West Virginia - April 2021



“Nurses working together

for a healthy West Virginia

The official publication of the West Virginia Nurses Association

Quarterly publication distributed to approximately 19,600 RNs & LPNs in West Virginia.

April, May, June 2021 Volume 22 • No. 2



2021 WVNA Policy Day

Poster Presentations. ........... 2

Executive Director’s Message. ....... 3

Time Management

Tips for Nurses. ............... 4

2021 WVNA Awards. ............ 4

Failure to Report Changes

in a Patient’s Condition.......... 5

A Letter to the WV Legislature....... 6

WVNA 2021

Legislative Updates ............ 7

WVNA Nursing Leaders. .......... 8

Access to Palliative Care Can

Help in Serious Illness. ......... 9

An Examination of

Stigmatizing Guidelines

Regarding Blood Donation. ...... 10

Membership Update. ........... 11

Conferences & Meetings ......... 11

WV COVID-19 Updates. ......... 12

Historical Perspective on

Vaccine Development. ........ 13

Telehealth and Social Media

Usage Since COVID-19. ........ 14

WV Board of Nursing

Health Coach Program. ........ 15

current resident or

Presort Standard

US Postage


Permit #14

Princeton, MN


Dear WV Nursing Colleagues,

I’m writing this on the

13th day of the 2021 WV

legislative session. Because of

the pandemic, things are very

different at the State Capitol.

The WVNA has had a few

Zoom and phone meetings

with legislators. At the time

of this writing, our executive

director, Julie Huron, and

our lobbyist, Loarie Butcher, Joyce Wilson

have had one in-person

meeting with Delegate Eric Householder (R-64th

district: Martinsburg area) and Del. Vernon Criss

(R-10th district: Parkersburg area). The meeting was

to discuss finding avenues to assist nurses who are

working in WV who exhausted their PTO early in the

pandemic due to furloughs or quarantine, and have

no income if they now have to be off work because

they have contracted COVID-19. We also had a phone

call meeting with Del. Matthew Rorhbach (R-17th

district: Huntington area). All three of the delegates

are supportive of WVNA and are helping us draft a bill

as I write this.

We closely monitored other bills that influence or

impact nursing in WV, including:

• HB 2672 Relating to posting safety information

for hospitals.

• HB 2674 Relating to the administration of


• HB 2707 Relating to prescriptive authority for


These were our priority bills for this legislative

session. We followed many more. We would not have

been successful if it were not for our lobbyist. Thank

you, Loarie, for all your hard work and skill, and all the

networking you did for the WVNA during this unusual

legislative session.

The bills will be decided by the time you are

reading this. The important takeaway is that the

WVNA is active in the political process. The association

is growing in number and in diversity. Hearing all

the different stories of how certain legislation

impacts nurses and patients in different

geographical areas in WV helps to guide the

stance that we take on legislation. We need to

hear from all WV nurses.

You can keep up to date with the legislative

process, goals, upcoming events, and much

more on the WVNA website. Julie does an

outstanding job keeping it updated.

The 2021 Policy Summit titled “Voices from

The Front Line” was held on March 25, 2021.

Board of Nursing executive director Sue Painter, DNP,

RN was the keynote speaker. She spoke on Protecting

Your Nursing License During COVID 19. Thank you, Sue

for your expertise and for speaking to us about this

important topic during this uncertain time.

This year event was held virtually: a new experience

for us. We contracted with NGAGE, which was a

tremendous help in making the event a success.

It’s been said so many times, but I feel that it

cannot be said enough: Nurses are essential during

“normal” times, but I have never been prouder of

nurses or more proud to be a nurse. We are all tired

– emotionally, physically, and spiritually – yet we

continue to rise to be there to give care wherever and

whenever it is needed.

Know that the WVNA is working hard for you. We

appreciate all the long hours and extra shifts that you

are doing in order to bring care to all West Virginians

during COVID-19, risking your own health and that of

your family.

All the members of the executive board are also

working on the front line of the pandemic. Many of us

have had loved ones that have been hospitalized with

COVID-19. We all have been affected by the loss of

family or friends. We really are all in this together.

For more than a year now we have been in a

steady state of mourning. Week after week in our

community newspapers we read obituaries of our

family, friends, and neighbors. In usual times we hold

each other up with visits, hugs, and meals. During

this trying time, our grieving is incomplete. In usual

times grief takes so much energy. Now, the grief is

held in, and our fatigue is profoundly affecting our

everyday lives.

It appears that anger, the second stage of grief is

also exaggerated right now. We have been through

so much over the past year with all the stress, fatigue,

and loss. Coping skills are sometimes frayed, which

can make for an impulsive, negative response when

someone takes an opposing view.

Now is the time that we can also rise as peace

makers by realizing that when someone lashes out at

us, they are also stressed, fatigued, and mourning. We

should offer grace as our first response. Hard times

makes us wise and strong, but they don’t mean letting

yourself be taken advantage of. Speaking truth with

kindness is strength.

Our communities, state, and country need healing

right now, and that is what nursing is all about.

We always rise up and walk on. One step at a time.

It’s all we can really do.

Blessings to you,

Joyce Wilson, RN

WVNA President

Page 2 West Virginia Nurse April, May, June 2021

2021 WVNA Policy Day

Poster Presentations

West Virginia Nurse

Official Publication of the

West Virginia Nurses Association

P.O. Box 1946 | Charleston, WV 25327

Phone: 866.986.8773 or 866.WVNURSE

Email: centraloffice@wvnurses.org

Webpage: www.wvnurses.org

Brad Phillips, MSN, RN, CNE

Clinical Education Assistant Professor, WVU School of Nursing

The poster presentations at the 2021 West Virginia Nurses Association Policy Summit consisted of ten posters with a total

of 21 presenters (many posters had more than one author). All poster presentations were recorded by the presenters and

uploaded to the virtual conference platform, utilizing innovative technologies to disseminate work despite restrictions of

the COVID-19 pandemic.

The poster topics addressed current health policy issues in the state of West Virginia, with special focus on voices from

the frontline. Topics were identified by various methods, including evidence-based research, clinical practice improvement

projects, community engagement, and class assignments. Content areas included nursing education, advanced practice

provider scope of practice, WV legislature, health promotion/prevention, disease management, substance abuse disorders,

veterans, and health disparities.

Presenters selected topics by various methods including policy issues in the workplace, issues in the community, and

issues that sparked passion within themselves. In doing so, the posters presented identified timely and relative issues in

West Virginia that both current and future nurses wish to see changed in their workplace and in their communities. Some of

the posters even gave recommendations for change.

Marshall Health

Maria Heck, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC

Beth White, DNP, NP-C, AACC


West Virginia University School of Nursing Faculty

Sandra Cotton, DNP, APRN, FNP

Angel Smothers, DNP, APRN, FNP-BC

Stephanie Young, MSN, RN

Veronica Gallo, PhD, RN

James Messer, MSN, RN

Elizabeth Morrissey, BSN, RN

Brad Phillips, MSN, RN, CNE

Stacy Russell, MSN, RN

West Virginia University School of Nursing Students

Barbara Hamilton, BSN, RN

Kady Raines, BSN, RN

Melissa Lowther, BSN, RN

Vanesa Ochoa, BSN, RN

Maria Irvin, BSN, RN

Ian Avis, SN

Sarah Cain, SN

Danielle Emerick, SN

Evan Estrada, SN

Rachel Mullins, SN

Ateria Walker, SN

Jenna Wermers, SN

Katherine Hetman, SN

“Nurse Practitioner Fellowship Programs: An

Educational Stepping Stone for Improved Patient

Outcomes and Job Satisfaction”

“Decreasing Suicide: Identification & Screening

of Veterans by Community Care Nurses”

“Community Access Strategies for

Faith Community Nurses in WV

During the Pandemic”

“Expanding the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) for West Virginians”

“Virtual Reality: A Plausible Modality to Increase the

Number of Simulation Hour Requirements in

Undergraduate Nursing Education”

“Inpatient Mental Health Treatment Gaps for Children

and Adolescent Populations in West Virginia

Melanie Vogt-McCloy, BSN, RN

“Nurse Recruitment and Retention”

“Routine Pediatric Vaccinations in the Medical Home”

“Meeting Nurses’ Self-Care Needs to

Improve Patient Outcomes”

Published quarterly every January, April, July and October for the West

Virginia Nurses Association, a constituent member of the American

Nurses Association.

The opinions contained herein are those of the individual authors and do

not necessarily reflect the views of the Association.

WV Nurse reserves the right to edit all materials to its style and space

requirements and to clarify presentations.

WVNA Mission Statement

The mission of the WVNA is to support WV nurses and to work for a

healthier West Virginia.

WVNA Executive Board

President: Joyce Wilson joycewilsonfnp@gmail.com

President-Elect: Teresa Hovatter contessiaenterprises@gmail.com

Vice President: Lori McComas Chaffins messenger2772@gmail.com

Treasurer: Roger Carpenter rcarpenter@hsc.wvu.edu

Secretary: Jon H. Casto jonwvrn@gmail.com

Immediate Past President: Toni DiChiacchio dichiacchio@yahoo.com

District Leader Representative:

Crystal Chapman chapmanclynn@yahoo.com

Early Career Nurse: Luke Velickoff lukevelickoff@gmail.com

Committee Chairs

APRN Congress Chair: Jodi Biller jodibiller@gmail.com

Health Policy & Legislative Co-Chairs:

Teresa Hovatter contessiaenterprises@gmail.com

Jodi Biller jodibiller@gmail.com

PAC Chair: Jon H. Casto jonwvrn@gmail.com

Immediate Past PAC Chair: Joyce Wilson joycewilsonfnp@gmail.com

Membership Chair: Anitra Ellis amellis33@icloud.com

Nominations and Awards Chair:

Toni DiChiacchio dichiacchio@yahoo.com

Nursing Workforce Initiative:

Heather Glasko-Tully mrstully2010@me.com

ANA Membership Assembly Delegate:

Moira Tannenbaum moiratan@hotmail.com

WVNA Staff

Julie Absher Huron, Executive Director


WV Nurse Staff

Moira Tannenbaum, Editor


West Virginia Nurse Copy Submission Guidelines

All WVNA members are encouraged to submit material for publication that

is of interest to nurses. The material will be reviewed and may be edited for

publication. There is no payment for articles published in the West Virginia


Article submission is accepted in Microsoft Word or similar format.

