CONFRONTING INFORMALITY: Preserving Communities and Creating Public Goods in Informal Settlements




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TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 1<br />

preserv<strong>in</strong>g communities <strong>and</strong> creat<strong>in</strong>g public goods<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements<br />

Delft University of Technology<br />

Faculty of Architecture <strong>and</strong> the Build Environment<br />

Department of Urbanism<br />

Delft, June 7th 2018<br />


2 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Favela Paraisopolis, Sao Paulo,<br />

Brazil<br />




TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 3<br />

Colophon<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

A one day symposium on preserv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Communities</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Creat<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>Public</strong> <strong>Goods</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Informal</strong> <strong>Settlements</strong><br />

7 June 2018<br />

Delft University of Technology,<br />

Faculty of Architecture <strong>and</strong> the Built Environment,<br />

Department of Urbanism.<br />

Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development Goals <strong>and</strong> Responsible Innovation,<br />

TU Delft, Gemeente Den Haag<br />

Symposium organised by:<br />

Anubhuti Ch<strong>and</strong>na (India)<br />

Asmeeta Das Sharma (India)<br />

Deepanshu Arneja (India)<br />

Diego Moya Ortiz (Chile)<br />

Felipe Gonzalez (Brazil)<br />

Gabriela Waldherr (Germany)<br />

Leyden Dur<strong>and</strong> (Venezuela)<br />

Nilofer Tajudd<strong>in</strong> (India)<br />

N<strong>in</strong>ad Sansare (India)<br />

Oriana De Lucia (Venezuela)<br />

Pablo Muñoz Unceta (Spa<strong>in</strong>)<br />

Ricardo Avella (Venezuela)<br />

Sulenur Kilic (Turkey)<br />

Roberto Rocco (Brazil)<br />

Symposium sponsored by:<br />

The Research <strong>in</strong>itiative Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development Goals<br />

<strong>and</strong> Responsible Innovation, TU Delft, Gemeente Den Haag<br />

The Department of Urbanism of the TU Delft<br />

The Delft Global Initiative<br />

Polis, Platform for Urbanism<br />

Visual identity: Felipe Gonzalez, Oriana de Lucia <strong>and</strong> Leyden Dur<strong>and</strong><br />

Report organised <strong>and</strong> designed by Roberto Rocco<br />

Symposium Website: https://confront<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>formality.org/<br />

ISBN: 978-94-6366-055-6<br />

U<br />



4 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 5<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Symposium<br />

Report<br />

A one day symposium on preserv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Communities</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Creat<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>Public</strong> <strong>Goods</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Informal</strong> <strong>Settlements</strong>, 7 June 2018,<br />

Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture <strong>and</strong> the Built<br />

Environment, Department of Urbanism, Section Spatial Plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />


4<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

6<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Index<br />

Colophon..................................................................................................... 3<br />

Organizers................................................................................................... 7<br />

Spatial Plann<strong>in</strong>g & Strategy...................................................................... 8<br />

Introduction to the Symposium................................................................ 11<br />

Roberto Rocco: Why Confront <strong>Informal</strong>ity?.............................................. 12<br />

The history of the symposium <strong>and</strong> acknowledgements.......................... 14<br />

SDGs <strong>and</strong> Responsible Innovation............................................................. 19<br />

The Competition.......................................................................................... 23<br />

The numbers of the competition............................................................... 28<br />

Location of proposals................................................................................. 30<br />

Universities <strong>in</strong>volved.................................................................................. 32<br />

Jury members.............................................................................................. 35<br />

Sukanya Krishnamurthy: Location, location, location............................ 45<br />

Pablo Muñoz <strong>and</strong> Asmeeta Das: Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity....................... 49<br />

Ignacio Cardona: Does the (<strong>in</strong>)formal city exist?.................................... 51<br />

Nipesh Narayanan: Position<strong>in</strong>g the architecture profession to<br />

confront <strong>in</strong>formality.................................................................................... 53<br />

Abigail Friendly: Reth<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity?................................................. 55<br />

Alonso Ayala <strong>and</strong> Ellen Geurts: Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity......................... 57<br />

N<strong>in</strong>ad Sansare: The view from a Mumbaikar............................................. 59<br />

The rationale of the selection ................................................................... 60<br />

Honourable Mention: Tirana, Albania........................................................ 62<br />

Honourable Mention: Karachi, Pakistan.................................................... 79<br />

Second Place: Salvador, Brazil................................................................... 93<br />

Second Place: Rasheed, Egypt.................................................................... 113<br />

First place: Dhaka, Bangladesh.................................................................. 133<br />

The 15 f<strong>in</strong>alists............................................................................................. 154

