 cents per bag, or the coloured calico/cotton/jute fabric bags.

www.biograde.com.au

2nd Manufacturing Location for NatureWorks

Anticipating rising global demand for alternatives to petroleum based plastics, NatureWorks LLC, maker of Ingeo natural

plastic resin, is assessing locations for a second manufacturing plant. With current sales of its Ingeo bioresin in Europe,

Asia Pacific and the Americas, NatureWorks will evaluate the location for a potential new resin production facility based on

projected growth in these regions and the availability of plant-based feedstock required for Ingeo processing.

“Investing in a second production facility would support brand owners committed to environmentally preferable alternatives

to petroleum-based plastics, and would be a significant step forward for NatureWorks,” said Marc Verbruggen, president and

CEO. “We anticipate continued advancements in the resin’s performance, as well as an increase in the number of products and

applications using Ingeo. We’re starting our assessment now, recognizing that typical timeframes for design and construction

of such facilities can be three years after a decision is made.”

NatureWorks was the first company to produce a natural plastic resin in commercial quantities. Late last year, the Ingeo

facility in Blair, Nebraska, inaugurated a new manufacturing process that further lowered CO 2

emissions and reduced the

energy required to produce Ingeo bioresin. By mid-year 2009, equipment installation and commissioning currently underway

will enable the Blair facility to produce up to its full Ingeo design capacity of 140,000 tonnes (~ 300 million lbs).

www. natureworksllc.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


News

Biodegradable Plastic in

German ALDI shopping bags

The large German discount

supermarket chain ALDI SÜD

is now offering shopping bags

made of BASF’s biodegradable

plastic Ecovio ® . These bags

are manufactured for ALDI by

the VICTOR Güthoff & Partner

Group, headquartered in

Kerpen, Germany.

The plastic Ecovio consists

of Ecoflex ® , a petrochemicalbased

polyester and PLA, which

is obtained from renewable

raw material. And yet, thanks

to its special molecular

structure, the blend can be

digested by microbes under

precisely defined conditions:

it is completely biodegradable

according to European standard EN 13432. Whereas Ecoflex makes the

bag flexible, tear-resistant, waterproof and suitable for printing – giving it

the properties of a classic plastic – the stiff PLA contributes the renewable

raw material.

The combination of Ecovio and Ecoflex allows film manufacturers to

produce plastic bags and other film products with tailor-made properties.

A higher percentage of Ecoflex renders the film more flexible whereas

a higher percentage of Ecovio renders it stiffer. Thus, Ecoflex makes it

possible for renewable raw materials like PLA to now be employed in

high-performance consumer products.

Biodegradable shopping bags offer customers an additional advantage:

they not only are strong enough to be used multiple times as a shopping

bag, but at the end of their days, they can also serve as a bag for collecting

and disposing of organic kitchen garbage – in most of the German

communities this is already permitted.

“We introduced these compostable shopping bags, because we wanted

to offer an additional, ecological alternative to the bags made from recycled

plastics, that are also available at Aldi Süd,” As Kirsten Windhorn, head of

corporate communications at Aldi Einkauf GmbH & Co. KG commented

towards bioplastics MAGAZINE. “Aldi always tries to act responsibly – also

when it comes to energy, climate and environmental protection. When

developing these bags, primarily a careful use of resources and the

protection of the environment were in our focus as well as the product

quality.” And she added that since December 2008 the new bag is selling

very successfully for EUR 0.39. The traditional bag made from recycled

plastics is available for EUR 0.09 and carries the European “Blue Angel”

label for eco-friendly products.

World’s First

Certified

Compostable

Hot Cup and

Lid System

StalkMarket Products, Portland, Oregon,

USA, a leading provider of compostable

tableware and food packaging, is launching

the world’s first Biodegradable Products

Institute (BPI) certified compostable Ingeo

hot cup and lid system.

“We are very proud of the achievements

of our staff,” stated Bret ‘Buzz’ Chandler,

President and Founder of StalkMarket

products. “(…) to make this 100% compostable

system perform like traditional plastic

products at competitive market prices.”

StalkMarket’s Planet+ line of compostable

products are engineered to tolerate more

than 93.3°C (200°F) of wet heat and compost

in 60 to 90 days in commercial composting

facilities.

“Hot cup lids are an important part of an

ensemble of compostable products,” stated

Steve Mojo, Executive Director at BPI. “The

BPI compostable logo certification is awarded

to products that demonstrate that they meet

the requirements of ASTM D6400 or ASTM

D6868 based on testing in an independent

and approved laboratory. Products that

meet these standards will disintegrate

and biodegrade swiftly and safely in a

professionally managed composting facility,

but not in home backyard composting.”

The hot cups and lids are made using

Ingeo plant-based PLA from NatureWorks

LLC. „StalkMarket has used Ingeo in an

innovative way to help replace petroleum

based products with renewable plantbased

plastic products,“ stated Jim Hobbs,

NatureWorks’ Commercial Director for the

Americas.

www.stalkmarketproducts.com

www. natureworksllc.com

www.basf.com

www.victorgroup.eu/en

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Synthetic Wood Based on Hemp and PHB

News

Researchers at Stanford University, California, USA, have developed a synthetic wood substitute that may one day save trees,

reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shrink landfills. The faux lumber is made from a new biodegradable plastic composite

that could be used in a variety of building materials. “This is a great opportunity to make products that serve a societal need

and respect and protect the natural environment,” said lead researcher Sarah Billington, an associate professor of civil and

environmental engineering.

In 2004, Billington and her colleagues received a two-year Environmental Venture Projects (EVP) grant from Stanford’s Woods

Institute for the Environment to develop artificial wood that is both durable and recyclable. The best material turned out to

be natural hemp fibers combined with PHB (polyhydroxy-butyrate). “It’s quite attractive looking and very strong,” said EVP

collaborator Craig Criddle, a professor of civil and environmental engineering. “You can mold it, nail it, hammer it, drill it, a lot

like wood. But bioplastic PHB can be produced faster than wood, and hemp can be grown faster than trees.”

The hemp-PHB biocomposites are stable enough to use in furniture, floors and

a variety of other building materials, he added. After use it can be anaerobically

biodegraded to produce methane that is captured and burned for energy recovery

or re-used to make more biocomposites.

“It dawned on us that there are microbes that can make PHB from methane,”

Criddle said. “So now we’re combining two natural processes: We’re using

microbes that break down PHB plastics and release methane gas, and

different organisms that consume methane and produce PHB as a byproduct.”

www.stanford.edu

Graduate students Aaron Michel and

Molly Morse hold samples of the

biodegradable wood substitute.

Ground Breaking Ceremony for Extension

of Production Capacity

BASF SE recently announced that the extension of their plant for the production of Ecoflex ® and Ecovio ® biodegradable

plastics in Ludwigshafen, Germany has now begun. The ceremony to mark the breaking of the first ground was held on

February 2nd.

With the scheduled investment BASF is going to extend the production capacity for Ecoflex from the present 14,000 tonnes per

year by an annual 60,000 tonnes. The capacity for Ecovio, a blend of Ecoflex and 45% PLA will also be increased. The expanded

facilities will go into production at the end of the third quarter 2010.

“With this expansion of the Ecoflex- and Ecovio

plant we further invest in the Ludwigshafen site

and thus strengthen it for the long term,“ says Dr.

Bernhard Nick, plant manager of the whole BASF

SE location Ludwigshafen.

“The market for biodegradable and biobased

plastics currently is still just a niche market,

however it offers a significant potential for

innovation,“ says Dr. Michael Stumpp, head of

the global special plastics business unit within

the performance polymers division. “Globally this

market is growing by 20%. With our expanded

production capacities we will further extend our

position in this market.“

www.basf.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Event Review

photo courtesy

of Environmental

Division of SPE

GPEC Global Plastics

Environment Conference 2009

Under the headline ’Plastics: The Wonderful World of Sustainability and

Recyling’ about 300 delegates and speakers met from February 25 to 27 in

Disney’s Coronado Springs Resort in Orlando, Florida, USA. The conference

was accompanied by a table top exhibition. One of three parallel sessions was

on Bio-based and Biodegradable Materials.

Among the most interesting presentations, which were attended by an

average of 70 to 90 delegates was Ross Young’s (Univenture) talk about the

Production of Algae primarily for bioplastics and fuel. Corey Linden (Battelle)

introduced methods to improve PLA performance for injection moulding. Todd

Rogers of Arkema spoke about a new type on transparent, (50%) biobased

polyamide, named Rilsan clear. Jim Lunt (Tianan Biologic) and Kristin Taylor

(Telles) presented their latest developments and application examples from

the field of the PHA’s.

The massively discussed presentation by Michael Stephen of Symphony about

– what Professor Greene (California State Univ. Chico) called oxo-fragmentable

plastics – was commented by Joe Greene: “Disney is an appropriate location

for such kind of presentations”. However, Mr. Stephens again was not able to

present any scientifically backed data to prove his claims.

During lunch on the first day, Eric Connell of Toyota shared with the delegates

his experience and thoughts about ‘Automotive Applications & Expectations of

Biobased Materials’. From the viewpoint of greenhouse gas reductions and

resource security, bioplastics are attractive as carbon neutral materials, but

Eric also pointed out the limitations that currently still exist for industrial

usage for automotive applications.

Dr. John Kristy, Professor at the University of Alabama in Huntsville explained

in an elaborated plenary session on the second day his findings about CO 2

and global warming. However, his ‘all-clear’ statement ‘all carbon dioxide

emissions – if reduced or not - do not affect the climate’ was not exactly agreed

to by all of the delegates.

bioplastics MAGAZINE will cover some of the most interesting talks, as well as

some of the really good student posters in the coming issues.

Sustainability

in Packaging

Intertech-pira sponsored a

conference, accompanied by an

exhibition, on ‘Sustainability in

Packaging’ on 3-4 March also in

Orlando, Florida. An average of

about 30-40 from the total of 210

delegates came to the ‘bioplastics’

session to attend presentations from

industry experts. In his presentation

on ‘How plastics packaging meets

the sustainability challenge in

Europe’ Professor Kosior (Nextek)

for example addressed the question

of automatic sorting PLA from a

mixed PLA / PET waste stream.

Other presentations covered latest

develompents in PLA (Erwin Vink,

NatureWorks), PHA (Daniel Gilliland,

Telles), Starch based bioplastics

(Tom Black, Plantic and Daniel Tein,

PSM) and biobased (bio-ethanol)

Polyethylene (Jeff Wooster, Dow).

Leslie Harty, president of Maverick

Enterprises gave a controversially

discussed presentation that also

covered their products made from

PE and PET and additives that are

claimed to make these materials

biodegradable. Data that prove

the 100% biodegradation of these

materials according to standards

such as EN 13432 / ASTM D6400 or

EN 14855 / ASTM D5338 however,

could not be presented.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Event Review

Conference

on Sustainable

Packaging

In Cologne, Germany, within the framework of

the Anuga Foodtec 2009 trade fair, the nova-Institut

from Hürth, Germany, organised the ‘Conference on

sustainable packaging’. In his opening presentation,

Michael Carus, head of the nova-Institut gave an

impressive insight in their findings about the world’s

arable land space with reference to the production of food,

biofuels and bioplastics. In a nutshell: approximately 5

billion hectares (ha) of the planet’s 14.3 billion ha can

be regarded as farmland, 3.5 billion ha of which are

meadow land and 1.5 billion ha are arable land, i.e.

land used for the cultivation of crops. In 2006/07 0.42%

of the total farmland was used for biofuels (bioethanol

and biodiesel), and a lot less was used for bioplastics.

Carus said that food price increases are not so much

(10-15%) due to an increased demand for biofuels (or

bioplastics) but due to an increased demand for food

(higher purchasing power) in the developing parts of

the world.

With an estimated area of ‘unused’ or ‘free’ farmland

of about 570 million ha (in 2006) and an (also estimated)

increased need of 210 million ha for the production of

food and feed until 2020, there will still be about 360

million ha of farmland that could be used for non food

purposes. The additional demand for arable land for

biofuels (and bioplastics) is estimated to be about 18

million ha by 2020. bioplastics MAGAZINE will publish a

comprehensive article on this topic in one of the future

issues.

In further presentations, different speakers talked

about their efforts towards a more environmentallyfriendly

(and thus sustainable) production. Topics were,

among others, ‘Recycling of bioplastics’ or market

overviews and the presentation of new products.

Worldbiofuelsmarkets

2009

Following a major conference on biofuels with more

than 200 speakers and about 1000 delegates last year,

Worldbiofuelsmarkets once again this year invited

delegates to Brussels, Belgium, from March 16-18. The

pre-congress forum on bioplastics (the only one of the

seven forums), however started as a ‘cosy conference’ as

chairman Ramani Narayan from Michigan State University

put it. With 17 people in the room (and 17 speakers on the

programme) the one-day forum ultimately developed an

attendance of more than 30 in the afternoon.

Besides some interesting presentations, such as

new non-food feedstock approaches for PHAs, or the

exploitation of Municipal Solid Waste (Bill Orts, USDA,

see photo) and ‘Bioplastics as Part of the Biorefinery’

(John Williams, NNFCC, UK), the concept of this forum

or workshop relied very much on the effective panel

discussions.

The first panel discussion addressed ‘Bioplastics

and the Food vs Fuel debate’ and was conducted by

John Williams, Ulrich Weihe (McKinsey, Belgium) and

Marco Versari (Novamont, Italy). Participants of a panel

discussion on ‘Bioplastics and Biodegradability‘ were

Martin Patel (Utrecht University, The Netherlands), Mary

Ann Curran (EPA, USA), Gert-Jan Gruter (Avantium,

The Netherlands) and Bruno de Wilde (Organic Waste

Systems, Belgium). ‘A Global Focus: Who is Leading the

Way in Bioplastics?’ was the subject of the third panel

discussion with Jim Lunt (Tianan Biologic, China), Bill Orts

and Paul Cordfunke (PURAC, The Netherlands) being the

experts. The closing panel on ‘Sharing Best Practice for

the Future - Thoughts and Outlook’ was held by Camille

Burel (EuropaBio, Belgium), Stefano Facco (Novamont)

and Brian Balmer (Frost & Sullivan, UK).