Copy submission via email: Please attach a Microsoft Word (or similar) file

to email. We ask that you not paste the text of the article into email. Please

do not embed photos in Word files; please send photos as separate JPEG


Please do not convert the file to a PDF. When sending pictures, please

provide a description identifying the people in the pictures and note who

the photographer was, if relevant.

Approximately 1,600 words equal a full page in the paper. This does

not account for headlines, photos, special graphics, pull quotes, etc.

Submit material to:

West Virginia Nurse

PO Box 1946, Charleston, WV 25327

Email: centraloffice@wvnurses.org

For advertising rates and information, please contact Arthur L. Davis Publishing

Agency, Inc., PO Box 216, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50613, (800) 626-4081, sales@aldpub.

com. WVNA and the Arthur L. Davis Publishing Agency, Inc. reserve the right to

reject any advertisement. Responsibility for errors in advertising is limited to

correction in the next issue or refund of price of advertisement.

Acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement or approval by the

West Virginia Nurses Association of products advertised, the advertisers, or the

claims made. Rejection of an advertisement does not imply a product offered

for advertising is without merit, or that the manufacturer lacks integrity, or that

this association disapproves of the product or its use. WVNA and the Arthur L.

Davis Publishing Agency, Inc. shall not be held liable for any consequences

resulting from purchase or use of an advertiser’s product. Articles appearing

in this publication express the opinions of the authors; they do not necessarily

reflect views of the staff, board, or membership of WVNA or those of the

national or local associations.

April, May, June 2021 West Virginia Nurse Page 3

Executive Director’s Message

WVNA Policy Summit Wrap-Up

Julie A. Huron

It’s our favorite time of year – the WVNA Policy Summit

took place March 25, 2021. It was a chance to bring nurses

and students together and to benefit from the West Virginia

legislature’s session.

It seems every year, there is a new twist to our policy

event. This year, we were forced to move our event to a virtual

platform, and it turned out to be a great event. The success

was due to two factors: NGAGE, an association management

company that quickly became leaders in hosting virtual events

last year, and a fantastic team of WVNA volunteers. The NGAGE

virtual platform brought a real conference atmosphere to us,

virtually. It included a lounge area, meeting space, exhibitor and Julie A. Huron

sponsor locations, poster presentation area, and the hit of the

day, Taylor Taylor – with her acoustic music at lunch while we looked at posters.

West Virginia is fortunate to have two nurses

in the House of Delegates: Majority Leader Amy

Summers and Delegate Heather Tully, both of

whom agreed to be our event keynote speakers,

bringing valuable information. We usually

connect nurses (in person) with their legislators;

however, 2021 brought more of a challenge to

do this. In the true spirit of nursing, we found

the workaround, and we brought the nurse

legislators to our event. An excellent session led

by Jodi Biller and Teresa Hovatter taught nurses

how to navigate the WV legislature’s website.

Our sponsorships and exhibitors in 2021 included Stonerise, CeraVE, Barbour

Community Health Association, Chamberlain College of Nursing, Grand Canyon University,

Northern Kentucky University, NSO, Sizewise, Waynesburg University, the WV RN Board

(also an excellent talk by executive director Sue Painter, DNP), and Xenex. Some of our

WVNA Organizational Affiliates joined us: the WV Affiliate of the American College of

Nurse-Midwives (ACNM-WV), the WV Association of Nurse Anesthetists (WVANA), and the

WV Association of School Nurses (WVASN).

The Policy Summit event platform will remain live for 90 days. Please take the time to

register for the event and take advantage of everything that is still offered. WVNA truly

cares about West Virginia nurses and we want to share this information that is key to your


This October, we are planning an in-person event. Please watch our emails and our

news and announcements regarding the event details. It will include our membership

assembly and election results, along with a day of education.

Nurses’ Week is now Nurses’ MONTH. Again, this year, WVNA, ANA, and numerous

other nursing organizations have expanded what has traditionally been known as Nurses’

Week (May 6 to 12 annually) to the full month of May. If you are not a WVNA member

yet, I hope you realize that we need your voice. We are often contacted to find out what

nurses think about issues or organizations want us to sign on to support healthcare issues.

We believe that your time is valuable. We as an organization move quickly, have efficient

meetings, and bring about results, and we would love to have your input. If this speaks to

you – we are the organization for you, and you should get involved immediately. Being

an organization that you connect with, that has boots on the ground, and is invested in

bringing about real change for nurses – that is what WVNA strives for. We work for nurses,

we hear you, and we validate you.

Warmest regards,

Julie A. Huron

Jodi Biller and Teresa Hovatter taught nurses how to

navigate the WV legislature’s website

To access electronic copies of the

West Virginia Nurse, please visit


Poster presented at the 2021 West Virginia Nurses Association Policy Summit

Page 4 West Virginia Nurse April, May, June 2021

Announcing the 2021 WVNA Awards

WVNA gave three awards this year, with our members

voting for the winners, including some brand-new categories

for 2021.

WVU Medicine received the 2021 Beacon Award, which

is presented to a West Virginia health care facility that

demonstrates patient-centered care and exemplifies a nursefriendly


WV House of Delegates member Tom Fast (32nd district)

won the Friend of Nursing Award for his nurse- and patientcentered

legislative work.

Jodi Biller, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC, won the 2021 Politically

Active Nurse of the Year Award. This award honors a nurse who

presents a positive view of West Virginia nursing to state and

local elected officials and is engaged in policy work.

The three honorees were formally presented at WVNA’s

Policy Summit Awards Ceremony on March 25, 2021. Photo

ops took place in the days leading up to the Policy Summit.

L to R: Heather Tully, RN, Joyce Wilson, RN, Delegate Tom Fast,

Lisa Fast, RN, and Amy Summers, RN

Jodi Biller (L) receives Politically

Active Nurse Award from

Joyce Wilson (R)

Doug Mitchell, WVU Medicine-WVU Hospitals vice president & chief nursing officer, with WVNA President Joyce Wilson and nursing staff

at WVU Medicine’s J.W. Ruby Memorial Hospital

RN-to-BSN Program



• Most affordable RN-BSN in West Virginia

• Work while completing your degree

• 24/7 access to courses

• Small class sizes and individual feedback

For more information or questions:

Please email kfrum@wvup.edu.


Time Management Tips for Nurses

Tina Edwards, MSN, MBA, RN / ONA Emerging Nurse Director

Reprinted with permission from Oklahoma Nurse, November 2020

Unexpected situations. Short staffed. Tangled wires.

Alarms going off. Call light ringing away. Another day or

night, another 12-hour shift in most cases, etc. A whole

new environment, and yet, you wear more hats than just

that of a nurse. You are a leader, teacher, mentor, team

player, coach, engineer, food server, and many others.

All of these roles can create a huge anxiety for any nurse

(even seasoned ones). Do you struggle with managing

your time filling all these roles in a 12-hour shift?

Here are 6 signs & symptoms of time management


• Documenting after your shift is over.

• Forgetting to complete a task.

• Feeling overwhelmed and exhausted.

• Remembering to do something after your shift is


• Having anxiety when you go back.

• Losing track of what you are supposed to do.

Here are 5 methods for better time management:

• Do not try to memorize handoffs of every patient.

Have a checklist ready that you create. Always

listen and ask questions after report. Remember,

not every handoff is exactly the way you would

want, but if you have your checklist, then you

can get key data. Another important thing about

handoff reports is that they are the first essential

step at knowing what to prioritize. Also, be patient

with the person giving report, as you too will be

tired at the end of a 12-hour shift.

• Read the charts, look at previous labs, look to see

when labs are due, and look at previous nursing

notes. Try to learn your patient as best as possible

before you go and do your assessment.

• Schedule yourself, hour by hour, on a checklist.

Write down your tasks.

• Chart in live time in the patient’s room, not at the

nurses’ desk.

• Most importantly, have flexibility and patience. Do

not get too overwhelmed, and if you are feeling

overwhelmed, ask for help.

The most ironic saying is, “Time management will get

better with time.” By learning to manage time wisely,

you can also assist a coworker who may be battling with

their time management skills. Who knows? Maybe you

can even teach them (teacher’s hat) something you just

learned to make a 12-hour shift seem possible.

April, May, June 2021 West Virginia Nurse Page 5

Failure to Report Changes in a Patient’s Condition

Omobola Awosika Oyeleye, EdD, JD, MSN, MEd, RN-BC, CNE, CHSE

A nurse’s ability to recognize and respond to changes in a patient’s condition is a

crucial element of professional nursing practice. Failure to respond appropriately to clinical

changes can lead to complications and even death (Massey, Chaboyer, & Anderson,

2016). In a study that investigated the impact of communication in malpractice lawsuits,

communication failure was a factor in 32% of cases involving nurses, with most involving

poor communication with other health care professionals about the patient’s status. These

cases often result in huge financial consequences in cost of care and legal damages (Crico

Strategies, 2015).


Communication of a patient’s status has been the focus of much attention and

research, and various communication frameworks have been generated to facilitate

clinical communication among health care professionals about patient status (Institute for

Healthcare Improvement, n.d.; Cudjoe, 2016).,Widely used examples include SBAR (situation,

background, assessment, and recommendation) and ISBARR (introduction, situation,

background, assessment, recommendation, and read back).

In some cases, however, it is not about the nurses’ ability to communicate with primary

care providers. Rather, it is about the competence and decision-making skills needed that

enable a nurse to assess a patient’s condition and determine the appropriate intervention,

including when to escalate care and seek the expertise of appropriate personnel.