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 7<br />

The Organizers<br />







INDIA<br />

INDIA<br />

INDIA<br />

CHILE<br />





BRAZIL<br />



INDIA<br />





INDIA<br />


SPAIN<br />




TURKEY<br />


8 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

[URBANISM]<br />

Department of Urbanism<br />



The Department of Urbanism <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Faculty of Architecture <strong>and</strong> the Built<br />

Environment encompasses <strong>and</strong><br />

comb<strong>in</strong>es urban design, spatial plann<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

l<strong>and</strong>scape architecture <strong>and</strong> environmental<br />

modell<strong>in</strong>g. The Department has a global<br />

reputation for excellence <strong>in</strong> research <strong>and</strong><br />

education. It is particularly well known<br />

for the ‘Dutch approach’ to urbanism that<br />

br<strong>in</strong>gs together the creativity of design<br />

with academic research methods. This ‘<strong>in</strong>tegral’<br />

urbanism enjoys high <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

esteem <strong>in</strong> professional practice, research<br />

<strong>and</strong> education.<br />

The Department enables staff <strong>and</strong> students<br />

to advance knowledge of susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

<strong>and</strong> fair urban <strong>and</strong> regional development.<br />

We question the relationship between<br />

qualities of urban <strong>and</strong> regional environments<br />

with the social, economic <strong>and</strong> environmental<br />

performance of societies, <strong>and</strong><br />

the wellbe<strong>in</strong>g of citizens. Our graduates<br />

learn to take an <strong>in</strong>dependent <strong>and</strong> active<br />

role <strong>in</strong> shap<strong>in</strong>g urban development, but<br />

are also critical <strong>and</strong> reflective, demonstrat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

an awareness of both the potential <strong>and</strong><br />

limitations of professional <strong>in</strong>terventions.<br />

We explore critical questions of urbanism<br />

<strong>in</strong> the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> with partners <strong>in</strong><br />

many other countries, but always with sensitivity<br />

to local conditions <strong>and</strong> cultures.<br />

In a 2016 research assessment conducted<br />

under the Dutch St<strong>and</strong>ard Evaluation<br />

Protocol, the Department’s research programme<br />

was assessed as ‘world lead<strong>in</strong>g/<br />

excellent’ <strong>in</strong> ‘research quality’ <strong>and</strong> ‘social<br />

relevance’, <strong>and</strong> ‘very good’ <strong>in</strong> viability. TU<br />

Delft is ranked third <strong>in</strong> the world for architecture<br />

<strong>and</strong> the built environment <strong>in</strong> the<br />

QS World University rank<strong>in</strong>gs (2017), <strong>and</strong><br />

second <strong>in</strong> the world for urban plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> the University Rank<strong>in</strong>gs of Academic<br />

Performance (2016-17).<br />

The Department has a long <strong>and</strong> rich<br />

track-record on urbanisation studies <strong>in</strong><br />

the Global South, to which the symposium<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity belongs. This has<br />

been strengthened by recent partnerships<br />

with UN-Habitat <strong>and</strong> the World Urban<br />

Campaign, <strong>in</strong> order to promote <strong>and</strong> teach<br />

the New Urban Agenda <strong>and</strong> the Susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

Development Goals.<br />

Professor V<strong>in</strong>cent Nad<strong>in</strong>, head of the<br />

Department of Urbanism, Professor<br />

of Spatial Plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Strategy

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 9<br />

The Faculty of Architecture <strong>and</strong><br />

the Built Environment, TU Delft<br />


10 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 11<br />


The symposium<br />





The Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity Symposium<br />

is a student-led event<br />

sponsored by the Chair of Spatial<br />

Plann<strong>in</strong>g & Strategy at the Department<br />

of Urbanism, TU Delft University of Technology.<br />

The symposium happens once a<br />

year <strong>and</strong> gathers experts, policy-makers,<br />

practitioners <strong>and</strong> others to discuss <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanisation, its political, economic <strong>and</strong><br />

environmental implications <strong>and</strong> the tools to<br />

tackle it.<br />

The symposium, which is <strong>in</strong> its fifth<br />

edition, is a result of the faculty’s <strong>and</strong> its<br />

students’ awareness of the impacts of<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation <strong>in</strong> issues of social,<br />

economic <strong>and</strong> environmental susta<strong>in</strong>ability<br />