All in all ‘cosy’ but nevertheless effective in terms of

discussions and networking.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Beauty & Healthcare

Eyeliner Pencil made of Biograde C 7500 CL

Little dish made of Fibrolon F 8530

Beautiful Plastics

Article contributed by

Dr. Christian Bonten

Director of Technology and Marketing

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH

Willich Germany

Beauty, and our constant efforts to achieve it, are an expression of

luxury. And this expression is reflected not only in the contents

but also in the packaging. Cosmetics and bodycare are a broad

field of applications and a systematic approach is necessary. Let us divide

the field of cosmetics applications into the following groups:

• Hair Care (hairspray, shampoo, hair colorants, conditioner, curling

aids)

• Colour Cosmetics (lipsticks, eye cosmetics, nail cosmetics, make-up)

• Bath and Shower (bath and shower soaps and syndets)

• Deodorants and anti-perspirants,

• Men´s grooming (razors and shavers, shaving foam and gel, aftershave)

• Oral hygiene (toothpaste, tooth brushes, mouth wash, products for

dentures)

• Fragrances (perfumes, EDTs)

• Skin Care (facial care, body lotion and powder, sun protection, hand

and nail creme, depilatories)

Pad bag made of

Bio-Flex F 1130

Cosmetic Pens made of Fibrolon F 8530

There are a number of major trends in the cosmetics industry [1].

The population in the developed countries of the world is getting older.

This will drive the demand for skin care and premium colour cosmetics.

Furthermore, young girls (8-12 years) increasingly use cosmetics and

their parents help choose them together with the girls. This will lead

to more colourful and striking packaging with more unusual shapes.

Another trend is that teenagers have their own money to buy cosmetics,

but their limited budgets mean that they have to buy mass market

products in retail stores. The fourth trend is that men increasingly use

cosmetics, so premium men‘s cosmetics will grow more strongly.

It is obvious that, in all of the above-mentioned groups of applications,

the requirements placed on plastics are very different. But if plastics are

used as packaging, the requirements become clear and manageable.

Cosmetics packaging producers often ask for availability, processability on

standard machines (extrusion or injection moulding, printing, assembly),

chemical resistance to the cosmetic product, a barrier against the carrier

solution (often water or alcohol), mechanical properties (tensile strength

and impact strength, stiffness), aesthetic appearance (surface quality,

printability etc.).

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Beauty & Healthcare

Cosmetics Pen made of Bio-Flex F 6510

Made by Nature

Just a few cosmetics can be found in pure powder form. A lot of

cosmetics are a mixture of chemical substances held in aqueous

solutions or alcohol-based solvents. So, resistance and a high barrier

against water and alcohol are often basic requirements for any plastics

used in cosmetics packaging.

Polylactic acid (PLA) and cellulose acetate (CA) are often chosen as

raw biopolymers for bioplastics. PLA and CA are described as resistant

to fats, water and alcohol [2], but both exhibit only a poor barrier against

moisture vapour and alcohol. Furthermore, CA is described as resistant

to weak acids.

Plastics, made by nature, for cosmetics packaging

FKuR´s trade name Bio-Flex ® covers copolyester blends based on

PLA which – depending on the respective grade – are composed of

almost 100% natural resources. Bio-Flex does not contain any starch

or starch derivatives. Bioplastics mostly replace conventional materials,

i.e. polyethylene of low density (LDPE) and of high density (HDPE) as well

as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate

(PET).

Biograde ® is based on cellulose, a product of the paper industry,

and has been specially designed for injection moulding applications.

Biograde is predominantly obtained from natural resources (European

soft wood from sustainable forestry). It does not contain starch or starch

derivatives, and has an excellent heat resistance up to 122 °C. It can be

transparent – depending on the grade – and is food contact approved.

Under the brand name Fibrolon ® , FKuR develops natural fibre reinforced

compounds (Wood/Plastic Composites: WPC), which, unlike many other

WPCs, can be injection moulded without problems. Fibrolon compounds

are characterised by high strengths and stiffness comparable to wood.

Fibrolon F 8530 is a biodegradable compound on the basis of polylactic

acid (PLA) and other compostable biopolymers. The content of natural

resources is almost 100%.

The applications described emphasise that Bio-Flex, Biograde

and Fibrolon can be easily processed on standard injection moulding,

blow moulding or extrusion machines. Biograde´s resistance, even to

aggressive isododecane (a hydrocarbon ingredient used as a solvent in a

number of cosmetic products) opens the wide field of colour cosmetics

applications, however the barrier properties of all bioplastics really need

to be improved.

Jar 3 made of Bio-Flex V 1410

Bottle 2 made of Bio-Flex F 6510

(J. Sieben)

[1] Cosmoprof study in co-operation with Formes

de Luxe (2005)

[2] Endres, H.-J., Siebert-Raths, A., Technische

Biopolymere. Hanser Publishers (2009)

www.fkur.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 11


Beauty & Healthcare

PHBV for Beauty

and Healthcare

Applications

Thin Section Microscope

Picture Showing PHBV

polymer within the cells

of the microorganism

Article contributed by

Dr. Jim Lunt

V.P. Sales and Marketing

Tianan Biologic

Wayzata, Minnesota, USA

PHBV (Poly Hydroxy Butyrate co Valerate, a polymer from

the PHA family ) is produced by Tianan Biologic through the

fermentation of sugar derived from non-genetically modified

corn starch. Tianan Biologic, world leader in the production of

PHBV, purchases native corn starch and converts it ‘in house’ to

glucose. The microbes convert this glucose, plus a small amount of

propionic acid, to PHBV polymer which they store in their cells as

a food reserve. At the termination of the fermentation process the

PHBV can actually comprise upwards of 80% of their body weight.

The polymeric PHBV powder is extracted using only water at a low

temperature.

However, it is not a new biopolymer. In the 1990’s, the British

chemical conglomerate ICI, manufactured and sold PHBV under

the trade name BIOPOL. Its first major use was for containers

sold to distributors in both Europe and the U.S. One of the earliest

commercial applications was for hair care products. In Germany,

Wella‘s Sanara ® Shampoo was the first PHBV product to hit the

shelves. This was a blow-molded bottle with an injection-molded

cap. The first USA launch came in 1995 in the form of bottles for

Brocanto International‘s Evanesce shampoo. PHBV was also tested

for cosmetic containers such as lipsticks and creams. So the utility

of PHBV in the beauty and health care market segments has already

been demonstrated.

In these early years, Japan also showed interest in PHBV. BIOPOL

was introduced in 1991 as a container for Ishizawa Kenkyujo‘s

Earthic Alga shampoos and conditioners. Before ICI terminated

their activities, Biopol was also being considered by three more hair

care companies. Kai was considering it for use in disposable razors

with a Biopol handle.

In the late 1990’s ICI’s BIOPOL PHBV technology was sold to

Monsanto (having first been spun off to the ICI subsidiary Zeneca).

After approaches into different markets, in 2001 Monsanto

subsequently stopped activity on PHBV and sold the remaining

intellectual property to Metabolix. The primary reason for this

move was the price of manufacture for PHBV. In the 1990’s BIOPOL

sold for $18 - $20 per kg. It was anticipated that with improved

microorganisms and extraction technology the price could reach a

minimum of $9 per kg at commercial scale.

Tianan Biologic was convinced it could produce PHBV at a more

economical cost. In 1999, they signed a cooperation agreement

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Beauty & Healthcare

PHBV Containers and Closures

Bottles made from a PHBV compound provided by PolyOne

with the Institute of Microbiology, China Academy of

Science, to jointly develop PHBV and in 2003 a 1000 tonnes

fermentation plant was constructed in Ningbo, China. By

focusing on just PHBV - and combining improvements

to the fermentation and aqueous extraction processes -

PHBV became commercially available for the first time at

just over $4.50/kg.

Tianan Biologic revisited the early strategy of ICI for

the market potential for PHBV. It was clear that although

pricing was now significantly lower than previous

projections, PHBV was still not in the realm of commodity

thermoplastics. Tianan adopted a deliberate strategy of

seeking for the more value added niche markets. Three

general areas were identified:

1. Applications in the Beauty and

Health Care Industries

Performance in selected applications had already been

clearly demonstrated in this marketplace. Attributes such

as 100% renewable resource, lack of toxicity, temperature

and low moisture vapor transmission are considered

value added. In addition, compostability or digestion by

microorganisms under a variety of disposal conditions

could also be of value if the infrastructure is in place to

allow disposal with no negative environmental influence.

2. Applications in higher value-added,

semi-durable injection molded products such

as thermoformed or injection molded household

goods and cosmetic products.

For such applications, blends with other compostable

materials - where the products may not be 100% renewable

but are known to have no negative effects on human health

- are considered ideal candidates to both widen the property

spectrum of PHBV alone and still achieve a meaningful

reduction in the use of 100% petroleum based products.

3. Biobased products for durable applications

where biodegradability is not necessary.

Today, Tianan has focused in sectors 1 and 2. Significant

development is underway in areas such as increasing the

valerate content to improve flexibility and processing of the

polymer as well as in blends. Food contact approval and

non-allergenic reactions in contact with skin are definite

requirements for these segments.

Especially with view to the Beauty and Healthcare sectors

– these, in many ways, bring their own unique challenges.

In the Beauty segment alone, container applications span

a wide spectrum for shampoos, conditioners, skin care

products, healing creams, lipsticks, etc. The development

of this market is complex and governed by strict testing

requirements. Cosmetics, Personal Care, Health and

Beauty Products are subject to stringent FDA regulations

and EU Directives that govern their safety.

These regulations cover everything from good

manufacturing practice (GMP) to human health and

safety assessments, packaging and labeling. Penetrating

this market can be time consuming and costly, but the

industry is known for its sustainability commitment and

therefore the drive to replace petroleum based materials

with renewable resource based products continues to be

extremely positive.

Many health care products require sterilization using

Gamma, steam or ethylene oxide technologies. Although

legislative and testing requirements can be extremely

demanding and time consuming, the concern over

potentially toxic additives, residual monomers, catalysts

and effects on the environment are driving evaluations at

an increasing pace.

In conclusion, the Beauty and Healthcare Industry was

the first to accept PHBV as a technically viable, renewableresource-derived

polymer suitable for several applications.

This same industry is still showing great promise for PHBV.

Reduction in pricing, while not in line with commodity

petroleum-based polymers, is acceptable for many of

the applications in this sector. PHBV and blends with

materials such as PC/ABS are is increasingly price/

performance competitive compared with PC/ABS blends

which are and often targeted for use in this Industry

www.tianan-enmat.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 13


Beauty & Healthcare

Performance of PHA in

Cosmetics and Personal

Mirel - New

Care Packaging

after 1 month

after 3 months

after 5 months

Even amid the global recession, research indicates that

consumers will continue to purchase green products. A

new study by A. T. Kearney, a global management consulting

firm, reports that green products and the associated

brands may emerge from this economic crisis even stronger.

This suggests that brand owners whose business approach

emphasizes sustainability can build strong customer loyalty.

In order to maintain these customers, companies must be

accountable for their environmental commitments today and

in the future.

Eco-conscious or LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and

Sustainability) consumers actively seek out environmentally

responsible products that have minimal impact on the

environment. LOHAS is described as an estimated $209

billion U.S. marketplace for goods and services focused on

health, environment, social justice, personal development and

sustainable living. The Natural Marketing Institute reports that

over two-thirds of LOHAS consumers will preferentially buy

products from companies with a reputation for environmental

responsibility. This indicates that environmentally conscious

consumers are willing to pay more for such products.

The global market for natural cosmetics and personal care

products is growing at a double digit rate. Creative brand

owners are looking to capitalize on this trend by adding

eco-friendly products or line extensions to increase market

share. Innovative packaging solutions are gaining attention

as a way for brands to differentiate their products on crowded

retail shelves. Industry leaders are also looking at bioplastic

materials as product and packaging solutions to help them

comply with corporate sustainability goals and bolster the

brand’s environmental story. From compact and lipstick

cases to caps and jars, bioplastics are gaining traction in this

style-conscious and now eco-conscious industry.

PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate) is a bioplastic material

suitable for cosmetics and personal care packaging. Mirel

bioplastics are a family of PHA resins that are engineered

for performance. Mirel resins have the physical properties

of petroleum based resins including durability, toughness,

gloss, consistent processing in multicavity tooling, and are

resistant to both high heat and moisture.

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Beauty & Healthcare

The Mirel base resin is home compostable and will

biodegrade in ambient conditions such as soil and aquatic

environments; distinctively different from a majority of

bioplastics which typically require industrial composting

and conventional plastics that will not biodegrade under

any condition.

Mirel resins are certified as biodegradable under Vinçotte

natural soil and water environmental conditions, meet

ASTM D6400 and EN 13432 standards for compostable

plastics, and the ASTM D7081 standard for non-floating

biodegradable plastics in the marine environment.

Commercial grades are available for injection molding,

cast and blown film, extruded sheet and thermoforming.

Mirel P1003 is specifically engineered for high modulus

injection molding applications such as cosmetics and

personal care packaging.

www.mirelplastics.com

Article contributed by Kristin Taylor,

Business Development Manager

and

Debra Darby, Director Marketing

Communications

Telles, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA

Mirel

cosmetics

case

www.teamburg.de

Call for papers

Contact: mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com

within the

Supporting

Programme of

2 nd PLA Bottle

Conference

14-16 September 2009

Munich, Germany | Holiday Inn City Centre

The PLA Bottle Conference

will cover subjects such as:









Latest developments

Market overview

Raw material availability

Preform and bottle making

High temperature behaviour

Barrier issues

Additives / Colorants

Labels, caps

End of life options (recycling,

composting, incineration etc)


... and much more !

Stay updated at

www.pla-bottle-conference.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 15


Beauty & Healthcare

It Started With the

World’s First

PLA Lipstick

The PlantLove story began in 2007 when Cargo

Cosmetics from Toronto, Canada launched their

legendary line of PlantLove lipsticks. The first-ever

compostable lipstick case made entirely from Nature-

Works’ Ingeo (PLA), PlantLove kicked off a new wave of

environmentally friendly beauty packaging. These include

cases for lipstick, eyeshadow, blush, pressed and loose

powder and illuminator (blush, bronzer and highlighter all

in one).