Barriers to Communication

Many factors can play into why nurses may not communicate a patient’s status promptly,

or at all. These include a busy schedule, a reluctance to “bother” the primary care provider,

or a failure to recognize the circumstances under which a primary care provider should be

notified due to a lack of clinical competence (Crico Strategies). Nurses need to recognize the

severity and emergent nature of a patient’s condition.

A nurse’s failure to recognize an emergency indicates a lack of competence in nursing

fundamentals and a lack of knowledge about the possible physiologic consequences. This

gap in knowledge can contribute to a catastrophic deterioration in the patient’s condition.

Critical thinking extends beyond mere information, attentiveness, and assessment. How

do nurses acquire the decision-making and critical-thinking skills necessary for their practice?

The clinical competence needed to make decisions, especially in acute situations, develops

over time as the nurse advances from novice to expert (Benner, 1982).

Implications for Practice

To determine appropriate interventions and recognize when it is necessary to escalate

care, nurses must:

• Accept only patients that they are capable of caring for (Buppert, 2019).

• Develop the education and skills necessary to recognize when the interventions they

initiate are not effective (Massey et al.).

• Escalate the patient’s care to a more experienced nurse or the health care provider

when they find that a patient’s status change is beyond their capability (NSO, 2012).

• Follow the facility’s chain of command. A nurse’s vigilance, recognition of an urgent

situation, evaluation of changes in the patient’s condition, and steps taken to escalate

appropriately should be evident in the medical record (Thielen, 2014). Documentation

should include the persons consulted and the actions that resulted from the

consultation (ANA, 2010).

• Be aware that nurses can be held legally liable for actions they omit, as well as actions

they fail to take in a timely manner (NSO).

The failure to report changes in a patient’s condition can have serious health

consequences for the patient, as well as legal and financial implications for all involved

in the care of the patient. But by meeting the standards of professional nursing care,

nurses can and should avoid these costly consequences.


American Nurses Association. (2010). ANA’s principles for nursing documentation: Guidance for

registered nurses. Silver Spring, MD: Author.

Austin, S. (2011). Stay out of court with proper documentation. Nursing, 41(4), 24-29.

doi 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000395202.86451.d4

Benner, P. (1982). From novice to expert. American Journal of Nursing, 82(3), 402-407.

Brous, E. (2017). Reciprocal enforcement and other collateral issues with licensure discipline. The

Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(2), 118-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.08.016

Buppert, C. (2019, April 26). A “safe harbor” for unsafe nursing assignments. Medscape. https://


Crico Strategies. (2015). Malpractice risks in communication failures. Annual benchmarking

report. www.rmf.harvard.edu/Malpractice-Data/Annual-Benchmark-Reports/Risks-in-


Cudjoe, K.G. (2016). Add identity to SBAR. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy, 14(1), 6-7.

Institute for Health care Improvement. (n.d.). SBAR tool: Situation-background-assessmentrecommendation.


Massey, D., Chaboyer, W., & Anderson, V. (2016). What factors influence ward nurses’ recognition

of and response to patient deterioration? An integrative review of the literature. Nursing

Open, 4(1), 6-23. doi: 10.1002/nop2.53

Nurses Service Organization (NSO). (2012). Failure to report changes in the patient’s medical

condition to practitioner. https://www.nso.com/Learning/Artifacts/Legal-Cases/Failureto-report-changes-in-the-patients-medical-condition-to-practitioner

Sherman, D. W. (2019). A review of the complex role of family caregivers as health team

members and second-order patients. Healthcare (Basel), 7(2), 63. doi 10.3390/


Thielen, J. (2014). Failure to rescue as the conceptual basis for nursing clinical peer review.

Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 29(2), 155-163. doi: 10.1097/ncq.0b013e3182a8df96

This article has been adapted for space and originally appeared in the November 2019 issue of

Nursing. © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

This risk management information was provided by Nurses Service Organization (NSO), the nation’s

largest provider of nurses’ professional liability insurance coverage for over 550,000 nurses since

1976. The individual professional liability insurance policy administered through NSO is underwritten

by American Casualty Company of Reading, Pennsylvania, a CNA company. Reproduction without

permission of the publisher is prohibited. For questions, send an e-mail to service@nso.com or call

1-800-247-1500. www.nso.com.

Guidelines for Practice

Keep these general guidelines in mind:

• When documenting adverse events, follow your facility’s policies and procedures.

The record should be objective, including only clinical facts without any guesses,

assumptions, speculations about the cause of the event, or personal opinions (Austin,


• Listen to family members’ concerns. They are often at the bedside much longer than

the clinical staff. They know the patient and are likely already engaging in the care

of the patient at home. They are a valuable source of information and their concerns

should be taken seriously (Sherman, 2019).

• Nurses should consider carrying their own liability insurance, both for the purposes

of legal liability and for any disciplinary actions taken by the board of nursing (Brous,



If your passion is caring for people – then we want you!


Registered Nurses – Charleston Licensed Practical Nurse – Charleston

Registered Nurses – Huntington Licensed Practical Nurse – Huntington

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Page 6 West Virginia Nurse April, May, June 2021

2021 West Virginia

Nurse Deadlines

WV Nurse is a quarterly newspaper.

The due dates for the rest of 2021 are: .

• July 2021 issue: material due to WV Nurse

by May 24, 2021

• October 2021 issue: material due to WV Nurse

by August 23, 2021

For submission information, see p. 2 of this issue, or

the info on WVNA’s website, West Virginia Nurse Copy

Submission Guidelines. (“Copy” is journalism jargon for

written material; did you already know that?)

February 23, 2021

Re: Health Care Workforce Study Results

A Letter to the

West Virginia Legislature

Dear Member of the West Virginia Legislature:

During the 2020 Legislative Session HB 4434 was passed, requesting the Department of Commerce study the current and

projected status of the health care workforce in WV. The study looks at various health care disciplines across the spectrum of

care and the growth expected in the top 10 jobs in the health care industry over the next decade.

According to the study, nursing is the largest health care profession in WV at 19.5%. Also, according to the survey there is a

surplus nearly 500 registered nurses (RNs) in the state and a small shortage of advance practice registered nurses (APRNs),

including nurse practitioners (NPs) and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs). What the study was unable to analyze

was nurse attrition and retention rates. While these were requested by the legislature in HB 4434, the response rates from

nurse employers for this data did not permit an adequate sample size to assure statistical reliability.

Like most service professions, nursing is a calling as well as a job. Becoming a registered nurse takes a year of pre-nursing

courses including chemistry and biology before starting the two years to complete an Associate of Science in Nursing or the 4

years to complete a Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Only with a calling to tend to the sick would someone take on the task of

nursing school, yet many quit within a few months to a few years after entering practice.

The basic reason of providing care to the sick has not much changed since the time of Florence Nightingale; however, the

environment in which nurses provide care has greatly changed.

Patients are sicker, but lengths of stay are compressed; electronic charting, while having many benefits, has added a

substantial amount of work to what used to be notes on flowsheets and paper, and the ever-expanding regulatory and payer

compliance requirements often fall to the nursing staff to implement, chart, or collect. Yet at the bedside, the number of

nurses tending to these increased demands has remained the same or decreased.

2021 Virtual

Palliative Care Conference

May 20, 2021

Fee: $99 Before April 30th: $85

Register at www.Hospiceofsouthernwv.org

Attendees will gain a

broadened understanding

of palliative and end-oflife

care issues, trends, and

approaches, earning 6

credit hours.


Dr. Tim Ihrig

Chief Medical Officer at

Crossroad Hospice and

Palliative Care

There is also the emotional strain. The pandemic has shown the lengths to which nurses will go to take care of their patients

and the families of the patients. They work long hours and extra shifts. They worry about contracting COVID themselves or

worse, taking it home to their own families. They stay with the dying patients when family members cannot help their loved

ones cross over. Seeing so much suffering and death while being fatigued has taken an emotional toll on the nurses of WV.

Working conditions are challenging. The WVNA is hearing stories daily of nurses who were furloughed at the beginning of

the pandemic and had to take personal paid time off (PTO). Now they are needing to take time off because of quarantine

or because they themselves have the virus and are unable to work. They are out of PTO and are being denied worker’s

compensation. Nurses are being asked to reuse PPE and as stated before, work extra shifts and longer hours.

During the last surge of COVID-19, the shortage that was the most problematic was the shortage of nurses to care for the

patients. Many hospitals were using contract/traveling nurses, which was costing the hospitals more money and pulling

nurses from area of need to another area of need, leaving the first area with a shortage of nurses.

Nurses do not want to leave a profession that they are called to and love. According to the study, the health care job market

remains strong. And nurses continue to be in demand, yet nursing turnover remains a problem. Hospital administrators

have a challenge of retaining experienced nurses.

According to the AACN Nursing Fact Sheet April 2019, nursing is the nation’s largest health care profession, with more than 3.8

million nurses. Of all the licensed RNs in the U.S., 84.5% are employed in nursing, while 15.5 % are not working.

The 2020 NSI National Health Care Retention and RN Staffing Report shows that in 2019, the RN turnover rate was 15.9%. Since

2015, the average hospital in the U.S. has turned over more than 80% of their RN staff. Nationally, over 20% of new nurses leave

within their first year and more than 25% of RN turnover is nurses with tenure of 1 year or less. The report also shows that

the average cost of turnover for a bedside RN is $36,000 - $56,000 resulting in the average hospital losing $3.6 million to $6.1

million per year.

Much effort has been made in WV on expanding nurse recruitment and nursing education to create a pipeline into the

profession. That is a laudable goal, but without shifting some energy toward examining retention, the cycle will not change.

Visit nursingALD.com today!

Search job listings

in all 50 states, and filter by location and credentials.

Browse our online database of articles and content.

Find events for nursing professionals in your area.

Your always-on resource for nursing jobs,

research, and events.