<strong>and</strong> spatial justice <strong>in</strong> cities today.<br />

By <strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation we mean the<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal unregulated spontaneous processes<br />

of urbanisation that happen mostly (but<br />

not only) <strong>in</strong> countries of the Global South<br />

result<strong>in</strong>g from economic <strong>and</strong> social exclusion<br />

of groups or communities.<br />

We do not dispute the many positive aspects<br />

of <strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation: it is a gateway<br />

to the city, it is a force from grassroots<br />

<strong>and</strong> it is able to create strong communities<br />

<strong>and</strong> provide families with livelihoods. The<br />

entrepreneurship of people <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements is remarkable <strong>and</strong> many <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements around the world are the<br />

source of employment, culture <strong>and</strong> hope.<br />

However, we wish to dispel any doubt<br />

that <strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation has several<br />

drawbacks. In the way it happens <strong>in</strong> most<br />

countries, <strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation is unsusta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

<strong>in</strong> the long run. More often than<br />

not, it has not been able to provide most<br />

households with a decent liv<strong>in</strong>g environment.<br />

Many <strong>in</strong>formal settlements around<br />

the world face unimag<strong>in</strong>able environmental,<br />

social <strong>and</strong> economic challenges.<br />

Improvement only happens when there<br />

is concerted collective action between the<br />

public sector, the private sector <strong>and</strong> civil<br />

society (not least, citizens themselves) <strong>in</strong><br />

order to deliver improvements to <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

communities <strong>in</strong> the form of better hous<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

services, sanitation, <strong>in</strong>frastructure, public<br />

space <strong>and</strong> so on.<br />

Spatial plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> design are sadly<br />

fail<strong>in</strong>g to deliver susta<strong>in</strong>able solutions that<br />

address the needs <strong>and</strong> wishes of citizens<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements.<br />

We recognise the importance of underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

the processes beh<strong>in</strong>d <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanisation, as well as its relationships<br />

with other issues such as poverty, gender<br />

discrim<strong>in</strong>ation, social segregation <strong>and</strong> economic<br />

<strong>in</strong>equality.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to the United Nations 1.5<br />

billion people live <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal or precarious<br />

employment (UNDP, 2014) <strong>and</strong> fifty-five<br />

million slum units have been created worldwide<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce the year of 2000 (UN-Habitat,<br />

2015).<br />

The goal of the Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Symposium is to shed light on <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanisation, its drivers <strong>and</strong> impacts, <strong>and</strong><br />

to discuss the plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> design <strong>in</strong>struments<br />

used around the world to tackle it<br />

<strong>and</strong> to deliver healthy, safe, <strong>in</strong>clusive neighbourhoods<br />

<strong>and</strong> communities.<br />

The ultimate objective is to establish a<br />

platform to debate <strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation<br />

<strong>and</strong> its challenges for spatial plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

urban design. We <strong>in</strong>vite scholars <strong>and</strong> practitioners<br />

to partner up with us to do research<br />

on the issues described above.<br />

In 2018, we decided to organise an ideas<br />

competition that aims to foster debate<br />

but also to look for practical ideas <strong>and</strong><br />

solutions for the creation of public goods <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>formal settlements, while keep<strong>in</strong>g identity<br />

<strong>and</strong> livelihoods of the community.

12 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />





Why confront <strong>in</strong>formality?<br />


The Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity Symposium<br />

is highly significant for<br />

us today <strong>in</strong> Urbanism. It helps us<br />

reflect on one of the biggest challenges<br />

faced by humanity today: how to urbanise<br />

<strong>in</strong> a susta<strong>in</strong>able, <strong>in</strong>clusive <strong>and</strong> fair way?<br />

While news outlets <strong>and</strong> academics<br />

repeat endlessly that humanity is now<br />

officially “urban”, hav<strong>in</strong>g crossed the 50%<br />

rate of urbanisation threshold , few people<br />

seem to remember that the other 50% still<br />

lives <strong>in</strong> rural areas, often <strong>in</strong> deprivation.<br />

That’s 3,7 billion people liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> mostly<br />

underserviced rural environments. Not all<br />

of them yearn to go to the city. Many wish<br />

to preserve their traditional lifestyles, <strong>and</strong><br />

rightly so. But many many of them will take<br />

the road to the city with their families <strong>in</strong><br />

search of prosperity <strong>and</strong> opportunity, just<br />

like millions of people have done <strong>in</strong> the last<br />

few decades. This immense human exodus<br />

towards the city, much accelerated after<br />

World War 2, is not over yet.<br />

Most of all, people are look<strong>in</strong>g for the<br />

freedom <strong>and</strong> modern lifestyles that cities<br />

supposedly afford. Traditional rural lifestyles<br />

are precious, but if you are a s<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

mother, gay, “low cast”, if you belong to the<br />

“wrong” race or religion, or if you are simply<br />

forward th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g, maybe a traditional rural<br />

lifestyle won’t agree with you. The city still<br />

offers the possibility of freedom, easier<br />

access to services, jobs <strong>and</strong> educational<br />

opportunities.<br />

Of course, prosperity <strong>and</strong> freedom <strong>in</strong> the<br />

city are often elusive <strong>and</strong> reality might be<br />

much grimmer.<br />

It may <strong>in</strong>clude violence, deprivation <strong>and</strong><br />

serious environmental hazards. Most of all,<br />

it might mean squalid liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions for<br />

the millions of migrants who get to cities<br />

every year <strong>in</strong> Ch<strong>in</strong>a, India, Nigeria, Indonesia<br />