In 2008, Cargo rounded out the line with a full collection

of eco-conscious 100% Natural color products. “We

wanted to create a line of high-performance, professionalgrade

makeup while still keeping the environment top of

mind,“ said Hana Zalzal, founder of Cargo Cosmetics.

“Women shouldn‘t have to compromise. They can have

beautiful makeup and still be environmentally conscious

at the same time“. Cargo worked relentlessly to develop

products that met the rigorous standards demanded by

ECOCERT, an international certification that guarantees

products are eco-friendly through all aspects of product

and production, dramatically reducing its environmental

footprint.

Before applying PLA Cargo used traditional plastics.

But then they started to look for an alternative material

that was better for the environment. “Cargo is always

looking to make beauty products that are ‘smarter, better,

easier’ and ‘environmentally friendly‘ is very important for

our customers and for us,” says Jaye Campbell at Cargo,

“so we started doing some research. Our research team

here in Canada worked closely together with a Canadian

university to do testing on materials.”

Cargo chose Ingeo for their products, because this

PLA offers durability and stiffness, is easy to process and

allows to produce the shapes they need. Ingeo is a naturebased

innovation, requires less fossil fuel to create and its

production emits fewer greenhouse gases. So there were

no compromises to using Ingeo, as Jaye put it.

Resin cost were not so much an issue for Cargo, as the

prices were comparable to the materials they used before

and Jaye believes Ingeo will eventually be more economical

as prices of oil will rise again and the PLA prices remain

consistent.

Cargo’s PlantLove products are available in many

countries at Sephora stores, including Europe. PlantLove

boxes are made from 100% post-consumer waste

paperboard and the mill supplying this paperboard

manufactures it under carbon-neutral conditions using

100% renewable energy. There are ten lipsticks which

were designed by celebrities such as Lindsay Lohan and

two dollars from the sale of every lipstick shade is donated

by Cargo to St. Jude Children‘s Research Hospital in USA.

And finally, Cargo is proud to announce that all their

cosmetics are only manufactured in countries with solid

environmental and labor records.

http://cargoplantlove.com

www.ecocert.com

www.natureworksllc.com

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Beauty & Healthcare

‘Vegetal Plastic’

Cosmetics Packaging

Range Made From PLA

Italian packaging manufacturer Leoplast from Arignano

was one of the first groups to introduce cosmetics

packaging made entirely from NatureWorks’ Ingeo

(PLA). They started in 2004 with testing and industrialising

bioplastics. This was based on an intuition by Leoplast’s

general manager Mr. Graziano Reggiani, who knew about

environmental problems and wanted to play his part in

helping solve them. Cristina Maggi, Marketing Manager

of Leoplast told bioplastics MAGAZINE: “Before even being

asked by the cosmetics industry, Leoplast started to develop

their PLA packaging applications,” The first application

that was developed was a complex 4-part lipstick

housing, a specialty of Leoplast.

The material used and tested for the lipstick housings

was Ingeo. “Leoplast came and asked us to develop a

special grade of Ingeo with a lower viscosity,” says Stefano

Cavallo, Marketing Manager Europe at NatureWorks. „We

followed their suggestions and now supply an easy-flowing

PLA grade for this application.”

Then, after Leoplast published some of their

development results in a cosmetics packaging magazine,

the Italian company was approached by a North American

manufacturer of cosmetic products. This contact eventually

led to the world’s first lipstick housing made from a plastic

material 100% from renewable resources.

Today Leoplast’s so-called ‘Vegetal Plastics’ product line

comprises jars for cream, lipstick housings and compacts

for powder, eye shadow or blusher. The compacts, marketed

under the brand name ‘bio-stone’ are part of Leoplast’s

initiative to develop environmentally-friendly packaging,

including the use of natural masterbatches derived from

vegetable-based colorants such as chlorophyll green,

indigo blue, curcuma red or riboflavin yellow, and mineral

sources such as mica pearlised white, as Stefano Cavallo

explained.

Among the customers that have chosen Leoplast’s

eco-friendly products are, for example, a number of

French companies: Laboratoires Phyt‘s offer a pearlised

brown case for a complete Ecocert lipstick range. From

Laboratiores Cosmediet a ‘Bio Formule’ grass green and

white case for an Ecocert lip balm is now available. A

pearlised white case for an Ecocert lipstick is marketed

under the brand name ‘Cybelle par Nature’ by Laboratoires

Science et Nature. Laboratoires Aromastrati and Le

Secret Naturel offer lip balm cases too. From Italy comes

an emerald green case for a lip balm (Ciccarelli) and from

Intercos a white case with changing blue pearlescent

effects for a complete line of lip balms

Last year Leoplast inaugurated 500 m² of factory area

dedicated to the production of bioplastics packaging. The

production of such packaging will exceed 12 million pieces

per year (6 million for lipstick housings, 2 million for jars

and 2 million for each ‘bio-stone’). In addition to these

products Leoplast has announced plans to include bottles

and closures made of bioplastics into their portfolio.

www.leoplastgroup.com

www.natureworksllc.com

www.ecocert.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 17


Beauty & Healthcare

Biopackaging

for Biocosmetics

Article contributed by

Alessandro Ferlito,

Commercial Director,

Novamont, Novara, Italy

www.novamont.com

www.montaltonatura.com

The increasing problems of environmental pollution in recent years have caused even

the world‘s large chemical companies to intensify their research and development in

the area of new eco-friendly plastics. The cosmetics sector is also moving in the same

direction, testing and perfecting packaging made of bioplastic polymers, above all for their

organic-ecological lines.

With its Mater-Bi brand, Novamont is manufacturing and commercialising a number

of lines of biopolymers which contain vegetable components and conserve the chemical

structure generated by chlorophyll photosynthesis, using oil from specially-selected crops

(such as sunflower and rape seed). Certainly the best-known fields of application for

Mater-Bi are eco carrier bags used to replace traditional shopping bags as well as bags

for the collection of the organic component of wet household waste. But there are many

more bioplastics applications developed by Novamont. Various grades of biopolymers have

been developed which allow a variety of processing techniques and conversion into different

products. The cosmetics sector is promising and demand from clients for these natural lines

is becoming significant, although further testing is needed to determine which grades of

Mater-Bi adapt best to the different areas of this application. Certainly its resistance to fats

and oils make Mater-Bi suitable for containing loose powders or creams.

A few years ago Novamont launched a partnership with Montalto Natura, a world natural

cosmetics leader, to develop the use of Mater-Bi in cosmetics packaging. Montalto Natura

cosmetics, certified by the CCPB, do not contain synthetic colours, silicone, lacquers,

petroleum derivatives, or harmful preservatives. Their raw materials are of vegetable origin

and are not tested on animals, and where they come from the less developed parts of the

world, the company ensures that those involved in their harvesting and processing have

not been unfairly exploited. The addition of low environmental impact packaging which is

healthy to process, as well as completely biodegradabale and compostable, provides an

added value to the product itself. The packaging used for the RosaLuna line of make-up also

has aesthetic properties as least as appealing as those of traditional plastics.

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Beauty & Healthcare

Natural

Floss Picks

Cereplast, Inc., from Hawthorne, California, USA,

recently announced that it will supply DenTek ® , a

leading oral care company from Maryville Tennessee,

USA, with bioplastic resin for its new Natural Floss

Picks, the first biodegradable/compostable floss pick on

the market.

DenTek decided to manufacture its Natural Floss

Picks using Cereplast Compostables ® resin based

on biodegradability/compostability and technical

characteristics. The bio-based resins are formulated from

‘building block’ resins such as PLA from NatureWorks. On

their website, DenTek describes the handle of the dental

floss picks as being made of starches from sustainable

American crops like tapioca, potatoes, and wheat. The

material is just as durable as petroleum-based plastic,

but decomposes in less than 180 days in commercial

composting facilities.

www.dentek.com

www.cereplast.com

“We developed the Natural Floss Pick based on

consumer, customer and employee feedback, as well as

our continuing commitment to creating environmentallyfriendly

oral care products,” said Lex Shankle, VP of

Marketing at DenTek. “Cereplast’s bioresins provided us

with a way to create this first-of-its-kind green floss pick

without sacrificing quality or performance.”

Natural Floss Picks deliver the same high-quality

flossing experience that is expected from DenTek floss

with approximately one-third less waste. The handles are

certified to be 100% compostable by the Biodegradable

Plastics Institute (BPI), and the packaging is made from

100% recyclable material.

Since its inception in 1982, DenTek has focused on

providing innovative oral care products for professionals

and consumers. The company began with the Dental Pik,

and now offers over 25 products designed for health care

professionals and oral health zealots. DenTek’ products go

beyond brushing and provide solutions for flossing, braces

care, teeth grinding, jaw pain and much more.

Biodegradable

Tampon Wrap

Biodegradable and compostable NatureFlex from Innovia Films is widely

used for the wrapping of feminine hygiene products, including digital tampons.

It provides exceptional wrapping machinability due to its combination of high

moisture barrier sealant layer to aid product protection, natural deadfold, wide

heatseal range and static-free properties.

The cellulose-based film can be used together with tear-tapes (including

those manufactured from NatureFlex films) or alternatively it can be ‘scored’ to

provide a ‘tear-tape-free’ easy opening feature.

In addition, NatureFlex film has been tested to the Miti standard (ISO14851)

which confirms it will biodegrade successfully in a waste-water environment.

One of the leading European producers of feminine hygiene products,

TOSAMA has switched to using glossy and transparent NatureFlex NE30 film

to wrap its Viriana range of tampons. Based in Slovenia, TOSAMA says its use

of NatureFlex responds to consumer demand for more eco-friendly packaging

from renewable resources.

www.innoviafilms.com

Virana tampons

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 19


End of Life

End-of-Life:

Recovery Options

Article based on the

FAQ paper on bioplastics [1]

by European Bioplastics e.V.

Fig. 1: Compostable Logos

Fig. 2: Industrial Composting (Photo: Vlaco vzw. Belgium)

Common treatment options for plastic waste are the

recovery routes of incineration (thermal recovery),

mechanical (or physical [2]) recycling, chemical recycling

[2], or the disposal on a landfill. Bioplastics offer in

principle all the recovery options in place for conventional

plastics - plus the additional option of organic recycling.

However it must be kept in mind that bioplastic

applications cover many different products with widely

varying specific compositions and product design. The

choice of the best, i.e. the most ecological and economically

efficient recovery route for bioplastics is dependent

on many factors such as the character of the product,

market volume, existing infrastructure for collection and

recovery, legislation, and last but not least, costs. These

factors can differ greatly from region to region and from

one application to another. A mix of recovery options

will usually be provided by municipalities and/or private

recycling companies, aiming at the most efficient use of

the collected waste as a resource.

Organic Recycling

Organic recycling is for example defined by the EU

Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive 94/62/EC,

amended by 2004/12/EC, as the aerobic treatment

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


End of Life

Fig. 3: Biogasification Plant

(= composting) or anaerobic treatment (= biogasification)

of packaging waste. The EU Directive is based on the

European standard for the industrial compostability of

plastic packaging, EN 13432. This standard is legally

binding in all EU member states, so that claiming

‘compostability’ for a packaging material or a packaging

will be based on proven compliance of the respective item

with EN 13432. Equivalent standards have been approved

for the testing of the compostability of plastics, these are

ISO 17088, EN 14995 and ASTM D-6400.

Whereas ‘aerobic biodegradation’ describes the

microbial transformation of carbon containing material

into CO 2

, H 2

O and biomass, ‘compostability’ is further

defined by a time limitation in line with the requirements

of industrial composting plants (usually 6-12 weeks).

The biodegradation of compostable plastics is dependent

on three main factors: elevated temperature, humidity and

the abundance of microbes. Rapid biodegradation can only

take place if all three criteria are fulfilled simultaneously.

This occurs particularly in professional biowaste treatment

plants.

Composting of bioplastics (aerobic treatment)

Most commercialized bioplastic products are certified

‘compostable’ according to the above mentioned

international standards. Based on third party certification,

logos like the European ‘seedling’ or the BPI ‘compostable’

logo in the U.S.A are awarded to compostable plastic or

paper items (Fig. 1).

When treated in composting plants (Fig. 2), certified

products are converted completely to CO 2

, water and

biomass (as part of the compost product). The resulting

compost can be used as a soil improver and can also

replace mineral fertilizers, at least in part.

Compostable bioplastic products such as waste or

shopping bags can be used to collect organic household

waste in municipalities in many countries. By keeping

the biowaste collection more hygienic and convenient,

such bags contribute to the motivation of consumers

for the separate collection of biowaste. These bags are

highly breathable and allow the evaporation of water from

the organic household waste, so that the weight of the

collected waste decreases (advantage in case of weight

related fees) and the oxygen content increases (better

processability in the composting plant, higher quality of

the compost product).

Studies have shown that using compostable bags for

the biowaste collection contributes to the diversion of

organic waste from landfill. This results in the decrease of

methane emissions from landfill. Separate collection and

recovery of organic (household) waste should be installed

wherever possible.

Catering articles are another example of bioplastic

products exhibiting advantages for waste management,

for example at public events or in cafeterias. Compostable

cups, plates or cutlery can be treated together with

food residues. No separate handling of food waste and

packaging waste is needed and no contamination of

other waste streams (e.g. plastic recycling) occurs when

these products are composted. The same benefit can be

achieved for fruit or vegetables distributed in compostable

packaging - if the food is damaged or expired, the complete

packaging including the goods can be sent to organic

recovery without unpacking.

Biogasification (anaerobic treatment)

In biogasification plants (Fig. 3), methane is produced

from organic substrates. Biowaste is used as an input

material for biogasification plants in an increasing number

of municipalities and in private plants. The process is

attractive because it yields both compost as a product

and also renewable energy: the methane is captured to

produce electricity and heat in power plants.

