grammar rules 5

matildaeducation

AWARD- D-WINNI NNING SERIES

5

Second edition

Tanya Gibb

Grammar in the real world


Second edition

Tanya Gibb

STUDENT BOOK5

Grammar in the real world

Name:

Class:


Grammar Rules!

Grammar Rules! comprehensively meets the requirements of the Australian Curriculum English. The scope and

sequence outlined on pages 4–5 integrates Language, Literature and Literacy to develop students’ knowledge,

understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking and representing.

Grammar Rules! also supports the New Zealand English Curriculum strands: Listening, Reading and Viewing;

and Speaking, Writing and Presenting. Students will use processes and strategies to develop knowledge, skills

and understandings, related to purposes and audiences, ideas, language features and structure.

Grammar can be defined as the way language is organised to make meaning. Knowledge of the grammatical

features that make language use more effective is vital for all students. They need an understanding of

grammar to be able to make appropriate choices to get their message across in speaking and writing

(creating texts); and they need to know how to analyse the language used by others when they are listening

and reading (interpreting texts). Grammatical knowledge will assist students to become analytical, critical and

evaluative language users.

Grammar Rules! shows students how grammatical structures and features function in texts to achieve meaning,

from the contextual level of the whole text down to sentence level and to the level of words and word

parts. The series explains appropriate grammatical structures for particular types of texts, language functions

and social purposes.

Student Book 5

Units of work

Student Book 5 contains 35 weekly units of work presented in a conceptually sound scope and sequence. The

intention is for students to work through the units in the sequence in which they are presented. See the

Scope and Sequence Chart on pages 4–5 for more information. There are also regular Revision Units that

can be used for consolidation or assessment purposes.

The sample texts in Student Book 5 are based around the theme of space. The subject matter of the sample

texts is not tied to any particular content across other curriculum areas. This allows teachers and students

to focus on the way language is structured according to purpose and audience. Students can then use this

knowledge to evaluate, respond to and create texts in other learning areas. The concepts in the sample texts

link well with the Cross-Curriculum Priority of Sustainability, as well the General Capabilities of Critical and

Creative Thinking, Personal and Social Capability, Ethical Understanding and Intercultural Understanding, as

described in the Australian Curriculum.

Icons

Note to teachers and parents

Try it

yourself!

Encourages students to create texts of their own to demonstrate their understanding of the

grammatical concepts taught in the unit. These activities focus on written language; however,

many also provide opportunities for using spoken language to engage with others, make

presentations and develop skills in using ICT.

Rule!

Highlights useful grammatical rules and

concepts. The rule is always introduced

the first time students need it to

complete an activity.

Tip!

Tells students that a special hint is provided

for an activity. It might be a tip about language

functions, or a reminder to look at a rule in a

previous unit.

2

Grammar Rules Glossary

A valuable glossary is provided at the end of Student Book 5. Teachers and students can use this as a

straightforward dictionary of grammar terminology, or as a summary of important grammar rules used in

Student Book 5. Page references are also given for the point in the book where the rule was first introduced,

so that students can go back to that unit if they need more information or further revision of the rule.


Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016

Pull-Out Writing Log

At the centre of Student Book 5 is a practical pull-out Writing Log so that students can directly relate

the grammar they learn back to their own writing. Students could store the Writing Log in their writing

folders, and use it to keep track of the grammar, language functions and types of texts they use. The

Writing Log also includes a handy reminder of the writing process, as well as a checklist of types of texts

and text forms for students to try.

Grammar Rules!

's Writing Log

I Think

What is your topic?

What is the purpose of the writing?

Who is the audience?

What type of text and text form will you use?

3 Revise

Check your writing for meaning and ideas.

Have you chosen the best words and

phrases for your topic?

Do you need to add anything?

Do you need to take anything away?

Do you need to move anything?

Check your writing for structure.

Does the structure match the type of

text you chose?

Are your ideas well-sequenced with

connectives?

Do the personal pronouns match the nouns?

Read your writing to a partner.

Read your writing to your teacher.

Ask for advice about your writing.

2

Draft

Gather your ideas.

Organise your ideas.

Write a draft.

4 Proofread

Polish your writing.

Check your grammar.

Check your spelling.

Check your punctuation.

5 Publish

Publish your writing.

Share your writing.

Reflect on your writing.

Create symbols

for a rating scale.

Then each time

you finish a piece

of writing, record

it in the log.

My rating scale

Symbol Meaning

Do you need

some ideas for

other text forms

to try? Look at

the back page!

Date

Write the

date.

Title

Write the title of your

piece.

Text type

Audience Grammar I used My rating Where to next?

and text form

eg recount/ Who were you List the main grammar features you used. Record your What grammar could you try next?

letter writing for or to?

rating.

How could you improve your writing?

Does your teacher have any comments?

I've tried these types of texts and text forms . . .

Narrative (imaginative)

Explanation (informative)

Story

Magazine article

Play script

Reference book

Comic

Other

Ballad

Exposition (persuasive)

Other

(argues one side of an issue)

Recount (imaginative or informative)

Debate

Letter

Speech

Biography

Letter to editor

Autobiography

Editorial

Newspaper article

TV advertisement

Other

Magazine advertisement

Radio advertisement

Description

Leaflet

(imaginative or informative)

Other

Poem

Story

Discussion (persuasive) (presents

Play script

more than one side of an issue)

Biography

Conversation

Other

TV interview

Talk-back radio

Information report (informative)

Dialogue in a story

Scientific report

Panel discussion

Website

Other

Magazine article

Documentary

Response (persuasive)

Other

Film or book review

Diary or journal

Procedure (informative)

Poem

Cookbook

Other

Instruction manual

Game rules

Other

i

ii

Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016 Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016 iii iv

Unit at a Glance

Unit tag

States the main

grammar focus

Type of text

description

Highlights the

type of text and

purpose and

any particular

grammar focus of

the sample text

Rule!

Introduces

students to a

new concept

Grammar Rules! Teacher Resource Book 3-6

Full teacher support for Student Book 5 is provided by Grammar Rules! Teacher Resource Book 3–6.

Here you will find valuable background information about grammar, along with practical resources, such as:

N strategies for teaching grammar N teaching tips for every unit in Student Book 5

N grammar games and activities N answers for every unit in Student Book 5

N assessment strategies

Text sample

Illustrates the grammar focus

at work, in the real context

of a specific type of text

8Unit

7

Prepositional

phrases,

possessive

adjectives

This imaginative

text is an excerpt from

a narrative. It uses

prepositional phrases

to set the scene.

Through the Doorway

Ronnie looked out her window at the blinding light that

was coming from the neighbourhood park. She grabbed

her jumper out of the closet and snuck out the back door

without a sound. She wheeled her bike onto the street,

then climbed on and headed down the road to the park.

Ronnie was astonished to see that all the light was coming

from a small shoe-sized box. She knelt down next to it

and lifted the lid. Inside was a remote control. Ronnie

picked it up. A red light in the centre started flashing.

Without thinking, Ronnie pushed the red button. Bang!

An ear-splitting noise shattered the night. She jumped back

quickly and before her eyes the remote turned into a

gigantic doorway. Ronnie peered inside.

Possessive adjectives are words in a noun or noun group

that show ownership.

Rule!

his window her remote control

his her their your my our its

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and

another word.

Rule!

in on under with beside

5 The word her is used in Through the Doorway as a possessive adjective.

A prepositional phrase is a preposition linked to a noun or noun group.

Underline it in the text. Notice that it comes before a noun each time.

They can tell where. near the stove under the bed in the kitchen cupboard

They can tell when. during the night after the storm

6 Use a possessive adjective from the box to show ownership in each sentence.

They can tell how. with feeling in a funny way

their her his your my our

I Read Through the Doorway. Underline the prepositional phrases that tell where.

Here, take

compass with you.

2 Circle the prepositions in Through the Doorway. Why do you think the author has used so many? What

They ran to catch

rocket.

effect does this have on the narrative?

Give me

hand.

Ask Giselle if you can borrow

helmet.

Ian has forgotten

jet pack!

There’s

base camp.

3 Finish each sentence with a prepositional phrase that tells where.

Try it

Victoria walked .

Write a narrative titled Through the Doorway. You could continue

yourself! the story started in this unit or create your own magic doorway. Use

The cat sat .

prepositional phrases and adverbs to set the scene. Ask a peer to help

The galaxy was located .

edit your story.

We watched the fireworks .

Prepositional phrase; adverbs; adjectives; possessive adjectives

18 19

Tip!

Tip!

Reminds or gives

a special hint

Be careful not to confuse adverbs with adjectives.

Some words can be either an adverb or an adjective.

It was a fast car. fast = adjective

She drives very fast. fast = adverb

Remember that a word functions as an adjective if it describes a noun,

but as an adverb if it describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

4 Underline the adverb in each sentence. Circle the verb it describes.

Ronnie pushed the button recklessly.

Ronnie is an inquisitive person and she peered cautiously through the doorway.

Ronnie looked inquisitively at the remote.

Ronnie could see clearly through the well-lit doorway.

Being a clever girl, Ronnie decided to approach carefully.

The remote buzzed loudly.

Sequenced activities

Each activity focuses

on a specific aspect of

grammar

Try it yourself!

Gives students the

opportunity to apply

grammar in the context of

their own texts using the

sample texts as models.

Provides opportunities

for planning, drafting

and editing texts and

using software and word

processing programs to

publish them

Footer

Lists the full grammar

focus covered in the unit

3


4

Scope and Sequence

Clause to whole text level

Unit

Unit name/

Sentences Cohesion: theme, Mood and

Type of text and pronouns, lexical modality,

clauses chains, connectives language and

vocabulary

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

A Doggy Heroine

Information report

Battle for the Planets

Narrative

The Eagle has

Landed

Recount/Newspaper

article

Glittery Moon

Narrative

A Movie Classic

Response/Film review

Through the Doorway

Narrative

Valentina Tereshkova

Recount/Biography

Galactic Airways

Exposition/

Advertisement

The Columbus of the

Cosmos

Recount/Biography

Amateur Astronomer

Recount

Save Planet Earth

Discussion/Interview

transcript

Earth Day

Information report

The Black Hole

Narrative

Does Life Exist on

Other Planets?

Discussion

Life on Earth

Information report

simple and

compound

sentences;

clauses

clauses;

simple

sentences;

commas

complex

sentences; main

clause and

subordinate

clauses

quoted (direct)

speech

ellipses; complex

sentences;

subordinate

clauses

This scope and sequence chart is based on the requirements of the Australian Curriculum.

conjunctions

(connectives): and, so,

because, but, or, until;

personal pronouns: she,

her, he, him, it

conjunctions

(connectives): as, and,

while

relative pronouns: who,

whose, that, which

theme

theme; personal

pronouns

conjunctions

(connectives); relative

pronouns; possessive

pronouns: mine, ours,

yours, his, hers, theirs

relative pronouns

connectives: or, similarly,

however, on the other

hand, because, although,

unless, therefore,

alternatively, likewise

technical terms

modality

REVISION

commands;

modality with

positive and

negative polarity

modality

REVISION

acronyms

statements

and questions;

question tags

REVISION

Nouns and noun groups

noun groups including

adjectives; proper nouns;

collective nouns

noun groups; descriptive and

classifying adjectives

adjectives; possessive

adjectives

Word and word group level

apostrophes of possession

nominalisation; noun groups

including possessive adjectives,

articles, number adjectives,

descriptive adjectives,

classifying adjectives

noun groups; nominalisation;

adjectives

Verbs and

verb groups

auxiliary verbs;

subject-verb

agreement

verbs

verb groups;

thinking and feeling

verbs; saying verbs;

auxiliary verbs

relating verbs

(being and having

verbs); doing verbs

doing verbs; verb

tense

past tense; regular

and irregular verbs

auxiliary verbs;

thinking and feeling

verbs

verb groups

relating verbs

(being and having

verbs)

Adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

adverbs and

adverb groups

modal adverbs

prepositional

phrases;

adverbs

adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

modal adverbs

adverbs


Clause to whole text level

Unit

Unit name/

Sentences Cohesion: theme, Mood and

Type of text and pronouns, lexical modality,

clauses chains, connectives language and

vocabulary

19

20

21

22

23

Cosmonaut Cookies

Procedure/Recipe

Film Review

Response/Film review

Dear Mr Armstrong

Response/Letter

Alien

Description/Poem

Ecological Footprint

Information report

addressing

envelopes;

commas

colons

clauses;

commas

Nouns and noun

groups

Verbs and verb

groups

theme commands noun groups verbs; present tense;

past tense suffixes and

auxiliaries

conjunctions

(connectives): or, and

relative pronouns:

who, whose,

which; conjunctions

(connectives): so, both,

neither/nor, either/or,

because

fact and opinion;

evaluative

language;

modality;

exclamations

evaluative

language

metaphor

adjectives

noun groups;

descriptive and

classifying adjectives

nominalisation

Word and word group level

Adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

adverbs

adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

24

REVISION

25

Mass Panic – UFO

Terrorises City

Information report/

Newspaper article

quoted

(direct) and

reported

(indirect)

speech

emotive

language; gender

inclusive language

26

Mars, the Red Planet

Description

noun groups;

superlative and

comparative adjectives;

adjectival phrases

relating verbs (being

and having verbs)

27

How is the Earth

Magnetic?

