MIT IDE Special Report: COVID-19 and The Impact On Our Digital Economy

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<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> AND THE IMPACT ON OUR DIGITAL ECONOMY

From pizza parlors to platform<br />

giants, frontline workers to CEOs,<br />

the <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> p<strong>and</strong>emic struck<br />

the economy a devastating blow..<br />

<strong>MIT</strong> <strong>IDE</strong> <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

Rapid Response Hub<br />

Research Areas<br />

<strong>Impact</strong> of<br />

government<br />

interventions <strong>and</strong><br />

social distancing on<br />

the p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

In the U.S., when the economy ground to a halt last<br />

spring, the digital economy boomed while the brick<br />

<strong>and</strong> mortar economy suffered tremendously. Nearly<br />

all businesses not only had to pivot, but make critical,<br />

unprecedented decisions. In the midst of the crisis,<br />

researchers at the <strong>MIT</strong> Initiative on the <strong>Digital</strong> <strong>Economy</strong><br />

(<strong>IDE</strong>) went to work analyzing data <strong>and</strong> mapping trends<br />

to guide business leaders <strong>and</strong> policymakers alike—with<br />

facts. What would be the impact of massive work-fromhome<br />

employment? How can supply chains be improved?<br />

Is the shift to telehealth now entrenched? And what role<br />

do social media platforms play in how the world has<br />

responded to vaccination <strong>and</strong> the overall crisis?<br />

Over the last year, our world-renowned research<br />

team worked tirelessly to provide timely, accurate,<br />

<strong>and</strong> data-informed analysis of the p<strong>and</strong>emic <strong>and</strong><br />

its effects. <strong>Our</strong> researchers have analyzed the vast<br />

impact of <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> on society, technology, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

global economy to provide actionable solutions for<br />

policymakers, business leaders, <strong>and</strong> citizens. We<br />

collaborated with the World Health Organization,<br />

Facebook, Safegraph, Praekelt, <strong>and</strong> Graphika Inc.<br />

to analyze millions of data points to help stop the<br />

spread of the coronavirus <strong>and</strong> to advise local <strong>and</strong><br />

global leaders on critical next steps. What follows<br />

are highlights of our year-long efforts.<br />

Economic fallout<br />

<strong>and</strong> business<br />

implications of<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>, <strong>and</strong><br />

post-p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

planning<br />

Fighting coronavirus<br />

misinformation <strong>and</strong><br />

bias, <strong>and</strong> the role of<br />

social media<br />

In this report<br />

<strong>Digital</strong> technology<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

3<br />

Spotlight:<br />

Dean Eckles<br />

4<br />

Spotlight:<br />

Sinan Aral<br />

6<br />

Spotlight:<br />

David R<strong>and</strong><br />

8<br />

Key<br />

takeaways<br />

Vaccine<br />


DEAN<br />

ECKLES<br />

@deaneckles<br />

Dean Eckles is the Mitsubishi Career<br />

Development Professor <strong>and</strong> an associate<br />

professor of marketing at <strong>MIT</strong> Sloan.<br />

He heads the Social Networks <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Digital</strong> Experimentation Research Group<br />

at the <strong>MIT</strong> <strong>IDE</strong>. His research primarily<br />

focuses on how technology <strong>and</strong> social<br />

interaction impact people’s response to<br />

the <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> p<strong>and</strong>emic.<br />

FULL BIO<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> BELIEFS, BEHAVIORS & NORMS SURVEY<br />

Dean Eckles, Sinan Aral, Alex Moehring, Avinash Collis, Kiran Garimella, <strong>and</strong><br />

M. Amin Rahimian<br />

Vaccine acceptance<br />

In collaboration with Facebook <strong>and</strong> Johns Hopkins University, <strong>and</strong> with<br />

input from experts at the World Health Organization <strong>and</strong> the Global<br />