To the WV House of Delegates, the WV Senate, and the WV Bureau of Business and Economic Research, please do not let this

report be the end of your study: Please continue the study by looking into what causes job dissatisfaction and nursing turnover.

• Insufficient staffing

• Long shifts, extra shifts, and mandatory overtime

• Being pulled to an unfamiliar area to work

• Emotional stress

(Just to name a few.)

Please study strategies to retain nurses:

• Shared governance

• Adequate staffing

• The need for nurses to have work/life balance

• Proper orientation

• Safe working environment and transparency of patient acuity and the number of nurses working

• Nurse-led patient assignment committees

(Again, just to name a few.)

Thank you for doing the study. It was thorough for the topics that were studied and well thought out. I agree that

there is a surplus of nurses in WV. I believe that there are more than 500. The problem is they are not working, at

least not in the nursing profession. If things do not change, more will leave. The WVNA stands wanting to assist in the

study of attrition and retention of nurses in WV.

Warm Regards,

Joyce Wilson, APRN, FNP-C, WVNA President

April, May, June 2021 West Virginia Nurse Page 7

WVNA 2021 Legislative Updates

Health Policy & Legislation Committee

Here is an update on legislative bills that WVNA HP&L

Committee is working and/or tracking. Updates are as of

press time. You can click on the hyperlink for any bill in

this article to link to its status.

HB 2672 – Relating to posting of safety information in


Lead Sponsor: Del. Tully

Sponsor: Majority Leader Summers

The purpose of this bill is to require a hospital to post

the contact information to the Office for Health Facility

Licensure and Certification to notify individuals on how

to file a complaint.

Pending: House Health Committee

HB 2869 – To remove any mandatory mask mandate in

West Virginia.

Lead Sponsor: Sen. Jeffries, J.

Sponsors: Sens. Longanacre, Kimes, Graves, Jennings,

Burkhammer, McGeehan, Horst, Martin, Pack, J., Householder

Pending: House Judiciary Committee

SB 568 – Eliminate mask mandate; relating to emergency

powers of Governor.

Lead Sponsor: Sen. Azinger

Sponsors: Sen. Karr

Pending: Senate Government Organization Committee

HB 2796 – Supplemental appropriations bill

Lead Sponsor: Majority Leader Summers

Sponsors: Dels. Tully, Householder, Criss, Reynolds,


Supplemental appropriation bill is to expire funds

to the surplus balance of General Revenue and to

supplement and increase an item of appropriation in the

aforesaid account for the designated spending unit for

expenditure during the fiscal year 2021.

The purpose of this bill is to provide relief for nurses who

become ill from COVID-19 while caring for patients, using

excess surplus funds paid from nursing licensure fees. Fifteen

states have enacted legislation or executive orders to provide

compensation for nurses who become ill from COVID-19 in

the workplace. These states include AR, CA, IL, KY, MI, MN,

NH, NM, ND, UT, VT, WI, and WY; as well as the U.S. territory of

Puerto Rico. Several states have pending legislation.

Pending: House Finance Committee

HB 2707 – APRN: Relating to prescriptive authority for

advanced practice registered nurses; legislate executive orders.

Lead Sponsor: Del. Tully

Sponsor: Majority Leader Summers

Pending: House Health Committee

HB 2674 – CRNA: Relating to the administration of

anesthetics; legislative executive orders.

Lead Sponsor: Del. Tully

Sponsors: Dels. Summers, Bates

Passed: House of Delegates

Pending: Senate Health Committee

HB 2368 Mylissa Smith’s Law, creating patient

visitation privileges.

Lead Sponsor: Del. Jeffries, D.

Sponsors: Dels. Summers, Tully, Pack, J., Rohrbach,

Ellington, Steele, Espinosa, Linville, Howell, Pack, L.

Passed: House of Delegates

Pending: Senate Health & Human Resources Committee

HB 2363 – “Best Interests of the Child Protection Act

of 2021,” regarding shared child custody

Lead Sponsor: Del. Foster

Sponsors: Dels. Summers, Storch, Phillips, Steele,

Sypolt, Pinson, McGeehan, Jeffries, J., Jeffries, D., Rowan

Passed: House of Delegates

Pending: Senate Judiciary Committee

SB 277 COVID-19 Jobs Protection Act

Lead Sponsor: Sen. President Blair

Sponsor: Sen. Baldwin

WVNA and AARP were vocal in encouraging the removal

of the immunity for willful misconduct and reckless or

intentional infliction of harm. Added amendments to make

the bill safer, 3/9/21.

Passed: WV Legislature

Signed into law by Governor

SB 334 – Establishing license application process for

needle exchange programs.

Lead Sponsor: Sen. Tarr

Sponsor: Sen. Grady

Passed: Senate

Pending: House Health Committee

HB 2344 – Modify statute related to licensed veterinary

technician, modifying the definition of “Registered

Veterinary Technician” from “Technician” to “Nurse.”

Lead Sponsor: Del. Pack, J.

Pending: House Agriculture and Natural Resources


Page 8 West Virginia Nurse April, May, June 2021

West Virginia Nurses Association Nursing Leaders

West Virginia Nurses Association recognizes our dedicated

West Virginia nursing leaders who graciously volunteer their

time, talent, and expert advice to help advance the nursing

profession in West Virginia through serving WVNA.

Board of Directors

President: Joyce Wilson, APRN, MSN, FNP-BC

President-Elect: Teresa Hovatter, BSN, RN, TTS, MSOL

Meet the Board of Directors

Vice President: Lori McComas Chaffins, BSN, RN

Secretary: Jon H. Casto, RN, CRNI

Treasurer: Roger Carpenter, PhD, NE-BC, CNE

Early Career Nurse: Luke Velickoff, BSN, RN

Immediate Past President: Toni DiChiacchio, DNP, APRN,


WVNA Voting Member to ANA Membership Assembly:

Moira Tannenbaum, MSN, APRN, CNM, IBCLC

Bylaws Committee

Chair: Luke Velickoff, RN

Joyce Wilson, RN

Denise Campbell, DNP, MSN, RN, LNHA


Chair: Lori McComas Chaffins, RN

Joyce Wilson, RN

Roger Carpenter, RN

Pam Alderman, EdD, MSN, RN

Sandra Cotton, DNP, APRN, ANP-BC, FNAP

Brad Phillips, MSN, RN, CNE

Michaela Smith, RN

Luke Velickoff, RN

Denise Campbell, RN

Anitra Ellis, DNP, MSN, FNP-BC

Moira Tannenbaum, RN

Finance Committee

Chair: Roger Carpenter, RN

Joyce Wilson, RN

Toni DiChiacchio, RN

Denise Campbell, RN

Joyce Wilson

Roger Carpenter

Teresa Hovatter

Luke Velickoff

Lori McComas


Toni DiChiacchio

Jon H. Casto

Moira Tannenbaum

Health Policy and Legislative Committee

Chair: Teresa Hovatter, RN

Chair-Elect: Jodi Biller, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC, CCRN

Legislative Leader Chair: Crystal Chapman, BSN, RN

Joyce Wilson, RN

Pamela Alderman, RN

Jon H. Casto, RN, CRNI

Lori McComas Chaffins, RN

Toni DiChiacchio, RN

Luke Velickoff, RN

Heather ONeal, MSN, APRN, CNM, IBCLC

Beth Hughes Ross, MSN, APRN, CNM – ACNM-WV

Organizational Affiliate

Kellon Smith, MHS, APRN, CRNA – WVANA

Organizational Affiliate

Samantha Knapp, BSN, RN, NSNA – WVASN

Organizational Affiliate

Membership Committee

Chair: Anitra Ellis, RN

Joyce Wilson, RN

Luke Velickoff, RN

Adam Guthrie, RN

Nominations and Awards Committee

Chair: Toni DiChiacchio, RN

Sandra Cotton, RN

Brad Phillips, RN

New LPN to RN Bridge Program, Spring 2022

WVU Parkersburg

LPN Need Assessment Survey -

We want to hear from you!


For more information or questions

please email kfrum@wvup.edu.

April, May, June 2021 West Virginia Nurse Page 9

Access to Palliative Care

Can Help in Serious Illness

Bio Sketch

Chris Zinn, MSc, BSN, RN

“When you’re in the blue chair, I get to talk and you have

to listen to me!” Shirley Roberson had questions about her

test results and her treatment plan, but she couldn’t get her

doctor to stop talking long enough to let her talk. So she told

him to sit in the blue chair opposite, where patients usually


Shirley was one of the speakers at the Coalition to

Transform Advanced Care’s (C-TAC) virtual summit in October

2020. With the “Blue Chair” story, Shirley highlights the

importance of patient empowerment. As a patient advocate

with advanced cancer, she knows that people with serious

illness need to be involved in their care and to share what

matters most to them. This is the kind of care you get with

palliative care.

Palliative care is not end-of-life care and is different from

hospice. One key difference is that it can be provided at any

stage of advanced illness alongside curative treatment. It is

specialized care that can be provided at home, in a facility,

or at a hospital. Many hospitals in West Virginia and some

hospices have palliative consultation teams, but there needs

to be better access in rural communities. These teams can

help with decision-making regarding treatment options;

pain and symptom management; and support for family

and caregivers. They help each person with their unique

physical, emotional, and social needs and may engage other

community resources.

Last year, West Virginia’s State Advisory Coalition on

Palliative Care introduced Senate Bill (SB) 748 to define

palliative care and the interdisciplinary palliative care team.

This bill also directed the WV Bureau for Public Health to help

them develop educational materials on palliative care. This is

vital, as West Virginians know very little about palliative care

and often mistake it for end-of-life care. Governor Justice

proclaimed that November was Palliative Care Awareness

Month, but this did not get much coverage, even though

palliative care has been helping so many people across the

nation during the pandemic.

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for more

care to be delivered at home and by telehealth, because this

is what many people prefer. The WV Center for End-of-life

Care’s survey, funded by the Claude Worthington Benedum

Foundation, found that 77% of West Virginians were

unfamiliar with palliative care. However, when people with

serious illness were asked what mattered most, 44% selected

“being at home.”