Explanation

technical terms past and present tense prepositional

phrases to tell

how, where and

when

28

Who Needs Science?

Response/Letter to the

editor

connectives to link

arguments

modality;

vocatives

29

Today’s Debate

Exposition/Parliamentary

debate

vocatives;

emotive language

30

REVISION

31

Dear Diary

Response/Diary

colloquial

language; similes;

metaphors

noun groups

thinking and feeling

verbs; relating verbs;

auxiliary verbs

32

What to Do if

Aliens Land in Your

Neighbourhood

Procedure/Instructions

conjunctions

(connectives): if; theme

commands;

tongue-in-cheek

humour

verbs; present tense

33

Andy Thomas, Astronaut

Recount/Biography

connectives; reference

chains

fact and opinion

adding suffixes to form

nouns for people

34

The Cost of the Space

Program

Discussion

connectives: on

the other hand,

nevertheless, whereas,

despite, however, yet,

though; lexical chains

point of view

35

REVISION

5


Unit

I

Sentences,

pronouns

This informative

text is an information

report. It uses simple and

compound sentences to

provide information.

A Doggy Heroine

The first animal to orbit Earth was a dog named

Laika. She was sent to space in a Soviet Union

spacecraft named Sputnik II in 1957. Laika was a

stray dog caught on the streets of Moscow and

she was nicknamed ‘Muttnik’ by the American

media. While in space, her heart rate and other

vital signs were monitored so that scientists could

determine whether it was safe to send humans

into orbit. She was harnessed into the spacecraft

but she could reach her food and water. The

mission was not a return mission and there was

never any intention to bring Laika home. There

is some debate among scientists about how long

Laika survived in space.

Rule!

A clause is a group of words that expresses an idea and contains a verb.

A simple sentence is a single clause.

A compound sentence is a sentence that contains more than one clause. Each clause

makes sense on its own.

I

Read A Doggy Heroine. How many sentences does it contain?

2

Write whether each sentence is a simple or compound sentence.

Laika was born in Moscow.

Laika was the first animal to orbit the Earth and she became famous.

Laika was harnessed into the spacecraft.

Laika was the first animal to orbit Earth but she was not the first animal in space.

Rule!

Conjunctions are joining words. They link clauses in a sentence.

and so because but or until

3

Cross out the incorrect conjunction in each example.

Laika ran out of oxygen (so/or) she died.

Laika died (so/because) she ran out of oxygen.

The dog’s name was Laika (but/so) the media called her ‘Muttnik’.

6

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Join the simple sentences using conjunctions.

Laika was harnessed into the spacecraft. She didn’t move around too much.

Some scientists believe Laika showed no ill effects of her space flight. The oxygen ran out. She died.

Laika was a stray dog. No-one protested Laika’s journey into space.

Laika died in space. She became famous.

Rule!

Pronouns replace nouns.

Personal pronouns replace nouns for people, animals and things.

5

Circle the personal pronouns in A Doggy Heroine.

Tip!

The personal pronoun it is often used to refer to an animal.

The personal pronoun she is used in A Doggy Heroine. This makes Laika seem more human.

6

Use a personal pronoun from the box to complete each sentence.

him he it it her she

Laika ate her dinner and then

licked her lips.

Ralph, the dog, sat under his favourite tree while

I bought a new lunch box and took

to school.

My cat was sick so I took

to the vet.

Lena doesn’t like it when I tickle .

Russell is funny, but don’t tell

I said so!

waited for dinner.

7

Rewrite the pair of simple sentences as one compound sentence. Use a conjunction and a personal pronoun.

Laika was a stray dog. The media named Laika ‘Muttnik’.

Try it

yourself!

Find out about some other animals that were sent into space, such as

spiders, monkeys or mice. Write an information report. Use conjunctions

to connect clauses in the sentences. Use pronouns to refer to the animals.

Simple and compound sentences; clauses; conjunctions (connectives): and, so, because, but, or, until; personal pronouns: she, her, he, him, it

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

7


Unit

2

Nouns

groups

This imaginative

text is an excerpt from

a narrative. It uses noun

groups to represent

people and things.

Battle for the Planets

In the deep wilderness of space, there lived a peaceful community of

Ferlings. The Ferlings were kind, gentle, nomadic creatures. For centuries,

they had roamed from planet to planet, constantly under threat of

attack by the not-so-friendly Grimlies, of the planet Grima. One day a

group of Ferlings was collecting sweet, juicy Moonberries and tasty little

Jupiternuts when they realised that a gang of huge, fierce Grimlies was

moving towards them. They quickly and quietly transported themselves

behind a nearby rocky outcrop and, hoping that the Grimlies wouldn’t

see them, waited until they thought the coast was clear before hopping

out. They were wrong!

Rule!

A noun group is a group of words that contains a noun. The other words in the noun

group tell more about the noun.

We approached the enormous cratered planet.

A noun group can contain more than one noun. The extra noun

or nouns tell more about the main noun.

the planet with red oceans

main noun

noun

I

Read Battle for the Planets. Write some adjectives that could describe these nouns from the story.

Ferling

Moonberries

space

Grimly

planet

Jupiternuts

2

Write adjectives to describe each noun.

classroom

school

homework

library

8

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

In Battle for the Planets underline the noun groups containing adjectives. The first one is the deep

wilderness of space.

4

Ferlings and Grimlies each begin with a capital letter because they are proper nouns. They are the names

for creatures from particular places. Write the proper nouns for people from the following places.

Australia

Iraq

Japan

Somalia

Earth

Germany

Mars

England

Rule!

An auxiliary verb helps another verb in a verb group.

is called

5

Underline the auxiliary verb in each sentence. Circle the verb groups.

The alien was flying.

Joseph is jumping.

The star has exploded.

The children were giggling.

The Grimly was shouting.

Rule!

A plural noun needs a matching auxiliary verb.

A singular noun needs a matching auxiliary verb.

Collective nouns are singular.

Grimlies were coming.

A Grimly was coming.

The gang was coming.

6

Circle the collective nouns in Battle for the Planets.

7

Circle the auxiliary verb that matches each underlined noun.

A group of Grimlies (are/is) setting a trap.

The dogs (were/was) running through the park.

A pack of wolves (was/were) hunting.

The seagulls (is/are) flying overhead.

The boy (is/are) going to be late.

The pod of whales (are/is) moving north past Moreton Bay.

The herd (is/are) heading for the river.

Try it

yourself!

Write an ending for the narrative Battle for the Planets. Or write a

narrative of your own about creatures from outer space. Create interesting

descriptions of characters and settings using noun groups with adjectives.

Noun groups including adjectives; proper nouns; collective nouns; auxiliary verbs; subject-verb agreement

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

9


Unit

3

Clauses,

commas

This informative

text is a recount in the

form of a newspaper article.

It uses complex sentences

with many clauses to carry

the information.

Daily News, 20 July 1969

THE EAGLE HAS LANDED

An estimated 700 million

people around the world

watched in awe as the lunar

module Eagle landed in the

dusty Sea of Tranquillity,

and its Commander, Neil

Armstrong, and Lunar Module

Pilot, Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin,

stepped onto the surface of the

Moon, while the Command

Module Pilot, Michael Collins,

orbited above them.

Apollo 11 was launched on

16th July from the Kennedy

Space Centre in Florida. The

astronauts spent two and a half

hours on the surface taking

photographs, collecting rocks

and drilling core samples.

Tip!

The first paragraph of a newspaper article is called the lead paragraph. Its aim is to get

readers interested and deliver the most important parts of the news. The lead paragraph

can include sentences with many clauses.

I

2

Read The Eagle has Landed. The first paragraph is a single sentence with four clauses.

Mark where each clause begins.

Hint! Look for the conjunctions as, and and while. They function to link clauses.

Also remember, a clause must contain a verb. Underline the verbs.

Write the clauses from question 1 as four simple sentences.

3

Mark the clauses in the sentences. Hint! Find the conjunctions and the verbs first.

Over half a billion people watched televisions around the world as Armstrong climbed down the

ladder of the lunar module and took his first footstep on the Moon’s surface.

Aldrin joined Armstrong on the lunar surface and described the moonscape as ‘magnificent desolation’.

The astronauts were trained to control all equipment and land the module themselves if the

computers broke down.

10

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Use conjunctions to join each group of simple sentences.

The Daily News sold out on 20th July. The paper had to be reprinted. Everyone wanted souvenir

copies of the paper.

Armstrong and Aldrin walked on the Moon. Collins orbited above the Moon. The team on Earth

watched excitedly.

5

Every clause (or simple sentence) needs a verb.

Circle the verb in each row.

watched lunar ship astronaut

Moon dust rock landed

newspaper stepped daily space centre

Michael orbited while surface

6

Write clause or not clause next to each word

group. Add a capital letter and a full stop to the

clauses to make simple sentences.

the astronauts collected materials

rocks, soil and dust

they reprinted the paper

souvenir copies of the paper

the Kennedy Space Centre

Rule!

Commas are used to separate parts of a sentence to make meaning clearer.

They can separate phrases or clauses.

After lunch, we went for a walk.

The new PE teacher, called Ms Harding, is a state basketball champion.

Commas can also be used to separate words in a list.

7

Add commas to these sentences to make the meaning clear.

During their walk Armstrong and Aldrin collected rocks soil and dust from the surface.

Because of their Moon mission Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins are very famous.

During his time in orbit Collins checked his instruments and equipment.

He was not injured luckily.

Neil Armstrong Commander of the mission was the first person to walk on the Moon.

Try it

yourself!

With a partner, role-play an interview with one of the Eagle astronauts.

Or, conduct a hot seat activity or circle of viewpoints activity. Then reflect

on any new ideas, viewpoints or questions you now have about the topic.

Write a recount.

Clauses; simple sentences; verbs; conjunctions (connectives): as, and, while; commas

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

11


Unit

4

Adjectives,

adverbs, relative

pronouns

This imaginative

text is the orientation for a

narrative. It contains noun

groups with descriptive

and classifying adjectives

to introduce the main

character.

Glittery Moon

Once upon a time, on a moon far, far away,

there lived a gentle, quiet man whose job

it was to sprinkle glitter all over the moon

every day so that it glimmered and sparkled.

One day, something terrible happened. The

entire supply of glitter ran out! The moon

man was devastated. He didn’t know what to

do. He was frightened. He had never travelled

beyond his home on the moon and was worried

about the weird and mystical things that could

await him out in space, but what else could

he do? He had to replenish his glitter supplies

or forever sentence the moon to dullness. He

decided to take his spacecraft on its first ever

journey and go and find glitter for his moon.

Rule!

Descriptive adjectives are words that describe a noun.

gentle quiet round pretty

Classifying adjectives classify, or tell the group that a noun belongs to.

washing machine glitter supplies wedding cake

To test if an adjective is a classifying adjective, try to add the word very in front of it. It won’t make sense.

a very space station

I

2

Read Glittery Moon. Underline all the descriptive adjectives.

Write a descriptive adjective and a classifying adjective for each noun.

Descriptive adjective Classifying adjective Noun

exciting space journey

station

supplies

home

Rule!

Adverbs add meaning to a verb, adjective or another adverb.

They can tell how. slowly

They can tell when. tomorrow

They can tell where. here

An adverb group is a group of words that does the job of an adverb.

He walked back and forth.

12

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

Use an adverb or adverb group from the box to complete each sentence. The adverb or adverb group

will tell when.

last night tomorrow soon later before

I will walk to the shop .

we went to the movies.

We will go fishing .

we go to bed, we can watch television for half an hour.

I’ll finish reading my book .

4

Complete each sentence with an adverb

ending in -ly that tells how.

5

Complete each sentence with an adverb that

tells where.

I walked .

I ran .

You need to work .

Dad sang .

My sister ate .

here there above below inside

The key is on the shelf .

Look

the window.

I ran .

Tracey is .

I saw the bird .

Rule!

Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses. They relate to people, places, animals or things

already mentioned in a text. who whose which that

Use relative pronouns to make your writing flow more easily and sound less repetitive.

The man built a house. The house is on a moon.

The house that the man built is on a moon.

6

Rewrite each pair of sentences as a single sentence. Use a relative pronoun.

The man was supposed to sprinkle glitter on the moon. He was on holiday.

Here is the blueberry pie. The restaurant is famous for its blueberry pie.

The koala had a sore toe. It climbed to the top of the tree.

The man came to dinner. The man was Dad’s friend from work.

Try it

yourself!

Write a narrative using adverbs and adverb groups to tell when,

where and how the actions take place. Use relative pronouns to help

the flow of your narrative.

Noun group; descriptive and classifying adjectives; adverbs and adverb groups; relative pronouns: who, whose, that, which

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

13


Unit

Verb groups,

5 modality A Movie Classic

This persuasive text

is a response. It uses

thinking and feeling

verbs and saying verbs

to give opinions.

I recently saw an old movie on television. It was called E.T.: the

Extra-Terrestrial. Mum suggested I watch it with her. It was made

in 1982 when she was ten years old. My mother told me that when

the movie first came out she saw it with her parents and she really

loved it. She remembered feeling really sad about the little alien,

E.T. She also remembers thinking that the scientists were extremely

mean planning to experiment on E.T. and kill him. They should

have tried to help E.T. go home. Watching the movie together last

week, we both cheered when E.T. managed to escape.