Outbreak Alert <strong>and</strong> Response Network, the team fielded the world’s<br />

largest survey on <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> beliefs, behaviors, <strong>and</strong> perceptions. <strong>The</strong><br />

team found that providing accurate information about how others in<br />

their country practice <strong>and</strong> accept vaccination, mask wearing, or social<br />

distancing positively influenced their beliefs <strong>and</strong> intentions to accept<br />

a vaccine. Providing this type of information can partially correct<br />

individuals’ underestimation of how many others in their network,<br />

community, <strong>and</strong>/or country will accept a vaccine.<br />


4<br />

4<br />

4<br />

4<br />

34% of adults surveyed felt<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> risk was very<br />

dangerous to their community<br />

65% of adults surveyed said<br />

they would choose to get<br />

vaccinated if a vaccine for<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> became available<br />

55% of those surveyed felt it<br />

was extremely important to<br />

take preventative actions<br />

against the spread of <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

31.5% of survey respondents<br />

felt that people in their<br />

community think it is extremely<br />

important to take actions to<br />

prevent the spread of <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> Cost of Uncoordinated Responses<br />

to <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

Interdependence <strong>and</strong> the Cost of<br />

Uncoordinated Responses to <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

THE WORLD’S LARGEST <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> SURVEY TOUCHED 23 COUNTRIES<br />

A sample of Facebook users were invited to respond to the survey from<br />

the United States, India, United Kingdom, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil,<br />

Colombia, Italy, France, Germany, Romania, Pol<strong>and</strong>, Pakistan, Turkey,<br />

Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thail<strong>and</strong>, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines,<br />

Egypt, <strong>and</strong> Nigeria.<br />



Dean Eckles, Sinan Aral, Alex Moehring, Avinash Collis, Kiran<br />

Garimella, <strong>and</strong> M. Amin Rahimian<br />

Vaccine acceptance<br />

What affects people’s choice to accept or seek out safe<br />

<strong>and</strong> effective <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> vaccines? Eckles <strong>and</strong> his research<br />

team explore vaccine acceptance <strong>and</strong> specifically how<br />

social influence <strong>and</strong> the right public health messaging<br />

can influence people’s behavior regardless of their<br />

baseline beliefs.<br />

Surfacing norms to increase vaccine acceptance<br />

Op-ed with Sinan Aral: Why public health messaging<br />

should emphasize vaccine acceptance, not hesitancy<br />


WAVES<br />

‘Waves’ countries were surveyed continuously in two-week periods.<br />

‘Snapshot’ countries were surveyed once from July 1-August 3, 2020.<br />



EVALUATION OF U.S. <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />


Sinan Aral <strong>and</strong> Michael Zhao<br />

<strong>Impact</strong> of government interventions <strong>and</strong><br />

social distancing on the p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

Aral’s 2020 research showed that a local<br />

government’s social distancing policies<br />

can impact the health outcomes of other<br />

communities, regardless of geographical<br />

proximity. Peoples’ behaviors are influenced<br />

by their local communities <strong>and</strong> their<br />

social connectivity, <strong>and</strong> their perceptions<br />

of the effectiveness of local policies can<br />

be substantially altered by their social<br />

connections. <strong>The</strong> data shows that individuals’<br />

adherence to social distancing is impacted<br />

by the policies of the regions where their<br />

social network connections reside.<br />

SINAN<br />

ARAL<br />

@sinanaral<br />

Sinan Aral is the David Austin Professor of<br />

Management at <strong>MIT</strong> Sloan <strong>and</strong> the director<br />

of the <strong>MIT</strong> <strong>IDE</strong>. He is a global thought leader<br />

on social media, social networks, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

impact they have on the digital economy.<br />

Aral’s research focuses heavily on the<br />

efficacy of government policies in response<br />

to <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong> the impact that social<br />

media has had on the response. He also<br />

offers data-driven predictions of what lies<br />

ahead in a post-p<strong>and</strong>emic world.<br />

FULL BIO<br />

GOING REMOTE Previously a nice “option” for digital economy workers to consider working from home,<br />

the p<strong>and</strong>emic forced a paradigm shift that will likely make remote work the norm rather than the extreme.<br />

At the <strong>IDE</strong>, we are measuring it all.<br />


AFTER <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>?<br />

Featuring Sinan Aral<br />

Economic fallout <strong>and</strong> business implications of<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong> post-p<strong>and</strong>emic planning<br />

