X-Cited Science Magazine - No:2

sevamericancollege

SEV American College
X-Cited
No:2 / 2021

Science & Culture p. 4

Science Talk p. 6

Portraits p. 30

Science Check p.32

Spotlight p.36

Light-Bulb Moment p. 40

Time-Machine p. 42

Issue No:2

February

2021

Dr. Özlem Salehi Köken explains

Quantum programming

• The Journey of a Young Scientist

Uluç Kadıoğlu (SAC’19)


2

Directors:

Selin Z., Duru C.

Editors:

Aylin D., Burak K.

Researchers:

Duru Elif C., Zeynep M., Zehra Naz T., Yaman K.,

Supervising Committee:

Zeynep Mira K., Emre Deniz Y.

Communication Committee:

Selin Z., Duru Elif C.

Social Media Committee:

Zehra Naz T., Zeynep M., Selin Z.

Content Creators:

Selin Z., Aylin D., Burak K., Duru Elif C., Zeynep M.,

Yaman K., Zehra Naz T.

Mentor:

Pelin G.


Page of Contents

Page 02

Page 04

Page 06

Page 30

Page 24

Page 32

Page 36

Page 40

Page 42

Editor’s Foreword

Science & Culture

Science Talk

Portraits

Science Check

Spotlight

Light-Bulb Moment

Time Machine

Bibliography

1


Editor’s Foreword

We want to enlighten you with the second issue of our magazine!

2

During these frustrating times, as the X-cited Magazine team, here

we are with our second issue to help you cope with the difficulties

of the pandemic.We strive to make science literacy common among

high school students. Since science literacy gives every person a

more holistic way of understanding the world, we believe that not

having this skill could be a huge handicap in our future. Therefore,

we are always being careful to share our content in an accessible

way rather than by adding complex terminology.

In this edition, we would like to inform you about quantum

programming via our inspiring talk with Özlem Salehi Köken.

She is an academician at Özyeğin University, faculty of computer

engineering, and co-founder of QTurkey. Ms. Köken told us about

how they do this programming on special quantum computers and

their programs.

Our second surprise for this edition is our conversation with Uluç

Kadıoğlu! He is one of SAC’s 2019 graduates, and he informed us

about his successful progress in the TUBITAK project competition

among high school students. Also, he shared some tips about how

we can follow current scientific news and studies and how science

literacy affects thinking and creating in the scientific project

process.

Science literacy is not only for people who are interested in science.

It helps us to criticize events around us reasonably. We shape our

daily decisions with respect to our culture and education. Being

science literate helps us be more rational in complex situations.

However, we are not encouraged enough to read and learn about

science, so it affects our lives in a way that we cannot see obviously.

We hope that with our second issue, we have managed to raise

scientific awareness and overcome the prejudices you may have

had about science. Never stop questioning and forget that this

pandemic is a temporary situation.

Enjoy your reading,

X-Cited Editorial Team,

Aylin D. & Burak K.


3


Science & Culture

Interstellar

-

4

By Duru Elif C.

Probably many of you have already

known this movie, it’s one of the

famous sci-fi movies. If you like sci-fi

movies and have not watched them

yet, you should definitely watch this.

It is a Nolan’s movie which is about

astronauts who travel in space to find

a new home for people on the Earth.

In the story, we can see our planet

that is harmed by human activities.

Because of the weather conditions,

the fields are burning each day and

humans are running out of crops.

There is not enough food for its

population. Further than that nobody

can live on the planet because of these

conditions.


Release date:

November 7, 2014 (Turkey)

Director: Christopher Nolan

Budget: 165 million USD

(2013)

Box office:

701.8 million USD

Awards: Academy Award for

Best Visual Effects

Length: 2h 49min

Genre:

Adventure, Drama, Sci-Fi

Writers: Jonathan Nolan,

Christopher Nolan

Stars: Matthew McConaughey,

Anne Hathaway, Jessica

Chastain, Matt Damon, Michael

Caine, etc.

The main character Cooper is a pilot

and an engineer, but his job is being

a farmer. The main character takes

on a journey that could or could not

change the end of the human race.

It is a very long movie which lasts

about 3 hours. Thanks to the

director Nolan’s style, it is hard

to notice how time passes while

watching. Moreover, because the

journey is generally in space from

blackhole to wormhole, galaxy to

galaxy, and planet to planet, you can

see stunning scenes on the screen.

If you have the chance, you should

definitely watch it on a big screen to

enjoy the visual feast.

Also, we cannot underestimate the

effect of the cast on the success of

the movie. The main characters

are acted out by two Oscar-winning

people: Matthew McConaughey,

Anne Hathaway. Leading actor

Matthew McConaughey who

plays Cooper did the best while

identifying himself as an engineer

as well as an astronaut and a farmer.

5


Science Talk

6

What is quantum

programming

with Dr. Özlem Salehi Köken

-

On February 1 st , we had the chance

to speak with Dr. Özlem Salehi

Köken who is an academician

at Özyeğin University, faculty of

computer engineering. We tried

to understand what quantum

programming is by asking her

a variety of questions about

herself, quantum programming,

quantum computers, and QTurkey.

Thanks to this pleasant and

inspiring conversation, we have

better understood the basics of

the quantum computing area

and complex terms related to

quantum programming. During

the interview, with her simplistic

explanation of the quantum world

and computer programming, she

managed to make even the most

abstract notions understandable.

Also, we witnessed two different

areas of science, physics, and

computer programming can be

combined in a single study field,

which really impressed us. Although

understanding some concepts

challenged us, it was an inspiring

experience for the entire X-cited

team.


When and how has your passion for

quantum programming started?

I started studying at Boğaziçi

University Mathematics Department

in 2007 and graduated in 2011. I

was also interested in computer

engineering while I was studying

in the math department. Then, I

continued my master’s degree and

completed my Ph.D. in the computer

engineering department of Boğaziçi

University. I finished my doctorate

in 2019. During my Ph.D., I studied a

subfield of computer science that is

called theoretical computer science

which is more theoretical and closer

to mathematics. My interest in

quantum programming has started

in 2019, just before graduating.

I attended a workshop that was

organized by educators that came

from abroad. It was also the first

quantum programming workshop in

Turkey.

How did you segue into computer

engineering after you got

an undergraduate degree in

mathematics?

When I took the university

entrance exam, studying computer

engineering at Boğaziçi University

was in my mind. However, I had

to choose mathematics because

my score was not enough for

computer engineering. I took a

lot of courses from the computer

engineering department like a

double major student. After taking

these courses, I decided to continue

in this field. I applied for the

master’s degree at the computer

7


Science Talk

An Interview with Özlem Salehi Köken

8

engineering department and I

was accepted. Having taken all the

required courses while I was an

undergraduate student helped me

during my application process and I

was able to join the program without

taking any remedial courses. After

I received my master’s degree, I

completed the doctorate program

in the same field. Moreover, I had

the opportunity to work with Cem

Say who is a theoretical computer

scientist and professor of computer

science at Boğaziçi University.