E.T.: the Extra-Terrestrial is a science fiction adventure that the

whole family will definitely enjoy. Even though it was made decades

ago, I believe it still has a relevant message for Earthlings today.

Rule!

Saying verbs are verbs that show that something is being said.

Thinking and feeling verbs represent mental activities, such as loving, hoping and believing.

You can’t see these activities taking place.

I

2

Read A Movie Classic. Circle the three saying verbs.

Write five saying verbs that you could use in your own writing.

Rule!

A verb group does the job of a verb.

It can contain two verbs that both contribute equally to the meaning.

I remembered feeling happy.

It can contain a main verb and an auxiliary verb.

It was made.

3

Underline the five thinking and feeling verb groups in A Movie Classic.

4

Write five thinking and feeling verbs that you could use in your own writing.

Rule!

Auxiliary verbs can tell you the degree of certainty the speaker

or writer has about something. This is called modality.

High modality means certain. will will not

Low modality means uncertain. might might not

Modal adverbs can also convey modality. possibly probably absolutely certainly

14

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


5

In A Movie Classic, find two auxiliary verbs that help express the writer’s opinion.

6

In A Movie Classic, find two modal adverbs used to show the writer’s opinion.

7

If you desperately needed to go to the toilet in class, tick the line you would use with your teacher.

I might need to go to the toilet.

I possibly should go to the toilet.

Maybe you’ll let me go to the toilet.

I really must go to the toilet!

8

If you wanted to stop a bully from hurting someone, which line would you use and why?

You must stop.

Would it be possible for you to stop?

Maybe you could stop.

I think you should stop.

9

Tick a column to show the modality of each statement.

To experiment on E.T. a scientist... High modality Lower modality

must be extremely mean

might be considered mean

might not be considered mean

is definitely not mean

IO

Complete each sentence with a high modality adverb.

E.T. is an

I

We should

There is

good movie.

love watching old movies.

make a movie ourselves!

no way that I would experiment on E.T.

Try it

yourself!

Write a response to a movie you have

seen. Include thinking and feeling verbs.

Use auxiliary verbs and modal adverbs

to help express your opinions.

Verb groups; saying verbs, thinking and feeling verbs; auxiliary verbs; modal adverbs; modality

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

15


Unit

6

Revision

I

Use a conjunction from the box to connect each pair of simple sentences.

It is cold in space. I need to wear a jacket.

and so but because or

I need to wear a coat. I don’t want to get cold.

I could put my jacket on. I could just go in my T-shirt.

I’ll wear a jacket. I’ll wear gloves.

I could take my coat. I don’t want to carry it around.

2

Use a personal pronoun from the box to complete each sentence.

he her she it

The scientist washed her hands before

Roger, the cat, sat on his favourite chair while

I borrowed Jacob’s skateboard and rode

My dog was hungry so I fed

a snack.

put on her gloves.

waited for dinner.

after dinner.

3

Circle the correct verb form for each sentence.

The pancakes (were/was) delicious.

They (was/were) hoping to earn extra pocket money.

The fish (were/was) swimming around their tank.

The seagull (is/are) trying to steal my sandwich.

The team (is/are) blasting off to Jupiter.

The shark (are/is) a harmless grey nurse.

4

Add commas in the correct places.

Ben bought a jumper shorts socks and a pair of jeans.

During the television commercial Dad made a snack of cookies milk cheese and crackers.

Even though it was raining the soccer team practised corners penalty kicks and shoot-outs.

16

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


5

Write a descriptive adjective and a classifying adjective for each noun.

Descriptive adjective Classifying adjective Noun

shuttle

pie

boots

6

Complete each sentence with an adverb to tell when.

last night tomorrow soon later before

Dan says he will mow the lawn .

we had a barbeque.

We will go to the zoo .

we eat dinner we need to wash our hands.

I’ll finish wrapping the presents .

7

Complete each sentence with an adverb ending in -ly that tells how.

The tortoise crawled .

Finish your ice-cream .

Howard sang .

The party ended .

The mouse scurried .

8

Rewrite each pair of sentences as a single sentence. Use a relative pronoun from the box.

who that that which

The person normally answers the phone. She is sick.

Here is the pizza. The pizza has ham and pineapple topping.

Possums lived in the tree. The tree burned down in the fire.

The astronaut wore the spacesuit. The spacesuit has a hole.

9

Write a high modality sentence that tells exactly what you want for your birthday.

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

17


Unit

7

Prepositional

phrases,

possessive

adjectives

This imaginative

text is an excerpt from

a narrative. It uses

prepositional phrases

to set the scene.

Through the Doorway

Ronnie looked out her window at the blinding light that

was coming from the neighbourhood park. She grabbed

her jumper out of the closet and snuck out the back door

without a sound. She wheeled her bike onto the street,

then climbed on and headed down the road to the park.

Ronnie was astonished to see that all the light was coming

from a small shoe-sized box. She knelt down next to it

and lifted the lid. Inside was a remote control. Ronnie

picked it up. A red light in the centre started flashing.

Without thinking, Ronnie pushed the red button. Bang!

An ear-splitting noise shattered the night. She jumped back

quickly and before her eyes the remote turned into a

gigantic doorway. Ronnie peered inside.

Rule!

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and

another word.

in on under with beside

A prepositional phrase is a preposition linked to a noun or noun group.

They can tell where. near the stove under the bed in the kitchen cupboard

They can tell when. during the night after the storm

They can tell how. with feeling in a funny way

I

2

Read Through the Doorway. Underline the prepositional phrases that tell where.

Circle the prepositions in Through the Doorway. Why do you think the author has used so many? What

effect does this have on the narrative?

3

Finish each sentence with a prepositional phrase that tells where.

18

Victoria walked .

The cat sat .

The galaxy was located .

We watched the fireworks .

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Tip!

Be careful not to confuse adverbs with adjectives.

Some words can be either an adverb or an adjective.

It was a fast car. fast = adjective

She drives very fast. fast = adverb

Remember that a word functions as an adjective if it describes a noun,

but as an adverb if it describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

4

Underline the adverb in each sentence. Circle the verb it describes.

Ronnie pushed the button recklessly.

Ronnie is an inquisitive person and she peered cautiously through the doorway.

Ronnie looked inquisitively at the remote.

Ronnie could see clearly through the well-lit doorway.

Being a clever girl, Ronnie decided to approach carefully.

The remote buzzed loudly.

Rule!

Possessive adjectives are words in a noun or noun group

that show ownership.

his window her remote control

his her their your my our its

5

6

The word her is used in Through the Doorway as a possessive adjective.

Underline it in the text. Notice that it comes before a noun each time.

Use a possessive adjective from the box to show ownership in each sentence.

their her his your my our

Here, take

compass with you.

They ran to catch

rocket.

Give me

hand.

Ask Giselle if you can borrow

Ian has forgotten

jet pack!

There’s

base camp.

helmet.

Try it

yourself!

Write a narrative titled Through the Doorway. You could continue

the story started in this unit or create your own magic doorway. Use

prepositional phrases and adverbs to set the scene. Ask a peer to help

edit your story.

Prepositional phrase; adverbs; adjectives; possessive adjectives

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

19


Unit

8

Relating and

doing verbs,

theme

This is a

biography. Most

clauses have a noun or

pronoun for the topic

in theme position. This

helps the reader follow

the meaning.

Valentina Tereshkova

The first woman in space was a Soviet

cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova, in

1963 on board Vostok 6. She was 26

years of age. Valentina had to leave

school at age 17 so that she could help

support the family. She continued her

education via correspondence school

and she learned to parachute. She set

up a parachuting club at the textile factory where she worked. Her

parachuting expertise led to her selection for the cosmonaut training

program. The Soviet Union had sent the first man, Yuri Gagarin,

and the first dog, Laika, into space and it was keen to send the first

woman into space, ahead of the Americans. Valentina spent three

days in orbit and she landed safely back on Earth.

Rule!

Doing verbs represent the actions.

hurtle fix throw explode

Doing verb group: is fixed was thrown might explode

Relating verbs show relationships, such as being and having.

You cannot see any action taking place.

is belongs equals was had are

Relating verb group: did belong is equal might consist

I

Read Valentina Tereshkova. Circle all the verbs and verb groups. What kinds of verbs did you find?

2

Use different doing verbs in each sentence.

Valentina three days in orbit and safely home.

Valentina three days in orbit and safely home.

Valentina three days in orbit and safely home.

3

Use a relating verb in each space.

deserves is being contributed symbolises

Valentina famous for the first woman in space.

Valentina

Valentina

She

20

a medal for bravery.

to the Russian space program.

the role of women in science.

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Use a doing verb or verb group from the box to complete each sentence.

are destroyed can reach have totally evaporated was discovered

Comets

when they approach too close to the Sun.

Pluto in 1930.

Wind speeds on Saturn

1800 kilometres per hour.

Prehistoric oceans on Venus .

Rule!

Theme is the first part of a clause.

Valentina had to leave school at age 17.

theme

Restating the topic in theme position helps readers and listeners follow the meaning of the text.

5

6

Underline the theme of each clause in Valentina Tereshkova. How many themes referring to Valentina

(nouns and pronouns) did you find?

One compound sentence in Valentina Tereshkova has themes that do not refer to Valentina.

What is the theme of each clause in that sentence?

What is the function of changing the theme in this way?

7

In each paragraph below, circle the words in theme position in each clause.

Magpies are magnificent birds. They can be found just about all over Australia.

Adult magpies are black and white in colour. They sing a beautiful warbling song.

Magpies are quite territorial and magpie families stay together.

Which kinds of words did you circle in theme position?

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. It is also the smallest planet. Mercury has many large

craters on its surface. It has an iron core. Temperatures on Mercury can reach 430°C.

Which kinds of words did you circle in theme position?

Try it

yourself!

Choose a famous person from history who interests you. Search the

internet to find appropriate material and create a biography for the

person. Use the person’s name or a pronoun in theme position so that

the biography reads clearly. You might like to create a short slide show

to present the information to the class.

Verb groups; relating verbs (being and having verbs); doing verbs; theme

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

21


Unit

9

Verbs,

modality

This persuasive text

is an advertisement.

It uses high modality

words to persuade

people to take

action.

Galactic Airways

See the world from 110 kilometres above the Earth!

Fly into space – and back – on the new Galactic Airways spaceship, Petrel 1.

V Minimum training required – involving simulator experience of zero gravity.

V Unparalleled safety features.

V Fully compliant with the highest international safety standards.

Book your space-flight now — seats are limited!

On-ground tours of the spaceship are also available —

only with Galactic Airways.

Tip!

Using a doing verb in theme position highlights the command the advertisement

is giving the reader.

I

2

Read Galactic Airways. Circle the doing verbs.

Write four commands to include on a safety poster inside the Petrel 1. Use doing verbs in theme

position for each command.

Tip!

Positive and negative statements can both express high modality (certainty).

positive I can come tomorrow.

negative I cannot come tomorrow.

3

Underline the verb group in each sentence. Rewrite each sentence as a positive or negative high modality

statement.

Positive statements

Galactic Airways flies into space.

Galactic Airways is safe.

Galactic Airways will train you for zero gravity.

Seats are limited.

Negative statements

Galactic Airways does not fly into space.

You must not fly Galactic Airways.

22

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Complete the table.

High modality

High modality

Definitely positive Maybe positive Maybe negative Definitely negative

I’m hungry.

I can hear.

Dinner might be ready.

Low modality

The postie might not

have been.

I haven’t finished.

You must not stop.

Rule!

Verbs can show whether an action happened in the past, is happening now, is always

happening (timeless) or has not yet happened. This is called the tense.

past tense she went

present tense and timeless present tense she goes she is going

future tense she will go

Auxiliary verbs (was, have been, will) and

suffixes (–ing, –ed, –en, –t or –d) help show the tense of the action.

5

Imagine you are a passenger who has been on the space flight advertised in Galactic

Airways. Rewrite the advertisement as a recommendation to potential passengers.

Use past tense verbs and personal pronouns (I, me, you).

Try it

yourself!

Write a magazine advertisement for a holiday on Mars, a walk on the

Moon or something else that you think you can sell. Use doing verbs in

theme position to command readers to buy the product or service.

Commands, doing verbs; theme; modality with positive and negative polarity; verb tense; personal pronouns

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

23


Unit

I0

Pronouns,

conjunctions

This text is a

recount in the form

of a biography. It uses

relative pronouns and

conjunctions to link

information across

the text.

The Columbus of the Cosmos

Yuri Gagarin was a Soviet cosmonaut. In 1961 he became the first

person to travel into space and the first person to orbit Earth on a

spacecraft that was called Vostok 1. Yuri’s spacecraft circled the

Earth at 27 400 kilometres per hour. Altogether, Yuri spent one hour

and forty-eight minutes in space. After this historical achievement,

he became hugely famous worldwide. In Russian history he is known

as the Columbus of the Cosmos, after Christopher Columbus who

was a famous explorer of the seas.

Yuri was a famous explorer of space.

Sadly, seven years after his historic

space flight, he died on a training flight

as he was training to be a fighter pilot.

He was only 34 years of age.

Rule!

An apostrophe can show ownership. An apostrophe with a noun shows that something

belongs to that noun.

singular noun add ’s Yuri’s spaceship

plural noun ending in s add ’ the astronauts’ achievement

plural noun not ending in s add ’s the women’s voyage

I

2

Read The Columbus of the Cosmos. Circle the apostrophe that shows ownership.