<strong>and</strong> Bangladesh <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> most develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

countries of Africa <strong>and</strong> Southern Asia.<br />

Many people migrat<strong>in</strong>g to cities will end up<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> self-built settlements or <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to UN-Habitat,<br />

around 33% of the urban population <strong>in</strong> the<br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g world lived <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2012.<br />

Governments <strong>in</strong> the Global South are<br />

often unable or unwill<strong>in</strong>g to provide decent<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g to all those migrants. As a consequence,<br />

rural migrants roll up their sleeves<br />

<strong>and</strong> help themselves, creat<strong>in</strong>g barrios, favelas,<br />

slums, villas miserias, kampongs, <strong>and</strong><br />

many other forms of unplanned habitation.<br />

Architects <strong>and</strong> urbanists <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>dustrialised<br />

world are fasc<strong>in</strong>ated by the <strong>in</strong>ventiveness,<br />

the self-reliance, <strong>and</strong> the resilience<br />

of slum communities. For one th<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

slums all over the world seem to be much<br />

more successful <strong>in</strong> creat<strong>in</strong>g communities<br />

than the sterile <strong>and</strong> grey modernist blocks<br />

that have dotted the l<strong>and</strong>scapes of countries<br />

<strong>in</strong> the North: Holl<strong>and</strong>, the US, the UK,

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 13<br />

France, not to mention the former socialist<br />

countries <strong>and</strong> many countries <strong>in</strong> the Global<br />

South as well. All have experimented with<br />

modernist formulas for massive hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

solutions, with more or less success. Let’s<br />

not forget that both Western <strong>and</strong> Eastern<br />

Europe largely solved their post-war<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g crisis with such developments. But<br />

most people are quick to po<strong>in</strong>t out that<br />

modernist hous<strong>in</strong>g blocks are nowadays<br />

the backwater of most European <strong>and</strong> North<br />

American cities. So, slums don’t seem so<br />

bad after all.<br />

But the image of hope <strong>and</strong> creativity of<br />

slums hides some deeper truths that must<br />

be confronted (This is not a pun. This is<br />

why this symposium is called “Confront<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity”).<br />

Slums <strong>in</strong> the Global South lack basic services<br />

<strong>and</strong> sanitation, <strong>and</strong> hous<strong>in</strong>g units are<br />

squalid, not well ventilated or heated <strong>and</strong><br />

downright unsafe. The lack of sanitation<br />

means that large swaths of humanity lack<br />

the most basic of all comforts: a toilette.<br />

As someone once observed, hav<strong>in</strong>g water<br />

runn<strong>in</strong>g out of your kitchen tap is a luxury<br />

beyond imag<strong>in</strong>ation for a large chunk of humanity.<br />

While the absolute majority of slum<br />

dwellers are honest, hard-work<strong>in</strong>g people,<br />

slums are often targeted by crim<strong>in</strong>al gangs.<br />

The State is often absent <strong>and</strong> the rule of<br />

law is only selectively applied, mostly to<br />

reduce slum dwellers to subjection.<br />

Citizens <strong>in</strong> slums are often <strong>in</strong> breach of<br />

the law, because they are almost always<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g on illegally <strong>in</strong>vaded or acquired<br />

l<strong>and</strong>. They are easy targets for violent drug<br />

cartels, greedy slum lords or corrupt politicians<br />

who will trade toilets for votes. This is<br />

absolutely not susta<strong>in</strong>able. Someth<strong>in</strong>g must<br />

be done. Now.<br />

TU Delft, as a lead<strong>in</strong>g technical university<br />

<strong>in</strong> one of the best-planned countries<br />

<strong>in</strong> the world has the duty to get <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong><br />

this debate. It must prepare its students to<br />

confront <strong>in</strong>formality <strong>and</strong> to come up with<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able, fair <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>novative solutions<br />

that respect the livelihoods, hopes <strong>and</strong><br />

wishes of slum dwellers.<br />

While slums have many social <strong>and</strong><br />

spatial features architects <strong>and</strong> urbanists<br />

wish to emulate, there are real challenges<br />

ahead. Discuss<strong>in</strong>g what is go<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>in</strong> practice<br />

is important for us to reflect on those<br />

challenges <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>e-tune our attitudes <strong>and</strong><br />

practices towards slums. We must strive<br />

to know more <strong>and</strong> to engage with actors<br />

on the ground. We must learn from local<br />

knowledge <strong>and</strong> we must br<strong>in</strong>g the producers<br />

of new knowledge to the university.<br />

This goes h<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> h<strong>and</strong> with TU Delft’s<br />

ambition as a global university, learn<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g together with local governments<br />