As our lives convert to virtuality,

do you think that every occupation

will need to know programming or

coding in the future?

Saying that every occupation

will need to learn coding may be

assertive, but I think it will be

needed in many occupations. Those

who work in social sciences learn to

code or at least take some interest

and initiative in it. Nowadays,

medical researchers or medical

engineers have been learning it.

If you will become a researcher in

medicine or biology, you work with

and take interest in programming.

Data has overgrown. Moreover,

data is needed to be analyzed and

processed in a lot of occupations.

This data can be biology data or

a bank’s data. It does not matter

what the field is. If data is going

to be analyzed and processed,

programming will be needed for all.

So, it may not be every profession,

but surely many will need to know

because our lives have changed.

What is quantum programming?

Could you talk about what quantum

computers are and how they

function?

It is the process of writing programs

to be run in quantum computers.

In other words, it is how you give

instructions to quantum computers

to perform some tasks.


“…It does not matter what the field is.

If data is going to be analyzed and processed,

programming will be needed for all.”

What are quantum computers and

how do they function?

A quantum computer has a

mechanism that works according

to the laws of quantum physics

while classic computers’ working is

according to laws of classical physics.

The idea of quantum computers

emerged when scientists wanted to

simulate quantum mechanics. We

use classic computers to simulate

the “classic” world. To simulate the

“quantum” world, we use quantum

computers.

In classical computers, we encode

information using an abstraction

called bits which take the values

0 or 1. In our computers, we have

transistors which depending on

the voltage level of the electricity

takes the values 0 or 1 and this is

how we encode information. Now

consider an electron instead of a

transistor. Electrons have a property

called spin which is either up or

down. If the spin is up, we give the

value 1 and if its spin is down, we

give the value 0. However, it is not

possible to describe the spin of an

electron just with the numbers 0

and 1 because of “superposition”.

Until you interact with the electron

or make a measurement, the spin

of the electron is in a probability

distribution of the values 0 and 1.

When you observe the spin, then you

observe only one of the two possible

outcomes. Consider flipping a fair

coin. 50% of the time we get tails and

50% of the time we get heads and

before looking at the outcome the coin

may be heads or tails with equal

probability. There is an analogous

situation. Nevertheless, there is one

subtle difference between them.

Every outcome in the quantum

world is momentary unlike flipping

the coin action. If you knew all the

variables like the angle of flipping

and the force you apply on the coin,

you could calculate the result of a

coin flip. However, this is not the

case in the quantum world. The

result cannot be known before

because of the nature of quantum

particles. Electron was just an

example and the same applies to

any quantum particle with which

you can associate two distinct states.

Phenomena like superposition

and entanglement make quantum

computers distinct and enable them

to solve certain problems more

efficiently compared to classical

computers.

9


Science Talk

An Interview with Özlem Salehi Köken

10

What is the current situation of quantum computers?

Quantum computers still cannot solve problems efficiently. We haven’t been

able to build a very sophisticated quantum computer because of practical

and physical problems. The classic computers used to be the size of a room,

now they can even fit into our pockets. We still do not know if we can build a

sophisticated quantum computer because physics may be a barrier. The idea

of quantum computers emerged when scientists wanted to simulate quantum

mechanics. We use classic computers to simulate the “classic” world. To

simulate the “quantum” world, we use quantum computers.

Also, there are different technologies to build quantum computers. Companies

are in a rivalry to build the best quantum computer, but current quantum

computers have excessive error rates. Therefore, quantum computers can’t

solve problems properly.


“…These kinds of problems are very hard to solve and require

long hours to solve. So, there are machines based on quantum

mechanics to solve optimization problems.”

What kind of problems can these

computers solve?

Quantum computers can be

applied to model drugs in the field

of chemistry and to simulate the

interactions of the molecules on an

atomic scale. Another problem they

can solve is optimization problems

to determine the most effective

strategy. There is a problem called

the traveling salesperson problem.

With respect to it, the salesperson

has a list of destinations and

distances. The aim is to travel the

shortest route to reduce the cost.

These kinds of problems are very

hard to solve and require long hours

to solve. So, there are machines

based on quantum mechanics to

solve optimization problems.

You are one of the founders of

Turkey’s first quantum technologies

community, QTurkey. What is its

purpose and how was it established?

It started with the first quantum

programming workshop in Turkey.

It was organized by a group from

Latvia whose head was Abuzer

Yakaryılmaz, a former thesis

student of my Ph.D. teacher in

METU. I met Zeki Seskir, who is one

of the founders of our community

and one of the participants in it like

me. After the workshop, we came

together, and we decided to organize

workshops in Turkey by ourselves

because it is very hard to organize a

workshop frequently with trainers

who come from abroad.

Also, quantum programming is

not a well-known field in Turkey.

There are some professors who

work on quantum physics and some

who work in quantum computing.

However, quantum programming

is a brand-new field. Therefore, we

established a community whose

name is “QTurkey”. Q in front of it

means quantum. Our main purpose

is to raise awareness in people to

provide information about what

quantum programming is.

There are other communities

in other countries. We call them

“cousins”. We all are under QWorld

whose chairperson is Ms. Abuzer

Yakaryılmaz.

Is it possible for quantum

computers to make a mistake while

solving a problem?

Yes, it is because these computers

calculate probabilistically. So,

they can make errors. Quantum

computers that make no error

can be written as well, but then;

it will not be any different from a

classic computer. When elements

that show quantum properties are

involved, like superposition, then

it will generally run with errors.

If you want it to be of use and

advantageous, you have to sacrifice

something, so you allow it to make

some mistakes.

11


Science Talk

An Interview with Özlem Salehi Köken

12

Do you think that the recent

developments in the quantum world

could usher in a new age?

Saying that is assertive. Now,

quantum studies are a rising

trend like the trend of artificial

intelligence earlier. A beginning

of a new age… For now, we are far

away from that idea. Generally, the

ones who believe that idea give this

example: The prime factorization

algorithm will no longer be used

and quantum computers are going

to solve factorization problems.

However, I don’t think that a great

quantum revolution is going to

happen at least in the near future.

Quantum computers won’t take the

place of our computers that we use

every day nor enter our houses. Of

course, nothing is certain, but I don’t

believe that quantum computers

would usher in a new age.

In your presentation for Hacettepe

BigEvent, you have mentioned

qubits, how can the value of qubits

be determined as 0, 1 only on sight?

It is not easy to explain without

physics. The one that I talked about

is the Copenhagen interpretation.