<strong>MIT</strong> Sloan’s Ideas Made to Matter spoke with<br />

Sinan Aral <strong>and</strong> four other experts at the <strong>MIT</strong> <strong>IDE</strong> to<br />

get their perspectives on how digital technology<br />

will impact the future of work in a post-p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

world. Social media enabled researchers like Aral<br />

to collect information from people around the world<br />

that would help inform global policy <strong>and</strong> response<br />

to the <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> p<strong>and</strong>emic.<br />

What Happens to Industry <strong>and</strong> Jobs After <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>?<br />


<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

Sinan Aral<br />

Economic fallout <strong>and</strong> business implications of<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong> post-p<strong>and</strong>emic planning<br />

<strong>MIT</strong> <strong>IDE</strong> Director Sinan Aral offers a five-point plan<br />

of action to stave off a global meltdown.<br />

At the start of the p<strong>and</strong>emic, Aral offered advice<br />

to business leaders <strong>and</strong> policymakers in an effort<br />

to preclude a cataclysmic economic disaster. <strong>On</strong>e<br />

year later, we reflect: How much of Aral’s advice<br />

was heeded? How is the economy faring?<br />

Economic Fallout from <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />


4<br />

4<br />

4<br />

4<br />

Counties under statewide shelter-inplace<br />

orders received 8%-14% less<br />

cross-state traffic compared to prep<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

levels.<br />

As expected, re-openings boosted<br />

travel to destination counties—<strong>and</strong><br />

their bars, restaurants, <strong>and</strong> beaches—<br />

by 12%-13%.<br />

When a location reopened <strong>and</strong><br />

another was still locked down, people<br />

from lockdown counties flooded to<br />

the reopened destination—by 11%-12%<br />

from nearby counties, <strong>and</strong> 24% from<br />

distant counties.<br />

If the origin location reopened but<br />

the destination was still closed, travel<br />

to both nearby <strong>and</strong> distant closed<br />

counties was curbed by 9%-17% <strong>and</strong><br />

21%-27% respectively.<br />

Study Reveals True Reasons for <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

Flare-ups<br />

<strong>The</strong> Interdependent <strong>Impact</strong>s of Regional<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> Reopenings in the United States<br />


SINAN<br />

IN THE<br />

MEDIA<br />

Social media giants like Facebook<br />

have gone ‘out of their way’ to make<br />

more information available<br />

Sinan Aral joined Yahoo! Finance’s <strong>On</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> Move panel to highlight how social<br />

media is h<strong>and</strong>ling information amid the<br />

coronavirus p<strong>and</strong>emic.<br />

Study: <strong>The</strong>re will be a “devastating cost<br />

of failure” if economic re-openings are<br />

not coordinated<br />

Read coverage of this study in the<br />

TechRepublic<br />

Read Sinan’s op-ed on this topic in<br />

<strong>The</strong> Hill<br />

Watch Sinan’s interview with WGBH<br />

on this topic<br />

Watch Sinan’s interview with<br />

MSNBC’s Meet the Press on this topic<br />

THE COST OF UNCOORDINATED RESPONSES TO <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

Dean Eckles, Sinan Aral, David Holtza, Michael Zhao, Seth G. Benzell, Cathy Y.<br />

Caoa, M. Amin Rahimiana, Jeremy Yanga, Jennifer Allena, Avinash Collisa, Alex<br />

Moehringa, Tara Sowrirajanc, Dipayan Ghosha, Yunhao Zhanga, Paramveer S.<br />

Dhillone, <strong>and</strong> Christos Nicolaides<br />

<strong>Impact</strong> of government interventions <strong>and</strong> social distancing on<br />

the p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

Eckles <strong>and</strong> his research team produced a comprehensive<br />

study of the cost of uncoordinated U.S. responses to <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>, <strong>and</strong><br />

found that ad hoc local shutdowns <strong>and</strong> re-openings underscored an<br />

urgent need for intervention on a national level. Findings show that<br />

people can be significantly influenced by the policies <strong>and</strong> behaviors<br />

of those in other, sometimes distant, regions. <strong>The</strong> research shows<br />

that countries <strong>and</strong> states that reopen without national coordination<br />

face significant difficulty controlling the resurgent spread of the<br />

coronavirus. When people move across borders with relative ease,<br />

there is a substantial, <strong>and</strong> often deadly, impact.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Cost of Uncoordinated Responses to <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