Rewrite each phrase using an apostrophe to show ownership.

the spaceship of the cosmonaut

the training of the pilots

the space-boots belonging to the children

Rule!

Possessive pronouns show ownership. his hers theirs yours mine ours

The telescope is his.

The Moon-rock is mine.

3

Use a possessive pronoun from the box to complete each sentence.

24

mine

ours

yours

his

hers

theirs

She owns the watch. It is .

The toy belongs to my brother and me. The toy is .

The cubby belongs to John and Jenny. It is .

The cat belongs to him. It is .

The dog belongs to you. It is .

The Moon-critter belongs to me. It is .

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Underline the two relative pronouns in The Columbus of the Cosmos. Hint! Look

for who, whose, that or which. What nouns do the relative pronouns relate to?

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 13.

5

Rewrite each pair of sentences as a single sentence, using one of the relative pronouns from the box.

who whose that which

Yuri Gagarin’s spaceship was called Vostok 1. Yuri Gagarin was the first person to orbit the Earth.

Yuri Gagarin was a famous Soviet cosmonaut. Yuri Gagarin died on a training flight.

The spaceship was called Vostok 1. Vostok 1 circled the Earth at 27 400 kilometres per hour.

The spaceship circled the Earth at 27 400 kilometres per hour. Yuri Gagarin flew the spaceship.

Rule!

A complex sentence contains more than one clause. It contains a main clause that makes

sense on its own. It contains other clauses (subordinate clauses) that add to the message

of the main clause and do not necessarily make sense on their own.

Clauses are linked in complex sentences by relative pronouns or conjunctions.

6

Rewrite each group of sentences as a single complex sentence. Use conjunctions and relative pronouns

from the box.

who that which so and

It was cold. I wore my overcoat. My mum had bought me the overcoat.

It was cold so I wore the overcoat that my mum had bought me.

It was hot. We went for a swim in the neighbour’s pool. The neighbours had just built a pool.

My mum bought me a bike. My mum bought me a helmet. I had always wanted a bike and helmet.

My friend lives across the road. My friend has a dog that bites.

Try it

yourself!

Prepare a speech to present to your class. Do some research on a famous

person and then write a biography. Summarise the information on cue cards.

Rehearse and then present your speech to the class.

Complex sentences; main clause and subordinate clauses; conjunctions (connectives); relative pronouns; possessive pronouns; apostrophes of possession

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

25


Unit

II

Past tense,

telling when

This informative

text is a recount.

It uses adverbs and

prepositional phrases

to tell when events

happened.

Amateur Astronomer

During the last school holidays my family and I drove to Dubbo Zoo

in country New South Wales. On the way we stopped for a night in

Coonabarabran where there is the Siding Spring Observatory and the

Skywatch Observatory, which we visited. The Skywatch Observatory has

four telescopes outside on a viewing platform. Through the telescopes

we saw Venus and Jupiter, The Great Nebula in Orion, The Tarantula Nebula

and Omega Centauri. The night was crystal clear and the sky looked

amazing. Apparently you can look at the surface of the Sun, using a solar

filter on a telescope, if you visit during the day, but we didn’t have time.

We had to get to the zoo and that’s a whole other story.

Rule!

Verbs that form the past tense by adding the suffix –ed are called regular verbs.

stop stopped jump jumped wish wished

Verbs that form the past tense in any other way are called irregular verbs.

fly flew drive drove put put

I

Read Amateur Astronomer. Underline all the verb groups. List them.

Regular verbs in past tense:

Irregular verbs in past tense:

Verbs that are not past tense:

Why are these not past tense verbs included in a recount?

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 9.

2

Circle the auxiliary verbs in Amateur Astronomer.

Rule!

Some verbs have more than one past tense form.

The form to use depends on which, if any, auxiliary verb is also used.

I ate I have eaten

26

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

Write the verb forms to show past tense.

Base form Past tense with auxiliary Past tense without auxiliary

travel I have travelled I travelled

look I have I

visit I have I

steal I have I

eat I have I

grow I have I

drink I have I

see I have I

4

Circle the prepositional phrases in Amateur Astronomer. Write the ones

that tell when.

Tip!

Remember

the rules on

page 12 and

page 18.

5

Write a sentence for each of these adverbs that tell when.

yesterday tomorrow later soon afterwards

6

Write a sentence for each of these prepositional phrases that tell when.

after lunch in the morning during dinner before Tuesday

Try it

yourself!

Work in a group. ‘Act out’ a recount of an event that has happened during

the school year. Ask your audience for feedback on your performance.

Past tense; regular and irregular verbs; adverbs and prepositional phrases

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

27


Unit

I2

Revision

I

Complete each sentence with a prepositional phrase that tells where.

The asteroid belt was located .

We had a party .

the UFO hovered.

Nuala trudged .

The cosmonaut stood .

2

Complete each sentence with a word or phrase that tells when.

I dashed to the shop to buy milk .

I missed my tuba lesson.

My sister burped loudly .

Will you sleep at my house one day ?

Can’t I just do it ?

3

Underline the adverb in each sentence. Write the verb each adverb describes.

The goose honked loudly.

The television star smiled brightly.

The student giggled wildly.

The teacher sighed patiently.

The doorbell chimed annoyingly.

4

Use a possessive pronoun from the box to complete

each sentence.

his hers theirs ours

Billy owns the bike. It is .

The toy belongs to my sister. The toy is .

Jeff and Judy own the car. It is .

The computer belongs to us. It is .

5

Circle the words in theme position in each

clause.

An alien spaceship landed in the park.

An alien slid out. Its head was the

shape of a pumpkin. It had eyes on

stalks. It had tentacles for arms. It said,

“#@*!!!!!###oOoOO.”

6

Rewrite each phrase using an apostrophe to show ownership.

28

the car belonging to Mum

the flowers belonging to the teacher

the warbling of the magpies

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


7

Join the simple sentences to create complex sentences. Use a relative pronoun from the box.

who whose that which

The house was owned by Jack’s great, great grandpa. The house was built in 1901.

My sister has a cat named Bozo. My sister loves her cat.

My aunt writes books. She is very famous.

The man’s car was towed away. The man is very angry.

8

Use conjunctions and relative pronouns to rewrite these sentences as complex sentences.

I took the bike back to the shop. Mum bought me the bike. The bike had a crack in the shaft.

My dad is putting in a basketball hoop. I can practise for the finals. The finals are coming up in July.

9

Complete the table.

High modality

High modality

Definitely positive Maybe positive Maybe negative Definitely negative

I can sing in tune.

I may move to Venus.

Low modality

I might not have

refuelled the rocket.

Mercury isn’t warm.

IO

Write past tense verb forms.

Base form Past tense with auxiliary Past tense without auxiliary

put I have put I put

break I have I

keep I have I

ask I have I

write I have I

blow I have I

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

29


Unit

I3

Modality,

thinking and

feeling verbs

This

persuasive text is a

discussion. Thinking

and feeling verbs are

used when presenting

different points

of view.

Save Planet Earth

Announcer: Today we are discussing global warming.

We have three callers on the line. Go ahead, caller 1.

Caller 1, Katy: I think all the nations in the world must

agree on what they can do about global warming, because

if we don’t look after planet Earth then there is no future.

Announcer: Do you have something to say about

that, Jordan from Southport?

Caller 2, Jordan: Yes, I absolutely agree with the

previous caller, but rich countries, like Australia, really

must accept greater responsibility for global warming.

Caller 3, Ellie: No. What the previous caller said is not

right. Australia is already a really responsible country. We

recycle. We look after the environment. We definitely look

after our wildlife. I believe we have a much better record

on the environment than any other country.

Announcer: Well it seems that our listeners all believe

global warming is a threat but there’s no agreement about

the extent of Australia’s responsibility. We’ll continue the

discussion tomorrow from 6 am.

I

2

Read Save Planet Earth. Underline the auxiliary verbs and adverbs that represent

high modality.

Change the underlined words to express higher modality.

We might save the planet.

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 14.

We might be able to do something.

Maybe we could take action.

Australia is possibly not doing enough to save the planet.

Some countries could do more about controlling pollution.

We probably have a better record on the environment than some other countries.

30

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

Number each group of sentences from 1 to 4. 1 is for lowest modality, and 4 is for highest modality.

It will definitely rain tomorrow.

It could possibly rain tomorrow.

It will rain tomorrow.

It’s likely to rain tomorrow.

I’m not going.

I’m definitely never going.

I probably won’t go.

I don’t think I’ll go.

4

Write statements of your own to express different degrees of modality.

About wanting a haircut

high modality:

medium modality:

low modality:

About not wanting a haircut

high modality:

medium modality:

low modality:

5

Write three thinking and feeling verbs used in Save Planet Earth.

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 14.

6

Use a thesaurus to find an alternative thinking and feeling verb to replace each

underlined verb.

We perceive a threat to the planet.

I hope to see you again.

I dislike cruelty.

7

Use each thinking and feeling verb to write a point of view about global warming.

notice

expect

consider

assume

regard

Try it

yourself!

Choose a topic of interest to your classmates. Then interview classmates who

have different opinions about that topic. Write your findings as a discussion.

Record all points of view using thinking and feeling verbs. Write a concluding

statement that expresses your own opinion.

Modality; auxiliary verbs; modal adverbs; thinking and feeling verb

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

31


Unit

I4

Noun groups,

quoted (direct)

speech,

nominalisation

Earth Day

This informative text is

an information report.

It uses a quote from

a famous person. The

quote is included in

speech marks.

The first Earth Day was held in 1970. In 1971 U Thant, The United

Nations Secretary-General, said, “May there be peaceful and

cheerful Earth Days to come for our beautiful Spaceship Earth as it

continues to spin and circle in frigid space with its warm and fragile

cargo of animate life.” (U Thant was Burmese. In the Burmese

language ‘U’ is a title similar to ‘Mister’.)

Since then, every year there is a day that is dedicated to the

promotion of global environmental issues and environmental

awareness. There is also an unofficial Earth Day flag that shows an

image of the Earth taken from space by NASA.

I

Read Earth Day. Circle the noun groups.

Rule!

Number adjectives tell you about the quantity or order of a noun.

one two three first second last

Some number adjectives are precise. five second

Some number adjectives are vague. many some few

2

3

Find the number adjective in Earth Day. Write it on the line.

Complete the table to create noun groups.

Possessive

adjective/Article

Number adjective

Descriptive

adjective

Classifying

adjective

Noun

the three new dwarf planets

a

your

many

gigantic

space

4

Think of book, rhyme, fairytale or song titles that have a number adjective in them, such as ‘Three Blind

Mice’. List them below. Then compare your list with a friend’s.

32

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Rule!

Quoted (direct) speech is the actual speech someone says.

It is written inside speech marks.

“I want to go to the party!” cried Lucia.

5

Underline the quoted speech in Earth Day.

6

Rewrite each sentence with correct punctuation.

I read a poem on assembly said tara

we gave my little cousin a book for his birthday said victoria

my teacher read us a quote by u thant about earth day said bing

did you know that u in burmese means mister asked lauren

imagine travelling on a space flight to mars said phoebe

Rule!

Verbs can be turned into nouns. This is called nominalisation. Nominalisation enables more

concepts to fit into a sentence. It can make texts seem more technical.

promoting (VERB) global issues the promotion (NOUN) of global issues

7

Use each verb in a sentence. Then change each verb to a noun. Now use the noun in a sentence.

Hint! To help you work out the noun, put the in front of it.

verb

noun

verb

noun

verb

noun

verb

noun

attend

require

behave

attract

Try it

yourself!

Find a famous quote and record it as quoted speech. Share it with your

class. Say why you like it and why you think it is memorable. Tell your

classmates the circumstances under which the quote was made. Make sure

you reference the quote accurately.

Nominalisation; noun groups including possessive adjectives, articles, number adjectives, descriptive adjectives, classifying adjectives; quoted (direct) speech

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

33


Unit

I5

Subordinate

clauses,

ellipses

This imaginative

text is the orientation

for a narrative. It uses

complex sentences with

subordinate clauses to

introduce characters

and places.

cThe Black Hole

Once upon a time, on the faraway planet Onega,

there lived two aliens called Ziltox and Zeltar. They

were brothers who had lost their family during an

attack on their planet by the feared Xematars. The

Xematars were warrior creatures who were intent

on controlling all other life forms. In the process

of destroying a nearby planet whose inhabitants

had mutinied, the Xematars had burned a black

hole in the universe. This hole was growing, sucking

in everything in its path. It was now millions of

kilometres across and continuing to grow bigger and

bigger every day, even sucking in small planets. It

threatened the very existence of Onega. An urgent

plan was needed! What could the brothers do…?

I

Read The Black Hole. Write three examples of nominalisation from the text.

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 33.

2

Change each verb group from The Black Hole into a noun. Then use each noun in a sentence that would

fit in with the story.

controlling

was growing

threatening

was needed

destroying

had mutinied

Rule!

A complex sentence is made up of two or more clauses.

A subordinate clause depends on a main clause for meaning. Subordinate clauses

can be linked to a main clause using a relative pronoun (who, whose, which, that)

or a conjunction.