With respect to it, there is no way

to know what the result is before

seeing it. There is another one

related to the parallel universe. With

respect to it, in one universe the

situation is 0, still, it continues as

1 in the other one. There are other

interpretations too.

In the Copenhagen interpretation,

it is measured with a measuring

device, then the situation collapses

to zero or one. I can tell you that

even Einstein couldn’t explain the

reason.


What is entanglement in quantum

computing, and what can it be used

for?

Einstein called it “spooky action at

a distance”. Mr. Bertlmann’s Socks

analogy may help to explain it. A

man who is called Mr. Bertlman

wears an orange sock on his one

foot and a blue sock on the other.

It’s always like this, this is known

for sure. He passes by your door

and you only see his right foot. If he

wears the orange on his right foot,

then you know it is a blue sock on

his left foot. There is a correlation.

So, when you look at his right foot,

you have an idea of the left foot.

The idea is the same in quantum

entanglement. Assume that

you have two particles that are

entangled with each other. If the

correlation between the particles

is that one shows “1” and the other

shows “0” or vice versa, whatever

the distance between them and

when you measure one of them, you

can tell the other for sure. No matter

how far the distance between the

particles is, the measurement made

on one affects the other, faster than

the speed of light. So, the situation

of one particle cannot be expressed

independently of the other. This is

the main idea of entanglement.

This feature is used for

communication, cryptography,

etc. To communicate securely, two

people can have entangled particles.

Then, we can communicate

with them by operating some

calculations. Do not misunderstand

this part, we are not communicating

faster than the speed of light.

What advice would you give to

the young people who want to do

quantum programming?

If you are interested in quantum

programming, you can join QTurkey

workshops. As a prerequisite of our

workshop, you should know the

matrix topic in math and coding

in Python. Unfortunately, there is

no other place teaching quantum

programming in Turkey. There

are alternatives abroad if you

are interested. IBM has started

a coding school for high school

students. As far as I remember,

in the first semester, they teach

some fundamental knowledge

like trigonometry and matrix. In

the second semester, they have

started quantum. In fact, you realize

later that you do not have to be

acquainted with physics in the first

place. Mathematics is the base of it.

Python is one of the elementary

keys because if we look at quantum

programming, most of the coding

is established in Python. There are

many online sources of Python.

You can study by yourself to learn

Python.

13


Science Talk

14

The Journey of a Young

Scientist

with Uluç Kadıoğlu (SAC’19)

-

On January 28 th , we had a wonderful

conversation with Uluç who was one

of our school’s 2019 graduates. He told

us about his adventure while doing

his TUBITAK project. Also, he gave

us some advice about how we can

manage our time and start scientific

research or projects. During the

conversation, we didn’t understand

how time had passed and we learned

a lot from him. We hope that this talk

will be a guide for you.

When and how has your passion

for biology started?

Since I was a child, my family guided me

to question, research, and observe. In fact,

they bought me a microscope, and through

that little microscope, I had a chance to look

at different species closely. My interest in

biology started when I was in 9th grade.

In the lab that we used to do our biology

lessons, there were some charts on the

walls about “classifying organisms”. On

those charts, I saw unusual organisms

that attracted my attention. One of these

organisms was parasites. Even though

parasites cannot live by themselves, they

can find their nutrients in other species.

Moreover, they cause some dangerous

diseases such as malaria in mammals.

These aroused my interest in them,

therefore I decided to design an experiment

that involves parasites.


How did you come up with the

idea of working on worms?

Using parasites was in my mind

since 9th grade. At first, when I

wanted to research parasites, I

visited many veterinarians for 2

months, but I couldn’t find any.

Then, I started to search for other

species instead of parasites. I found

worms which are creatures similar

to parasites but less harmful.

Thanks to the article sent by Dr.

Campbell, I started to research the

C. Elegans worms. As a result of my

research, I decided to use the C.

Elegans as the model organism for

my research because of both my

love for examining organisms under

the microscope and the similarity

between the human genome and C.

Elegans genome.

How was your application

process to TUBITAK?

You can find the required

documents and timeline for the

application on their website. Its

name is Liseler Arası Araştırma

Projeleri Yarışması (Inter-

High School Research Project

Competition). I applied during

the first term of 11th grade. I had

worked during that summer on it.

For the first step, you must complete

documents related to your project;

article, project timeline, summary,

etc. Document list is also given in

the guide on TUBITAK’s website.

This part is done online by just

sending all written documents to

them.

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Science Talk

An Interview with Uluç Kadıoğlu

16

If they accept your project, then

you will be invited to the district

competition exhibit. In this part, you

should prepare posters, brochures

to present the project. You present

the project to almost everybody;

people passing by, other school

groups that come to visit. Other than

that, there are juries, three to four

people. You present your project to

them too. They grade the project.

In my opinion, the posters or the

brochures aren’t that important, the

presentation that you give to juries

is the important thing. Finally, if

they like it, they invite you to the

national finals. We went there, but

the juries that evaluated for the

finals might have a different view

on the projects and rates. There is

nothing to do about it. That was the

process in general.

When you take the other projects

into account, what was the reason

that helped your project to make it

to the final?

Within the field of biology, other

projects were often on cliché

topics. Many of them had applied to

TUBITAK by changing some of the

projects that were previously done. I

think my project is both different in

profile and original. Of course, there

were also very different, original

projects too. I think my presentation

to the juries was also appreciated.

They said they didn’t know my topic

in detail. I think it was also a chance

for me because they did not ask me

any challenging questions. For this

reason, I think the presentation

had an impact on my success in the

competition.

Your project looks a little

complicated. How was the process?

Did you use the school laboratory?

Ms. Belgin Oğuzalp who is our

biology teacher helped me

incredibly. At first, I knew that I

was going to use C. Elegans. We

tried to find C. Elegans which is

very hard to find in Turkey. We

found it in Kayseri after a long

search, then went to Kayseri

together and received the worms.

Dr. Oktay Kaplan, who helped us in

Kayseri, also gave us some articles

and told us about some topics in

literature. When we got back to

Istanbul, I finalized the draft and

decided on the experiment design.

I did some of the experiments in

the school laboratory. The school


even bought an “autoclave” and

a digital micropipette, many agar

plates for the project, but still, there

were some missing materials, and

sometimes it took a long time to get

them. Because of these issues, I did

a large portion of the experiments

at the Yıldız Technical University.

A molecular biology professor let

us use his laboratory. We needed

a lot of different equipment to

conduct the experiment which takes

a lot of time, so working in a large

laboratory helped a lot.

In your TEDx Bahçeşehir talk, you

said that you decided to conduct

the project with C. Elegans worms

thanks to the essay Dr. Campbell

shared with you. How did he help?