<strong>and</strong> other stakeholders to f<strong>in</strong>d local<br />

solutions for those challenges. Follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the enactment of the New Urban Agenda<br />

<strong>in</strong> Quito <strong>in</strong> 2016, TU Delft has partnered up<br />

with UN-Habitat <strong>and</strong> the World Urban Campaign<br />

to promote a debate on education<br />

for the city we need. How to educate young<br />

planners <strong>and</strong> designers to implement the<br />

new Urban Agenda?<br />

This has triggered the launch<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

the Delft Global Initiative, a platform for<br />

Science <strong>and</strong> Technology for Global Development<br />

at TU Delft. At the chair of Spatial<br />

Plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Strategy led by Professor<br />

V<strong>in</strong>cent Nad<strong>in</strong>, a variety of <strong>in</strong>itiatives, courses,<br />

weblogs, symposiums <strong>and</strong> conferences<br />

tackle issues of susta<strong>in</strong>able <strong>and</strong> fair spatial<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the Global South.<br />

The Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity Symposium,<br />

the Post-Conflict Symposium, the conference<br />

of Cities <strong>and</strong> Citizenship <strong>in</strong> Lat<strong>in</strong><br />

America, partnerships with Ch<strong>in</strong>a, Brazil,<br />

India <strong>and</strong> other countries, courses on<br />

Globalization, elements of the graduation<br />

programme, not to mention much jo<strong>in</strong>t<br />

research, all those <strong>in</strong>itiatives aim to confront<br />

the challenges of susta<strong>in</strong>able <strong>and</strong> fair<br />

urbanisation <strong>in</strong> the next decades <strong>in</strong> a world<br />

where resources are <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly scarcer,<br />

where the climate is chang<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> where<br />

democracy <strong>and</strong> governance <strong>in</strong> much of the<br />

world are threatened by conflict <strong>and</strong> bad<br />

governments.<br />

Bigger challenges mean a bigger impetus<br />

for students <strong>and</strong> staff to conquer those<br />

challenges, while promot<strong>in</strong>g justice <strong>and</strong><br />

susta<strong>in</strong>ability <strong>in</strong> urban development around<br />

the world.<br />

This <strong>in</strong>itiative addresses several of the<br />

UN Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development Goas, but<br />

focuses on the follow<strong>in</strong>g:

14 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The history of the symposium<br />

& acknowledgments<br />





VAN DOORN.<br />

This event <strong>and</strong> competition<br />

were the<br />

product of collective<br />

action spurred by a common<br />

underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g about the challenges<br />

ahead.<br />

Urbanization is one the<br />

great challenges of our time.<br />

People seem to forget that,<br />

although humanity is now<br />

more the 50% urban, it is also<br />

still almost 50% rural. The human<br />

exodus towards the city<br />

is not over, <strong>and</strong> the problems<br />

generated by massive rural to<br />

urban migration are particularly<br />

acute <strong>in</strong> the Global South<br />

where democracies are young<br />

or fail<strong>in</strong>g, resources are either<br />

scarce or badly managed, <strong>and</strong><br />

spatial plann<strong>in</strong>g practically<br />

does not exist, or exists only<br />

for the very few. <strong>Creat<strong>in</strong>g</strong> fair,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clusive <strong>and</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

cities <strong>and</strong> communities <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Global South is a big job for<br />

all of us.<br />

From this underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g,<br />

a group of TU Delft Explore<br />

Lab students got together <strong>in</strong><br />

2014 <strong>and</strong> decided to organize<br />

an event to discuss <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanization. These students<br />

were Josiena Simonian,<br />

Maarten Kempenaar, Stephanie<br />

van Doorn <strong>and</strong> Joost de Bont <strong>and</strong><br />

the name of the event was ‘(In)Formality<br />

Wanted’. The keynote speakers were two<br />

Italians, Camilo Boano (Bartlett, UCL) <strong>and</strong><br />

Bernard<strong>in</strong>a Borra (The Spontaneous City<br />

International) <strong>and</strong> a number of other<br />

speakers <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g Jan van Ballegooijen,<br />

Diego Sepulveda, Kria Djoyoadh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>grat<br />