C-TAC is working to improve care for people with serious

illness and the Hospice Council of West Virginia has joined

more than 140 organizations that share this goal. National

organizations such as AARP, the American Heart Association,

and the American Cancer Society are involved, as well as

health plans. C-TAC ranked states for the period 2003-2016

with their Advanced Care Transformation (ACT) Index.

Sadly, this shows that West Virginia and Kentucky perform

worst in the nation. The ACT index measures higher quality,

timely care; greater caregiver support; greater community

support; ensuring cost-effective care is aligned with individual

goals and values; and ensuring there are compassionate

coordinated communications. Although West Virginia ranks

poorly in the ACT index, analysis of quality scores in Medicare’s

Care Compare ranked West Virginia’s hospice care as top in the

nation. High-quality hospice care is available in every county

in the Mountain State, but we need to make palliative care

more accessible. We also need to work to improve the health

care system so we can rise to the top of the nation in all C-TAC’s

measures. “Compassionate coordinated communications” and

“ensuring care is aligned with patient goals” for all people with

advanced illness may be West Virginia’s moonshot. Hopefully,

many West Virginia organizations will join the Hospice Council

to make this a reality by 2030. The work of the State Advisory

Coalition and the Governor’s proclamation are important first

steps, but we need to make palliative care more sustainable

and more widely available.

Editor’s Note: Chris Zinn has provided some palliative

care resources for West Virginia Nurse readers: see below.

More information about C-TAC can be found at C-TAC.

The Blue Chair Story is here: Shirley’s Roberson’s Blue

Chair Story.

The Center to Advance Palliative Care (CAPC), part of

the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York

City, provides more detailed information on palliative

care and a listing of palliative providers by state at Get

Palliative Care.

The Hospice Council of West Virginia maintains a

listing of WV community palliative care teams. You

can find out more at WV Hospice Council Community

Palliative Care Teams.

Chris Zinn

Chris Zinn, MSc, BSN, RN,

is the executive director of

the Hospice Council of West

Virginia and a registered

nurse who earned a Master of

Science in Palliative Care from

the University of Glasgow,

Scotland. Chris established

WV’s first inpatient hospice, WV

HospiceCare’s Hubbard Hospice

House, in Charleston in 2001.

Chris did not start out in Chris Zinn

nursing, however. Originally,

she was studying French and philosophy at the University

of Edinburgh, when a summer job as a hospital aide on

a psycho-geriatric unit led her to care for a terminally ill

young person. This work allowed her to participate in the

emotional care required – in addition to the physical care

– when people are dying. This led Chris to recognize the

value of nursing, and she subsequently switched gears after

earning her undergraduate degree, going on to earn her

nurse-midwifery degree in a pilot program from the Royal

Infirmary School of Nursing in Edinburgh.

After immigrating to the U.S., Chris again switched

gears, moving into hospice work, first as a volunteer nurse

with HospiceCare, then as its first paid staff nurse. In her

decades in West Virginia, she has been involved in many

organizations, including West Virginians for Affordable

Health Care and Faith in Action of the Greater Kanawha

Valley. Among her accolades, the University of Glasgow

recognized her as the 2011 Ann B. McNaught Prize winner

(awarded annually to the most distinguished graduate of

the MSc program), and in 2018, she was recognized as one of

the 40 Over 40 by Future of Nursing West Virginia (FONWV).

Chris Zinn can be contacted at czinn@hospicewv.org.

RN: Responsible for utilizing comprehensive skills in assessment,

treatment planning, case management, medication administration and,

crisis intervention.

Qualifications: valid WV-RN license and driver’s license with a clean

driving record. West Virginia Medicaid Title XIX, and behavioral health

experience preferred. Sign on bonus is available.

Visit our website at www.eastridgehealthsystems.org

for additional job opportunities.

Send cover letter and resume to rmickelinc@eastridgehs.org.

Eastridge Health Systems | Attn: Human Resources

235 S. Water Street | Martinsburg, WV 25401

Fax: 304-264-0763

EOE/Drug-Free Workplace

West Virginia Veterans Nursing Facility – Clarksburg

Currently hiring for:

CNA’s, LPN’s, and RN’s

5% wage increase at one, three, and six years of continuous service.

Government benefits including:

Annual Leave Sick Leave Holiday Pay Health Insurance

Life Insurance Eye Dental

Open interview every Wednesday from 9 am to 3 pm

Apply online www.personnel.wv.gov

Or contact Human Resources 304-626-1600

Competitive Pay

As one of the largest

employers in West

Virginia, we want to be

a leader in the state and

region when it comes

to pay and benefits.



Benefit packages

give employees the

opportunity to make

individualized elections

based on their needs.

Be Part of Something Great



Employees and

their children may

be eligible for tuition

reimbursement when

attending WVU.

For more information on these positions and additional job openings,

please visit: wvumedicine.org/united-hospital-center

We are an EOE/AA Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment and will

not be discriminated against on the basis of disability, veteran status or other protected status.

Page 10 West Virginia Nurse April, May, June 2021

An Examination of Stigmatizing Guidelines

Regarding Blood Donation

Luke Velickoff, BSN, RN, and Sara Vincelli, BSN, RN


As nurses, many of us have seen firsthand the necessity for a

life-saving blood transfusion. In my own experience as a critical

care nurse, the exercise of transfusing blood products is quite

honestly mundane. It is commonplace to my practice. But the

reality is that behind every single unit of this blood product,

there is tremendous work and meticulous planning.

Every two seconds in the United States, an individual

requires a blood transfusion. Roughly 36,000 units of packed

red blood cells, 7,000 units of platelets, and 10,000 units

of plasma are needed in the U.S. daily. As blood products

cannot be manufactured, this massive supply is dependent

on volunteer donation alone (American Red Cross, 2021). Luke Velickoff

When I was a freshman at university, a representative from

the American Red Cross came to educate students and the

wider academic community regarding these baffling statistics.

Wanting to do my part, I searched for a donation site and signed

up! However, I quickly realized that I was barred from donating.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulated guidelines

for blood donation state that sexually active gay and bisexual

men must be abstinent for a specified period of time before

they are eligible to donate blood. This, according to the FDA, is

to ensure the “prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

(HIV) transmission by blood and blood products” (Center for

Biologics Evaluation and Research, 2020). I remember feeling a

mix of frustration, thinking that these policies were archaic and

Sara Vincelli

one-sided, with a sense that I was “contaminated” — that as a

gay man I was seen as infected or dirty.

It was only in 2015 that the FDA moved from a lifelong ban of gay and bisexual men

donating blood, to allow a one-year deferral between the amount of time a man had sexual

contact with another man and the blood donation itself (Human Rights Campaign, 2020). In

April of 2020, under the devastating strain of the COVID-19 pandemic, the FDA emergently

allowed this twelve-month period to be shorted to three (Center for Biologics Evaluation

and Research, 2020). The issue that I and many other health care professionals find with

these guidelines is the fact that instead of making everyone undergo a personalized risk

assessment, gay and bisexual men are specifically marginalized.


For an already disparaged community, the current blood donation policies as they stand

not only label a man who has sex with men (MSM) [individual’s] blood as “undesirable,”

but also promotes the idea of this group at large to be “unworthy” and “unclean.” These

mandates augment and promote stigma. An individual’s risk for bloodborne pathogen

infection should not be determined solely by their sexual orientation; risk assessments

should be individualized and comprehensive. Donated blood undergoes rigorous

screening for transmissible pathogens, which has evolved drastically in the last 35 years;

however, regulations concerning blood donation from MSM “have not kept pace” (Skelly

et al., 2020). The article by Skelly et al. (2020) “Science over stigma: the need for evidencebased

blood donation policies for men who have sex with men in the USA,” discusses Italy’s

blood donation policy change, which eliminated MSM discrimination and implemented

an individualized risk assessment and “did not lead to an increase in HIV-positive blood

donations”; this suggests that “allowing MSM to donate did not endanger the blood

supply” (Skelly). The impact of the HIV epidemic varies among communities, states, and

nations. While rates of HIV may be higher in MSM in certain locations, those who inject nonprescribed

substances may constitute an increased proportion of the HIV prevalence in

other areas.

Let’s examine our own state. As of December 15, 2020, there have been 211 documented

new HIV infections due to injection drug use alone, since the beginning of the outbreak in

2018 (WV DHHR, 2020). Amid the novel COVID-19 pandemic, earlier this month the Centers

for Disease Control and Prevention dubbed West Virginia’s current HIV outbreak the “most

concerning” in the United States (Noon, 2021). Still, other infections such as hepatitis B virus,

which is more prevalent in some populations and [over two times] more transmissible via

blood products than HIV,” have no blood donor restrictions and is only dependent upon

blood product screening (Skelly et al., 2020).

Infection outbreaks affect not only individuals participating in select social and sexual

behaviors, but the community as a whole. Statewide, testing for HIV and viral hepatitis in

West Virginia desperately needs to increase. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, HIV

testing efforts have substantially decreased, resulting in an unknown prevalence. Without

adequate testing of bloodborne pathogens and sexually transmitted infections, how can

we possibly adequately assess community risk if assessments are not individualized? The

current blood donor screening addresses possible bloodborne pathogen risk for people

who inject substances and for the MSM population; however, the assessment questionnaire

does not examine risk as a whole.

For example, it is more than unfair and inequitable to allow a man who has sex with

men, who is in a monogamous relationship, to be ineligible from blood donation, when

a heterosexual cis-woman would be eligible to donate without question, even if she has

had multiple condomless sexual encounters. Every blood donor’s social and sexual history

should be individually assessed prior to donation and education should be provided on

bloodborne pathogens and what activities increase infection acquisition, as evidence

shows this will not increase HIV in the donor blood supply. Greater risk mitigation could be

achieved through increased donor — as well as public — education concerning social and

sexual behavior that increases bloodborne pathogen acquisition.