After I watched the Nobel speech of

Mr. Campbell, I was impressed with

both his personality and his works,

and without overthinking I wanted

to get information from an expert

from this area. I explained to him

that I couldn’t find parasites to do

my research. Luckily, he responded

to me and shared one of his articles,

which gave me the idea of working

with C. Elegans worms. The main

reason why I chose them was

since they have a similar genome

to humans, the results obtained

from the research would be more

relatable to the human genome

therefore the accuracy of the project

would increase.

Do you have any model organism

suggestions for us to work on in

future studies?

I suggest all of you conduct

research with model organisms

that have a similar genome to the

human genome such as Drosophila

melanogaster. However, if you want

to study in vivo (experimenting

with a living organism) then I would

recommend you study with mice

and rats, but conducting in vivo

research is harder because you need

to take a lot of permissions from

different institutions to work with

the model organisms.

If another organism was used

instead of C. Elegans in the

experiment, how much do you think

the results would have changed?

Drosophila could also be used, but

this would affect all parts because

the design of the experiment

must be changed such as the

measurement of the worm.

I measured the worms’ lengths

17


Science Talk

An Interview with Uluç Kadıoğlu

18

through a microscope and software,

in terms of micrometers. If you are

going to use another organism, such

as a mosquito, you would have to kill

it to measure its length. They are

very small, so you have to consider

which microscope you will use to

estimate them.

Since this experiment is for type

2 diabetes and hypertension,

I considered the most used

medication that people use like

metformin and captopril. You have

to use them with an organism that is

similar to humans. The genome of

C. Elegans is like humans’ and that’s

why they are useful. Also, because

they have very similar properties to

parasites, they personally interested

me in that way.

Yeast and frogs are used in genetics

related works. Of course, mice, rats,

or zebrafish can be used. Zebrafish

are also good, when I was doing

an internship in Germany, it was

commonly used there.

How long did experimenting take?

I do not know the exact time.

Collecting the data takes some time,

it took 1-2 months because we had

to go to Kayseri for a day. We didn’t

collect any data in Kayseri, we only

received the C. Elegans because

there was nowhere else in Turkey

where we could find them.

We received them, came back, and

designed the experiment. Firstly, we

poured the agar plates into the Petri

dishes, mixed them with water, and

heated them. I waited for it to dry;

all of these happened in a single day.

Afterward, we planted the worms

on the Petri dishes. What might take

long is bringing the medicine to

different concentrations and adding

it into the mediums by mixing it in

with the agar. You must make the

worms wait for a while, so that they


can absorb the materials in the dish.

The next step takes 2-3 full days. You

take the worms to the microscope

and measure them one by one, the

more worms you measure the better

as it reduces the error margins.

While measuring the lengths you

take photos of them since worms are

wiggly; you measure it by drawing

3-4 lines on them. Of course, the

error rate of this process is high

but there is nothing else we can do

as there is no other method. This

process makes your back hurt in

front of the computer.

After collecting the data, writing

is a little easier, but writing the

discussion part might take a while

because you have to decide where

you want to connect your data.

Translating the text to English

depends on its length, I did it in just

a day in one sitting.

I want to emphasize something at

this point. While explaining your

reasoning you cannot be certain.

That’s why you must use phrases

like “we predict” and “we foresee”.

This is very important because if

your words are certain, the paper

will return to you. Even though

the results of scientific studies are

the most reasonable consequence

that we can reach, still, nothing is

certain.

If we do such a project, where can

we reach the scientists from whom

we can get support?

I sent an e-mail to Dr. William

Campbell and he replied, and

I was surprised. He took my

intentions seriously. It was great

to have a serious response. This

was a great chance for me, but I

would recommend for you to keep

searching for scientists or people

that may help you. You will surely

come across someone that may help

19


Science Talk

An Interview with Uluç Kadıoğlu

20

you. As another piece of advice, if

you do a project like this, search

for people, or professors that made

investigations about the topic you

chose for your project. You can

reach a professor at the university

you want to go to or at any of

them, you can send an e-mail and

introduce yourself. If your personal

conditions are suitable, you can ask

them to work with them in summer.

Moreover, without going abroad, you

can do similar research in Turkey,

too.

What did you do when you came

along with some unexpected

problems or issues?

Of course, there were times when I

got stuck in the experiment process,

but I never gave up thanks to the

help I received from my teachers,

the people around me, and the

replies of experts to my questions

about the process. Although some

of the experts didn’t reply to my

e-mails, I kept sending e-mails to

various people. I always believed

that someone would reply to me

in the end. In one instance, I had

to measure the worm’s length,

but because of its structure, it

was impossible to estimate 100%

correctly. I used a special device

and drew lines to find its length

under a microscope. In the end, I

obtained a nearly accurate result. To

conduct this experiment, I needed

some specialized equipment and

materials, and my teachers provided

them for me. In short, when I felt

lost or encountered an error, I didn’t

give up and tried to find support

from others.

Have you ever encountered

challenges regarding support,

guidance or finances? If so, what

did you do? Do you have any

recommendations for what to do?

Yes, I have encountered such

complications. In fact, that’s the

reason why I started my journey in

9 th grade but had to postpone it until

11th grade. For financial difficulties,

I can advise you to do internships

or work as a research assistant at a

university next to an academician.

You may also keep the project idea

a bit simpler. That way, it would

be both easier for you to work on

as a high school student and a lot

cheaper and easier to work on.

As for support and guidance, it is

very important to have someone, a

teacher with you. Additionally, the

school’s philosophy is important,

too. The school bought one or two

supplies and equipment for me to

use in the project. Ms. Belgin and

I went to Kayseri together as well.

She helped me a lot, I cannot thank

her enough. The teacher that helped

us who worked in Yıldız Technical

University was also a friend of Ms.

Belgin, and she was the one who

helped me work in the labs there.

The academician at the university

also supported me a lot. So, find a

teacher like her. If you want to go to

competitions or such, you need to

find a guidance teacher anyway. In


“…If you want to learn, you can always find a way for

it. You just have to be dedicated and disposed of the

information.”

an acquaintance to lend you those

articles if they have access to them,

or you can ask your teachers, the

scientists who worked on it, and so

on. This could be a bit more helpful,

especially if you are keen on reading

a certain article. Lastly, you can use

your own school’s subscriptions.

Also, they would allow you to read

some articles, they might not be

the ones you’re looking for, but they

would help.

If you want to learn, you can always

find a way for it. You just have to

be dedicated and disposed of the

information.

conclusion, they valued and took my

experiment seriously, and helped

me throughout the journey.

Unfortunately, the sense of finding

or attaining knowledge has become

commercial in companies such as

Elsevier, etc. These companies ask

for huge amounts to give you access

to each article and you will need to

read lots of articles when doing an

experiment. For this reason, things

might get a bit pricey. However, if

you want to access information, then

you will find a way. One way is that

you can visit university libraries and

use the internet of the university.