Interdependence <strong>and</strong> the Cost of Uncoordinated<br />

Responses to <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />


Seth Benzell, Avinash Collis, <strong>and</strong> Christos Nicolaides<br />

<strong>Impact</strong> of government interventions <strong>and</strong> social distancing on<br />

the p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

As a direct response to the policies that were enacted in certain U.S.<br />

states, researchers at the <strong>IDE</strong> conducted a study that would<br />

aid policymakers in the absence of empirical data. <strong>The</strong> researchers<br />

studied data—based on millions of smartphone geolocation data<br />

points <strong>and</strong> government statistics—across all 50 states to determine<br />

which areas <strong>and</strong> types of businesses would be the highest risk to<br />

reopen, <strong>and</strong> assess the priority of reopening certain businesses or<br />

practices over others.<br />

<strong>The</strong> hope was that policymakers would use the data to make better<br />

informed decisions. According to <strong>IDE</strong> researchers, some U.S. states<br />

enacted policies that directly contradicted the research findings.<br />

“What is social media’s impact<br />

on society—<strong>and</strong> how do we<br />

regulate it, use it, design it, <strong>and</strong><br />

harness it to create positive<br />

outcomes rather than peril?<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> put this question<br />

front <strong>and</strong> center because<br />

everyone was forced into<br />

remote socialization.”<br />

Sinan Aral, What Happens to Industry <strong>and</strong> Jobs<br />

After <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>?<br />

Data Analytics Holds the Key to Re-opening the U.S.<br />


FIGHTING <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />


MEDIA: EXPERIMENTAL EV<strong>IDE</strong>NCE<br />



David R<strong>and</strong>, Gordon Pennycook, Jonathon<br />

McPhetres, <strong>and</strong> Yunhao Zhang<br />

Fighting coronavirus misinformation <strong>and</strong><br />

bias <strong>and</strong> the role of social media<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> p<strong>and</strong>emic has bred a multitude<br />

of falsehoods that are being spread across<br />

every social platform around the globe.<br />

<strong>IDE</strong> researchers investigated the science<br />

behind the spread of misinformation, <strong>and</strong><br />

why people are prone to believing <strong>and</strong><br />

spreading false news. Across two studies<br />

with more than 1,600 participants, the<br />

researchers found that people share false<br />

claims about <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> in part because they<br />

simply fail to think sufficiently about whether<br />

or not content is accurate when deciding<br />

what to share.<br />

VACCINE MISINFORMATION Politics, geography, <strong>and</strong> race all expose the barriers we must overcome<br />

to reach herd immunity through <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> vaccination.<br />

Fighting <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> Misinformation on<br />

Social Media<br />

DAVID<br />

RAND<br />

@DG_R<strong>and</strong><br />

David R<strong>and</strong> is the Erwin H. Schell Professor<br />

<strong>and</strong> an associate professor of Management<br />

Science <strong>and</strong> Brain <strong>and</strong> Cognitive Sciences<br />

at <strong>MIT</strong> Sloan, <strong>and</strong> leads the Misinformation<br />

<strong>and</strong> Fake News Research Group at the <strong>MIT</strong><br />

<strong>IDE</strong>. R<strong>and</strong>’s research focuses on the spread<br />

of misinformation about the <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

p<strong>and</strong>emic, <strong>and</strong> the psychology behind<br />

the perceptions <strong>and</strong> biases that fuel<br />

society’s response.<br />

FULL BIO<br />

BELIEFS ABOUT <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> IN CANADA,<br />




David R<strong>and</strong>, Gordon Pennycook, Jonathon McPhetres,<br />

<strong>and</strong> Bence Bago<br />

Fighting coronavirus misinformation <strong>and</strong><br />

bias <strong>and</strong> the role of social media<br />

In a two-wave study completed early <strong>and</strong> later<br />

in the p<strong>and</strong>emic, R<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> his team found that<br />

political conservatism in the U.S. contributed<br />

to a greater polarization around beliefs about<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> than in the U.K. <strong>and</strong> Canada.<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> skepticism in the U.S. was strongly<br />

correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning<br />

mainstream news outlets <strong>and</strong> trust in<br />

conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting<br />

that polarization may be driven by differences<br />

in information environments.<br />

Beliefs about <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> in Canada, the<br />