American Red Cross. (2021). Blood needs & blood supply – Facts about blood needs. https://www.


Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2018, February 2).

Revised recommendations for reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission

by blood and blood products – Questions & answers. https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-bloodbiologics/blood-blood-products/revised-recommendations-reducing-risk-humanimmunodeficiency-virus-transmission-blood-and-blood

Human Rights Campaign. (2020). Blood donations. https://www.hrc.org/resources/blood-donations

Noon, E. (2021, February 12). CDC says Kanawha County is experiencing ‘most concerning’ outbreak of

HIV in the US. Nexstar Inc. Channel 13 News WOWK. https://www.wowktv.com/news/cdcsays-kanawha-county-is-experiencing-most-concerning-outbreak-of-hiv-in-the-us/

Skelly, A. N, Kolla, L., Tamburro, M. K., & Bar, K. J. (2020, November). Science over stigma: The

need for evidence-based blood donation policies for men who have sex with other

men in the USA. The Lancet Haemotology, 7(11), E779-782. https://www.thelancet.com/


West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources (WVDHHR). (2020). Human

immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). WV Office of

Epidemiology and Prevention Services. https://oeps.wv.gov/hiv-aids/pages/default.aspx

April, May, June 2021 West Virginia Nurse Page 11



WELCOME to WVNA! It’s exciting to see our

membership grow every month. The West Virginia

Nurses Association welcomed 36 new/reinstated

members from January 1 through March 11,

2021. It takes both you, the nurse, and a group of

volunteer board and committee members to

represent the state nurses’ association in West


WVNA is the professional voice for all West

Virginia nurses and we wouldn’t exist without you!

We invite you and your co-workers to join our

Town Hall meetings, consider joining a committee

member or become a legislative leader. WVNA

advocates for you (the nurse) and for your patients.

Please watch for our news and announcements,

attend our virtual and in person events, and please

share your voice with WVNA and other nursing

organization surveys and when public comments

are needed.

We invite you to get involved and get to know

us! centraloffice@wvnurses.org.

• Arlene Ablang

• Alicia Aracich

• Joann Ashworth

• Kimberly Bird

• Melissa Bragg

• Laura Cadle

• Falynn Canaday

• Mary Carroll

• Melissa Christian

• Colleen Clark

• Deanna Conley

• Sarah Figueroa

• Jennifer Greer

• Juanita Haden

• Cami Handlan

• Kathy Hill

• Rebecca Hitt

• Russell Holbert

• Lisa Jacobs

• Sherry Keller

• Alycia Kline

• Kassie Latimer

• Tetyana Marshall

• Tara Matthews

• Kimberly Mays

• Katherine Miller

• Kathlyn Nelson

• Brett Showalter

• Ameneh Sloane

• Abigail Spangler

• Josiah Spangler

• Sharon Swick

• Susan Tyska

• Courtney Walker

• Cindy Williams

• Junemarie Williams

Conferences & Meetings

As we are going to press, many conferences through July 2021 have gone virtual, and a few have been canceled, due to

the COVID-19 pandemic. Conferences listed here are still “on” as of press time, whether virtual, hybrid, in-person, or to be

determined. For any conference you’re interested in attending, WVNA recommends checking for updates on their website.

April 30, 2021 (Friday)

“Virtual Workforce Summit:

Partnering for Better Solutions”

Future of Nursing WV (FONWV)

FONWV 2021 Workforce Summit

May 11-13, 2021 (Tuesday-Thursday)

Global Reproductive and Sexual Health Institute

Online; 8-10:30 a.m. each day

UM Global Sexual and Reproductive Health Conference

June 10-13, 2021 (Thursday-Sunday)

American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA)

19th Annual Clinical Psychopharmacology Institute:

“Adapting & Innovating: Psychopharmacologic

Nursing Care in the Midst of Crisis”


APNA Clinical Pharmacology Institute

June 15-August 31, 2021 online

American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP)

National Conference

AANP 2021 Conference Online

July 1-5, 2020 (Wednesday-Sunday)

Philippine Nurses Association of America, Inc. (PNAA)

41st Annual Convention

San Diego, Ca.

PNAA 41st Annual Convention

July 22-24, 2021 (Thursday-Saturday)

Philadelphia Trans Wellness Conference

Virtual & FREE

Philly 2021 Trans Health Conf. (PTWC)

August 3-8, 2021 (Tuesday-Sunday)

National Black Nurses Association (NBNA)

48th Annual Conference and Institute

Dallas, Texas

NBNA 2021 Conference

August 30-September 2, 2021 (Monday-Thursday)

International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA)

Annual Conference

Houston, Texas

ILCA 2021 Conference

September 11-15, 2021 (Saturday-Wednesday)

World Congress of Intensive & Critical Care (WCICC)

Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses

and Canadian Critical Care Society


World Congress of Intensive & Critical Care 2021

October 7-10, 2021 (Thursday-Sunday)

American Association of Birth Centers (AABC)

Annual Birth Institute

San Diego, Ca.

AABC 2021 Birth Institute

October 9-13, 2021 (Saturday-Wednesday)

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal


(AWHONN) National Conference

Kissimmee, Fla.

AWHONN 2021 Convention

October 13-16, 2021 (Wednesday-Saturday)

American Psychiatric Nurses Association Conference

“Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses:

Revolutionizing Access to Person-Centered Care”

TBD: virtual, in-person, or hybrid

APNA Annual Conference 2021

October 22, 2021 (Friday)

“Breaking Stereotypes: Pandemic Inequities in Appalachia”

4th Annual Conference

Appalachian Breastfeeding Network

Flintstone, Md.

ABN 2021 Conference

October 27-30, 2021 (Wednesday-Saturday)

DONA International Summit:

world’s first and largest doula organization

Calgary, Alberta, Canada

DONA Summit 2021

November 16-19, 2021 (Tuesday-Friday)

National Association of Hispanic Nurses (NAHN)

46th Annual Conference

Puerto Rico

NAHN 2021 Conference

Page 12 West Virginia Nurse April, May, June 2021

West Virginia COVID-19 Vaccine Updates

Lisa M. Costello, MD, MPH, FAAP,

and Elaine Darling, MPH

West Virginia has

experienced landmark times in

the pandemic response these

past few months, as the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration

(FDA) authorized three COVID-19

vaccines since the start of

December 2020.

Since then, West Virginia has

been leading the nation in our

vaccine administration rate. As

of March 3, 2021, over 502,000 Lisa M. Costello

doses of vaccine have been

administered and approximately

11.8% of West Virginians have

been fully vaccinated.

In the short period of time

since the COVID-19 vaccines

have become available, we

have already seen a positive

impact on our state: from

December 31, 2020 to March 4,

2021 confirmed COVID-19 cases

have decreased by over 80% in

West Virginia. Additionally, in his

Elaine Darling

March 3, 2021, COVID-19 press

briefing, WV Department of Health and Human Services

Secretary Bill Crouch reported that in a recent nursing



Tina Riffle



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home outbreak “all of the residents had been vaccinated

and, as a result, zero residents were positive in that

outbreak.” The outbreak was among seven staff members

who had chosen not to receive the vaccine.

Following the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention (CDC) guidelines and West Virginia’s data,

our state implemented an overlapping phased approach

to offering vaccines based on four principles to drive

decisions about which high-risk

groups receive the vaccine while it

is in limited supply.

The driving principles are:

1. Protect the most vulnerable

2. Reduce deaths

3. Reduce hospitalizations

4. Maintain critical services and

acute care.

As vaccine supply increases,

vaccine allocation will be

expanded to more of the public,

following these guiding principles.

Having administered vaccine to health care workers,

long-term care facility staff and residents, teachers ages

50 and over, other critical sectors, and West Virginians

65 and older, our state expanded vaccine allocation on

March 3, 2021 to all West Virginians ages 50 and older, all

education workers 40 and over, and individuals age 16 and

older with chronic medical conditions.


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40 and over, and individuals

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All the vaccines that have been authorized for

use in the United States have been proven to be safe

and effective. On February 27, 2021, the FDA granted

emergency use authorization for Johnson & Johnson’s

Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, subsequently increasing the

supply of vaccine available to protect our communities

from COVID-19. Vaccination with any of the three

COVID-19 vaccines in use in the U.S. greatly reduces the

risk of serious illness and death due

to the virus.

The J&J Janssen COVID-19

vaccine is expected to increase

the availability of vaccine doses

nationwide. With only one dose

needed and the ability to store it in

a regular refrigerator, this vaccine

will help to increase access to

COVID-19 vaccination.

This is a time to be hopeful,

because the COVID-19 vaccine can

help end this pandemic, protect

the health and well-being of our communities, and

reduce the impact on our health care and public health

systems. Stopping a pandemic requires using all the

public health tools we have available, and vaccination is

our strongest tool yet.

We thank you, the nurses of West Virginia, and the

other health care and public health professionals who

have worked tirelessly in response to the pandemic

and to ensure that West Virginians, particularly those

who are at highest risk for COVID-19, have been able to

access the vaccine as quickly as possible.

For more information about COVID-19 vaccination in West

Virginia, visit www.vaccinate.wv.gov. Additional information

and materials that can be shared with your patients and

communities can be found at Community Immunity WV.


Editor’s note: Lisa Costello is an assistant professor

in the Department of Pediatrics at WVU, where she

is the clerkship co-director. Dr. Costello serves as the

president of the WV Chapter of the American Academy

of Pediatrics (AAP), as well as the Vice President of the

West Virginia State Medical Association (WVSMA).

Elaine Darling is the Senior Program Director for

the Center for Rural Health Development, based in

Hurricane, W.Va.

Retina Consultants, a specialty practice in

Charleston, is seeking applicants for a fulltime

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Patient care and team work are a top priority.

We are looking for candidates with leadership

qualities and supervisory experience.

Travel to satellite offices is required.