Many universities allow access to

certain sites and articles that would

usually require money, you can do

that. Another way is that you can ask

In your TEDx discussion, you

said that some people didn’t take

your project seriously. How did

you motivate yourself and keep

researching?

I had some trouble finding C.

Elegans. I corresponded with some

teachers from some universities

in Istanbul. However, they didn’t

take it seriously. So, I continued

searching because it was something

I wanted to do. Finally, I reached

Murat and Gamze Çıtıroğlu who

helped me find an active ingredient.

I learned that they have a chemical

company and they sell chemicals to

various places. I met with them on

the Career Days that they attended

at our school. They described

their industry and their job. Some

teachers were checking with the

participants to see if they could

be of help. Pelin Gürel, one of our

21


Science Talk

An Interview with Uluç Kadıoğlu

22

physics teachers, was one of those

teachers and she asked about the

active ingredient which I was trying

to find. Turns out Mr. Murat and

Ms. Gamze had a company that

produces pharmaceutical and lab

chemicals. After that, they contacted

me immediately. Thanks to them, I

had a chance to use the chemical I

needed.

How did you manage to go on with

such a huge project meanwhile

doing IB? Did you ever have to

choose one of them?

If you’re going to start a project like

this, you need to be dedicated and

therefore, like it, because otherwise,

you are going to get really bored and

tired. In that case, you should just

stop and not do it. It will not benefit

you or help you grow in any way. In

short, don’t do anything you don’t

enjoy. When you like something, you

somehow find time for it.


“…If you can’t find a university or a person that can help

you, keep searching. In the end, of course, you’re going to

find someone.”

I had biology, chemistry, and English

A for my HLs, among other subjects.

Ms. Belgin and I attended lots of

competitions and their presentations.

That’s why I missed many classes. I

don’t remember that being a great

problem for me. Of course, your

teachers help you out a lot during

these times. In case of a missed

class, you can always go to their

office hours and they can help you

in a short period, teaching you the

basics. Additionally, you can also

study from your books. It’s a bit

about finding time for yourself and

studying. Moreover, you should not

let go of your sleep, at least 8 hours

is essential. In conclusion, if you do

something you like, you will find time

and effort to give it.

Should we focus only on the project

while conducting a scientific study?

No, I don’t think so. I have taken part

in the activities that I enjoy such as

theatre or other projects. It is better to

be interested in various fields. There

is the part for university application,

but you must do the things that

you really like. If you do something

reluctantly, you will get stuck at some

point. So, I believe you should have

various fields of interest which consist

of the activities that you enjoy.

What are the features that we should

have to be a good scientist?

While conducting a scientific study, it

is important to analyze the obtained

data accurately. You must understand

the difference between correlation

and causation very well, so don’t

just jump into your results. When

you acquire data, you may not have

certain scientific conclusions. In my

research, we cannot directly say that

the observations in worms will also

be the same in humans. Statistically,

in an experiment, there might be an

error all the time. Everything depends

on correlation and we cannot explain

something directly.

23


Science Talk

An Interview with Uluç Kadıoğlu

24

I recommend you to be humble

while reporting your results, writing

an article, or even an essay. You

should present your arguments

scientifically and objectively, not in

an offensive manner. There is no

such thing as being subjective in

science. You must be objective and

consider all the margins of error.

Besides, I know it is hard, but you

should develop a study discipline.

No matter how humble you are,

you should also be confident

about the work you did, including

the accuracy of your work, the

experiment design, the articles that

you wrote, or even translation. You

must be confident in all these parts.

If you have friends who want to work

with you, it might be nice to do a

scientific study with them. You don’t

have to work on your own while

conducting a study, you can ask for

help from others.

What are the steps of conducting

scientific research?

Primarily, you must find a general

subject that interests you. Physics,

chemistry, or biology, whichever

interests you. These are just

examples, but the point is, you must

find an inclusive subject. After

choosing the subject, you have

to find a topic that interests you.

There should be articles and studies

about the topic you are interested

in. You can reconduct research by

changing the design or style of the

experiment. Develop new ideas and

get started. I mean, the point is you

have to come up with an idea and

study the recent developments on

the topic you chose. You can use

popular academic journal sites such

as Cell and Springer, but you have to

be able to identify the type of journal

because some articles may not have

experiments. Besides, the process of

publishing your research lasts for a

couple of months. After your article

is examined, it is published.

In your TedX Bahçeşehir talk, you

mentioned reading a science article

isn’t a skill that is taught in the

schools. Do you have any website or

science magazine recommendations

that you find useful and inspiring?

I would recommend you read

articles that can be understood with

your current science background

because if you try to read complex

articles, you most probably would

end up being lost. According to this

criterion, I suggest you follow the

articles that are published in the

Journal of Emerging Investigators

since they are published by high

school students, they would be

easier for you to understand. In

addition to that, I highly recommend

you use the Google Scholar email

alerts feature because, in that way,

you can stay informed about the

most recent developments and

trends about the areas of study you

are interested in science.


Which advice would you give to the

students who want to do scientific

projects?

First, choose a topic that you are

interested in. Otherwise, you’d do

the project in vain. It should be

a process which you are going to

enjoy. Secondly, remember there

will be a lot of obstacles. Don’t forget

to ask for help and always try to

think of other alternative options.

If you can’t find a university or a

person that can help you, keep

searching. In the end, of course,

you’re going to find someone.

Everyone is sworn not to help you.

Another important thing is being

disciplined. If you have lessons you

need to focus on in parallel with the

project, you need to manage your

time well.

Always have plans and set your

goals high. In university goals,

higher goals would be beneficial.

You can also attend competitions.

Another piece of advice that I can

give you is to search for professors

who do the same research as

you. You can send an e-mail to a

professor in the university you want

to go to, or in any other university,

and introduce yourself. If the

conditions are right, you can offer

to work with them in the summer. If

you can’t do this abroad, you can do

this in Turkey, too. A lot of students

are doing that, they go to different

universities to work on different

subjects.

Do not forget that after conducting

a science project, you may publish

your article to contribute to science

a little. That is very important and

motivational.

25


Portraits

Charles Darwin

-

26

By Burak K.

Charles Darwin was a British

biologist and natural historian.

Thanks to his work, the

modern theory of evolution,

built on Darwin’s ideas, is

today the foundation and

unifying element of biology. He

was born on February 8, 1809,

so to commemorate his work

and to understand his theory

of evolution, we have decided

to write about him in this issue

of the magazine.

Life

The fifth child of a prosperous

family, Charles Darwin was born

in Shrewsbury, England, on

February 12, 1809. Charles Darwin’s

grandfather was Erasmus Darwin

who claimed in the book Zoonomy

that one species could turn into

another (transmutation). However,

his ideas were not welcomed by the

Christian world and as a punishment,

he was excluded from society.