<strong>and</strong> others, moderated by Roberto Rocco.<br />

Among the assistants, students Daniel<br />

Radai (Hungary), Bel<strong>in</strong>da van Zijl (now<br />

Roggeveen van Zijl, The Netherl<strong>and</strong>s),<br />

Todor Kesarovski (Bulgaria) <strong>and</strong> Yos<br />

Purwanto (The Netherl<strong>and</strong>s), all students<br />

from Urbanism, decided to take up the<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiative <strong>and</strong> re-name it ‘Confront<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity’, from the underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

that “someth<strong>in</strong>g needed to be done”.<br />

They couldn’t wait too long, so the next<br />

symposium was organized later on the<br />

same year, on 11 December 2014. This<br />

time, the l<strong>in</strong>e-up of speakers was really<br />

long <strong>and</strong> even more impressive <strong>and</strong> was<br />

dom<strong>in</strong>ated by practitioners do<strong>in</strong>g work<br />

on the ground: Santiago Crujeda (Recetas<br />

Urbanas), Marco Ferrario (Micro Home<br />

Solutions), Kria Djoyoadh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>grat (then<br />

Studio Rosa <strong>and</strong> Casa Legal), Giorgio<br />

Talocci (Bartlett), Vera Kreuwels (Catholic<br />

Relief Services), Laura Smits (then Cordaid<br />

Haiti), Diego Sepulveda (TU Delft),<br />

Jaap Klaarenbeek (POSAD- Studio Rosa),<br />

Rohan Varma (then Mecanoo <strong>and</strong> currently<br />

PhD c<strong>and</strong>idate at TU Delft), Berend<br />

Strijl<strong>and</strong> (NLE Architects), David Juarez<br />





MARCH 2014.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 15<br />


(Straddle3) <strong>and</strong> Alex<strong>and</strong>er Jachnow (IHS Erasmus Rotterdam).<br />

The keyword here was ACTION. This event was funded by the<br />

department of Urbanism, Delft Global Initiative <strong>and</strong> MOTIV (a<br />

Catholic action group). This symposium was attended by more<br />

than 100 people <strong>and</strong> a report was produced, available onl<strong>in</strong>e.<br />

It would be another full year <strong>and</strong> many months until the next<br />

symposium was organised on March 17 2016, with its strik<strong>in</strong>g<br />

yellow identity <strong>and</strong> the title ‘<strong>Informal</strong> Urbanisation: Underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> Mitigat<strong>in</strong>g a Global Phenomenon’. The keyword<br />

here was MITIGATION. The team of organisers was a reflection<br />

of the <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>ternationalisation of the university: Daniel<br />

Ferrer (Germany), Rebeca Rabello (Brazil), Putri Santoso (Indonesia),<br />

Wenchi Yang (Ch<strong>in</strong>a), Angela Maria Moncaleano (Colombia),<br />

Laura Alej<strong>and</strong>ra Garcia (Colombia), Nikita Baliga (India),<br />

Magdal<strong>in</strong>i Papadam (Greece) <strong>and</strong> Stefania McLaur<strong>in</strong> (Mexico).<br />

The l<strong>in</strong>e up of speakers was no-less impressive: Pontus Westerberg<br />

(UN-Habitat), Emiel Wegel<strong>in</strong> (International Advisory<br />

Services for Urban Action, Rotterdam), Francesco Chiodelli (Gran<br />

Sasso Science Institute), Marco Kusumawijaya (Ruka Centre for<br />

Urban Studies <strong>in</strong> Jakarta), Mariana Fix (University of Camp<strong>in</strong>as,<br />

Brazil), <strong>and</strong> Mathias Antonsson (Civil Rights Defenders, Plurrify,<br />

Ushahidi, Sida & UN). Delft Global Initiative had a bigger role <strong>in</strong><br />

this event, <strong>and</strong> helped us organise a stakeholders’ workshop on<br />

the second day.<br />

2017 was a momentous year, because the Department of<br />

Urbanism decided to organise the UN-Habitat sponsored UTC<br />

URBAN THINKERS CAMPUS, Education for the City We Need. This<br />

event cemented the alliance be<strong>in</strong>g created between TU Delft,<br />

UN-Habitat <strong>and</strong> the World Urban Campaign to discuss <strong>and</strong><br />

promote the New Urban Agenda <strong>in</strong> higher education. This Urban<br />

Th<strong>in</strong>kers Campus focused on how to teach the New Urban Agenda<br />

<strong>and</strong> gathered 30 speakers from the public sector, academia,<br />

the private sector <strong>and</strong> civil society (29 organizations <strong>in</strong> total).<br />