To apply, send resume to:

PO Box 3970, Charleston WV 25339

or email to: Lynnette@retinawv.com

April, May, June 2021 West Virginia Nurse Page 13

Historical Perspective on Vaccine Development

West Virginians for Health Freedom

Executive Committee

Thomas Jefferson noted, “Knowledge is power,” and Winston Churchill observed,

“[T]hose who fail to learn from history are condemned to repeat it.” West Virginia

nurses can apply these aphorisms to many situations, including the COVID-19

pandemic. There are three things we can learn from history about viruses and

vaccine development.

First, vaccine development is challenging and can take a long time.

Since the 1960s, researchers have been working on a vaccine for respiratory syncytial

virus (RSV). It is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness in

infants and children globally, and it is responsible for one-third of deaths resulting from

acute lower respiratory infection in the first year of life. Researchers are proceeding

with caution because their first attempt, a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine, resulted

in worsened disease and deaths (Higgins, 2016). The proposed mechanism for this

response after vaccination involved the induction of high titers of non-neutralizing

antibodies, which led to immune complex deposition, complement activation, and

allergic inflammation in the lungs in animal models of the disease. Now, 60 years later,

researchers have still not successfully produced a safe and effective RSV vaccine.

Second, failure to study a vaccine in populations in whom it will be administered can lead

to disastrous results.

Dengue is the most common mosquito-transmitted viral infectious disease in

the world. A 2016 study estimated there are annually nearly 60 million symptomatic

dengue cases worldwide, resulting in about 10,000 deaths yearly (The Lancet, 2018).

There are four billion people at risk in 128 countries where the dengue-carrying Aedes

mosquito vector is present. The first vaccine, DengvaxiaÆ, was licensed in 2015.

Prior to vaccination, the DengvaxiaÆ vaccine trial participants were not asked about

previous dengue infection. Regional mass vaccination programs in the Philippines

and Brazil followed. The vaccination program in the Philippines was suspended

within two years, because researchers observed that vaccination increased the risk of

severe dengue infection and hospitalizations in patients who had not previously had

dengue. Compared with unvaccinated controls, those vaccine recipients who were

seronegative had a higher risk of severe dengue disease and hospital admission (The

Lancet, 2018).

The World Health Organization now recommends the vaccine only in settings of high

dengue seroprevalence, and it now stipulates that serostatus should be determined prior

to vaccination. At least 19 children died after DengvaxiaÆ vaccination in the Philippines,

and their deaths are presumed to be from antibody-dependent immune enhancement.

Filipino Department of Justice prosecutors have issued criminal charges against

the physician who developed Dengvaxia, stating that the vaccine was released

prematurely, and it should have been more thoroughly studied in children (Arkin,

2019). History has shown that a vaccine must be studied in the populations to whom

it will be administered. The Covid-19 vaccine was only studied in healthy adults and

those with chronic, stable medical conditions. We do not know what effects this

vaccine will have on those who have had the infection previously or those in whom

it was not studied. This latter group includes frail older patients with multiple medical

problems, like those living in nursing homes, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and

those who are sick and being actively treated for disorders of their immune system.

Third, rushing a vaccine to a nationwide mass vaccination program can result in many

vaccine-related injuries and deaths.

In 1976, in response to concerns about a possible swine flu epidemic, the CDC

recommended a nationwide vaccination program, with a goal of vaccinating 95% of

the U.S. population. The first case of swine flu had been diagnosed in late January

1976, and nationwide immunization began October 1, 1976. Vaccine development

occurred in a matter of months. Within the first ten weeks of the program about 45

million Americans (25% of the population) were vaccinated—about one-third of the

adult population. Days after vaccinations began, there were reports of a paralyzing

neurologic syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and deaths in these vaccinees. Less

than three months after vaccinations started, the program was halted. All told,

532 vaccinees developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (sevenfold higher than in the

unvaccinated) and 58 died (Reitze, 1986). CBS News reported on 60 Minutes that the

federal government paid out over $3.5 billion in swine flu vaccine injury lawsuits


The Covid-19 vaccine was manufactured in less than 11 months. It is recommended

in unstudied patient populations, and as of February 12, 2021 (just two months after

vaccinations began in the US), the CDC’s Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

has registered 602 deaths and 405 life-threatening events associated with COVID-19

vaccination (CDC, 2021).

West Virginians for Health Freedom hopes that this information will be helpful to WV

nurses as they continue to gather information about how to respond to the COVID-19

pandemic. For more information, please contact us at info@wvforhealthfreedom.com or

visit our website, WV for Health Freedom.

If you are interested in receiving a weekly message about vaccination, please send your

email address to info@wvforhealthfreedom.com.


Arkin, F. (2019, April 24). Dengue vaccine fiasco leads to criminal charges for researcher in the

Philippines. Sciencemag.org. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/04/dengue-vaccinefiasco-leads-criminal-charges-researcher-philippines

CBS’s 60 Minutes (Wallace, M., narrator). (1979). Deja Vu: The swine flu vaccination fraud of 1976. https://


Higgins, D., Trujillo, C., & Keech, C. (2016). Advances in RSV vaccine research and development - A

global agenda. Vaccine, 34(26), 2870-2875. doi 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.109

Reitze, A. W., Jr. (1986). Federal compensation for vaccination induced injuries. Boston Environmental

Affairs Law Review, 13(2), 169-214. https://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/ealr/vol13/iss2/2/

The Lancet. (2018). The dengue vaccine dilemma [editorial]. Lancet Infectious Disease, 18(2), 123.


Luke Velickoff

Anita Carfagna and

Adam Guthrie

Savannah Conley and

Adam Guthrie

Emily Wilson Starks

Page 14 West Virginia Nurse April, May, June 2021

Telehealth and Social Media Usage Since COVID-19:

How the Pandemic Has Forced Health Care Change in 2020

Bryan R. Werry, BSN, RN, CCRN / FNP Graduate Student, College of

Nursing, Gonzaga University

Reprinted with permission from RN Idaho, February 2021

Telehealth and Telemedicine

Eight years ago, I was introduced to the concept of telehealth, and the potential

use of technology as a means of delivering medical and behavioral health care at

a distance to rural areas and large agricultural communities. According to The

National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF), telehealth is defined

as “the use of technology to provide health care services at a distance including

direct patient care, remote monitoring, and education” (Rutledge et al., 2018, p.

1). Telehealth includes both clinical and nonclinical aspects of health care, such as

administration and financial services, while telemedicine is a narrower term limited

to the provision of clinical services. Although the concept of telemedicine seemed

logical and within our nation’s technological capabilities, there have always been

stringent conditions and regulations regarding its use. For example, reimbursement

from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and other health insurance

companies has been complicated and inadequate. These conditions clearly

discouraged providers from utilizing telehealth technology in practice.

Regulations and reimbursement practices quickly changed due to the

circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, the U.S. Congress passed the

Emergency COVID Telehealth Response Act, which allowed all providers the ability to

furnish telemedicine services eligible for Medicare reimbursement (U.S. Congress,

May 1, 2020). This act improved access to health care during the pandemic by

providing compensation for medical services without face-to-face interaction. Jerich

(2020) noted, “The relaxation of telehealth regulations in response to the COVID-19

pandemic has triggered a wave of interest and support, with patients noting the

convenience, discretion, and safety of virtual care as a major selling point” (p. 1).

Increased Use of Telehealth

Even prior to the pandemic, there has been an increase of telemedicine-related

services across all sectors of health care. Advancements in technology, electronics,

computers, and the internet have made health care delivery possible through

telemedicine (Claypool, 2019). A few years ago, NONPF suggested that telehealth

be incorporated into the core curriculum of nurse practitioner (NP) education, so

students could become knowledgeable and proficient at delivering health care in

this manner (Rutledge et al., 2018). Presently, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced us

into a situation that warrants the use of telemedicine in order to safely deliver health

care. According to Webel et al. (2020), the response to COVID-19 has included an

astonishing increase in telemedicine usage and applications. For example, since the

outbreak of COVID-19, my stepfather, a psychiatrist, has conducted the majority of

his patient visits through the application doxy.me. This provides him a safe, reliable,

and fairly easy way to deliver health care while maintaining social distancing. Prior

to the pandemic, my stepfather only used telemedicine to deliver care to patients

in rural areas. Puro and Feyereisen (2020) reported that prior to COVID-19, rural

areas were already utilizing telemedicine as a means to deliver health care. They

concluded that urban areas hard-hit by the pandemic have the potential to improve

outcomes by exploiting this same capability. The COVID-19 pandemic has opened

up a sort of “Pandora’s Box” of developments in technology use that leads to the

question: How can providers best use technology during this pandemic to improve

both business practices and benefit patient outcomes?

Social Media in Health care:

Implications for Practice

Increased Use of Social Media

Social media has become ubiquitous in our culture, with more and more users

being added daily. According to Ventola (2014), the term “social media” has a

“constantly evolving” definition but can be loosely defined as “internet-based

tools that allow individuals and communities to gather and communicate; to share

information, ideas, personal messages, images, and other content; and, in some

cases, to collaborate with other users in real time” (p. 491). Ventola (2014) identified

categories of social media tools as:

• Social networking (Facebook, MySpace, Google Plus, Twitter)

• Professional networking (LinkedIn)

• Media sharing (YouTube, Flickr)

• Content production (blogs [Tumblr, Blogger] and microblogs [Twitter])

• Knowledge/information aggregation (Wikipedia)

• Virtual reality and gaming environments (Second Life)

Ventola reported that over 70% of health care organizations, systems, and

companies use social media to their benefit, with the most popular being Facebook,

Twitter, and YouTube.

Benefits of Social Media in Health care

The benefits of social media are multiple. It can be used locally, regionally,

nationally, and even world-wide. For example, a health care provider (HCP) working

as an infectious disease specialist out of London, England, can utilize a social media

application to connect with another HCP in a third-world country like Somalia.