In most cases the biowaste treatment in anaerobic plants

combines an intial anaerobic phase of approx. 2 – 3 weeks

and a second aerobic phase (‘aftertreatment’) of another

3 – 4 weeks to produce fertile compost. So also those

bioplastics which show only slow biodegradation under

anaerobic conditions, will subsequently be biodegraded in

the second, aerobic phase.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 21


Politics

Fig. 4: Waste incineration plant in Vienna, Austria,

designed by Friedrich Hundertwasser

So-called ‘oxo-degradable plastics’ are not suitable

for organic recovery

So called ‘oxo-degradable plastics’ (i.e.: polyolefines

with metal-containing additives) are sometimes advertised

as being ‘biodegradable’ or even ‘compostable’. Such

claims are misleading if they are not substantiated by

showing compliance with the relevant standards EN

13432, EN 14995, ISO 17088 or ASTMD-6400. These

define the requirements for materials which can be called

‘compostable’. In the case of packaging, such claims

are bound by legal definition to the compliance with EN

13432 in several EU countries. There are no known ‘oxodegradable’

materials in the marketplace which fulfil

either of these standards. Claims of compostability for

such products are therefore wrong and untrustworthy. In

Italy and Australia for example, lawsuits resulted in fines

for using misleading claims in the marketing of such

products.

Thermal Recovery

‘Thermal recovery’ is the term for all exothermic

waste management processes which yield energy and/or

heat. Incineration is the most prominent example. The

high calorific value of bioplastics and the clean product

composition allow all bioplastics to be recovered thermally.

In case the incineration plant (Fig. 4) is equipped with an

energy recovery unit, the energy resulting from burning

renewable resource based bioplastics will be considered

‘greenhouse-gas neutral’.

Mechanical Recycling

Mechanical (or physical) recycling is understood as

the recycling back into plastics. It will only lead to high

quality products when the input material is very pure. This

is the case e.g. for the reprocessing of production waste:

Converters of plastics usually have facilities installed to

recycle the production scraps as a valuable raw material

and feed them back into the production process. Only a

small proportion of the total plastics market is currently

being recycled back into plastics.

Recycling usually becomes much more complicated

when mixed post-consumer plastics waste is used.

The typical situation is that post-consumer plastic

waste collection schemes deliver a mixture of polymer

types (fractions of PE, PP, PVC, PS, PET, etc. including

laminates, compounds, coated products etc.). These

products are often contaminated with various labels, inks,

glues, residues etc., so that the resulting recyclates are of

limited quality.

With rising environmental concerns and during times

of high raw material prices, investments in recycling and

sorting technologies increase. Sorting and pre-treatment

technologies have been improved and now allow the

selection of quite pure plastic waste.

Bioplastics are adding to the variety of plastics on

the market. However, owing to comparably low market

volume, mechanical recycling of bioplastics is currently of

no significance. With growing volumes, it will be possible

to install specific collection, separation and recycling

technologies for bioplastics as well. Solutions can be based

e.g. on the available NIR (near infra-red) technology which

can detect virtually every plastic type, including different

bioplastics. It has been shown that this technology allows

for example the automatic sorting of PLA bottles from PET

bottles [3].

Chemical Recycling

The conversion of plastics back into monomers, which

can then be polymerized to plastics again, is called

chemical recycling [2]

This recovery route can for example be applied to

convert PLA back into lactic acid. It must be noted though,

that due to the so far little amounts of post consumer PLA,

this option cannot be judged so far concerning technical

and economic feasibility.

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


1 2 3

Fig. 5: NIR sorting

(Schematic: Titech)

(Oder ein echtes

NIR-Spektrum)

1

2

3

unsorted material input

scanning and processing

separation chamber

Landfill

Landfilling is not considered a ‘recovery’ option. It

should be seen as a waste of resources and it should be

reduced or terminated wherever possible. Due to the The

European Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC for example the

amount of municipal waste going to landfills has already

been significantly limited in some European countries

and will be further reduced considerably. As waste from

bioplastics represents only a very low share of this waste

(well below 1 %) and as bioplastics market volume will

be growing at the same time as municipal solid waste is

more and more being diverted from landfill, it is expected

that the amount of bioplastics waste going to landfill will

remain extremely low. Landfilling of waste is generally not

considered a ‘solution’, therefore the focus for bioplastics

should firmly be on the development of recovery systems,

either for the biological recovery, incineration with energy

recovery or recycling.

Conclusions

It is and will continue to be the task of all parties involved

in plastics waste management and of governmental

institutions to work out best practice recovery solutions

for both bioplastics and conventional plastics.

It has to be kept in mind that bioplastics have only a very

small share of the current 250 Mton total plastics market

(global). They represent a new material group which can

make use of all the established recovery and recycling

technologies for conventional plastics and moreover offer

the new option of organic recycling.

There is time and opportunity to develop solutions

because bioplastics are still in their infancy with low market

volume. Recycling issues should not lead to hampering

the development of bioplastics. The focus should be on

the establishment of practical solutions for legislation,

communication, sorting and recycling technologies,

amongst other issues.

Most bioplastic products are composted today and do

not interfere with recycling. Composting is and will remain

an important recovery route for many short-life bioplastic

products.

Thermal recovery processes can handle bioplastics

without any problems. Mechanical or chemical recycling

represent promising future options for some bioplastics,

yielding potentially high quality recyclates.

The intention must be to establish eco-efficient

recycling systems by making use of all available recovery

methods according to the particular product, thereby

avoiding negative interference on existing plastic recycling

schemes.

As bioplastics volumes are currently very low, methane

emissions from bioplastics are not a relevant issue.

Anyway, Bioplastics – and much more importantly, organic

food waste - should not end up in landfills. Stopping landfill

of untreated organic waste will decrease the problem

of methane emissions and improve ecology, therefore

many countries worldwide aim at establishing specialized

systems for the separate collection, sorting and treatment

of waste. Bioplastics can contribute to such waste policies

e.g. by enabling consumers to collect their organic waste

separately in compostable bags.

[1] European Bioplastics FAQ paper on bioplastics

http://www.european-bioplastics.org/download.

php?download=Bioplastics_FAQ.pdf

[2] Harper, C.A., Modern Plastics Handbook, McGraw Hill, 1999

[3] Sawyer, D., The Benefits and Issues of Sorting Plastics for

Improved Recycling — With Special Emphasis on PLA (www.

natureworksllc.com)

www.european-bioplastics.org

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 23


Application News

Twinings Teabags

Wrapped in

Compsostable Film

Founded in 1706, Twinings FROM LONDON, UK, offer

high quality teas which are enjoyed today in more than

100 countries around the globe. Recently Twinings chose

Innovia Films’ sustainable and compostable packaging

film, NatureFlex to wrap one of its major tea products,

Everyday. The shift to metallised NatureFlex NM meets

one of Twinings’ aims to use more sustainable packaging

materials, enabling consumers to cut waste.

“As a company we are always looking at ways to lessen

our impact on the environment. By using NatureFlex

film as the inner wrap in this pack, it not only protects the

teabags, but also makes it easier for our customers to

reduce their waste through home composting,” said David

Parkes, Twinings.

NatureFlex offers advantages for packing and converting

such as inherent deadfold and anti-static properties, high

gloss and transparency, resistance to grease and oil, good

barrier to gases and aromas and a wide heat-seal range.

“Having a great deal of experience in working with

NatureFlex over a number of years and being aware of its

green credentials, coupled with excellent machinability and

ease of printing, we were delighted to support Twinings’

move to adopt such sustainable packaging. NatureFlex

is extremely well suited to automated production like flow

wrapping and is also a very easy film to print and convert,”

said Alan Campbell, ASP Packaging Ltd.

“There is a perception in the marketplace that biomaterials

simply cannot deliver the barrier properties required for

dried goods,” said Andy Sweetman, Innovia Films’ Global

Marketing Manager - Sustainable Technologies. “But

technology is constantly moving on and Twinings use of

NatureFlex NM shows that an increasing number of

dried goods applications can be successfully delivered by

NatureFlex films, without compromising on compostability

and renewability characteristics.”

www. twinings.co.uk

www.innoviafilms.com

Lush

Easter

Eggs

Wrapped in

Cellulose Film

Innovia Films’ biodegradable and compostable

packaging film, NatureFlex has been chosen by the

ethical handmade cosmetics company, Lush to wrap its

range of ‘Happy Easter’ gift eggs.

The hollow eggs, available in two varieties (Pink – Candy

Fluff Egg and Yellow – Honey Bee Egg) are made from bath

ballistic mix and contain two Lush products inside. When

the inner products have been used, customers can simply

break off pieces of the outer shell and throw them into the

bathtub for an indulgent fragrant soak. The gift eggs are

wrapped in transparent NatureFlex NE30 film, which

has been converted into sheets by Innovation Packaging

Solutions Ltd.

“Using NatureFlex is yet another way Lush has been

able to make its packaging more sustainable while still

offering sumptuous gift ideas including this alternative to

the traditional chocolate Easter egg,” said Ruth Andrade,

Environmental Officer, Lush.

NatureFlex was an obvious solution for the packaging

as the film begins life as a natural product – wood - and

breaks down in a home compost bin (or industrial compost

environment) within a matter of weeks. It also offers

advantages for packing and converting such as inherent

deadfold and

anti-static properties, high gloss and transparency,

resistance to grease and oil, good barrier to gases and

aromas and a wide heat-seal range.

“Lush prides itself on using the minimum amount of

packaging possible. Where they do need it, we are delighted

that NatureFlex fits their key sustainability requirements;

biodegradable, compostable and from readily renewable

resources. NatureFlex offers ethical manufacturers such

as Lush, the ability to align their packaging message with

the spirit of their product marketing,” said Andy Sweetman,

Global Marketing Manager – Sustainable Technologies.

www.lush.co.uk

wwwinnoviafilms.com

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L P L A S T I C S S H O W C A S E


W E S P E A K Y O U R L A N G U A G E .







international

competition
























produced by


Application News

Compostable

Extruded Net

Tubing

End of last year BioPak from Sydney,

Australia announced the launch of their

BioNet compostable extruded net tubing.

BioNet is manufactured in Australia from

a starch based biopolymer. The material is

certified compostable to European Standard

EN13432 which means that it will break down

into CO 2

, water and biomass in a compost

facility within 180 days.

BioNet took two years to develop. Together

with a local net extrusion company BioPak

trialed a number of different biopolymer

blends until a suitable material was found.

The biopolymer was easily extruded using

existing equipment and produced a net

that met all the functional requirements of

traditional extruded net packaging.

It has excellent tensile strength and can

be used as an effective replacement for

conventional extruded net. Available in a

variety of colours, tube diameters and strand

gauges it meets most specific customer

applications.

The nets can be used for packaging

produce such as oranges, onions or garlic,

for packaging seafood, e.g. Crabs & mussles.

In the horticultural area it can be used for

tree guards or soil binding. Another field

of applications is the protective netting of

industrial gas cylinders.

BioNet is just one product from the BioPak

range of compostable packaging systems.

New Landscape Fabric

The new WeedBlock ® Natural is the world’s first weed control

fabric made with annually renewable resources.

This new non-woven landscape fabric recently introduced to

the market by Easy Gardener Products, Inc.from Waco, Texas,

USA differs from its completely petroleum-based predecessors.

WeedBlock Natural is made from 50% Ingeo ® (PLA) fiber, which

is derived from annually renewable starch-based agricultural

resources like corn. The Ingeo brand represents an upstream

manufacturing process which uses 68% less energy and generates

up to 65% fewer greenhouse gases than petroleum-based

manufacturing.

Eco-friendly WeedBlock Natural allows gardeners to protect

their landscapes from weeds and simultaneously reduce their

environmental footprint at the same time. WeedBlock Natural

keeps weeds out and lets moisture and air in for healthy plant

growth. It is effective for up to seven years when covered with

mulch, bark or stones.

For every 10,000 rolls of WeedBlock Natural used, gardeners will

help decrease oil consumption by 20 barrels.

www.easygardener.com

www.biopak.com.au

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Magnetic

for Plastics

• International Trade

in Raw Materials,

Machinery & Products

Free of Charge

C

• Daily News

from the Industrial Sector

and the Plastics Markets

M

Y

• Current Market Prices

for Plastics.

GoodOnYa BAR

Wrapped in

Compostable Film

Innovia Films’ biodegradable and compostable

flexible material, NatureFlex has been chosen

for a new range of organic, mostly raw nutrition

bars produced in the USA.

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

www.plasticker.com

• Buyer’s Guide

for Plastics & Additives,

Machinery & Equipment,

Subcontractors

and Services.

• Job Market

for Specialists and

Executive Staff in the

Plastics Industry

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional

Based in San Diego, California, the GoodOnYa

concept was founded by former Olympic athlete

Kris Fillat. It began first with the GoodOnYa deli,

offering an alternative to the everyday breakfast

and lunch with an emphasis on locally produced

and organic items. The GoodOnYa bar is a natural

extension of this philosophy, where every ingredient

is carefully chosen for its nutritional value while

considering the health of the environment.

Outlining why the GoodOnYa bar selected

NatureFlex, Kris said: “NatureFlex is certified

biodegradable and compostable and comes

from a sustainable source of wood. We are the

first company in the world to use this for a bar

wrapper. It is cutting edge eco-packaging, which

is shiny and looks great. This is the change our

earth desperately needs.”

The packaging structure for the product is

made from metallised NatureFlex NM laminated

to high gloss transparent NatureFlex NVS film.

NatureFlex NM is a unique cellulose-based

film, manufactured from renewable wood pulp

and metallised in-house to provide a very high

moisture barrier with a transmission rate of less

than 10g/m²/day (38degC, 90% RH). It is this high

barrier that keeps the GoodOnYa bars in premium

condition.

www.thegoodonyabar.com

www.innoviafilms.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 27


Application News

Air-Cushioning Made

of Bio-Film

The air-cushioning system Airplus from Storopack, Metzingen,

Germany, is being extended to include a bio-plastic material quality. The

compostable film is designed to run on all the machines in the series,

giving great variation on the types of applications it is suitable for. The filling

and padding material can be used throughout all service departments,

from small dispatch rooms to the automated distribution centre. The

compostability of Airplus Bio Film is certified according to the European

standard EN 13432. For this reason, the air cushions are marked with the

seedling and the BPI compostable logo ensuring the recipient is aware of

the shipping company’s ethos of sustainability.

At present, this air-cushioning is available in the following sizes, 200 x

200 mm and 200 x 100 mm. It is planned to include further variants from

the portfolio of PE films. The raw material is a biologically degradable

plastic compound based on PLA with a co-polyester. It was developed

by FKuR Kunststoff GmbH, Willich, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer

Institute, Oberhausen, both Germany.