U.K., <strong>and</strong> the U.S.A.<br />


PERCEPTIONS OF FUTURE <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />


David R<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> Charles Senteio<br />

Vaccine acceptance<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is no denying that <strong>COVID</strong> is a global<br />

health <strong>and</strong> economic crisis, but communities<br />

of color continue to experience higher<br />

infection <strong>and</strong> mortality rates <strong>and</strong> financial<br />

strain. Coupled with the preexisting issue<br />

of persistent mistrust of the healthcare<br />

system, this has created a widespread issue<br />

with vaccine acceptance among minority<br />

populations. R<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> his fellow researcher<br />

at <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong> Race, Charles Senteio are<br />

actively studying this issue to offer datadriven<br />

recommendations <strong>and</strong> analysis.<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong> Race<br />

80%<br />

70%<br />

60%<br />

50%<br />

40%<br />

30%<br />

20%<br />

10%<br />

0%<br />

TRUE<br />

FALSE<br />


Percentage of “yes” responses by headline<br />

veracity (true vs false) <strong>and</strong> condition (accuracy<br />

= “To the best of your knowledge, is the claim<br />

in the above headline accurate?”; sharing =<br />

“Would you consider sharing this story online<br />

(for example, through Facebook or Twitter)?”).<br />

Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.<br />


“<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />

presents<br />

a unique<br />

opportunity<br />

to test<br />

psychological<br />

theories<br />

about political<br />

polarization<br />

<strong>and</strong> science<br />

beliefs in the<br />

context of<br />

a novel test<br />

case.”<br />

Beliefs about <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> in Canada,<br />

the U.K., <strong>and</strong> the U.S.A.: A novel test<br />

of political polarization <strong>and</strong> motivated<br />

reasoning by David R<strong>and</strong> et al.<br />




<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> PREVENTION<br />


David R<strong>and</strong>, Jillian Jordan, <strong>and</strong> Erez Yoeli<br />

<strong>Impact</strong> of government interventions <strong>and</strong><br />

social distancing on the p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

Should public health messaging focus on<br />

the benefits of prevention to individuals,<br />

society, or both? How can we motivate<br />

preventative actions? R<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> his team<br />

of researchers found strong evidence<br />

for the power of prosocial framing.<br />

<strong>The</strong> results of their study suggest that<br />

emphasizing the public benefits of<br />

prevention efforts may be an effective<br />

p<strong>and</strong>emic response strategy.<br />

Don’t Get It or Don’t Spread It?<br />

TURKING IN THE TIME OF <strong>COVID</strong><br />

David R<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> Antonio Arechar<br />

Economic fallout <strong>and</strong> business implications<br />

of <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong> post-p<strong>and</strong>emic planning<br />

Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk, is a crowdsourcing website<br />

for businesses to hire remotely located “crowdworkers” to<br />

perform discrete on-dem<strong>and</strong> tasks that computers are currently<br />

unable to do. R<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> his research team studied the effects that<br />

government shutdowns <strong>and</strong> strict social distancing protocols had<br />

on the job market, <strong>and</strong> specifically, how the p<strong>and</strong>emic is affecting<br />

online labor markets like MTurk. <strong>The</strong>se online labor markets play<br />

a significant role in social science research, <strong>and</strong> they explore<br />

whether the p<strong>and</strong>emic has had any effect on the subject pool<br />

available on crowdsourcing marketplaces.<br />


MESSAGING MATTERS After subjects finished reading the text in the experiment, they were<br />

asked to carefully read a flier about <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>. This flier varied across treatments, again by<br />

emphasizing threat to the subject, their community, or both.<br />


ACTIVITY AFTER <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>: EV<strong>IDE</strong>NCE FROM A<br />


David R<strong>and</strong>, Juan Palacios,Yichun Fan, Erez Yoeli, Jianghao Wang,<br />

Yuchen Chai, Weizeng Sun, <strong>and</strong> Siqi Zheng<br />

Economic fallout <strong>and</strong> business implications<br />

of <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong> post-p<strong>and</strong>emic planning<br />