The house that Jack built was enormous.

subordinate clause

3

Find and underline two subordinate clauses in The Black Hole. Hint! They begin with who.

34

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Use relative pronouns and conjunctions to create complex sentences.

Jackie has a horse. She loves her horse. It’s getting too old to ride on anymore.

Helen is a clever girl. She does well in maths. Maths is not her favourite subject.

Martin was surprised. His dog wasn’t under the house.

Rule!

An ellipsis is included when words have been left out of a sentence.

Meaning is implied but not stated in words.

In a written text, three dot points are sometimes used to show

an ellipsis. …

5

What is implied by the ellipsis at the end of The Black Hole?

6

What is implied by each ellipsis below?

It had been raining for days. “Watch out for the … !” cried Edna.

The dance music played loudly. Sam approached the seated girl. He stopped in front of her. “Would

you … ?” he asked.

The magpies were nesting. On her way home from school Evie heard the whoosh of wings overhead

and ducked. Too late …

7

Complete the table so that each row provides an interesting scenario for a narrative.

Adjective Noun Verb Adverb

absent-minded astronomer decide instantly

spooky

depressed

famous

Try it

yourself!

Choose one of the scenarios in question 7 and write a narrative.

Include detailed descriptions of the characters. Or, write the rest of the

narrative The Black Hole. Write about how the characters resolve their

problems.

Noun groups; adjectives; verb groups; adverbs; nominalisation; ellipses; complex sentences; subordinate clauses; relative pronouns

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

35


Unit

I6

Connectives,

acronyms

This persuasive

text is a discussion. It

presents different points

of view on a topic. It

uses connectives to link

the points of view.

Does Life Exist on Other Planets?

Is there intelligent life elsewhere in the universe? The SETI Institute

was started to explore this question. SETI stands for Search for

Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence.

Some people believe that planet Earth cannot possibly be the only

planet in the entire universe to have life. In addition, scientists

believe that other planets could readily have evolved to develop

life forms. It seems highly unlikely, however, that these life forms

will be similar to those on Earth. The conditions required on

another planet would have to exactly match those on Earth for

the same patterns of evolution to develop, so it is far more likely

that life forms on other planets,

if in fact they do exist, are very

different from the life forms that

have developed on Earth.

Despite the lack of any evidence

to support their belief, many

people will continue to scan the

heavens fully confident that we are

not alone.

Rule!

Connectives, including conjunctions, link ideas through a text by:

• adding information in addition as well as

• comparing things if however despite

• showing one thing causes another unless therefore so

• showing a time sequence then next

• sequencing arguments firstly finally secondly

I

Read Does Life Exist on Other Planets? Underline the connectives that compare.

Write the connective that shows cause.

Write the connective that shows addition.

2

Use each connective in a sentence of your own.

although unless therefore alternatively likewise

36

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

Choose a connective to link the ideas in each pair of sentences. Hint! The connective can go at the

beginning of either sentence.

or similarly however on the other hand because

Life might exist on other planets. Life might not exist on other planets.

Scientists are always curious. They will keep searching and wondering.

Life might exist. It might not be like ours.

Life developed on Earth. Life could have developed elsewhere.

There has never been any evidence that life exists elsewhere in the universe. It would be arrogant to

think we had the only planet able to support life.

Tip!

An acronym is made up of the initial letters of other words.

SETI stands for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence.

4

Use a dictionary to find the meaning of these acronyms.

UFO:

QANTAS:

NASA:

radar:

ANZAC:

PIN:

5

Create some acronyms for yourself, your friends or family members.

MADO

Mad And Dangerous Olivia

Try it

yourself!

Design your own planet. Prepare a marketing presentation to ‘sell’ the idea

of moving there to your family. Present the merits of your unique planet

and why it would be preferable to live there rather than on Earth.

Connectives: or, similarly, however, on the other hand, because, although, unless, therefore, alternatively, likewise; acronyms

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

37


Unit

I7

Statements

and

questions

This

informative text is an

information report.

It presents objective

statements of fact.

Planet Earth supports life

because it has air. All living

things on this planet need air

to survive. People and animals

need the oxygen part of the air.

Plants need the carbon dioxide

part of the air. Two billion years

ago there was no oxygen on

Earth. The air consisted mainly

of carbon dioxide so there were

no animals – only tiny plants.

Life on Earth

Plants use carbon dioxide in a

process called photosynthesis.

During photosynthesis plants

take in carbon dioxide from the

air, and in combination with

sunlight they make energy for

their own growth. Oxygen is a

by-product of this process. Once

oxygen became available on

Earth, animals began to evolve.

Earth’s air is 21% oxygen. Fires

burn oxygen, so any human

activity that involves fire uses

precious oxygen. If people use

up all the oxygen on Earth and

there are no plants to regenerate

it, animals and people will die.

I

Read Life on Earth. Underline all the verb groups.

Which two types of verb did you find?

1 2

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 20.

What are the two other types of verbs that are not used in Life on Earth?

1 2

Rule!

A statement gives information or an opinion. It ends in a full stop.

Venus is the second planet from the Sun. I think Venus looks spectacular.

A question asks for information or an opinion. It ends in a question mark.

What is the time? Do you think it’s time to board the shuttle?

2

Summarise the facts presented in Life on Earth. Write one statement for each paragraph.

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 3

3

For each paragraph of Life on Earth, write one statement giving your opinion about the facts.

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 3

38

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Grammar Rules!

's Writing Log

3

I

Think

What is your topic?

What is the purpose of the writing?

Who is the audience?

What type of text and text form will you use?

Revise

Check your writing for meaning and ideas.

Have you chosen the best words and

phrases for your topic?

Do you need to add anything?

Do you need to take anything away?

Do you need to move anything?

Check your writing for structure.

Does the structure match the type of

text you chose?

Are your ideas well-sequenced with

connectives?

Do the personal pronouns match the nouns?

Read your writing to a partner.

Read your writing to your teacher.

Ask for advice about your writing.

2

Draft

Gather your ideas.

Organise your ideas.

Write a draft.

4

Proofread

Polish your writing.

Check your grammar.

Check your spelling.

Check your punctuation.

5

Publish

Publish your writing.

Share your writing.

Reflect on your writing.

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

i


Create symbols

for a rating scale.

Then each time

you finish a piece

of writing, record

it in the log.

Date

Write the

date.

Title

Write the title of your

piece.

Text type

and text form

eg recount/

letter

Audience

Who were you

writing for or to?

My rating scale

Symbol

Meaning

Do you need

some ideas for

other text forms

to try? Look at

the back page!

ii

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Grammar I used My rating Where to next?

List the main grammar features you used.

Record your

rating.

What grammar could you try next?

How could you improve your writing?

Does your teacher have any comments?

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

iii


I've tried these types of texts and text forms . . .

Narrative (imaginative)

Story

Play script

Comic

Ballad

Other

Recount (imaginative or informative)

Letter

Biography

Autobiography

Newspaper article

Other

Description

(imaginative or informative)

Poem

Story

Play script

Biography

Other

Information report (informative)

Scientific report

Website

Magazine article

Documentary

Other

Procedure (informative)

Cookbook

Instruction manual

Game rules

Other

Explanation (informative)

Magazine article

Reference book

Other

Exposition (persuasive)

(argues one side of an issue)

Debate

Speech

Letter to editor

Editorial

TV advertisement

Magazine advertisement

Radio advertisement

Leaflet

Other

Discussion (persuasive) (presents

more than one side of an issue)

Conversation

TV interview

Talk-back radio

Dialogue in a story

Panel discussion

Other

Response (persuasive)

Film or book review

Diary or journal

Poem

Other

iv

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Write four questions that can be answered by reading Life on Earth.

Tip!

Questions are sometimes formed by using the structure of a statement.

The only way a reader knows it is a question is because of the question mark.

“You’re having dinner with us.” “You’re having dinner with us?”

Questions are sometimes formed by adding a question tag to the end

of a statement or command.

“That’s all I have to get.” “That’s all I have to get, is it?”

5

Write four statements based on Life on Earth that could be questions. Use question marks. Read the

questions aloud with a rising inflection. (This means your voice rises at the end of the question.)

6

Add a question tag to each statement.

Shut the door

You’ll have pizza

He’s coming

You are coming

You can come

We’ll be on time

7

Help the alien communicate effectively. It is having trouble with its relating and auxiliary verbs. Read this

passage aloud, as it is. Then add the correct verb forms and read it aloud again.

I from planet Ingula. Ingula 2.2 million

megalometres away. Ingula

beautiful. Inhabitants

of Ingula friendly. Inhabitants happy to

friends with Earth people. Earth people good friends.

I going back home now. I return soon.

Try it

yourself!

Do your own research about the way a particular form of life evolved

on Earth. Write an information report that includes statements of fact.

Use relating verbs.

Statements; questions; question tags; relating verbs (being and having verbs); technical terms

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

39


Unit

I8

Revision

I

Rewrite the following statements to express higher modality.

We might have spaghetti for dinner.

Maybe you could scrub the decks.

Do you think you might be able to have a quicker shower?

2

Number the sentences from 1 to 4. 1 is for lowest modality, and 4 is for highest modality.

You will prepare for take-off.

Would you mind preparing for take-off?

You should prepare for take-off.

Would it be possible for you to prepare for take-off?

3

Underline the thinking and feeling verb in each row.

believe jump gobble carrot

broccoli hope jelly devoured

wonder rainbow destroy comet

chance solar proceed love

4

Write a complex sentence. Make sure it has three or more clauses.

5

Rewrite each sentence with correct punctuation.

mum gave me a chemistry set for my birthday said lennie

do you know the poem Jabberwocky asked ryan

i would love to travel on a spaceship commented lara

40

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


6

verb

noun

verb

noun

verb

noun

verb

noun

7

Use each verb in a sentence. Then change each verb to a noun. Now use the noun in a sentence.

arresting

growing

dying

leaping

What is implied by each ellipsis?

“Don’t swallow the …!” cried Mum to toddler Bennie who was in the bath.

“I’m watching …” cried Luke as his older brother changed the channel.

8

Use each connective in a sentence of your own.

similarly however on the other hand because

9

Add a question tag to each statement.

Go to bed .

You won’t be late .

We’ll have fish and chips .

They can come .

IO

Write the words that each acronym stands for. Use a dictionary if necessary.

RAM:

laser:

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

41


Unit

I9

Commands,

verb tense

This informative

text is a procedure

in the form of a

recipe. Each step is a

command with a verb

in the theme position.

Cosmonaut Cookies

INGREDIENTS

(Makes 70 cookies)

250 g butter

370 g caster sugar

2 teaspoons vanilla essence

1 egg

250 g plain flour, sifted

250 g self-raising flour, sifted

120 g desiccated coconut

METHOD

1. Cream butter, sugar and vanilla until fluffy.

2. Add egg and beat until well mixed.

3. Fold in all flour and desiccated coconut.

4. Refrigerate for 2–4 hours.

5. Place dessert-spoon-sized flat mounds of mixture on a greased

oven tray.

6. Bake for 15 minutes at 180 degrees.

Tip!

Using a verb in theme position highlights the command the text is giving the reader.

Remember the rule on page 21.

I

Read Cosmonaut Cookies. List the

seven verbs used in theme position.

2

Complete each command with a verb from the box.

stir

the carrots.

chop

the potatoes.

mash

the cream.

mix

the vegetables into the stock.

whip

the flour with the sugar.

3

Write commands using each of the verbs in theme position.

boil bake fry steam grill

42

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Underline the noun groups in Cosmonaut Cookies.

Tip!

The form of the verb tells when the events are happening:

past, present or future. Recipes are written in timeless present tense.

5

Pretend that you have just made some cosmonaut cookies. You are recounting

the steps you took for a friend. Write the steps in past tense.

6

Write the verb forms to show past tense.

Base form Past tense Past tense with auxiliary

laugh I I have

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 26.

burn I I have

weep I I have

drive I I have

bring I I have

forget I I have

bake I I have

7

Number the steps in this recipe in logical order.

Mash potatoes.

Serve hot.

Add milk and butter to mashed potatoes and stir until smooth.

Place potatoes in a saucepan of water.

Boil potatoes until tender.

Drain water from potatoes.

Try it

yourself!

Make up a crazy recipe with space-age ingredients. You could devise a

Marvellous Martian Stew or a Pungent Pluto Pie. Use verbs in theme position

in each clause. Write the steps in the procedure in logical order.

Commands; verbs; theme; noun groups; present tense; past tense suffixes and auxiliaries

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

43


Unit Evaluative

20

language

This persuasive text

is a response to a film. It

uses evaluative language

and high modality to

express an opinion.

✩✩✩✩ Film Review

My favourite science fiction movie of all time is War of the

Worlds, which stars Tom Cruise. I was lucky to be able to

see it. It’s rated ‘M’ and my parents usually don’t allow me

to see those movies, but they took me with them to see

this one. I thought it was really exciting and scary. I thought

the special effects were really clever. The story was actually

quite believable. I can definitely imagine creatures from outer

space coming to Earth and having superior technology and

weapons but being defeated by a microscopic organism like

bacteria or a virus. I highly recommend this movie to anyone

who is allowed to watch it. It has a good message about

looking after family members, too. I loved it! My parents did

too. We totally recommend it to families with children over

the age of twelve.

Tip!

Book or film reviews use evaluative language to represent someone’s personal opinion.