Another example is how certain medical and surgical procedures can now be

streamed via YouTube. Social media signals a new era of communication and

networking, where HCPs can exchange information and knowledge at an unparalleled

rate (Ventola, 2014). I recently performed a Google search (www.google.com) and

found that Facebook alone has over a billion users. With such a large audience, social

media has the potential for a tremendous impact on patient empowerment and

outcomes. It can facilitate dialogue between sizable groups of providers and patients,

as it offers quick and widespread communication (American Hospital Association,

2018). In a systematic review of social media in health care, Smailhodzic et al. (2016)

reported that patients found social media to be a helpful tool for social, emotional,

and informational support in health care.

Social Media Obstacles

The negative aspects of social media include potential loss of privacy, being

targeted for promotions and labeling, and addiction to social media itself. These

disadvantages are complicated by numerous factors. First, there are no encompassing

social media standards to guide its appropriate use in health care. The American

Nurses Association’s (ANA) social media guidelines and tips specify that nurses must

use the same professional standards online as in other circumstances and also need

to develop organizational policies and ensure privacy settings are in place when using

technology (ANA Enterprise, n.d.). The American Medical Association’s (AMA) Journal

of Ethics recommends that online behavior should reflect “offline professional conduct

found in-person” as a starting point (Kind, 2015, p. 442). They also suggest that social

media guidelines should help users address opportunities and challenges that arise in

new platforms.

Although many HCPs would never deliberately commit a violation of patient

privacy, many end up doing so by simply posting online about their day at work

(Sewell, 2019). Patient privacy is also under the constant threat of unauthorized

users trying to illegally access sensitive information. Malicious security breaches

include social media intrusions, identity thefts, phishing scams, malware,

misinformation, and misuse of sensitive medical information. While most

providers do maintain high ethical standards when using social media, this does

not guarantee that the platform will exist without issues and non-professional

behavior (Claypool, 2019).

Facilitating Patient Use of Social Media in the Pandemic

At the hospital where I work as a critical care nurse, mandatory physical distancing

requirements are in place and have resulted in restrictions to visitation rights for

patients/families and limitations on staff meetings. These policy changes have

led to greater use of technology applications such as secure work chats and use

of Facetime and Zoom to help our patients communicate with loved ones. On my

April, May, June 2021 West Virginia Nurse Page 15

current unit, the staff often connect family/friends on a tablet at a scheduled time.

Once all participants are accounted for, we place the tablet on a secure stand

next to the bedside, and the family can interact with their loved one while we

assume care of other patients. The process is not perfect but overall has been well


Patients throughout the U.S. are not limited to a single avenue of social media

for encounters with their providers. The variety in online communication methods

is rapidly increasing, and patients can often choose the platform they prefer.

Although the opportunities for social media seem promising, there are still many

obstacles and challenges to overcome. Examples include limited access to the

internet or devices (computers and smartphones) and limited user knowledge

regarding such technology. These barriers are typically more prevalent in the

poorer/rural communities (Koonin et al., 2020).

From my experience working in an ICU during this pandemic, families have

been able to communicate with their loved ones infected with COVID-19

through social media, the most popular choice being Facetime. My co-workers

and I welcome the use of such communication options, as we witness firsthand

the feeling of isolation and helplessness our patients are experiencing. In

the past, many clinicians were wary about using social media as a method of

communicating with patients and their families (Ventola, 2014). However, it is now

considered commonplace amongst hospitals/clinics, colleges, businesses, and

many other organizations. Users are finding that it provides a sense of community

and sharing that was unimaginable years ago (Sewell, 2019).

I predict that social media and telehealth will continue to see favorable

acceptance by providers; the public’s response and acceptance during the

pandemic suggests that its use will continue to grow. However, as we gain access

to more technology and scientific evidence, there is also a growing need to

govern and legislate the appropriate use of the information available (Kind, 2015).

Evaluating the safety, privacy, and quality of information being delivered remains

a cause for concern.


With the rapid advancement of telehealth and the use of social media, it

seems clear that a high percentage of patients and providers will continue to

use this technology after the COVID-19 pandemic comes to an end. Koonin et

al. (2020) found that consumers use social media as a complement rather than a

replacement to health care services. Whether a provider is treating the patient

face-to-face or online, the standards of professional behavior should remain the

same: Providers should maintain their integrity, respect, and compassion for

others. If committed to these principles, HCPs will be able to use social media for

educational purposes, networking, quality improvement initiatives, satisfaction

surveys, and measuring outcomes (Kind, 2015). As long as social media and

telehealth are consistent with current models of ethics, such as the ANA Code of

Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (ANA, 2015), these technological

advancements will augment what providers are capable of offering (Sulmasy et

al., 2017). The COVID-19 pandemic has been a tragedy and struggle for so many

people worldwide. However, one silver lining is the opportunity to evaluate the

success of telemedicine and the ways that it has helped us provide better medical

services during this challenging time.


American Hospital Association. (2020, October 9). Social media policy. https://www.aha.org/


American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements.


American Nurses Association (ANA) Enterprise. (n.d.) Social media. https://www.


Claypool, B. (2020, April 20). Telemedicine and COVID-19: 6 tips to ace your first visit.

Mental Health Weekly, 30(17), 5–6. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/


Jerich, K. (2020, November 3). Telehealth’s uncertain future raises alarm bells for cancer

patients. Healthcare IT News. https://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/telehealthsuncertain-future-raises-alarm-bells-cancer-patients

Kind, T. (2015, May). Professional guidelines for social media use: A starting point. AMA

Journal of Ethics Clinical, 17(5), 441-447. http://doi.org/10.1001/journalofethics.2015.1


Koonin, L., Hoots, B., Tsang, C., Leroy, Z., Farris, K., Jolly, B. … & Harris, A. (2020, October 30).

Trends in the use of telehealth during the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(43), 1595-1599. https://www.cdc.gov/


Puro, N., & Feyereisen, S. (2020). Telehealth availability in U.S. hospitals in the face of

the COVID-19 pandemic. The Journal of Rural Health, 36(4), 577-583. https://doi.


Rutledge, C., Pitts, C., Poston, R., & Schweickert, P. (2018). NONPF supports telehealth in

nurse practitioner education. https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.nonpf.org/resource/


Sewell, J. (2019). Informatics and nursing: Opportunities and challenges (6th ed.).

Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.

Smailhodzic, E., Hooijsma, W., Boonstra, A., & Langley, D. (2016). Social media use in health

care: A systematic review of effects on patients and on their relationship with health

care professionals. BMC Health Services Research, 16(442). https://doi.org/10.1186/


Sulmasy, L. S., Lopez, A. M., & Horwitch, C. A. (2017). Ethical implications of the electronic

health record: In the service of the patient. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 32(8),

935-939. doi 10.1007/s11606-017-4030-1

United States Congress. (2020). H.R. 6654 – Emergency COVID Telehealth Response Act.


Ventola, L. (2014). Social media and health care professionals: Benefits, risks, and best

practices. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(7), 491-499. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/


Weber, E., Miller, S. J., Astha, V., Janevic, T., & Benn, E. (2020). Characteristics of telehealth

users in NYC for COVID-related care during the Coronavirus pandemic. Journal of the

American Medical Informatics Association, 27(12), 1949-1954. https://doi.org/10.1093/


The author reports he has no conflicts of interest with this content. The author can be reached

at bwerry@zagmail.gonzaga.edu.

WV Board of Nursing

Health Coach Program

Lori Chaffins, BSN, RN

Hello West Virginia Registered Nurses,

As you know, there are many nurses in our

state seeking recovery from stress associated with

COVID-19, trauma, mental illness, and/or addiction.

The Board has appropriated funding to provide a

four-day conference to train nurse health coaches throughout West Virginia. Training will be

offered virtually, so travel is not required.

The Board is seeking volunteers to become nurse health coaches. Qualifications include

an active, unencumbered RN license; your primary state of residence must be West Virginia.

Nurse Health Coaches promote recovery by assisting in the removal of barriers and serving

as personal guides for those who are seeking help with life transitions and journey. Nurse

Health Coaches are not employees of the Board.

The next Nurse Health Coach Training Coach conference will be held April 19-22, 2021.

We will be accepting 15 nurses and there will be no registration fee for participants. The

hours will be 8:30 a.m. – 5:30 p.m. each day, with a break for lunch.

In return for this free training, the Board asks that participants volunteer at least 52 hours

(average one hour a week) over the next year in our Nurse Health Program as a Nurse Health

Coach for the participants in WV Restore, and any registered nurse who needs assistance

with life’s challenges. Nurse Health Coaches are volunteers and not employees of the Board.

Participants in this course will learn to:

• Describe the roles and functions of a life/recovery coach

• List the fundamental principles of life/recovery coaching

• Explore different definitions and pathways of recovery

• Build communication skills to enhance relationships

• Discover attitudes about self-disclosure

• Understand the role of belief systems and values in the coaching relationship

• Describe the different roles and applications for life/recovery coaching

• Increase awareness of culture, power and privilege

• Address ethical and boundary issues

• Experience life recovery wellness planning

Nurse Health Coaches promote recovery by assisting in the removal of barriers and

serving as personal guides for those who are seeking help with life transitions and journey.

If you are interested in becoming a Recovery Coach for the Nurse Health Program, please

contact Lori Chaffins at the Board office – 304-389-1197 or lori.m.chaffins@wv.gov.

Doctor of Nursing Practice

Two points of entry



Family Nurse Practitioner

Nursing Leadership

Two areas of study

Advanced Nursing Practice

Nursing Leadership

MSN & DNP Concentrations of Study

Nurse-Midwifery (joint program with Shenandoah University)

Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (joint program with Shenandoah University)

Post-Graduate APRN Certificate -

Family Nurse Practitioner




Programs offer online and hybrid course designs; students can choose their own pace of study.

Contact: Dr. Amy Coffman, APRN-BC, FNP, Director of Graduate Programs School of Nursing

304-473-8227 | coffman_a@wvwc.edu | http://www.wvwc.edu/academics/schools/graduate-programs

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