It produced a report published ONLINE. It spurred a series of<br />

actions <strong>and</strong> subsidiary events, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g a session at the World<br />

Urban Forum on 7-13 February 2018, <strong>in</strong> Kuala Lumpur, which<br />

produced a report, published ONLINE. Aga<strong>in</strong>, the role of TU Delft<br />

students was central to the success of this <strong>in</strong>itiative.<br />

The organiz<strong>in</strong>g team was composed by PhD c<strong>and</strong>idates <strong>and</strong><br />

Master students from BK:<br />

Chris Bartman (Netherl<strong>and</strong>s), Concha Ar<strong>and</strong>a Iglesias (Spa<strong>in</strong>),<br />

Crist<strong>in</strong>a Wong (Peru), Daan Leenders (Netherl<strong>and</strong>s), Florencia<br />

Rodriguez Balzar<strong>in</strong>i (Argent<strong>in</strong>a), IJsbr<strong>and</strong> Heer<strong>in</strong>ga (Netherl<strong>and</strong>s),<br />

Jan Cyganski (Germany), Jean-Baptiste Peters (France)<br />

Kritika Sha (India), Maricruz Gazel (Costa Rica), Mona Zum Felde<br />

(Germany), Niroopa (India), Rajat Uchil (India), Ramses Alejan-<br />





16 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />



dro Gr<strong>and</strong>e Fraile (Spa<strong>in</strong>), Reza Ambardi Pradana (Indonesia),<br />

Roberto Rocco (Brazil), Sahil Kanekar (India), Sel<strong>in</strong>a Abraham<br />

(India), Supriya Krishnan (India), Teis Bekken (Netherl<strong>and</strong>s) <strong>and</strong><br />

Vladimir Tapia (Ecuador).<br />

A detailed account of the Urban Th<strong>in</strong>kers Campus can be<br />

found at: https://utctudelft.org<br />

The UTC <strong>in</strong> 2017 <strong>and</strong> the event at the World Urban Forum <strong>in</strong><br />

February 2018 led to the organization of the 2018 Confront<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity Symposium: <strong>Preserv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>Communities</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Creat<strong>in</strong>g</strong><br />

<strong>Public</strong> <strong>Goods</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Informal</strong> <strong>Settlements</strong>. This edition was characterized<br />

by an important step forward: the organization of an<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational competition sponsored by the Project Susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

Development Goals <strong>and</strong> Responsible Innovation, led by the Municipality<br />

of The Hague <strong>and</strong> TBM (Faculty of Technology, Policy<br />

<strong>and</strong> Management) of the TU Delft. The competition attracted 50<br />

submissions from all over the world <strong>and</strong> awarded prizes to the<br />

three best proposals for slum upgrad<strong>in</strong>g that avoided eviction,<br />

preserved communities <strong>and</strong> created public goods. The keyword<br />

of this symposium was UPGRADE, while PRESERVING.<br />



Acknowledgments<br />

Our special thanks to Haye Hazenberg, post-doctoral<br />

researcher at TBM, who saw the connection<br />

between the aims of our competition <strong>and</strong> the<br />

discussion <strong>in</strong> the project. The project sponsored the<br />

first prize of the competition. Delft Global Initiative<br />

<strong>in</strong> the persons of Roel Kamerl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Jennifer<br />

Kockx, have contributed to br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g a speaker. Professor<br />

Vicent Nad<strong>in</strong>, head of Urbanism, has always<br />

supported this <strong>in</strong>itiative generously <strong>and</strong> has created<br />

the space for us to discuss urbanization <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Global South at the Department. Polis, Platform for<br />

Urbanism, the TU Delft students of Urbanism association<br />

has also supported this <strong>in</strong>itiative throughout<br />

the years. Most specially, thank you to the 50<br />

teams that submitted proposals to our competition.<br />



TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 17<br />



18 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

SDGs at BK<br />







MAY 2018.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 19<br />





Meet<strong>in</strong>g the susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development goals through<br />

responsible <strong>in</strong>novation<br />




The UN Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development Goals<br />

(SDGs) will shape the <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

political discourse <strong>in</strong> the com<strong>in</strong>g decades.<br />

In the academic year 2017-2018 Delft<br />

University of Technology has explored the<br />

viability of a research pro-gram offer<strong>in</strong>g<br />

new possibilities for collaboration to the<br />

various parties resid<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> The Hague. The<br />

theme, Re-sponsible Innovation for the<br />

SDGs, is aimed at employ<strong>in</strong>g the <strong>in</strong>novative<br />

capabilities of the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s for global<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able development.<br />