Following in the footsteps of his

father and grandfather, who were

medical doctors, Darwin started

to study medicine at Edinburgh

University in 1825. Thinking he

wouldn’t be an adept doctor, Darwin

decided to continue his career in

church and began studying theology

at the age of 18 in Cambridge.

He met Robert Edmond Grant in

June 1826 and therefore began

learning Lamarck’s ideas. Later,

under the supervision of Grant, he

was admitted into the prestigious

scientific community named “Plinian

Society” on November 10, 1826.


Having a lot of free time as a

religious student turned out to be

his advantage because, during his

time in church, Darwin could spend

most of his time collecting insects

and studying on them. Having

graduated in 1831, Darwin had the

most important opportunity of his life

before starting to work as a religious

man. Darwin’s teacher at Cambridge

University, Nature Theologian John

Stevens Henslow, recommended

Darwin as a naturalist to the ship

HMS Beagle, which would travel the

world for scientific research and

observations.

Five Year Ship Journey with the

Beagle

Henslow encouraged Darwin to take

this journey to explain the first part of

the Bible, “Creation”. Darwin traveled

the globe for five years, fascinated

with the thought of becoming the

first one to prove creation and the

idea of traveling the world. Darwin

collected samples from the animals

he encountered and at the same time,

conducted geological investigations.

After leaving South America in 1835,

Darwin’s ship, HMS Beagle, reached

the Galapagos Islands, 960 miles off

the coast of Ecuador. When Darwin

came to the remote volcanic islands of

the Galapagos, he studied goldfinches,

turtles, and mockingbirds.

During his time in the Galapagos

Islands, he started to interrogate the

statements about “Creation” in the

Bible. He started to wonder if each

species was created discretely and

inhabited regions created for them,

why are there species that were

found all over the world, but not in

Galapagos Islands. Or why the species

found in Galapagos Island were not

found anywhere else, especially

in areas with a higher human

population. Moreover, there was no

similarity between the creatures

living in the Cape Verde Islands in

the Atlantic Ocean, which are at the

same latitude, and those living in

Galapagos Islands, also the species

in the Galapagos were similar to the

species in South America, and species

on other islands off the east coast

were similar to those in West Africa.

Altogether, he was confused with the

dissimilar natures of the islands.

In his notebook which he named

“The Red Notebook”, Darwin wrote

an article about “One species may

change to another” for the first time

in his life in March 1837. He also drew

a basic sketch of the “Evolution Tree”

in this article.

His theories on evolution started to

mature in 1838. In the terminology

of the time, Darwin witnessed,

through his eyes, how transmutation

took place. Animals that were more

adapted to their environment lived

longer and could reproduce more by

“natural selection”. This transition

had to come naturally. Darwin

had a tough time embracing this

notion, which was against his goal of

27


Portraits

Charles Darwin

28

beginning his quest and the Christian

worldview. Due to what happened to

his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin,

after he published his ideas about

transmutation, he was frightened of

the same end with his grandfather.

So, before revealing his theories

to the public, he wanted to compile

further proofs. By publishing what he

found in his journeys, he augmented

his reputation.

Impact of Alfred Russel Wallace

Until June 1858, Darwin had written

numerous articles on evolution, but

never published any of them.

However, this changed after Alfred

Russel Wallace, a fan of Darwin and

inspired by his journey on the Beagle,

decided to embark on a similar

journey at that time. As a result of

his observations, he introduced

the theory of natural selection

independently of Darwin and sent a

letter to Darwin for taking his advice.

Darwin realized that if he did not

publish his writings, Wallace would

go down in history as the person

who developed the theory of natural

selection. But Wallace was on a ship

and it was impossible to contact him.

He had to decide what to do to be

fair to Wallace, as well as whether to

express his opinions.

Darwin Published “Evolution

Through Natural Selection”

Darwin announced his theory of

evolution by natural selection in July

1858. Darwin’s ideas were presented


to the Linnean Society, the best

natural history community in Britain

at the time. After speaking with his

friends, Darwin decided that both his

article and Wallace’s article should be

disclosed at the same meeting.

About a year after he announced

his theory, he published Darwin’s

theory in a book in November 1859.

The book, originally titled “On

the Origin of Species by Means of

Natural Selection”, received intense

criticism from the church and some

newspapers after its publication.

was published. The book directly

references human evolution.

In the last 12 years after publishing

his first book, Darwin’s ideas had

begun to be accepted. The science

community was deeply divided over

whether humans had a common

ancestor with apes. Although some

of the scientists disdained and made

fun of the idea of apes and humans’

derivation from a common ancestor,

the majority of the scientists and

thinkers supported Darwin’s ideas.

Origin of Species had been a

bestseller worldwide by 1869. With

every edition, Darwin improved his

claims. The more he answered the

accusations directed at him, the

stronger he got.

The Second Book: The Descent of

Man and Relation to Sex

Twelve years after Darwin published

The Origin of Species, he took a

brave step to explain the ideas he

only implied in his first book, and

in February 1871 his book The

Descent of Man and Relation to Sex

29


Portraits

Charles Darwin

30

Brief Explanation of Evolution

Theory

Without having an idea about what

evolution is, it is impossible to

understand why Charles Darwin is

important. First, it is needed to define

what evolution is. Evolution is the

transition over many generations of

the traits of species which depends

on the natural selection process,

and the theory of evolution is built

on the premise that the origin of the

species is connected and evolved

over time steadily.[1] [2] According to

the theory of evolution, it depends on

genetic variation, the difference in

DNA, in a population that influences

an organism’s physical traits. Any of

these traits can give the organism

a strength over other organisms

that can be carried on to the next

generations.

The theory of evolution by Charles

Darwin claims that evolution occurs

by natural selection, which refers

that the best-adapted individuals

would survive in the environment.

In species, individuals display

differences in physical traits. Due

to variations in their chromosomes,

this variance exists. Due to this

variance, the characteristics of

organisms differentiate and establish

the “survival of the fittest principle”.

According to this principle,

individuals with features that are

more suitable for their environment

chances are higher to survive,

obtain food, avoid threats, and resist

diseases. Such individuals have

higher chances to reproduce and

carry on their genes to their offspring.

Less able to live and reproduce are

organisms that are not adapted to

their habitat; hence, chances are

lower for them to transfer their genes

to the next generation. As a result,

those individuals best adapted to

their condition survive, and their

community will eventually evolve

with adequate time.


Effects of His Evolution Theory

The perspective of people observing

living objects was revised by Charles

Darwin. Darwin’s Natural Selection

Theory of Evolution connects all the

life sciences and demonstrates where

living organisms come from and how

they evolve. Heredity, selection, and

variation occur in life. By natural

selection, only some individuals of

species reproduce and transfer their

characteristics. Variation concerns

with the adaptation to the habitat.