As with polyethylene based films, Storopack co-extrudes the polymer during processing to produce a three-layered structure.

Compared with mono-extruded films, this reduces material consumption, the elasticity is increased and the low permeability

ensures that the air fill does not shrink. Introduction to the market will take place in Europe and North America. Airplus Bio

Film is to be manufactured at the production sites in Wildau (Germany) and Cincinnati (USA).

Storopack emphasises that it wishes to distinguish itself from suppliers marketing so-called ‘oxo-degradable’ films labeled

as ‘bio’-products. These products are usually made of 100% petroleum based polyethylene. This PE is mixed with additives

based on metal compounds to accelerate its degradation. According to European Bioplastics data, some of these additives are

to be classified as hazardous materials according to EU law. For example, the presence of cobalt has been detected.

www.storopack.com

World’s First Fully Compostable Net Bag

www.giropack.com

www.fkur.com

Giró net bag made with FKuR´s Bio-Flex

Giró from Badalona, Spain, launches worldwide first certified complete

compostable net bag. The new net packaging system developed by Giró

comprises 100 % compostable materials certified according to EN 13432 for

net and label.

For the knitted net itself Bio-Flex ® F 1130 and for the label Bio-Flex ® F 2110

of FKuR were selected. “The excellent mechanical properties of Bio-Flex and

the easy processing were convincing factors that made us decide to use these

materials from FKuR”, says Carles Llorens, responsible for Engineering at

Giró. “We are sure that other innovations with these materials will follow.”

Net bags are often used for fresh food & vegetable packaging. Quality

factors are high elongation at break, high stretch elasticity as well as good

printing and welding properties.

Giró is a group of companies that provides state-of-art technology and

systems for the fruit and vegetable packaging industry. Giró is currently

present in more than 50 countries on the 5 continents.

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Radiator End Tank

Made with Renewably

Sourced Plastics

Application News

The plant-derived DuPont Zytel ® 610 nylon resin that debuts

on DENSO Corporation’s new automotive radiator end tank

illustrates the benefits of close collaboration throughout the

value chain and marks the first use of DuPont renewably sourced

plastic in mechanical components exposed to the hot, chemically

aggressive underhood environment.

“The strategy of collaborating throughout the value chain is

critical when cost effectively bringing high-value solutions to

the market,” said Chris Murphy, global accounts director – DuPont Engineering Polymers.

“This development truly illustrates a great way to get from today to tomorrow.”

In this case, DENSO engineering and DuPont R&D embarked on development of a new

material for use in a higher performance radiator end tank that meets auto manufacturers’

needs for sustainable solutions. The new material, developed jointly by DENSO and DuPont

in a proprietary process, contains 40% renewable content by weight derived from the castor

bean plant, and meets requirements for exceptional heat resistance, durability and road

salt resistance – attributes DENSO says were difficult to deliver with many resins containing

a high percentage of plant-derived ingredients.

Production of the part for the global vehicle market begins this spring and DENSO has

announced intentions to use the material in a wide range of products.

www.dupont.com

www.globaldenso.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 29


Application News

Compostable

Extruded Net

Tubing

End of last year BioPak from Sydney,

Australia announced the launch of their

BioNet compostable extruded net tubing.

BioNet is manufactured in Australia from

a starch based biopolymer. The material is

certified compostable to European Standard

EN13432 which means that it will break down

into CO 2

, water and biomass in a compost

facility within 180 days.

BioNet took two years to develop. Together

with a local net extrusion company BioPak

trialed a number of different biopolymer

blends until a suitable material was found.

The biopolymer was easily extruded using

existing equipment and produced a net

that met all the functional requirements of

traditional extruded net packaging.

It has excellent tensile strength and can

be used as an effective replacement for

conventional extruded net. Available in a

variety of colours, tube diameters and strand

gauges it meets most specific customer

applications.

The nets can be used for packaging

produce such as oranges, onions or garlic,

for packaging seafood, e.g. Crabs & mussles.

In the horticultural area it can be used for

tree guards or soil binding. Another field

of applications is the protective netting of

industrial gas cylinders.

BioNet is just one product from the BioPak

range of compostable packaging systems.

New Landscape Fabric

The new WeedBlock ® Natural is the world’s first weed control

fabric made with annually renewable resources.

This new non-woven landscape fabric recently introduced to

the market by Easy Gardener Products, Inc.from Waco, Texas,

USA differs from its completely petroleum-based predecessors.

WeedBlock Natural is made from 50% Ingeo ® (PLA) fiber, which

is derived from annually renewable starch-based agricultural

resources like corn. The Ingeo brand represents an upstream

manufacturing process which uses 68% less energy and generates

up to 65% fewer greenhouse gases than petroleum-based

manufacturing.

Eco-friendly WeedBlock Natural allows gardeners to protect

their landscapes from weeds and simultaneously reduce their

environmental footprint at the same time. WeedBlock Natural

keeps weeds out and lets moisture and air in for healthy plant

growth. It is effective for up to seven years when covered with

mulch, bark or stones.

For every 10,000 rolls of WeedBlock Natural used, gardeners will

help decrease oil consumption by 20 barrels.

www.easygardener.com

www.biopak.com.au

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Magnetic

for Plastics

• International Trade

in Raw Materials,

Machinery & Products

Free of Charge

C

• Daily News

from the Industrial Sector

and the Plastics Markets

M

Y

• Current Market Prices

for Plastics.

GoodOnYa BAR

Wrapped in

Compostable Film

Innovia Films’ biodegradable and compostable

flexible material, NatureFlex has been chosen

for a new range of organic, mostly raw nutrition

bars produced in the USA.

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

www.plasticker.com

• Buyer’s Guide

for Plastics & Additives,

Machinery & Equipment,

Subcontractors

and Services.

• Job Market

for Specialists and

Executive Staff in the

Plastics Industry

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional

Based in San Diego, California, the GoodOnYa

concept was founded by former Olympic athlete

Kris Fillat. It began first with the GoodOnYa deli,

offering an alternative to the everyday breakfast

and lunch with an emphasis on locally produced

and organic items. The GoodOnYa bar is a natural

extension of this philosophy, where every ingredient

is carefully chosen for its nutritional value while

considering the health of the environment.

Outlining why the GoodOnYa bar selected

NatureFlex, Kris said: “NatureFlex is certified

biodegradable and compostable and comes

from a sustainable source of wood. We are the

first company in the world to use this for a bar

wrapper. It is cutting edge eco-packaging, which

is shiny and looks great. This is the change our

earth desperately needs.”

The packaging structure for the product is

made from metallised NatureFlex NM laminated

to high gloss transparent NatureFlex NVS film.

NatureFlex NM is a unique cellulose-based

film, manufactured from renewable wood pulp

and metallised in-house to provide a very high

moisture barrier with a transmission rate of less

than 10g/m²/day (38degC, 90% RH). It is this high

barrier that keeps the GoodOnYa bars in premium

condition.

www.thegoodonyabar.com

www.innoviafilms.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 27


Application News

Air-Cushioning Made

of Bio-Film

The air-cushioning system Airplus from Storopack, Metzingen,

Germany, is being extended to include a bio-plastic material quality. The

compostable film is designed to run on all the machines in the series,

giving great variation on the types of applications it is suitable for. The filling

and padding material can be used throughout all service departments,

from small dispatch rooms to the automated distribution centre. The

compostability of Airplus Bio Film is certified according to the European

standard EN 13432. For this reason, the air cushions are marked with the

seedling and the BPI compostable logo ensuring the recipient is aware of

the shipping company’s ethos of sustainability.

At present, this air-cushioning is available in the following sizes, 200 x

200 mm and 200 x 100 mm. It is planned to include further variants from

the portfolio of PE films. The raw material is a biologically degradable

plastic compound based on PLA with a co-polyester. It was developed

by FKuR Kunststoff GmbH, Willich, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer

Institute, Oberhausen, both Germany.

As with polyethylene based films, Storopack co-extrudes the polymer during processing to produce a three-layered structure.

Compared with mono-extruded films, this reduces material consumption, the elasticity is increased and the low permeability

ensures that the air fill does not shrink. Introduction to the market will take place in Europe and North America. Airplus Bio

Film is to be manufactured at the production sites in Wildau (Germany) and Cincinnati (USA).

Storopack emphasises that it wishes to distinguish itself from suppliers marketing so-called ‘oxo-degradable’ films labeled

as ‘bio’-products. These products are usually made of 100% petroleum based polyethylene. This PE is mixed with additives

based on metal compounds to accelerate its degradation. According to European Bioplastics data, some of these additives are

to be classified as hazardous materials according to EU law. For example, the presence of cobalt has been detected.

www.storopack.com

World’s First Fully Compostable Net Bag

www.giropack.com

www.fkur.com

Giró net bag made with FKuR´s Bio-Flex

Giró from Badalona, Spain, launches worldwide first certified complete

compostable net bag. The new net packaging system developed by Giró

comprises 100 % compostable materials certified according to EN 13432 for

net and label.

For the knitted net itself Bio-Flex ® F 1130 and for the label Bio-Flex ® F 2110

of FKuR were selected. “The excellent mechanical properties of Bio-Flex and

the easy processing were convincing factors that made us decide to use these

materials from FKuR”, says Carles Llorens, responsible for Engineering at

Giró. “We are sure that other innovations with these materials will follow.”

Net bags are often used for fresh food & vegetable packaging. Quality

factors are high elongation at break, high stretch elasticity as well as good

printing and welding properties.

Giró is a group of companies that provides state-of-art technology and

systems for the fruit and vegetable packaging industry. Giró is currently

present in more than 50 countries on the 5 continents.

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Radiator End Tank

Made with Renewably

Sourced Plastics

Application News

The plant-derived DuPont Zytel ® 610 nylon resin that debuts

on DENSO Corporation’s new automotive radiator end tank

illustrates the benefits of close collaboration throughout the

value chain and marks the first use of DuPont renewably sourced

plastic in mechanical components exposed to the hot, chemically

aggressive underhood environment.

“The strategy of collaborating throughout the value chain is

critical when cost effectively bringing high-value solutions to

the market,” said Chris Murphy, global accounts director – DuPont Engineering Polymers.

“This development truly illustrates a great way to get from today to tomorrow.”

In this case, DENSO engineering and DuPont R&D embarked on development of a new

material for use in a higher performance radiator end tank that meets auto manufacturers’

needs for sustainable solutions. The new material, developed jointly by DENSO and DuPont

in a proprietary process, contains 40% renewable content by weight derived from the castor

bean plant, and meets requirements for exceptional heat resistance, durability and road

salt resistance – attributes DENSO says were difficult to deliver with many resins containing

a high percentage of plant-derived ingredients.

Production of the part for the global vehicle market begins this spring and DENSO has

announced intentions to use the material in a wide range of products.

www.dupont.com

www.globaldenso.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 29


From Science & Research

Use of Biopolymers

in Antimicrobial

Food Packaging

The demand for safe, minimally processed, ‘fresh’

food products presents major challenges to the

food-packaging industry to develop packaging concepts

for maintaining the safety and quality of packaged

foods. Recent outbreaks of foodborne pathogens such as

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria

monocytogenes continue to push for innovative ways to

inhibit microbial growth in foods while maintaining quality,

freshness and safety. As an additional hurdle to nonthermal

processes, antimicrobial packaging can play an

important role at reducing the risk of pathogen contamination

of minimally processed foods. Antimicrobial packaging

systems incorporate antimicrobials into the packaging

to prevent microbial growth on the surface of solid

foods and to reduce the need for excessive antimicrobials

in liquid foods. Currently, food application of an antimicrobial

packaging system is limited due to the availability

of suitable antimicrobials, new polymer materials, regulatory

concerns and appropriate testing methods.

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and compostable

polymer well known as suitable for different kind of

packaging of foods such as milk, water, bakery, cheese,

and produce. The special characteristics of PLA, such as

GRAS status (i.e. Generally Recognized As Safe (FDA)),

biodegradability and being a bio-resource put PLA in a

unique position for food applications. Pectin is a water

soluble, hygroscopic polymer. Pectin has been used as a

thickening, coating and encapsulating material. It can be

used as a vehicle to carry and deliver a variety of bioactive

substances. Relatively few studies have been reported on

the use of pectin or PLA, alone or in combination, as a

base packaging material for antimicrobial food packaging.

However, neither PLA nor pectin possess antimicrobial

properties; therefore, a natural antimicrobial called nisin

was combined with the polymers. Nisin is nontoxic, heat

stable and does not contribute to off-flavors. Additionally

it is commercially used in a variety of foods including dairy,

eggs, vegetables, meat, fish, beverages and cereal-based

products.

In this study, an extruded composite food packaging

film containing pectin and polylactic acid polymers was

developed. Nisin was loaded into pectin/PLA and PLA

films by a diffusion coating method post extrusion.

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential

use of these films in antimicrobial food packaging to

inhibit cells of pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes.

Listeria monocytogenes was used as a model in this

study because of recent implications in several fatal

outbreaks of foodborne illness. The presence of L.

monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods is a special

concern for at-risk populations. The USDA has set a

zero tolerance level for L. monocytogenes in ready-toeat

food products. Microbial growth medium (pH 6.9),

orange juice (pH 3.8), and liquid egg white (pH 8.7) were

selected for this study because they represented neutral,

high acid and low acid foods, respectively.

PLA from NatureWorks, pectin and nisin (Nisaplin®)

from Danisco were used in this project. Adding pectin

to PLA slightly reduced film strength but increased film

flexibility. The addition of nisin to films had no effect on

the film thickness or other mechanical properties.

To simulate a test for films used to wrap a solid food,

each film sample was placed on a surface-inoculated

microbial growth agar plate, on which 106 CFU (Colony

Forming Units 1 ) per ml of L. monocytogenes were

seeded. The agar plates were incubated at 37 ºC for

24 h. Zones of inhibition were formed after incubation.

The larger the zone of inhibition indicated higher

antimicrobial activity of the film. Figure 1 indicated that

there was a zone of inhibition formed around a film

sample containing pectin/PLA/nisin. In contrast, there

was no zone of inhibition observed around the film with

PLA/nisin, indicating the PLA film lost nisin during the

coating process. Therefore, pectin played an important

roll at embedding nisin into the film.