As the spread of the <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> p<strong>and</strong>emic diminishes,<br />

governments find themselves facing a new challenge:<br />

motivating citizens to resume economic activity. R<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

his team investigate this issue using a field experiment in<br />

the city of Zhengzhou, China, immediately following the end<br />

of the city’s <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> lockdown.<br />

Turking in the Time of <strong>COVID</strong><br />

Encouraging the resumption of economic activity after<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong><br />


KEY<br />


OUR WORK<br />


<strong>The</strong> impact of<br />

government<br />

interventions<br />

<strong>and</strong> social<br />

distancing on<br />

the p<strong>and</strong>emic is<br />

critical.<br />

<strong>The</strong> lack of a coordinated,<br />

national government response<br />

to the p<strong>and</strong>emic had varying<br />

effects on the population’s<br />

response to social distancing<br />

measures. <strong>The</strong> <strong>IDE</strong> research<br />

team analyzed the data <strong>and</strong><br />

explored the varying degrees<br />

of effectiveness in controlling<br />

the spread of the virus.<br />

Post-p<strong>and</strong>emic<br />

planning is<br />

key to the<br />

economic fallout<br />

<strong>and</strong> business<br />

implications of<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>.<br />

<strong>The</strong> p<strong>and</strong>emic will have<br />

lasting effects on the world’s<br />

economy. <strong>IDE</strong> researchers<br />

explore everything from<br />

reopening strategies <strong>and</strong><br />

the resumption of economic<br />

activity, to industry trends<br />

<strong>and</strong> jobs in our new reality.<br />

Social media<br />

has a huge role<br />

in creating<br />

<strong>and</strong> fighting<br />

coronavirus<br />

misinformation<br />

<strong>and</strong> bias.<br />

<strong>IDE</strong> researchers investigate<br />

the science behind the<br />

spread of misinformation,<br />

the influence social media<br />

has on people’s beliefs<br />

about the p<strong>and</strong>emic, <strong>and</strong><br />

why people are prone to<br />

believing <strong>and</strong> spreading<br />

false news.<br />

<strong>Digital</strong><br />

technology<br />

helped track<br />

<strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

transformed<br />

the nature of<br />

work.<br />

<strong>The</strong> p<strong>and</strong>emic has spurred<br />

rapid developments in<br />

the technology space.<br />

Researchers at the <strong>IDE</strong><br />

explore the role that digital<br />

technology—such as AI <strong>and</strong><br />

remote access—has played in<br />

healthcare <strong>and</strong> business, <strong>and</strong><br />

how it’s helped governments<br />

track p<strong>and</strong>emic patterns.<br />

Vaccine<br />

acceptance<br />

is still<br />

unfolding<br />

but there are<br />

remedies for<br />

improvement.<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>IDE</strong> is on the cutting<br />

edge of vaccine acceptance<br />

research. Researchers<br />

have conducted the<br />

world’s largest survey on<br />

vaccine acceptance <strong>and</strong><br />

are actively studying the<br />

effects of messaging <strong>and</strong><br />

misinformation on peoples’<br />

beliefs <strong>and</strong> biases regarding<br />

the <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> vaccine.<br />

<strong>Digital</strong> technology has been a balm to<br />

the wounds of the p<strong>and</strong>emic. From data<br />

analytics to newly created platforms, <strong>IDE</strong><br />

researchers are contributing solutions<br />

with long-lasting impact to the enormous<br />

problems caused by <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>.<br />

<strong>Our</strong> researchers are global thought<br />

leaders at the forefront of the<br />

conversations surrounding <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong>.<br />

<strong>The</strong>ir groundbreaking <strong>and</strong> ongoing work<br />

continues to aid policymakers in creating<br />

actionable solutions to this health <strong>and</strong><br />

economic crisis.<br />

<strong>The</strong> focus of our research continues to<br />

evolve at the same rapid pace of the<br />

p<strong>and</strong>emic. To stay abreast of the important<br />

work we’re doing on this timely topic, visit<br />

our <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> Rapid Response Hub for<br />

additional resources <strong>and</strong> further reading.<br />

<strong>IDE</strong> <strong>COVID</strong>-<strong>19</strong> RAPID RESPONSE HUB<br />

Learn about future events, research projects, book releases, <strong>and</strong> other noteworthy happenings at the <strong>IDE</strong>.<br />



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