In the face of most religious views,

his hypothesis of evolution targeted

directly and annoyed many

academics who were not ready to

establish the logical link between

humankind and animals.

However, at that point in history,

when a lot of things were evolving in

the world (including the Industrial

Revolution), Darwin’s theories were

part of the major modernization

trend, and as complicated as they

were to consider for many people,

many academics and scientists

embraced them.

The Death of Charles Darwin

In his last years, the severity of his

illnesses increased, but Darwin did

not stop working until the last minute.

He spent these days in seclusion,

where he only saw his wife and a few

friends. At his 73, Charles Darwin

died because of a heart attack on April

19, 1882, was buried in Westminster

Abbey, officially known as St. Peter’s

Church, opposite Westminster Palace

in central London.

31


Science Check

32

Gut Microbiota and The Brain

Do Gut Bacteria Control Us?

-

By Selin Z.

Our emotions and behaviors are shaped by microbes.

We might not be the real hosts of our bodies.

Neuroscientists were mostly

focused on how the brain affects

the organs, including the gut.

However, recently conducted

studies in animals have claimed

that gut bacteria might influence

both physiological health, and

interestingly, mental health. The

new studies also suggest that even

our emotions and social behaviors

are shaped by gut bacterial species.

More bacteria are living inside

you than your own cells. A study,

conducted by Ron Sender and his

colleagues, stated that the number

of bacteria is 1.3 times higher than

the number of human cells. It is

estimated that there are about 39

trillion bacteria and 30 trillion

human cells in the body. Because of

this reason, we might not be the real

hosts of our bodies. Starting from

birth, the diversity and abundance

of microorganisms in our bodies

increase over time. Besides being

found in the entire body, those

microbes mostly develop in the

intestines that occupy a 32 m 2

surface area in healthy adults.

The gut bacteria are crucial for our

health and immune system. They

play a vital role in synthesizing

vitamins and creating energy from

the foods that we consume. They

block pathogens from entering

the body and causing disorders.

But recent studies showed that

gut bacteria are also able to

communicate directly with the

brain through the vagus nerve (the

connective nerve between the brain

and the gut), through the immune

cells, and the chemicals that they

produce.


Furthermore, it was also found out

that the gut microbiome synthesizes

some neurochemicals which

are structurally the same as the

neurotransmitters that the brain

produces for controlling the human

body both psychologically and

physiologically. In the human body,

95% of serotonin, the hormone

which has an impact on mood

regulation, is again manufactured

by the gut microbiome. Besides,

there are 100 million neurons

found in the intestines that form the

enteric nervous system. That’s why

the gut is referred to as the “second

brain”.

Microorganisms that live inside

the human gut can influence the

brain and alter our state of mind,

emotions, behaviors, desires, or

even our decisions. For instance,

a group of bacteria might lead us

to become more sociable while

others can determine our food

choices. Those species might also

cause weight gain. Several pieces

of research conducted on rodents,

especially on mice, prove how

different bacteria have a role in

changing the mental state.

In 2011, with his colleagues at

McMaster University, Premsyl

Bercik experimented on the effect of

intestinal bacteria on two different

strains of mice. (They both were

raised in a sterile environment.)

The first one was the BALB/c mice

that are more anxious and timider.

The second one was the NIH Swiss

mice that are more courageous and

active. During the experiment, for

a week, BALB/c mice were given a

mixture of bacteria taken from the

intestines of NIH Swiss mice in their

drinking water and NIH Swiss mice

were given a mixture of gut bacteria

of BALB/c mice.

The results were intriguing and

obvious. The BALB/c mice became

less hesitant and less timid

during a series of tests. Besides,

after receiving the gut bacteria of

BALB/c mice, scientists observed

that the NIH Swiss mice were shy

and reluctant while completing

tests. There are also other studies

suggesting that the gut microbiome

has a significant influence on

psychology.

Finally, the influence of gut

microbes on the brain is a new

field of research that started to be

investigated a few years ago. The

complex structure of the human gut

might be studied more in the future

to explore its rich and powerful

microbiota that can control us.

33


Spotlight

34

Another Type of SARS-CoV-2

Virus Has Found in the UK

-

By Aylin D.

During vaccination studies of

COVID-19, it has been seen that

SARS-CoV-2 has mutated in Britain.

Since September, scientists in

Britain have been researching the

“new” kind of virus and nowadays,

they announced that the mutated

virus is more infectious than the

first one. Today, UK arrivals are

limited due to mutated virus and

experts work on the new variant

which is called SARS-CoV-2

VUI 202012/01 (variant under

investigation).

The variant’s effects are still

unclear, but according to the

research on the variant, it can be

said that it causes more severe

illness and spreads faster. Even

though the vaccine for coronavirus

has been found, scientists don’t

know that the manufactured

vaccine will prevent the new virus.

Nick Loman, a microbial genomics

professor at the University of

Birmingham, told The Washington

Post that the lineage came up quite

rapidly about the new virus. It is

not yet apparent that COVID-19

patients have increased faster since

September because of the variant.

The director of the Wellcome

Trust Biomedical Research

Foundation, Jeremy Farrar, stated

that the development of the virus is

“potentially serious” and the virus

must have been evolved by more

people getting infected. He added

that the virus mutation can be an

advantage or a disadvantage.


Scientists fear the other dangerous mutated

types of coronavirus such as 614D and 614G.

The 614D variant is the one that caused people

to get infected in spring. However, 614G is more

contagious and less receptive to antibodies. Even

though it seems impossible to scientists that a

serious kind of mutation, which normally happens

in years, can occur very quickly, they worry about

vaccines becoming ineffective.

35


Spotlight

36

Turkish Scientists Have

Developed A New Diagnostic

System to Detect Covid-19

-

By Burak K.

At Bilkent University National

Nanotechnology Research Center

(UNAM), a nanotechnology-based

diagnostic system has been

developed by Turkish researchers

to diagnose Covid-19 in 10 seconds

with 99 percent reliability and

without a nasal swab. The high

technology product “Diagnovir”

system made in Turkey and it is

aimed to replace the PCR tests.

Since the first COVID-19 cases

have emerged, Bilkent University

has been cooperating with the

government. Finally, the results of

the months of the study appeared to

be promising. In his announcement,

Bilkent University’s Rector

Dr. Abdullah Atalar praised the

UNAM researchers in the faculty

for their success in developing a

sophisticated system that can detect

viruses that are as little as 150

nanometers.

Moreover, Rector Dr. Abdullah Atalar

also mentioned the high accuracy

of the “Diagnovir” system. Indeed,

he stated that besides diagnosing

Covid-19 in less time, they also

examined that the people who

tested positive with the Diagnovir

system and tested negative in PCR

results turned out to be positive

in PCR tests after several days.