Remember, personal opinions are not factual or objective.

I

Read Film Review. Tick a column for each of these statements.

Statement Fact Evaluation

War of the Worlds stars Tom Cruise.

The special effects were really clever.

It was exciting and scary.

The story was actually quite believable.

I highly recommend this movie.

I loved it!

War of the Worlds is a movie.

2

Which auxiliary verbs and adverbs in Film Review express modality?

44

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

Imagine you saw War of the Worlds and you hated it. Write the opposite evaluations to the ones below.

Use high modality.

Evaluation

The plot was extremely clever.

The acting was fabulous.

The characters were true-to-life.

Everyone will really enjoy this movie.

It’s my favourite science fiction movie of all time.

Opposite evaluation

4

Circle the adverb in each row.

5

Circle the adjectives in Film Review.

long longingly lengthy lateral

lovingly love loving loveless

luscious lush tropical typically

great fantastic hopeless hopelessly

6

Write five adjectives you could use to describe a film you did not enjoy.

Rule!

Exclamation marks are used to emphasise words that

are said loudly or in surprise, anger, fear or happiness.

Wow! Get away from there! Yummy!

7

Write the exclamation from Film Review.

8

Imagine you have travelled into outer space. Write five exclamations to describe things you might see.

Look – an asteroid belt!

Try it

yourself!

Write a review of a movie that you like

or dislike. Include evaluative language and

high modality to express your opinions.

Fact and opinion; adverbs; adjectives; evaluative language; modality; exclamations

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

45


Unit

2I

Evaluative

language,

commas

This persuasive

text is a response. It

gives the writer’s point of

view on the topic. It uses

evaluative language.

Tip!

Mr Neil Armstrong

Kennedy Ave

Orlando

Florida 12753

USA

Remember

the rule on

page 12.

I

Dear Mr Armstrong,

My grandad watched on television when you walked on the

Moon on 20th July 1969. He saw you step out of the lunar

module. He still gets so excited talking about it and you have

been his hero ever since.

He loves Saturn V rockets and he collects space memorabilia

like models of the Eagle, jigsaw puzzles of Apollo 11,

commemorative coins, pendants, photos and posters. He even

has a 1969 commemorative sterling silver spoon and an

Apollo 11 Zero Gravity Space Pen.

I hope one day that he can visit the Kennedy Space Centre

and see the Saturn V rocket with his own eyes. Thank you for

your courage in travelling into space and inspiring so many

people like my grandad.

Yours sincerely,

Ben Shipway

Read Dear Mr Armstrong. Write six noun groups that contain classifying adjectives.

2

3

Circle the words in Dear Mr Armstrong that express the author’s evaluation of Neil Armstrong.

Write the words from Dear Mr Armstrong that express the grandad’s evaluation of Mr Armstrong.

4

Think of five adjectives the grandad would use to describe Mr Armstrong.

Use a thesaurus if you wish.

5

Write Mr Armstrong’s response to the letter from Ben. You could include his point of view of the events of

1969, and how he felt as he read the letter.

Dear Ben,

46

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Tip!

No punctuation marks are used in addressing envelopes.

Shortened forms are used for proper nouns:

St Rd Mr Ms

Addresses are written in this order:

name, street, city or suburb, state, postcode, country

6 Address the envelope to yourself.

7 Draw a line to link the shortened form with its full term.

Rd doctor Ave litre

km Road Qld Avenue

NW north-west NSW Queensland

Dr kilometre L New South Wales

Rule!

Commas are used to separate items in a list.

We bought wire, hooks, sinkers and tape.

Commas are used to separate adverbs.

He was glowingly, startlingly handsome.

Commas are used to separate describing adjectives before a noun,

and all adjectives after a noun.

The ferocious, hideous space monster.

The girl was intelligent, witty, confident and kind.

Commas are used to separate independent clauses joined by a connective.

8

Add commas where they are needed.

Gopal bought flour eggs butter jam and cream for scones.

The horse was spectacularly amazingly fast.

After it rained the grass was very green.

9

Add commas in the correct places.

My grandpa collects space memorabilia too. He collects coins pendants photos and posters. He

said that the astronauts were brave heroic and intelligent. He said that he would have been too

incredibly sickeningly terrified to do what they did. He can’t help but admire them very much.

Try it

yourself!

Write a letter to someone you admire. Tell the person what it is that you

admire about them and why. Use descriptive and classifying adjectives.

Use evaluative language to express your point of view. Make sure you use

correct punctuation.

Noun groups; descriptive and classifying adjectives; evaluative language; addressing envelopes; commas

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

47


Unit

22

Adverbs,

prepositional

phrases

This imaginative

text is a descriptive

poem. It uses metaphor

to express the poet’s

thoughts and feelings

about the topic.

Alien

Alien.

Dictionary says:

strange or foreign.

Latin for: belonging to another –

planet,

country, town,

school, class, group.

I am an alien, here.

Not

belonging. New.

First school day.

Alien: strange and foreign.

Tip!

A metaphor is a figure of speech where something is represented as if it is something else.

My grandpa is a walrus. He has a big moustache and five chins.

I

Read Alien. What is the metaphor in the poem?

2

Create a metaphor to finish each line.

My classmates are

My mother is

My bathtub is

The old tree is

Rule!

A colon introduces more information. This might be a list, a phrase,

bullet points, or the speech of actors in a play script.

We need to pack: spacesuits, ray guns, food tubes, Moon boots.

3

Why is the colon used in the poem?

48

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Add colons in the correct places.

Please purchase pencils, glue, biros and paper.

Scene 1 Inside the spaceship

Commander We are counting down to blast-off.

2nd Officer All systems check.

The rules on this rocket are

• listen carefully to safety instructions

• fasten seatbelts for blast-off

• no spilt liquids in zero gravity.

5

The connective or is used in the first stanza: foreign or strange. The connective and is used in the third

stanza: foreign and strange. What difference do the two connectives make to the meaning?

6

Foreign and strange are adjectives. Use a thesaurus and find other adjectives that could be used in the poem.

7

What does here mean in the poem Alien?

8

Use each adverb to tell where in a sentence about outer space.

down here further

9

Use each prepositional phrase to tell where in a sentence about space.

in the midst inside the galaxy around the solar system

Try it

yourself!

Have you ever been somewhere where you felt as if you were an alien?

Or can you imagine what it would feel like? Write a poem to express

those feelings.

Metaphor; colons; conjunctions (connectives): or, and; adverbs and prepositional phrases

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

49


Unit Nominalisation,

23

joining clauses

Ecological Footprint

This informative

text is an information

report. It uses

nominalisation so that

more information can

be packed into each

sentence.

Every human being uses resources such as food and energy, and

creates waste such as pollution. This impact on the environment,

which each person makes, can be called an ‘ecological footprint’.

Each person’s footprint can be measured, and each community,

organisation, workplace and country can also have its ecological

footprint measured. Ecological footprints are measured by

calculating goods and services used, and the energy and resources

required to create them, as well as the waste products left over

and the ways the waste is dealt with, stored or eliminated.

Conservation groups have predicted that to continue with current

global consumption and pollution levels we’ll need the resources

of 12 planet Earths.

I

2

Read Ecological Footprint. Underline the nominalised words.

Nominalise each verb in the box by changing it into a noun. Then use each noun

in a sentence.

Hint! To help you work out the noun, put the in front of each verb.

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 33.

measure

calculate

create

predict

3

Use a dictionary to find a definition for each of these technical terms from Ecological Footprint.

resources:

pollution:

ecological:

eliminated:

conservation:

consumption:

4

Draw a / between each clause in Ecological Footprint. Remember that each clause must have a verb.

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


5

In Ecological Footprint circle the relative pronoun that refers to the impact on the environment.

6

Rewrite each pair of sentences as a complex sentence. Use commas and a relative

pronoun from the box.

who who whose which

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 11.

The impact on the environment can be called an ‘ecological footprint’. Each person makes one.

The impact on the environment, which each person makes, can be called an ‘ecological footprint’.

My mother works for the government. She is an accountant.

The house is 100 years old. It is owned by the Historical Trust.

Sarah’s dog ate her homework. Sarah needs to do it again.

My sister is on the football team. She has trained hard.

7

Rewrite each pair of sentences as a single sentence. Use a conjunction from the box.

so both neither/nor either/or because

One person can come. It can be Bobby or Bernie.

The car had a flat tyre. Joan was late for school.

Either Bobby or Bernie can come.

Bill has a new pencil case. Jenny has a new pencil case.

Someone will help you calculate your ecological footprint. It will be Chen or Hamish.

Jana hasn’t got a new pencil case. Jim hasn’t got a new pencil case.

We don’t have 12 planet Earths. We need to make sure that whatever resources we use, we can

renew or reuse, and whatever waste products we create, we can dispose of safely.

Try it

yourself!

Use the internet to work out your own ecological footprint or that of your

home or school. Create an information report. Add images and create a

short slide show to present the information to the class.

Nominalisation; clauses; relative pronouns: who, whose, which; conjunctions (connectives): so, both, neither/nor, either/or, because; commas

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

51


Unit

24

Revision

I

Write a simple sentence that uses a verb in theme position.

2

Rewrite this sentence in the past tense.

I will go to visit my sick uncle in hospital.

3

Complete the table.

Base form Past tense Past tense with auxiliary

dance I I

keep I I

jump I I

run I I

bite I I

4

Write whether each statement is fact or opinion.

Dogs are mammals.

Dogs are cute.

The book I’m reading is really funny.

My mum cooks great stir-fry.

My tree house has a launch pad.

5

Write the opposite evaluation. Use high modality.

Evaluation

My dog will win.

My new bicycle was poorly made.

I love summer the best.

My dad is a spectacular dancer.

Opposite evaluation

52

6

Add an adjective and an adverb to each sentence.

The gymnast tumbled .

A man fell .

The baby cried .

The child grumbled .

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


7

Address the envelope, with correct punctuation,

Draw a line to link each shortened form with its

8

to fred tims 2181 fisher road dee why 2099 nsw. full term.

9

Add a colon in the correct place or places.

We saw raccoons, squirrels, prairie dogs and meerkats.

St

SW

it’s

Ave

SA

km

WA

mL

it is

Avenue

south-west

Street

Western Australia

millilitre

kilometre

South Australia

Commander

Mission Control

We are setting course for Alpha Beta Gamma Nebula.

Roger that, Commander. Setting course.

The class rules are

• walk into the classroom

• listen politely

• raise your hand to speak.

IO

Use each relative pronoun in a complex sentence.

who

whose

which

II

Use each conjunction in a complex sentence.

so both neither/nor either/or because

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

53


Unit

25

Emotive language,

reported

(indirect) speech

Daily Chronicle, 1 April 2026

MASS PANIC – UFO TERRORISES CITY

This informative

text is a newspaper

article. It uses

emotive language to

sensationalise

the news.

Melbourne came to a sudden

standstill today as people

abandoned cars and workplaces,

terrified, as a UFO, the size of

three football fields, ominously

hovered above the city.

As yet, officials have been unable

to communicate with the saucer.

Police, emergency services

and the military are liaising to

coordinate their strategies and

any response to an attack by the

UFO on the city.

Speculation at this stage

suggests the saucer is a solitary

vessel. Police Commissioner

Frank Neal has confirmed that

no other spaceships have been

sighted.

Police are urging all citizens

to stay inside their homes

and not panic. They are also

advising sightseers to remain

clear of the area until it can be

determined whether or not the

UFO is a threat.

Tip!

Emotive language is language that appeals to the emotions.

News items sometimes use emotive language to sensationalise the writing and create interest.

I

Read Mass Panic – UFO Terrorises City. Write five emotive words it uses that sensationalise the topic. Then

suggest a non-sensational synonym for each one. Hint! Synonyms are words that are similar in meaning.

monstrous

big

Rule!

Reported (indirect) speech is speech that is not quoted directly. It does not need speech marks.

Police Commissioner Frank Neal has confirmed that the aliens have taken over.

2

Why does the newspaper include Police Commissioner Frank Neal’s reported speech?

3

Add to the newspaper article. Include the reported speech of an army general to give the army’s

perspective on the UFO.

54

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Rewrite the quoted speech as reported speech.

“The UFO is terrifying!” cried a Melbourne worker.

“We’ve been unable to communicate,” said Police Commissioner Frank Neal.

“I’m so excited,” said one witness, “I’m taking lots of photos!”

“I think it’s a solitary vessel,” suggested one reporter.

“Stay clear of the area,” the police officer warned the public.

Tip!

Gender refers to being male or female. Use gender inclusive language

when you don’t want to exclude one gender or show bias.

gender exclusive Mankind is creating global warming.

gender inclusive People are creating global warming.

5

Rewrite each sentence using gender inclusive language.

Mankind can no longer afford to be complacent about the environment.

Every student is required to bring her own lunch on the excursion.

When any president visits the city, he stays at the conference venue.

Caveman developed simple tools to assist him in his daily life.

Phone all the schools and ask each principal if he can attend our meeting.

6

chairman

fireman

Write a gender inclusive replacement for each occupation.

cleaning lady

Try it

yourself!

policeman

air hostess

spaceman

Write a newspaper report about a UFO landing in your playground.

Use emotive language to sensationalise the article. Include the quoted

or reported speech of witnesses.