When used in a liquid medium, nisin was gradually

released from pectin/PLA films causing an inhibition

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


From Science & Research

Article contributed by

Tony Jin and LinShu Liu

Eastern Regional Research Center,

Agricultural Research Service,

U.S. Department of Agriculture,

Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, USA

of bacteria in the liquid medium. Figure 2 suggested the

inhibitory effect of pectin/PLA film on L. monocyto-genes in

liquid egg white. The cell population of L. mono-cytogenes in

liquid egg white with pectin/PLA+nisin film was reduced from

6.8 log units to 2 log units while the film sample without nisin

remained at 6.5 log units after 48 hours.

When cells of L. monocytogenes were inoculated into

orange juice, the cell populations decreased over 48 hours

of incubation at 24ºC (Figure 3). Pectin/PLA+nisin film

significantly reduced the bacterial populations by 3 to 4 log

units from 8 to 48 hours.

In this study, pectin/PLA films incorporating nisin

showed promise for the inhibition of pathogenic L. monocytogenes

in orange juice or liquid egg. The use of pectin

and PLA in combination with nisin has a great potential in

antimicrobial food packaging to reduce post process growth

of food pathogens. The central idea behind the project was to

develop a biodegradable PLA and/or pectin-based packaging

system that would improve food safety; the incorporation of

antimicrobials in the packaging system would target only at

food borne pathogens and would not affect the biodegradability

of the packaging system under composting conditions. The

use of nisin containing films as packaging materials with

activity against L. monocytogenes for solid foods, such as meat

products, will be published in the Journal of Food Protection.

In addition, the antimicrobial packaging systems with PLA or

pectin in combination with other antimicrobials against other

food borne pathogens will be further explored at the Eastern

Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service,

USDA. The influence of antimicrobials on the biodegradability

of the packaging systems will be investigated. The commercial

applications of the antimicrobial packaging systems will be

evaluated in collaboration with industry partners.

1: After you plate out the milliliter of growth medium (milk, egg

white or the like), the individual bacteria will start to multiply.

Each one will form a colony, or a visible circle on the growth

medium. You can count these, whereas you cannot count the

individual bacteria with the naked eye (source: answers.yahoo.

com).

Fig. 1. Antilisterial activity of films determined by agar

diffusion method. 1. Pectin/PLA film with nisin; 2. Pectin/

PLA film without nisin; 3. PLA film with nisin.

Log Colony Forming Unit per ml

Log Colony Forming Unit Log per Colony ml Forming Unit per ml

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Pectin/PLA

on L. 7 monocytogenes in liquid egg white.

6

5

8

4

7

3

6

2

5

1

4

0

Pectin/PLA

0 8 24 48

Incubation time (hour)

Fig. 2. Inhibitory effect of pectin/PLA+nisin film

3

2

1

0

Pectin/PLA

0 8 24 48

Incubation time (hour)

Pectin/PLA

on L. 7 monocytogenes in orange juice.

Pectin/PLA+Nisin

Pectin/PLA+Nisin

0 8 24 48

Incubation time (hour)

Fig. 3. Inhibitory effect of pectin/PLA+nisin film

Pectin/PLA+Nisin

Pectin/PLA+Nisin

ng Unit per ml

6

5

4

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 31


Opinion

End of Life

for Biodegradable &

kg CO 2

eq.

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

Attributional LCA

Non Compostabel Cutlery

Cutlery

Organic Fraction

LCA ‘Cradle to grave’ results for the ‘GHG’ impact

category of ‘B&C’ cutlery vs. non compostable cutlery

(‘Attributional LCA’) including the treatment phase of

the organic waste (‘Consequential LCA’)

Christian Garaffa,

Project Manager, Waste Management Area

Novamont S.p.A., Novara, Italy

www.novamont.com

Total

Consequential LCA

B&C Cutlery

In our modern consumer society especially for short life cycle

products, their end of life phase becomes a key issue and

providing as many flexible and environmentally friendly recovery

options as possible becomes imperative: products made

of MaterBi ® by Novamont can be recovered through different

ways as they meet the essential requirements of the European

Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste (94/62/EC) and

satisfy the relevant standards EN 13430 (recycling), EN 13431

(energy recovery), EN 13432 (organic recovery).

Organic Recovery

When organic recovery is considered, we are talking about

the treatment of organic waste sent to composting alone or

preceded by an anaerobic digestion stage with subsequent

aerobic stabilization of the digestate and final production

of a quality amendant suitable for soil improvement or peat

replacement in agriculture and horticulture.

In this context, the goal of biodegradable & compostable

plastic products is to replace conventional plastic contaminants

and improve the quality of the organic waste turning it into a

homogeneous feedstock. Classic examples for such products

are biowaste bags, shopping bags or products used in the

agricultural sector like clips, pots etc.

On the other hand, biodegradable & compostable plastics can

play a key role where products get usually heavily contaminated

by organic waste (e.g. food service ware, food packaging waste,

unopened packaging containing expired food). Mechanical

recycling and incineration (where available) are difficult due to

the wet organic contamination.

In order to better understand the benefits related to

biodegradable & compostable products, we need to broaden

the focus from the single item to the larger system where

this item is operating. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is often

used for direct comparisons between products, without really

considering the indirect effects on the surrounding systems.

This ‘product vs. product’ approach is called ‘Attributional

LCA’. However, there is a high risk to overlook indirect impacts

that could be stronger compared to direct ones. In order to

avoid misleading conclusions it is essential for these hidden

impacts to be taken into account. This ‘product into the system’

approach is called ‘Consequential LCA’. The main benefits of

biodegradable & compostable products emerge when the

increased environmental performance of the system where

they operate is analyzed. This is clearly shown in the study

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Opinion

Options

Compostable Biopolymers

‘Compostable cutlery and waste management: An

LCA approach’ by Razza et al. . The graph shows the

greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions ‘Cradle to grave‘ for

non compostable cutlery (dark green bars) compared to

biodegradable & compostable cutlery (B&C) according

to the described end of life scenarios. These results

relate to the ‘Attributional LCA” taking into account

only the impacts directly attributed to the cutlery. The

light green bars represent the CO 2

eq. emissions of the

organic waste generated after meal consumption, while

the blue bars show the overall LCA results (cutlery +

organic waste) related to the ‘Consequential LCA”. The

difference between the two approaches is striking.

Final remarks

MaterBi products satisfy the requirements set by the

relevant standards EN 13430 (recycling), EN 13431 (energy

recovery), EN 13432 (organic recovery).

In situations where mechanical recycling or energy

recovery show low efficiency due to high contamination with

wet food residues, organic recovery is the most sensible

choice. In order understand the full potential of this option,

a systemic analysis taking into account not only the product

but also the surrounding system (Consequential LCA)

represents the best approach, unearthing possible hidden

impacts and clearly showing the real benefits generated by

the use of biodegradable & compostable products.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 33


Basics

Industrial

Picture 1: Household biowaste as delivered to the

composting plant

Picture 2: Manual sorting station

MT - When talking about end-of-life recovery options

‘industrial composting’ is a term that is mentioned again and

again. Now, what exactly is ‘industrial composting’ and how

do the operators of such industrial composting facilities feel

about biodegradable plastics in their input-streams? In order

to find some answers to these questions bioplastics MAGAZINE

visited two industrial composting plants and spoke to the

operators. One of the plants is located in Moerdijk, in the

Netherlands. It has an annual capacity of 100,000 tonnes

and is one of 22 facilities in the Netherlands for household

biowaste. The total capacity of the more than 100 plants for

composting biowaste from households and public gardens is

2.5 million tonnes/a in the Netherlands. The other composting

plant that we visited is in Dortmund, Germany, and has an

annual capacity of 24,000 tonnes.

First of all it should be mentioned that for example in the

Netherlands about 50% of all municipal waste is biogenic

material, as Tim Brethouwer of the Essent Milieu composting

plant in Moerdijk points out. In practice about 35 % is collected

separately (1.5 million tonnes of household biowaste).

In a large number of countries this biogenic waste,

consisting of lawn cuttings and leaves, as well as kitchen

waste such as potato peelings or in some cases even food

leftovers, is collected and transported to composting facilities.

Picture 1 shows a pile of such biowaste. “You see, even if

people are asked to put their biowaste only in biodegradable

bags there are a lot of conventional bags in the heap”, says

Ludger Lammers of the Dortmund composting plant. Tim

Brethouwer explains that the incoming waste consists of 60%

water, 20% sand or soil and 20% of biodegradable material

(plus the plastic, metal cans and other impurities).

In both plants that were visited, this so called bio-waste is

screened, as a first stage, using an 80mm (or, as in Moerdijk,

150 mm) sieve. The smaller fraction, after passing a metal

detector, can go to the next stage right away. In Dortmund the

bigger parts, for example plastic bags filled with biowaste, go

to a manual sorting station. The staff in Dortmund are well

trained, as Mr. Lammers explains, so they can recognize the

‘Seedling’ logo (picture 2). Such bags can pass to the next

stage. All other bags are torn apart, the biowaste is fed into the

system and the empty bags dumped in a bin to be compressed

and taken for incineration. Mr. Lammers emphasized that the

staff in Dortmund are well educated and there is not a high staff

turnover. “Our people work on the manual sorting today and

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Basics

Composting

tomorrow they drive the wheel loader. Then perhaps they work

in the office, helping customers. The wheel loader (picture 3)

is equipped with a perfect air conditioning, particle filter,

noise reduction and even a CD player. “30% of the investment

in such a wheel loader is for the safety of our workers,” he

proudly points out.

Picture 3: Wheel loader

Next, the sieved and sorted biowaste is tumbled in a huge

drum for about an hour to homogenize the waste in terms of

size and moisture. After this stage the material is left in the

rotting hall (picture 4). While in Moerdijk the rotting phase

is about 3 weeks, the Dortmund facility allows 6 weeks for

biodegradation. As this kind of composting is also called

aerobic biodegradation, it is important to constantly aerate

the windrows. In the Dutch plant fresh air is blown through the

windrows through perforated pipes in a bed of stones while

in Germany air is sucked from the top through a multitude of

holes in the concrete floor. In order to assist good aeration

and to constantly mix the maturing compost in Dortmund

a big screw (Picture 5) moves down the rows of material,

turning them as it goes. In Moerdijk a big turningwheel is

used for homogenizing and mixing.

The necessary temperature of about 58-60°C is reached

automatically by the action of the microorganisms when

assimilationg the biowaste as a food or energy source, thereby

producing CO 2

, water and biomass. The flow of air is used to

control the temperature. Tim Brethouwer said that the heat

in the piles could sometimes reach 90°C, so that by blowing

more or less air through the compost the temperature is

kept constant at around 60°C. This temperature is enough to

kill pathogens as well as weed seeds, as Ludger Lammers

pointed out.

In both plants the fetid air is led though a big biofilter

(picture 6), consisting of a thick bed of special burl wood that

has been mechanically treated to become fibrous. The air

exiting this biofilter is clean and no longer smells.

The humidity in the windrows is also measured and controlled

by irrigating the whole system with a mix from collected

rainwater, the water that drains through the perforated floor,

and the water that comes from the biowaste. “All natural,

or a complete closed-loop,” says Ludger Lammers. Tim

Brethouwer explains that about 120 m³ of water is extracted

from the biowaste per day. And around 4-4.5 tonnes per hour

of water is sprayed back onto the windrows.

Picture 4: Rotting hall

Picture 5: Aeration screw

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 35


Basics

Picture 6: Burl wood biofilter for exhaust air

After the composting phase the mature compost is screened

again, and different fractions with different average particle sizes

are sacked or otherwise packed for different purposes. In Moerdijk

from a first 40mm fraction heavy particles such as stones or

glass are gravimetrically separated. The rest is then once again

sieved to a fraction smaller than 15mm as a high quality compost

(picture 7) which is sold to farmers (80-90%) or garden owners

(10-20%) as soil conditioner, fertilizer or a substitute for peat.

The 15-40 mm fraction is sold to a special incineration plant in

Germany as ‘clean biomass for incineration’. This fraction may

even contain up to 3% plastic waste. The residual bigger plastic

waste pieces after screening are again collected and disposed

of to a waste incineration plant. Tim Brethouwer is happy that

in Moerdijk there is such an incineration plant right next door.

This saves the trouble of transporting the material. “Before we

could bring the ‘clean biomass’ to that special incineration plant

we recycled the 15-40mm fraction into the process to compost it

again for a further 3 weeks,” said Mr. Brethouwer.

When asked whether the operators of industrial composting

plants like or dislike biodegradable plastics in their incoming

feedstock Tim Brethouwer said: “We don’t have a problem

with bioplastics. We accept biodegradable plastics but we

don’t seize them”. Mr. Lammers said “We appreciate the use

of biodegradable bags for the collection of biowaste instead of

traditional plastic bags. If everybody would use this kind of bag

we would not no longer need manual sorting.” Dr. Hubert Seier,

technical controller of the plant in Dortmund added: “However,

I’d like to point out that we accept biodegradable plastic bags BUT

... ,” and he explained that educating the public is an important

subject. Mrs. Smith, let‘s say, puts a biodegradable bag, with her

kitchen waste, into the bio-bin and her neighbour watches her

from behind the curtain. Then the neighbour puts plastic bags

in the bio-bin, not caring whether they are biodegradable or not.

This must not happen.

Picture 7: This handful or high quality compost contains

more microorganisms than the number of people on earth

When talking about the different end of life options, Tim

Brethouwer points out that (at least in the Netherlands)

composting with costs of about 35 EUR/tonne is cheaper than

incineration where 100 EUR/ tonne have to be paid. The most

expensive solution is landfill. Here in addition to 85 EUR tax per

tonne an additional gate fee of 20-30 EUR has to be paid. And

from a CO 2

point of view he considers composting as the better

alternative as composting locks CO 2

in the soil and releases it to

the atmosphere only very slowly. About 10% of the CO 2

is still in

the soil after 100 years, he explains.