Further, Rector Dr. Abdullah Atalar

pointed out the low cost of the tests

and subsequently said that their

goal is to sell this technology all

over the world and concluded his

speech with good wishes about their

invention.

How does Diagnovir Detect

Coronavirus?

It is an optically based diagnostic

system that changes the color of the

glow in the presence of the virus,

thus detecting viruses with high

sensitivity. A sample from a patient

is mixed with a special solution,

then dropped onto the pathogen

detection chip, if there is a pathogen

given by the biosensor device, the

pathogen with a fluorescent signal

is detected with high accuracy.

Unlike the commonly used PCR

tests, the system is not based on


sample replication, but on detection

of the absence of the virus by

advanced optical methods. The

system uses optical and electronic

modules that provide precise and

selective virus detection.

expected soon. The product may be

available to the public in February

of 2021. The device can assist

in controling the pandemic and

significantly relieving restrictions

on social lives.

What is the Next Step for

Diagnovir?

As a fast and reliable virus

detection method, there is no

doubt that it will be widely used

in the world. Thus, the necessary

infrastructure investments for the

mass production of this biosensor

system have already started.

Approvals for the necessary permits

from the Ethics Committee and

Turkey Pharmaceuticals and

Medical Devices Agency (TITCK) are

37


Light-Bulb Moment

38

Neptune has completed only one orbit

around the Sun since its discovery!

-

By Zeynep M.

Neptune is the farthest planet from

the Sun with 2.8 billion miles (4.5

billion kilometers), which is more

than 30 times the Earth’s distance

from the Sun. It is the only planet

that can’t be seen by the naked eye

from the Earth. Of course, being

the farthest planet means having

the biggest orbit. It takes 165 Earth

years to complete its orbit around

the Sun. With that fact, since its

discovery, which was in 1846,

Neptune completed its first orbit

around the Sun in 2011.

Does liquid Helium have Superpowers?

-

By Duru E. C.

Helium is a gas that is lighter than

air. We also know that it makes

our voices higher by affecting the

medium, and it is used to inflate

balloons. Well, did you know that

when helium is in the form of a

liquid, it can still have anti-gravity

features?

Extremely cooled helium that

is cooler than 2.18 Kelvin, stops

to comply with the gravity laws

because unlike many liquids,

Helium never becomes solid.

Besides, low temperature helps

that all individual particles of liquid

Helium act as one big particle by

moving in harmony. Therefore, they

do not collide with each other. It is

called Bose-Einstein condensation.

It turns into a superfluid, a liquid

that flows without friction and it can

climb to walls and get out of its cup.


A liquid that stands as a Hedgehog back

-

By Duru E. C.

Some liquids can be affected by a

magnetic field. That means when

you put them next to a magnet,

you can observe an attraction

in their shape. They are called

Ferrofluid or magnetic liquid. But

how can a liquid be attracted by

magnets? These liquids have tiny

nanoparticles called magnetite in

them.

Magnetite is a paramagnetic

substance that can be magnetized in

the same direction as the magnetic

field lines which are formed by

a magnetic material. When a

paramagnetic fluid is exposed to a

strong vertical magnetic field, the

surface creates a regular pattern

of crests and troughs like a wave as

you can see in the picture.

Magnetite is free in liquids when

there is no magnetic field around.

However, it makes the liquid behave

like a magnetized solid when

they go into the magnetic field by

being polarized. This effect is not

permanent. When the magnet is

sent away, the liquid behaves as a

regular liquid again and magnetite

spreads out in it.

39


Light-Bulb Moment

40

A Rare Plant Species Developed

Camouflage Because of Humans!

-

Zehra N. T.

Fritillaria, a rare plant that has

survived for thousands of years

without any major changes has

developed camouflage to protect

itself against humans.

There are many rare living species

on earth. Among these species,

there are also some flowers. One of

them grows in the foothills of the

Hengduan Mountains in China. This

flower, called Fritillaria, is known

for its bright yellow leaves.

The most important natural enemy

of this flower is people. This plant,

which was constantly collected for

traditional medicine, developed a

new defense mechanism with the

increase of commercial gathering.

Now more subtle gray and brown

leaves began to bloom instead of

shiny yellow ones.


Any Food may Go Bad, but Honey?

-

By Mustafa Y. K.

Unlike other foods, preserved honey

does not spoil. Why is honey not

spoiled?

Food goes bad because of the

bacteria. These bacteria are

responsible for the spoilage and

they need a medium to survive.

The first condition is water content.

Most foods contain enough water

to create a habitat for bacteria to

survive in them, except for honey.

Honey’s water content ratio is lower

than their minimum requirement.

Also, during the production of

honey, oxidation of glucose occurs

in hydrogen peroxide and gluconic

acid. So, honey is produced in

an acidic environment which

creates an antimicrobial barrier

for microorganisms. Thanks to

this barrier and low water content,

honey is the only food that you can

consume without a best before date.

41


Time-Machine

42

FEBRUARY 2021

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thur

German philosopher and Nobel

Laureate physicist Werner Karl

Heisenberg died in 1976.

In 1907, Russian inventor and

chemist Dmitri Mendeleev died at

the age of 73. He is mostly known for

formulating the Periodic Law.

Soviet-made Luna 9 became the first

survivable landed spacecraft which

landed on the Moon in 1966.

In 1962 Mercury, V

Mars, Saturn becam

which could be obs

Earth.

01 02 03

In 1834, a Russian chemist and

inventor who is known for the

Periodic Law, Dmitri Ivanovich

Mendeleev was born.

The 112nd element, Copernicium

(Ununbium) with the symbol "Cn"

discovered by German scientist

Sigurd Hofmann in 1996.

In 1923, the first Nobel Laureate in

Physics (1901), Wilhelm Röntgen

died. He is most known for his

invention, X-rays.

In 1847, the invent

Thomas Edison was

08 09 10

15 16 17

Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, was

born in 1955.

In 1999, Chemist G

Seaborg died. He w

Prize for studies on

of plutonium and al

uranium elements t

102.

22 23 24


Time Machine

sday Friday Saturday Sunday

enus, Jupiter,

e conjunctions,

erved from the

In 2019, the prior human “in body”

treatment for a person with Hunter

Syndrome was announced by

biomedical scientists.

04 05 06 07

or of the light bulb

born.

Ernst Chain and Howard Walter

Florey, who invented this antibiotic,

first injected penicillin into a human

test subject in 1941.

11 12 13 14

In 1937, organic chemist Robert

Huber was born. He won the Nobel

Prize in Chemistry in 1988 for

securing the three-dimensional

structure of a protein complex that is

the basis.

18 19 20 21

lenn Theodore

on the Nobel

the discovery

l other transhrough

element

Nylon was discovered by Wallace

Hume Carothers in 1935.

25 26 27 28

43


44

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