Quoted (direct) speech and reported (indirect) speech; emotive language; gender inclusive language

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

55


Unit

Adjectives,

26

adjectival

phrases

This informative text

provides a description.

It uses adjectives and

adjectival phrases to

accurately describe

the subject.

Mars, the Red Planet

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It is very, very cold

on Mars with temperatures ranging from –123°C to 17°C.

Mars has north and south poles with frozen icecaps like Earth.

Mars has two moons. The surface of Mars is old and cratered.

It is strewn with rocks and covered in red sand and dust,

which is why Mars is called the red planet. It has very strong

winds up to 200 kilometres per hour and severe dust storms

that can engulf the whole planet for months on end. Mars has

the tallest mountain in our solar system, Olympus Mons. It

also has some of the deepest valleys in our solar system. At

certain times of the year it is possible to see Mars from Earth

with the naked eye.

I

Read Mars, the Red Planet. Create an interesting noun group for each main noun. Do not use adjectives

already used in Mars, the Red Planet.

mountain dust storms temperatures surface planet

2

Turn these nouns into adjectives. Then use each adjective in a sentence.

mischief

mischievous. The mischievous child caused chaos in the classroom.

hero

colour

trouble

disaster

3

Use a relating verb or verb group to complete each sentence.

has been are belong will become is

Tip!

Mars and Earth

Two moons

Another name for Mars

Mars

Mars

56

planets in our solar system.

to Mars.

the red planet.

the subject of many books and movies over the years.

a destination for astronauts of the future.

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Remember

the rule on

page 20.


4

Here are some verbs to represent the way a Martian might eat.

Create a noun group for a food item for each one.

Doing verb

crunch

slobber

swallow

chew

gnaw

crater cookies

Noun group (adjective and noun)

Rule!

Adjectival phrases do the job of an adjective. They describe a noun.

Adjectival phrases often go after the noun they modify.

The Martian with hairy ears is my teacher.

5

Circle the adjectival phrases.

The dog with the loud bark lives next door.

The player in spiked shoes is disqualified.

The plant with the dead leaves gets too much sun.

Any child without a hat must stay indoors.

The bike with the big motor is Grandma’s.

Rule!

Comparative and superlative adjectives show degrees of comparison.

Adjectives with more than two syllables usually use more for comparative and most for superlative.

positive comparative superlative

regular happy happier happiest

irregular good better best

more syllables beautiful more beautiful most beautiful

6

Complete the table.

Positive Comparative Superlative

dusty

empty

remote

unusual

Try it

yourself!

Write a descriptive travel brochure about Mars. Use adjectival phrases that

will encourage travellers to visit. Let travellers know what they will see, hear,

touch, feel, wonder at and experience.

Noun groups; superlative and comparative adjectives; adjectival phrases; relating verbs (being and having verbs)

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

57


Unit Prepositional

27

phrases

This informative

text is an explanation.

It includes a sequence

of events linked through

cause and effect.

How is the Earth Magnetic?

The centre of the Earth is a solid core that is mostly made of

iron. Around the solid core is a liquid layer of molten iron.

As the Earth rotates, it causes movement in this molten iron layer.

This in turn creates electric currents. These currents generate a

magnetic field giving planet Earth the properties of a magnet.

Earth’s magnetic field reaches out thousands of kilometres into

space. However, the Earth’s magnetism is too weak to cause

metal objects to fly through the air as the Earth rotates. Imagine

what would happen if Earth’s magnetism were stronger!

I

Read How is the Earth Magnetic? Use a dictionary and write the definitions for the technical terms used.

magnet:

magnetic field:

iron:

molten iron:

electric current:

rotates:

2

3

Underline the prepositional phrases used in How is the Earth Magnetic?

Underline the prepositional phrases that tell how. Circle the prepositional

phrases that tell where.

Planet Earth could be said to have a magnet at its centre.

Around the solid core is liquid iron.

Magnetic fields are caused by electric currents.

As the Earth rotates, the electrons move and cause magnetism.

It would be unpleasant to be hit on the head with an iron.

An iron pan flying through the air would cause damage.

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 18.

4

Use each prepositional phrase that tells when in a sentence.

during the flight since the beginning until the flying saucer returns

after the space shuttle lands

before the cyclone

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


5

Complete each label on the diagram with one of these prepositional phrases. Hint! You’ll find the

information in How is the Earth Magnetic?

as the Earth rotates for thousands of kilometres at its centre

Planet Earth has a lot of iron .

The magnetic field extends .

Electric currents are generated .

6

Rewrite each present tense sentence in the past tense.

The centre of the Earth is solid and mostly made of iron.

Around the solid core is a liquid layer of molten iron.

The electric currents generate a magnetic field.

Earth has the properties of a magnet.

Now read your past tense sentences. Does past tense make sense in this explanation? Why or why not?

Try it

yourself!

Explanations are often accompanied by diagrams or flow charts. Do some

research on a topic of your choice. Write an explanation. Draw a diagram

or flow chart to illustrate the concepts in your explanation.

Technical terms; prepositional phrases to tell how, where and when; past and present tense

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

59


Unit

28

Modality,

vocatives

Who Needs Science?

Dear Editor,

This persuasive

text is a response in

the form of a letter to

the editor. The writer

uses high modality and

persuasive language

to convince readers to

agree with the point of

view expressed.

In response to N. Baines (20th Sept.) who said that “schools

absolutely must ditch science in favour of students spending more

time on literacy and numeracy activities”: firstly, I wish to remind

N. Baines that without science life would definitely be much less

interesting. Readers, think of any appliance or product in your

home. Science is involved.

Secondly, N. Baines obviously doesn’t realise that science enables

us to understand our world and its phenomena. Without this

understanding and the human capacity to explore, experiment

and wonder, we could well have remained living in caves. Science

improves and enriches our lives.

Lastly, modern science in the classroom includes an ethical

component that teaches students to be responsible decision-makers

and consider the ethics of all their actions.

I’m happy to have science in my life. Go back to your cave, N. Baines.

Yours sincerely,

Proud Scientist

I

Read Who Needs Science? Write the three connectives that link the arguments.

2

3

In Who Needs Science?, underline the adverbs and verb groups that express

high modality.

Rewrite the following sentences using high modality.

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 14.

School children probably need more exercise so we might have sport and games more often.

Maybe school children could have excursions to chocolate factories.

4 Rewrite these statements using low modality.

Brussels sprouts absolutely improve and enrich our lives.

Schools should definitely have stargazing sleepouts in their playgrounds every term.

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Tip!

Sometimes it is more helpful to use lower modality in a persuasive text. This allows for

more negotiation and compromise.

5

Pretend you are Proud Scientist and you are speaking to N. Baines in person. Finish each sentence.

Be polite and tone down the modality.

I wonder, have you considered

Have you thought about

Possibly you haven’t realised that

Do you think, maybe

Could you

Rule!

Vocatives are names or titles used to address a person. They can help show the

relationship between the speaker or writer and the person or people being addressed.

informal, friendly

formal, respectful

Johnno, pass me the bag.

Excuse me, sir, could you please pass me the bag?

6

Underline the vocatives.

Please, madam, explain how science improves our lives.

May I have your attention, ladies and gentlemen?

Don’t you think, dear reader, that science is important?

Colleagues, thank you for meeting with me.

Hey, honey, do you think that scientist is a mad scientist?

7

8

Circle the vocatives in Who Needs Science?

What relationship does the use of the vocative N. Baines show in Who Needs Science?

9

Write a sentence (as yourself) to address Proud Scientist. Use a vocative.

Try it

yourself!

Write a letter to an editor about an issue that concerns you. Write three

main arguments and link them using connectives such as firstly, secondly,

finally. Use high modality to convince readers to adopt your point of view.

Modality; connectives to link arguments; vocatives

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

61


Unit

29

Emotive

language,

vocatives

This persuasive

text is an exposition

presented by the

first speaker in a

parliamentary-style

debate. It uses emotive

language and vocatives

to engage the audience.

Today’s Debate

Using animals in space experiments is wrong.

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Today my team and I

will argue most convincingly that using animals for scientific

experimentation in space is cruel, immoral and absolutely

unnecessary.

Animals such as apes, mice, spiders, dogs, cats, bats, beetles,

tortoises and guinea pigs have been used in space programs

since the 1940s. Many, many of these animals died in space.

Many died on re-entry or landing; and, many landed safely

but were murdered by scientists for information that might

be gained from autopsies. The four monkeys all known only

as Albert – I, II, III, and IV – all died when their parachute

failed to open on re-entry. A US Navy-trained squirrel

monkey, named Gordo, drowned when he crashed into the

sea and sank in his landing module nose-cone. Now, I ask

you, intelligent audience, what possible benefit to human

space flight can result from sending tortoises and guinea pigs

into space?

Tip!

Using emotive language to appeal to people’s emotions can sometimes help

to win an argument. At other times it is better to stick to the facts.

I

Read Today’s Debate. Write the emotive language used.

2

Rewrite each sentence using less emotive language.

Torturing animals to get a bit of information is cruel.

Five countries are responsible for this continued cruelty to animals in the name of space travel.

Many of these poor creatures survived the torment of space travel only to be murdered by scientists

for insignificant information that might have been gained from autopsies.

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

How is the emotive language used in Today’s Debate supposed to make you feel?

4

What advantage is gained by the speaker by including the squirrel monkey’s name (Gordo) in the debate?

5

Circle the vocatives in Today’s Debate. What relationship between speaker and audience do the vocatives

represent?

6

What relationship between speaker and audience is represented by these vocatives?

Good afternoon, boys and girls …

Friends, I need your help.

You there, give me a hand.

Hiya, honey …

Excuse me, ma’am …

Hello, Mr Garcia.

7

Mark the scale to show the relationship between speaker and listener that is implied by each vocative.

1 is the closest relationship and 5 is the most distant relationship.

closest

most distant

Where are you, Mum? 1 2 3 4 5

I’m pleased to announce Ms Yuki … 1 2 3 4 5

Good morning, class. 1 2 3 4 5

Hey, Bubby. 1 2 3 4 5

Welcome, Science Club … 1 2 3 4 5

Try it

yourself!

Write an exposition to respond to the first speaker of Today’s Debate.

Or do some research and write the second speaker’s argument. Consider

whether to use emotive language or stick to the facts. Use vocatives to

appeal directly to your audience.

Vocatives; emotive language

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

63


Unit

30

Revision

I

Rewrite each sentence using gender inclusive language.

We’re going to invite the firemen to talk to the students.

Man is responsible for the environmental issues.

I’ll find a doctor and have him call you.

2

Rewrite each high modality statement as low modality.

I absolutely adore your new puppy.

We will definitely paint the wall green.

The doctor said I must keep off my feet for a week.

3

Underline the prepositional phrases that tell how. Circle the prepositional phrases that tell where.

I went to see a movie at the cinema.

Tie a ribbon around the tree.

The howling sound is caused by the wind.

As the Earth rotates the electrons move and cause magnetism.

4

Create an interesting noun group for each main noun.

satellite

meteorite

eclipse

galaxy

star

64

5

Use a relating verb to complete each sentence.

The koala

a marsupial.

Dogs

an excellent sense of smell.

We

happy with our last holiday.

Praveen and Carolyn

in Sydney.

A tadpole

a frog.

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


6

Change these nouns to adjectives. Then use each adjective in a sentence.

wind

scene

danger

7

Underline the adjectival phrases.

The beach towel with the yellow stripes is Kara’s.

The dancer in the leather jacket is my favourite.

The painting of the actor is for sale.

The speech by the principal was very moving.

Children with hats can go outside.

8

Complete the table.

Positive Comparative Superlative

dirty

spacious

busy

hungry

9

Sensationalise each sentence by rewriting it using emotive language.

Vandals destroyed property valued at $5000.

The rain caused flooding overnight near Maitland.

IO

Mark the scale to show the relationship between speaker and listener that is implied by each vocative.

1 is the closest relationship and 5 is the most distant relationship.

closest

most distant

Hi, Josh! 1 2 3 4 5

How can I help you, madam? 1 2 3 4 5

Good morning, students. 1 2 3 4 5

Ladies and gentlemen … 1 2 3 4 5

II

Link the arguments by writing each connective on the correct line.

finally

firstly

in addition

I prefer to watch films at the cinema instead of at home on DVD. ,

I like to see a movie as soon as possible – I don’t want to have to wait until it comes

out on DVD.

, I think it’s more exciting to see a movie on a big

cinema screen.

, I like to get out, not stay at home every night.

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

65


Unit

3I

Verb groups,

noun groups

This persuasive

text is a response in the

form of a diary entry. It

gives the writer’s point of

view. It uses metaphor

and simile.

Dear Diary,

I am so annoyed. I’m really so furious. I really, really

wanted to go camping with Tasha’s family BUT my

restrictive, prohibitive, excessive, unreasonable parents,

aka ‘jail-keepers’, would not allow me to. They think

they own me. Like . . . hellooo! I don’t think so.

I look out my bedroom window and I can’t see any

stars, here. It’s like a prison. If I could have gone

camping I would have been able to see soooooo many

constellations!

The sky is soooooo clear when you’re away from the

city lights and Tasha found a website that tells you

how to measure, with handspans and finger widths,

where to find all the interesting objects in the night

sky in the Southern Hemisphere. It’s really cool.

I

Read Dear Diary. Write three thinking and feeling verbs it uses.