As one of the solutions with the best future prospects Tim

Brethouwer sees the combination of anaerobic digestion

(biogasification) and subsequent aerobic composting. Here three

products will be produced: biogas that can be converted into or

mixed with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum

gas (LPG) a fuel that is very popular with a large number of Dutch

car owners. The second product is compost and the third is the

‘clean biomass for incineration’ mentioned above.

www.entsorgung-dortmund.de

www.essentmilieu.nl

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Pland Paper ® ( PLA and Paper )

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Environmental Materials Division TEL: +886-2-27953131 ext. 142


Basics

The Added

Article contributed by

Jöran Reske

Vice Chairman of

European Bioplastics e.V.

Bio-Plastics represent a new group of materials in the

big family of plastics. The term is used for polymers

that offer the new properties of being biodegradable

in certain environments and/or coming from renewable resources.

The term ‘Bio-plastics’ is not really accurate, because

it is used for both of these (different) characteristics. Preferably

we should speak of ‘biodegradable plastics’ and of ‘bio-based

plastics’. Standards and certification systems serve to characterise

these features, which are unique to ‘Bio-plastics’ as a

new group of materials. Fig. 1 gives an overview of the interrelations

of the two aspects.

Biodegradability and Compostability are well

defined by standards and certification

Especially concerning biodegradability and, more precisely

‘compostability’, standards such as for example ISO 17088,

EN 13432, EN 14995 and ASTM D-6400 have been developed.

Testing according to these standards provides evidence that the

respective material or product will biodegrade in a composting

plant, without residues or harmful influences on either the

process or the composted product. In order to verify and trace

the compostability of end products, certification systems have

been established e.g. by Din Certco and Vincotte in Europe, BPI

in the US and JBPA in Japan. The respective ‘Seedling’ (EU), BPI

and JBPA logos are being used for labelling and communicating

such qualified products (for background information, please

see the article by Prof. Narayan in bM 1/12009, pp. 28 – 31).

Further information:

www.astm.org

www.bpiworld.org

www.cen.eu

www.dincertco.de

www.european-bioplastics.org

www.iso.org

www.jbpaweb.net

www.vincotte.be

‘Bio-Plastics’ are:

• Compostable according to the relevant standards:

EN 13432, EN 14995; ISO 17088; ASTM D-6400

OR (and)

• Made - at least in parts – from

Renewable Raw Materials: ‘bio-based’

Bioplastics

biodegradable plastics

bio-based plastics

Fig. 1: Interrelations of the two aspects of

‘biodegradability’ and ‘bio-based origin’

fossil

resources

compostable

blends of

renewable

a.o. resources

renewable

resources

blends of

renewable

a.o. resources

non biodegradable

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Basics

Value of ‘Bio-Plastics’

Considerations of the two aspects - „biodegradability“ and „bio-based origin“

The bio-based content can be quantified

using C 14 analysis

In contrast to the well regulated area of biodegradability

and compostability testing and certification, such

regulation is only in its infancy concerning the aspect of

bio-based content of materials or products. An important

achievement has been the development of ASTM D-

6866, an international standard describing test methods

for the quantification of bio-based carbon content -

namely by analysing the content of the carbon isotope

C 14 and subsequently calculating the amount of carbon

originating from renewable resources (i.e. ‘bio-based’) on

the basis of the ratio of the isotopes C 14 and C 12 . A similar

specification has been developed in Europe for the field of

‘Solid Recovered Fuels’: CEN TS 15747. Close cooperation

between the American and the European experts has

ensured that the basic definitions and contents of

these norms are almost identical. Based on this expert

cooperation, there are now efforts ongoing in Europe to

compile a standard for the determination of the bio-based

content of biopolymers. This work is performed within the

standardization committee CEN TC 249 WG 17.

Governmental programmes for the support

of bio-based products

Based on the analysis of the bio-based carbon content,

support programmes for the market introduction of

such products have been established in the U.S. (the

‘BioPreferred’ programme of USDA), and in Japan

(the Biotechnology Strategy and the Green Purchasing

Law). Europe started an initiative in 2008, known as the

‘Lead Market Initiative on bio-based products’. With this

programme the EU Commission aims at harmonizing all

of the legislation which is relevant to bio-based products.

Further instruments, such as for example dedicated

standards, certification and, potentially, labelling, are

intended for the definition, communication and support of

the product group. As in the U.S. and Japan, in the EU public

procurement is also seen as one promising approach for

increasing the demand for bio-based products. Industry

has been invited to contribute to the development of the

Lead Market Initiative by proposing concepts through an

advisory group and several subgroups (on Legislation,

on Standards and on ‘Supportive Instruments’). Many

activities have been focused recently on the development

of standards for the determination of bio-based content,

as for example the above mentioned activities within CEN.

The approval of such standards will add a fundamental

piece to legal support programmes, as the new product

group becomes more tangible. The standards will also

provide a cornerstone for certification programmes

dedicated to the biobased (carbon) content of materials

and products.

Bio-based content certification needs a

common and harmonized set of criteria

Based on the standards for the determination of biobased

(carbon) content, the development of producerindependent

certification systems will be a further very

important contribution to market development. Only

if claims such as “This product contains x % bio-based

carbon“ can be substantiated on the basis of standardized

determination, as well as independent verification

and tracing in the market place, will those products be

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 39


Basics

regarded as trustworthy, and legislators will consequently

be able to award them support. Also, reliable third party

certification will be a necessary precondition for including

the ‘bio-based content’ in systems for displaying the

environmental parameters of products, such as packaging,

in their labelling.

When developing such certification, industry will want

to strive for a common set of criteria, so that bio-based

products will be defined in a consistent and transparent

way, thus avoiding confusion or even doubts about the

products and their qualities. Clearly, a situation should

be avoided such as the one that evolved in the CO 2

(or

carbon footprint) labelling – where a multitude of different

programmes and labels only serve to confuse the public,

and authorities cannot identify particular concepts worth

supporting by way of legal instruments. The diversity of

CO 2

labels also seems to undermine cooperation along

the product value chain, as partners are not sure about

which programme to choose. One consequence of such

uncertainty is the loss of impact of these concepts, both at

the (end) consumer and at the political level. So, one of the

main goals for all parties interested in the concept of ‘biobased

products’ should be open and reliable cooperation

during development and implementation of the respective

standards and certification system. Equally important,

a close dialogue with the relevant authorities should be

sought.

Industry has come together for coordination and

harmonization of bio-based certification

Based on an initiative of the European Bioplastics

association, some of the most relevant stakeholder groups

in the field of bio-based products have established an

‘Industrial Task Force on Bio-based Content Certification’.

This group aims at finding consensus on the conditions and

criteria for such certification. Providing a well balanced and

broadly agreed set of criteria will be a precondition for the

communication of ‘bio-based products’ as an independent

group of innovative products in the market place. The

cooperation of industry and certifiers will provide trust and

reliability in the certification, so that it can also be offered

to the authorities as a fair and appropriate tool for defining

this new product group within legal programmes - similar

to the well-established compostability certification, which

currently serves as a definition of particular, privileged

products in, e.g., Belgian, Dutch and German legal

provisions.

Conclusion

Whereas standards and certification systems for the

determination and verification of biodegradability and

compostability have been established and provide a proven

track record of several years, the verification and tracing

of the bio-based content, especially based on independent

certification, has so far not been implemented. Dialogue

between the core stakeholder groups will help to achieve

harmonized criteria for such certification, so that certifiers

throughout Europe and beyond can deliver their service

to the users and can ensure that certification will best

serve the products in the market place. Such coordinated

certification systems could provide a reliable and strong

basis for the consideration of bio-based products for

national or multi-national legislation.

Maria, our covergirl tries to use nature based

cosmetics whenever she can afford it.

“Now the cases and even the lipstick

mechanics are made from nature based

plastics too? Cool ! May I keep these?”

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Events

Event Calender

April 15 , 2009

Biokunststoffe, (Bio)Kunststoff/Natur-Composites -

Aufbereitung, Verarbeitung

Seminar Kunststoff-Zentrum in Leipzig gGmbH

Leipzig, Germany

www.kuz-leipzig.de

April 23 , 2009

Bioplastics Processing and Properties

Loughborough University, UK

www.soci.org/SCI/events/details.jsp?eventID=EV1297

September 14-16, 2009

2 nd PLA Bottle Conference

hosted by bioplastics MAGAZINE

within the framework of drinktec

Munich / Germany

www.pla-bottle-conference.com

May 21-22, 2009

3rd Bioplastics Market

Grand Royal Hotel - Grand Ballroom / Guangzhou / China

www.cmtevents.com

June 3-4, 2009

Bioplastic Asia 2009

at 5-star hotel in Bangkok, Thailand

www.abf-asia.com

June 22-26, 2009

NPE2009: The International Plastics Showcase

McCormick Place

Chicago, Illinois USA

www.npe.org

September 9-10, 2009

7th Int. Symposium „Materials made

of Renewable Resources“

Messe Erfurt

Erfurt / Germany

www.narotech.de

September 28-30, 2009

Biopolymers Symposium 2009

Embassy Suites, Lakefront - Chicago Downtown

Chicago, Illinois USA

www.biopolymersummit.com

October 26-27, 2009

Biowerkstoff Kongress 2009

ithin framework of AVK and COMPOSITES EUROPE

Neue Messe Stuttgart, Germany

www.biowerkstoff-kongress.de

November 10-11, 2009

4th European Bioplastics Conference

Ritz Carlton Hotel,

Berlin, Germany

www.european-bioplastics.org

December 2-3, 2009

Dritter Deutscher WPC-Kongress

Maritim Hotel, Cologne, Germany

www.wpc-kongress.de

You can meet us!

Please contact us in advance by e-mail.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 41


Basics

Glossary

In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again

the same expressions appear that some of our

readers might (not yet) be familiar with. This

glossary shall help with these terms and shall

help avoid repeated explanations such as ‘PLA

(Polylactide)‘ in various articles.

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics

e.V.) is a term used to define two different

kinds of plastics:

a. Plastics based on renewable resources (the

focus is the origin of the raw material used)

b. à Biodegradable and compostable plastics

according to EN13432 or similar standards

(the focus is the compostability of the final

product; biodegradable and compostable

plastics can be based on renewable (biobased)

and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources).

Bioplastics may be

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;

- based on renewable resources but not be

biodegradable; and

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch

molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer,

monomer is à Glucose).

Amyloseacetat | Linear polymeric glucosechains

are called à amylose. If this compound

is treated with ethan acid one product

is amylacetat. The hydroxyl group is connected

with the organic acid fragment.

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,

monomer is à Glucose).

Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable

Plastics are plastics that are completely assimilated

by the à microorganisms present a

defined environment as food for their energy.

The carbon of the plastic must completely be

converted into CO 2 during the microbial process.

For an official definition, please refer to

the standards e.g. ISO or in Europe: EN 14995

Plastics- Evaluation of compostability - Test

scheme and specifications. [bM 02/2006 p.

34f, bM 01/2007 p38].

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly

distributed base polymers.

Carbon neutral | Carbon neutral describes a

process that has a negligible impact on total

atmospheric CO 2 levels. For example, carbon

neutrality means that any CO 2 released when

a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset by an

equal amount of CO 2 absorbed by the plant

through photosynthesis when it is growing.

Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of à cellulose.

Cellulose | Polymeric molecule with very high

molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is

à Glucose), industrial production from wood

or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and

fibres.

Compost | A soil conditioning material of

decomposing organic matter which provides

nutrients and enhances soil structure.

(bM 06/2008, 02/2009)

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are biodegradable

under ‘composting’ conditions:

specified humidity, temperature, à microorganisms

and timefame. Several national

and international standards exist for clearer

definitions, for example EN 14995 Plastics

- Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme

and specifications [bM 02/2006 p. 34f, bM

01/2007 p38].

Composting | A solid waste management

technique that uses natural process to convert

organic materials to CO 2 , water and humus

through the action of à microorganisms

[bM 03/2007].

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different

monomers.

Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system

boundaries of an environmental àLife Cycle

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities

from the ‘cradle’ (i.e., the extraction of raw

materials, agricultural activities and forestry)

up to the factory gate

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated

as C2C): Is an expression which communicates

the concept of a closed-cycle economy,

in which waste is used as raw material (‘waste

equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term

that is typically used in àLCA studies.

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system

boundaries of a full àLife Cycle Assessment

from manufacture (‘cradle’) to use phase and

disposal phase (‘grave’).

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled

by à microorganisms or enyzmes (e.g.

the transformation of sugar into lactic acid).

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,

colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless

and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside

animals‘ connective tissue.

Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar).

G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar)

in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or

hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.

Humus | In agriculture, ‘humus’ is often used

simply to mean mature à compost, or natural

compost extracted from a forest or other

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.

Hydrophilic | Property: ‘water-friendly’, soluble

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used

in conjunction with a plastic which is not waterresistant

and weatherproof or that absorbs

water such as Polyamide (PA).

Hydrophobic | Property: ‘water-resistant’, not

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is waterresistant

and weatherproof, or that does not

absorb any water such as Polethylene (PE) or

Polypropylene (PP).

LCA | Life Cycle Assessment (sometimes also

referred to as life cycle analysis, ecobalance,

and àcradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation

and valuation of the environmental

impacts of a given product or service caused

(bM 01/2009).

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


Basics

Readers who know better explanations or who

would like to suggest other explanations to be

added to the list, please contact the editor.

[*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article

previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic

size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast.

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil

based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as

a blend component.

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters

produced in nature by bacterial fermentation

of sugar or lipids. The most common

type of PHA is à PHB.

PHB | Polyhydroxyl buteric acid (better poly-

3-hydroxybutyrate), is a polyhydroxyalkanoate

(PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters

class. PHB is produced by micro-organisms

apparently in response to conditions of physiological

stress. The polymer is primarily a

product of carbon assimilation (from glucose

or starch) and is employed by micro-organisms

as a form of energy storage molecule to

be metabolized when other common energy

sources are not available. PHB has properties

similar to those of PP, however it is stiffer and

more brittle.

PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA) is

a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic

polyester from lactic acid. Lactic acid is made

from dextrose by fermentation. Bacterial fermentation

is used to produce lactic acid from

corn starch, cane sugar or other sources.

However, lactic acid cannot be directly polymerized

to a useful product, because each polymerization

reaction generates one molecule

of water, the presence of which degrades the

forming polymer chain to the point that only

very low molecular weights are observed.

Instead, lactic acid is oligomerized and then

catalytically dimerized to make the cyclic lactide

monomer. Although dimerization also

generates water, it can be separated prior to

polymerization. PLA of high molecular weight

is produced from the lactide monomer by

ring-opening polymerization using a catalyst.

This mechanism does not generate additional

water, and hence, a wide range of molecular

weights are accessible (bM 01/2009).

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or

carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family.

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar

units. For example, there are known mono-,

di- and polysaccharose. à glucose is a monosaccarin.

They are important for the diet and

produced biology in plants.

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction

of glucose changing the aldehyde group

to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as a

plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting

of à amylose and à amylopectin,

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca

etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains

in definite way the result (product) is

called starch. Each molecule is based on 300

-12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection,

there are two types à amylose and

à amylopectin known.

Starch (-derivate) | Starch (-derivates) are

based on the chemical structure of à starch.

The chemical structure can be changed by

introducing new functional groups without

changing the à starch polymer. The product

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the

hydrophilic character is not the same.

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When

every hydroxyl group is connect with ethan

acid one product is starch-ester with different

chemical properties.

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can

be synthesised by treating the à starch with

propane or butanic acid. The product structure

is still based on à starch. Every based à

glucose fragment is connected with a propionate

or butyrate ester group. The product is

more hydrophobic than à starch.

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best

outcomes for the human and natural environments

both now and into the indefinite future.

One of the most often cited definitions of sustainability

is the one created by the Brundtland

Commission, led by the former Norwegian

Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The

Brundtland Commission defined sustainable

development as development that ‘meets the

needs of the present without compromising

the ability of future generations to meet their

own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the continuity

of economic, social, institutional and

environmental aspects of human society, as

well as the non-human environment).

Sustainability | (as defined by European

Bioplastics e.V.) has three dimensions: economic,

social and environmental. This has

been known as “the triple bottom line of

sustainability”. This means that sustainable

development involves the simultaneous pursuit

of economic prosperity, environmental

protection and social equity. In other words,

businesses have to expand their responsibility

to include these environmental and social

dimensions. Sustainability is about making

products useful to markets and, at the same

time, having societal benefits and lower environmental

impact than the alternatives currently

available. It also implies a commitment

to continuous improvement that should result

in a further reduction of the environmental

footprint of today’s products, processes and

raw materials used.

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or

melt when heated and solidify when cooled

(solid at room temperature).

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,

garden residue.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 43


10

Suppliers Guide

1.3 PLA

1.6 masterbatches

3.1.1 cellulose based films

1. Raw Materials

20

30

40

50

60

BASF SE

Global Business Management

Biodegradable Polymers

Carl-Bosch-Str. 38

67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany

Tel. +49-621 60 43 878

Fax +49-621 60 21 694

plas.com@basf.com

www.ecovio.com

www.basf.com/ecoflex

Division of A&O FilmPAC Ltd

7 Osier Way, Warrington Road

GB-Olney/Bucks.

MK46 5FP

Tel.: +44 1234 88 88 61

Fax: +44 1234 888 940

sales@aandofilmpac.com

www.bioresins.eu

1.4 starch-based bioplastics

PolyOne

Avenue Melville Wilson, 2

Zoning de la Fagne

5330 Assesse

Belgium

Tel. + 32 83 660 211

info.color@polyone.com

www.polyone.com

INNOVIA FILMS LTD

Wigton

Cumbria CA7 9BG

England

Contact: Andy Sweetman

Tel. +44 16973 41549

Fax +44 16973 41452

andy.sweetman@innoviafilms.com

www.innoviafilms.com

4. Bioplastics products

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

1.1 bio based monomers

Du Pont de Nemours International S.A.

2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50

CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex,

Geneva, Switzerland

Tel. + 41 22 717 5428

Fax + 41 22 717 5500

jonathan.v.cohen@che.dupont.com

www.packaging.dupont.com

1.2 compounds

BIOTEC Biologische

Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG

Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32

46446 Emmerich

Germany

Tel. +49 2822 92510

Fax +49 2822 51840

info@biotec.de

www.biotec.de

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH

Siemensring 79

D - 47 877 Willich

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51

sales@fkur.com

www.fkur.com

Transmare Compounding B.V.

Ringweg 7, 6045 JL

Roermond, The Netherlands

Tel. +31 475 345 900

Fax +31 475 345 910

info@transmare.nl

www.compounding.nl

BIOTEC Biologische

Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG

Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32

46446 Emmerich

Germany

Tel. +49 2822 92510

Fax +49 2822 51840

info@biotec.de

www.biotec.de

Plantic Technologies Limited

51 Burns Road

Altona VIC 3018 Australia

Tel. +61 3 9353 7900

Fax +61 3 9353 7901

info@plantic.com.au

www.plantic.com.au

1.5 PHA

Telles, Metabolix – ADM joint venture

650 Suffolk Street, Suite 100

Lowell, MA 01854 USA

Tel. +1-97 85 13 18 00

Fax +1-97 85 13 18 86

www.mirelplastics.com

Tianan Biologic

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com

www.tianan-enmat.com

Sukano Products Ltd.

Chaltenbodenstrasse 23

CH-8834 Schindellegi

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77

Fax +41 44 787 57 78

www.sukano.com

2. Additives /

Secondary raw materials

Du Pont de Nemours International S.A.

2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50

CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex,

Geneva, Switzerland

Tel. + 41(0) 22 717 5428

Fax + 41(0) 22 717 5500

jonathan.v.cohen@che.dupont.com

www.packaging.dupont.com

3. Semi finished products

3.1 films

Huhtamaki Forchheim

Herr Manfred Huberth

Zweibrückenstraße 15-25

91301 Forchheim

Tel. +49-9191 81305

Fax +49-9191 81244

Mobil +49-171 2439574

Maag GmbH

Leckingser Straße 12

58640 Iserlohn

Germany

Tel. + 49 2371 9779-30

Fax + 49 2371 9779-97

shonke@maag.de

www.maag.de

www.earthfirstpla.com

www.sidaplax.com

www.plasticsuppliers.com

Sidaplax UK : +44 (1) 604 76 66 99

Sidaplax Belgium: +32 9 210 80 10

Plastic Suppliers: +1 866 378 4178

alesco GmbH & Co. KG

Schönthaler Str. 55-59

D-52379 Langerwehe

Sales Germany: +49 2423 402 110

Sales Belgium: +32 9 2260 165

Sales Netherlands: +31 20 5037 710

info@alesco.net | www.alesco.net

Arkhe Will Co., Ltd.

19-1-5 Imaichi-cho, Fukui

918-8152 Fukui, Japan

Tel. +81-776 38 46 11

Fax +81-776 38 46 17

contactus@ecogooz.com

www.ecogooz.com

Forapack S.r.l

Via Sodero, 43

66030 Poggiofi orito (Ch), Italy

Tel. +39-08 71 93 03 25

Fax +39-08 71 93 03 26

info@forapack.it

www.forapack.it

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.

Esmy Huang, Marketing Manager

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,

Taichung County

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888

Fax +883(4)2277 6989

Mobil +886(0)982-829988

esmy325@ms51.hinet.net

Skype esmy325

www.minima-tech.com

natura Verpackungs GmbH

Industriestr. 55 - 57

48432 Rheine

Tel. +49 5975 303-57

Fax +49 5975 303-42

info@naturapackaging.com

www.naturapackagign.com

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


10. Institutions

Suppliers Guide

NOVAMONT S.p.A.

Via Fauser , 8

28100 Novara - ITALIA

Fax +39.0321.699.601

Tel. +39.0321.699.611

Info@novamont.com

Pland Paper ®

WEI MON INDUSTRY CO., LTD.

2F, No.57, Singjhong Rd.,

Neihu District,

Taipei City 114, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Tel. + 886 - 2 - 27953131

Fax + 886 - 2 - 27919966

sales@weimon.com.tw

www.plandpaper.com

Wiedmer AG - PLASTIC SOLUTIONS

8752 Näfels - Am Linthli 2

SWITZERLAND

Tel. +41 55 618 44 99

Fax +41 55 618 44 98

www.wiedmer-plastic.com

6. Machinery & Molds

FAS Converting Machinery AB

O Zinkgatan 1/ Box 1503

27100 Ystad, Sweden

Tel.: +46 411 69260

www.fasconverting.com

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey

Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic

Container Industry

284 Pinebush Road

Cambridge Ontario

Canada N1T 1Z6

Tel. +1 519 624 9720

Fax +1 519 624 9721

info@hallink.com

www.hallink.com

MANN+HUMMEL ProTec GmbH

Stubenwald-Allee 9

64625 Bensheim, Deutschland

Tel. +49 6251 77061 0

Fax +49 6251 77061 510

info@mh-protec.com

www.mh-protec.com

7. Plant engineering

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH

Holzhauser Str. 157 - 159

13509 Berlin

Germany

Tel. +49 (0)30 43567 5

Fax +49 (0)30 43567 699

sales.de@thyssenkrupp.com

www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com

8. Ancillary equipment

9. Services

Bioplastics Consulting

Tel. +49 2161 664864

info@polymediaconsult.com

www.polymediaconsult.com

Marketing - Exhibition - Event

Tel. +49 2359-2996-0

info@teamburg.de

www.teamburg.de

10.1 Associations

BPI - The Biodegradable

Products Institute

331 West 57th Street

Suite 415

New York, NY 10019, USA

Tel. +1-888-274-5646

info@bpiworld.org

European Bioplastics e.V.

Marienstr. 19/20

10117 Berlin, Germany

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350

Fax +49 30 284 84 359

info@european-bioplastics.org

www.european-bioplastics.org

10.2 Universities

Michigan State University

Department of Chemical

Engineering & Materials Science

Professor Ramani Narayan

East Lansing MI 48824, USA

Tel. +1 517 719 7163

narayan@msu.edu

University of Applied Sciences

Faculty II, Department

of Bioprocess Engineering

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans-Josef Endres

Heisterbergallee 12

30453 Hannover, Germany

Tel. +49 (0)511-9296-2212

Fax +49 (0)511-9296-2210

hans-josef.endres@fh-hannover.de

www.fakultaet2.fh-hannover.de

Simply contact:

Tel.: +49-2359-2996-0

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com

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the field of bioplastics.

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Dammer Str. 112

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Tel. +49 2161 664864

Fax +49 2161 631045

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www.bioplasticsmagazine.com

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4 45


Companies in this issue

Company Editorial Advert

A&O Filmpac 44

Aldi Süd 6

Alesco 44

Arkema 8

Arkhe Will 44

Avantium 9

BASF 6,7 44

Battelle 8

Biograde 5

BioPak 26

Bioplastics Asia 29

bioplastics24.com 27

Biotec 44

BPI (The Biodegradable Products Institute) 45

California State University, Chico 8

Cargo 16

Cereplast 19

Ciccarelli 17

CMT (3rd Bioplastics Markets) 33

DenTek 19

Denso 29

Dow 8

DuPont 29 44

Easy Gardener 26

Ecocert 16

EDG Dortmund 34

EPA 9

Essent Milieu 34

EuropaBio 9

European Bioplastics 20,38 45

FAS Converting 45

FH Hannover 45

FKuR 10,28 2,44

Forapack 44

Frost & Sullivan 9

Hallink 45

Huhtamaki 44

ICI 12

Innovia 19,24, 27 44

Intercos 17

Intertech PIRA 8

Ishizawa 12

J. Sieben 10

Kmart, Australia 5

Laboratoires Aromastrati 17

Laboratoires Cosmediet 17

Laboratoires Phyt 17

Laboratoires Sciences et Nature 17

Le Secret Naturel 17

Leoplast 17

Lush 24

Next Issue

For the next issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE

(among others) the following subjects are scheduled:

Company Editorial Advert

Maag 44

Mann+Hummel 45

Maverick Enterprises 8

McKinsey 9

Michigan State University 9 45

Minima Technologies 44

Monsanto 12

Montalto Natura 18

Natura Packaging 45

NatureWorks 5,6,8,16,17

Nextek 8

NNFCC 9

nova Institut 9

Novamont 9,18,32 45,48

NPE 25

Organic Waste Systems 9

PlandPaper 45

Plantic 8 44

Plastic Suppliers 44

plasticker 27

Polymediaconsult 45

PolyOne 13 44

PSM 8

Purac 9

Sephora 16

Sidaplax 44

Society of Plastics Engineers 8

StalkMarket Products 6

Stanford University 7

Storopack 28

Sukano 44

Symphony 8

Teamburg Marketing 45

Telles 8,14 44,47

Tianan Biologic 8,9,12 44,45

Tosama 19

Toyota 8

Transmare 44

Twinings 24

Uhde Inventa-Fischer 45

Univenture 8

University of Alabama 8

USDA 9,3

Utrecht University 9

Vlaco 20

Weckerle Cosmetics 10

Wei Mon 37,45

Wella 12

Wiedmer 45

Worldbiofuelsmarkets 9

Zeneca 12

Next issue:

May/June 02.06.2009

Editorial Focus:

Rigid Packaging / Trays

Material Combinations

Basics:

Basics of PHA

Fair Special:

NPE Preview (22-27 June)

Month Publ.-Date Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics Fair Specials

Jul/Aug 03.08.2009 Bottles / Labels / Caps

Non-Food-Sourced Bioplastics

Sep/Oct 05.10.2009 Fibers / Textiles / Nonwovens Paper Coating

Land Use for Bioplastics

Basics of Starch Based

Biopolymers

Nov/Dec 30.11.2009 Films / Flexibles / Bags Consumer Electronics Anaerobic Digestion

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/09] Vol. 4


EcoComunicazione.it

Salone del Gusto and Terra Madre 2008

Visitors of Salone del Gusto 180,000

Meals served at Terra Madre 26,000

Compost produced* kg 7,000

CO 2

saved kg 13,600

* data estimate – Novamont projection

The future,

with a different flavour:

sustainable

Mater-Bi® means biodegradable

and compostable plastics made

from renewable raw materials.

Slow Food, defending good things,

from food to land.

For the “Salone del Gusto” and “Terra Madre”, Slow Food

has chosen Mater-Bi® for bags, shoppers, cutlery,

cups and plates; showing that good food must also

get along with the environment.

Sustainable development is a necessity for everyone.

For Novamont and Slow Food, it is already a reality.

info@novamont.com

www.novamont.com

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