Rule!

A simile is when something is described as being ‘like’ or ‘as’ something else.

He runs like the wind. She is as fast as the wind.

2

Circle the simile in Dear Diary. Underline the metaphor. Now write some of your own.

Describe a family member.

Describe an animal.

Describe yourself.

Describe something in nature.

Simile

Metaphor

3

Circle five adjectives used in Dear Diary. Write a sentence for each one.

66

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

In the first paragraph of Dear Diary, underline the noun group that labels the parents.

5

Underline the noun groups in each sentence.

My smart, witty, talented friend likes camping.

Tasha’s family is going camping.

I will look out my bedroom window.

I would have seen many constellations.

Many stars are visible away from the city lights.

6

Write an extended noun group to describe a

member of your family. Use a dictionary for help.

7

Some sentences in Dear Diary are very short while others are much longer. What is the effect of varying

the sentence length?

Tip!

Colloquial language is informal language. It is sometimes used between friends, with

familiar audiences, or in diaries and journals. Colloquial language includes slang.

8

Write two colloquial terms used in Dear Diary. Then write the definition of each.

9

Write two colloquial terms used in your school. Then write the definition of each.

Tip!

Could, would, should and might are auxiliary verbs. They are often used with the verb have.

Never use of with these auxiliary verbs: of is a preposition, not part of a verb group.

correct

incorrect

She might have gone home already.

She might of gone home already.

I0

Choose a verb group from the box to complete each sentence.

might have

could have

should have

would have

Try it

yourself!

I wish I

I

My parents

I

gone camping.

enjoyed camping.

allowed me to go camping.

been able to see Jupiter.

Write a diary entry as a response to something positive or negative that

has happened to you recently. Use thinking and feeling verbs, colloquial

language, similes and metaphors.

Similes; metaphors; thinking and feeling verbs; relating verbs; auxiliary verbs; noun groups; colloquial language

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

67


Unit

32 Commands,

conjunctions

This informative text is a

procedure that provides a

set of instructions. It has

a series of commands

that tells what to do in an

imaginary situation.

What to Do if Aliens Land in Your Neighbourhood

x Stay well clear; don’t go near.

x Hide under the bed or in a tree.

x take pots, pans and other loud banging implements to scare off the aliens.

x Keep quiet unless they find you.

x If they find you, bang loudly on your pots and pans.

x If banging fails to scare them, have water bombs or a garden hose

nearby, because they won’t like water.

x If they approach you, scream until your throat is hoarse.

x If they are still coming at you, run away very quickly and don’t look back.

x If they grab you from behind, bite them.

x Or, drop on the ground and roll in the dirt

so you will not taste good if they bite you.

x Report to your local government office.

Tip!

The instructions What to Do if Aliens Land in Your Neighbourhood are written in a way

that seems serious but is actually poking fun. This is called tongue-in-cheek.

I

Read What to Do if Aliens Land in Your Neighbourhood. What aspects of the text make it obvious that it

is tongue-in-cheek?

Tip!

Some conjunctions are used to show cause and effect.

At the beginning of the first clause: If they grab you from behind, bite them.

Placed between two clauses:

Bite them if they grab you from behind.

2

The conjunction if is used repeatedly in What to Do if Aliens Land in Your Neighbourhood. Write two

other conjunctions used in the instructions. Explain their function in the text.

3

List the verbs used in theme position in What to Do if Aliens Land in Your Neighbourhood. Use a

dictionary to find a synonym for each one. Hint! Synonyms are words that are similar in meaning.

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Instructions are often written as commands. Rewrite these questions as commands.

Why don’t you try hiding in a cupboard?

Would you be able to keep quiet while you hide?

Can you make water balloons to scare them off?

Could you scream at the aliens when they approach you?

Would you like to taste an alien?

Tip!

The suffix –ing added to a verb can show present or past tense, depending on the

auxiliary verb.

I am hiding.

I was hiding.

5

Imagine you are practising what to do in the event of an alien invasion. Complete each sentence in the

present tense. Use an auxiliary and a verb with the suffix –ing.

I am staying well clear and not going near.

I

under the bed.

I

quiet unless they find me.

I

pots and pans to scare them.

I

loudly on my pots and pans.

I

until my throat is hoarse.

I away very quickly and I back.

I them. They yucky.

I on the ground and I in the dirt.

I

to my local government office.

Try it

yourself!

Find a set of instructions for something in your home or school. Rewrite them

in a tongue-in-cheek way. Or write what you would do if aliens landed in your

neighbourhood. Use commands with verbs in theme position.

Commands; verbs; theme; conjunctions (connectives): if; present tense; tongue-in-cheek humour

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

69


Unit

Connectives,

33

reference

chains

This informative text is

a biography. It recounts

events in a person’s life.

It uses time connectives

to link events in

chronological order.

Andy Thomas, Astronaut

Andy Thomas was born in Adelaide,

South Australia, in 1951. He is an

aerospace engineer and NASA

astronaut.

Andy has made a number of flights

into space. His first flight was a

ten-day trip on the space shuttle

Endeavour in 1996.

Andy then trained at the Gagarin

Cosmonaut Training Centre in

Russia before spending 130 days

in space on the Russian Mir Space

Station, in 1998.

Andy’s third space mission, in 2001,

saw him spend nearly thirteen days

on board Space Shuttle Discovery

on a mission to deliver supplies

and crew to the International

Space Station (ISS).

Andy’s fourth mission, to reassess

the safety of space shuttles, was

on board Space Shuttle Discovery

in 2005.

What an incredible career this

amazing astronaut has had so far.

There are very few people in the

world who can say they’ve had the

privilege of flying into space and

our Adelaide boy, Andy Thomas,

has done just that.

I

Read Andy Thomas, Astronaut. Find the number words that give the text its structure and logical order.

2

Use the connectives in the box to show time sequence in this recount.

after when finally at first since while during before because

dinner Dad received a phone call.

he was on the phone Mum

told us a joke she heard at work that day.

Dad returned to the table we had

to tell him Mum’s joke. he didn’t get it but he saw the funny

side. everyone else had finished eating and Dad finished last,

he had to do the dishes.

the dishes were done we all played board games

we went to bed.

3

Write the connectives used in Andy Thomas, Astronaut.

4

Write a paragraph that uses all the connectives in the box to show time sequence.

then

after

next

following

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Rule!

Reference chains are made up of words, such as nouns and pronouns, used throughout

a text to refer to the same person, place, animal or thing.

5

6

In Andy Thomas, Astronaut, circle the words that are part of the reference chain referring to Andy Thomas.

Circle the words that are part of the reference chain referring to the Space Shuttle Discovery.

The Space Shuttle Discovery has been on many space missions. It was first flown in 1984 and since

then it has been involved in a number of important voyages. This amazing spacecraft is one of three

shuttles in NASA’s space program. As well as Discovery, NASA sends the shuttles Endeavour and

Atlantis on missions.

7 Write fact or opinion after each sentence.

The ISS is a joint project of USA, Japan, Russia, Canada and Europe.

More countries should be involved in funding the ISS.

The ISS should be dismantled because it is too costly.

Mir travelled over three and a half billion kilometres.

Endeavour travelled 6.6 million kilometres on Andy’s mission.

Mir was the world’s first long-term space research station.

I think Mir stands for Many Innocent Rats.

8

Andy Thomas, Astronaut ends with a personal comment on Andy Thomas’s life. What is the writer’s

opinion of Andy? Which particular words tell you this?

Tip!

Words for people can sometimes be formed by changing or adding to the ending of

a noun or a verb. astronomy astronaut

The prefix astro- means star. The suffix -naut is from the Latin word for sailor.

So astronaut means a sailor of the stars.

9

city

Use a dictionary to find a word that describes a person associated with each noun or verb.

science

football

piano

journal

Try it

yourself!

command

advise

inhabit

Research a famous person who interests you. Search the internet to find

appropriate material. Create a biography. Add images and create a short

slide show to present the information to the class.

Connectives: after, when, finally, at first, since, while, during, before, because; reference chains; adding suffixes to form nouns for people; fact and opinion

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

71


Unit

34 Connectives,

lexical chains

This persuasive text

is a discussion. It uses

connectives to link and

compare different points

of view on a topic.

THE COST OF THE SPACE PROGRAM

A space program is enormously costly to any country

involved. The cost of the US space shuttle program

alone is estimated to reach $175 billion dollars.

Many scientists believe the space program is critically important and will

benefit all humankind because of advances in technology. Some people

even believe that Australia should get more involved than it has been, or

it will miss an opportunity to be at the forefront of scientific research.

On the other hand, critics of the space program argue that its benefits do

not justify its costs and that the money could be better spent on things

like schools, roads and medical research. The average person would think

that these things are far more important than sending a person to stand

on the Moon, or sending a camera to photograph red sand on Mars.

Nevertheless, most people are happy to support a space program as

long as money isn’t squandered and they can see tangible advances in

science as a result.

Rule!

Lexical chains are made up of words that link a particular content strand in a text.

A lexical chain about aliens could be:

Martians aliens frightening space monsters friendly extraterrestrials

I

2

Read The Cost of the Space Program. Circle the words that make a lexical chain related to the space program.

Discussions present a number of points of view on an issue. Summarise the points of view and the

conclusion presented in The Cost of the Space Program.

Many scientists

Some people

On the other hand, critics of the space program

The average person

Conclusion: Nevertheless, most people

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Tip!

Sometimes texts are presented as fact when they really portray

the author’s point of view. This can be subtle or obvious.

3

Do you think The Cost of the Space Program portrays the author’s point of view?

What do you think that point of view might be?

4

Do you think the ideas presented in the discussion The Cost of the Space Program were balanced or

biased? Explain your reasoning.

5

If you were an astronaut, what would be your point of view on The Cost of the Space Program?

6

If you were a person in a developing country that did not have a space program, what might your

point of view be?

7

Each sentence contains a connective that compares. Complete each sentence.

The space program is expensive, nevertheless

Tip!

Remember

the rule on

page 36.

Despite the space program being so expensive,

Whereas the space program is very expensive,

8

9

In The Cost of the Space Program underline the connectives that compare.

Use each connective to compare in a sentence.

however

yet

though

Try it

yourself!

Have a spoken discussion with family members on a topic that you know

will raise different points of view, such as pocket money amounts, bedtimes

and so on. Record the discussion. Use connectives to structure your writing.

Connectives: on the other hand, nevertheless, whereas, despite, however, yet, though; lexical chains; point of view

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

73


Unit

35

Revision

I

Write five thinking and feeling verbs.

2

Write five adjectives to describe your best friend.

3

Write an extended noun group to describe your favourite animal.

4

Write two colloquial terms, and their definitions, used by your friends.

5

Choose words from the box to complete each sentence.

would have

might have

could have

should have

I wish I

I

My sister

I

had a sleepover.

helped you clean your room.

allowed me to borrow her jacket.

finished my essay on time but I left my book at school.

6

Rewrite each command as a question.

Go to bed.

Put that away now.

Finish your dinner and then get ready for bed.

Put it on the shelf.

7

Write fact or opinion after each sentence.

I love Bowen mangoes.

Computers are highly technical pieces of equipment.

Australia has a prime minister.

Pay-per-view TV is better than free-to-air.

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Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


8 Rewrite each sentence in the present tense.

The comet flew across the sky.

I launched the rocket.

I could see Mars through the telescope.

Patrick wrote a list of instructions.

9

Write a recount using all the connectives in the box.

after

finally

while

during

before

because

IO

Add to or change the end of each noun or verb to make a word for a person associated with it.

teach

photograph

bakery

library

act

law

dictate

tile

II

Use each connective in a sentence.

on the other hand

nevertheless

despite

alternatively

because of

I2

Circle the words that make a lexical chain relating to the Martian.

The Earthling looked the Martian up and down, taking in its purplish skin, six arms and sharp teeth.

I3

Circle the words that are part of the reference chain referring to Albert.

The scientists called the ape Albert. Albert was just one of many animals used in the space program.

Some people would call this ape a hero.

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

75


Grammar Rules

Look at the page number in the star to find more information about the rule.

acronym

adjective

a word made up of the initial letters of other words

a word that tells you more about a noun

37

adjectival phrase

57

classifying adjective

12

comparative and superlative adjectives

57

descriptive adjective

12

number adjective

32

possessive adjective

19

adverb

a word that adds meaning to a verb, adjective or another adverb.

Adverbs can tell how, when or where.

adverb group

12

12

telling how

telling when

12

12

telling where

12

modal adverbs

14

clause

a group of words that expresses an idea and contains a verb

6

subordinate clause

34

complex sentence

a sentence made up of two or more clauses

25

conjunction

connective

a joining word that links ideas in a sentence. Conjunctions are connectives.

a word or words that link ideas through a text

6

adding information

36

comparing things

36

showing one thing causes another

36

showing time sequence

sequencing arguments

36

36

lexical chain

a chain of words that link a particular content strand in a text

72

metaphor

modality

a figure of speech where something is spoken of as if it is something else

the degree of certainty the speaker or writer has about something.

High modality is certain; low modality is uncertain. 14 22

48

nominalisation

noun

turning verbs into nouns. This can make a text seem more technical.

a word for a person, place, animal or thing

33

collective noun (a name for a group of things)

9

noun group

8

76

singular and plural

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

9

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