The research theme aligns well with the<br />

strategic research agendas of the departments<br />

of the Dutch government, the missions<br />

of a variety of <strong>in</strong>ternational organizations<br />

<strong>in</strong> The Hague, as well as with research<br />

activities of the six Dutch universities which<br />

are active <strong>in</strong> the city: Leiden, Delft, Rotterdam,<br />

Wagen<strong>in</strong>gen, Amsterdam, Gron<strong>in</strong>gen<br />

<strong>and</strong> Utrecht. Innovative solutions to global<br />

problems also offer corporate partners,<br />

entrepreneurs <strong>and</strong> start-ups <strong>in</strong>ter-est<strong>in</strong>g<br />

opportunities.<br />

The program is directed towards susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development goals that have received<br />

less attention from knowledge <strong>in</strong>stitutes.<br />

Several short-term vanguard projects<br />

demonstrate the viability <strong>and</strong> relevance of<br />

utilis<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>novation research for the SDGs,<br />

<strong>and</strong> an <strong>in</strong>troductory essay sets out the<br />

vision for The Hague <strong>in</strong> the 21st century.<br />


How does The Hague rema<strong>in</strong> one of the<br />

most important cities <strong>in</strong> the world <strong>in</strong> the<br />

area of Peace, Law, Justice <strong>and</strong> Security <strong>in</strong><br />

the 21st century? The Hague owes its <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

reputation to recogniz<strong>in</strong>g problems<br />

<strong>and</strong> solv<strong>in</strong>g them pragmatically <strong>in</strong> times of<br />

high political tension, arms races <strong>and</strong> rapid<br />

technological change <strong>in</strong> the beg<strong>in</strong>-n<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

the 20th century. The metropolitan region<br />

of The Hague is also <strong>in</strong>ternationally associated<br />

with the cradle of th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g about World<br />

Peace <strong>and</strong> the International Rule of Law, <strong>in</strong><br />

the persons of Erasmus <strong>and</strong> Grotius, <strong>and</strong><br />

with the roots of the early Enlightenment as<br />

represented by Sp<strong>in</strong>oza <strong>and</strong> Bayle.<br />

In order to be able to play a similar role <strong>in</strong><br />

the world <strong>in</strong> the 21st century, The Hague is<br />

now also fac<strong>in</strong>g with the challenge of underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

the nature of the problems of<br />

humanity <strong>and</strong> of offer<strong>in</strong>g solutions. The <strong>in</strong>tellectual<br />

climate <strong>in</strong> The Hague around 1900<br />

po<strong>in</strong>ted towards a ‘World Capital’. Competition<br />

with other cities was <strong>in</strong> full sw<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> this area. Perhaps the most important<br />

explanation for the success of The Hague is

20 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

that it succeeded <strong>in</strong> plac<strong>in</strong>g an important<br />

issue on the global agenda of mank<strong>in</strong>d at<br />

the end of the second millennium, <strong>in</strong>stead<br />

of striv<strong>in</strong>g for excellence on agendas proposed<br />

by others. The ideas of World Peace,<br />

International Rule of Law <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitutionalization<br />

of Arbitration were <strong>in</strong>vented here.<br />

More than a century after the second peace<br />

conference <strong>in</strong> 1907, the world looks radically<br />

different <strong>in</strong> the 21st cen-tury. Complex<br />

humanitarian, susta<strong>in</strong>ability <strong>and</strong> security<br />

issues on the world stage are immediately<br />

tangible at local levels. This world is<br />

complex, hyper-connected, dynamic <strong>and</strong><br />

unstable. Social media <strong>and</strong> mobile <strong>in</strong>ternet<br />

br<strong>in</strong>g great benefits, but also come with<br />

many new vulnerabilities.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>ternational community has drawn up<br />

a consolidated list of 17 Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development<br />

Goals (SDGs), sim-ilar to the <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

consensus regard<strong>in</strong>g the so-called<br />

Gr<strong>and</strong> Challenges <strong>and</strong> the Millennium Goals.<br />

This list of problems will strongly determ<strong>in</strong>e<br />

the global debate on a safer <strong>and</strong> more just<br />

world <strong>in</strong> the rema<strong>in</strong>der of the 21st century.<br />

New <strong>in</strong> this context is the importance accorded<br />

by the UN to the role of <strong>in</strong>novation,<br />

technology <strong>and</strong> applied scien-tific research<br />

with a strong multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary character.<br />

It is clear that no progress can be made<br />

on solutions to these problems if it is not<br />

recognized that technology is both part of<br />

the problem <strong>and</strong> can also be part of the<br />

solu-tion. For this reason, the UN has set up<br />

a Technology Facilitation Mechanism (TFM)<br />

to promote <strong>in</strong>novative solu-tions on the<br />

SDG agenda. This is an important development<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the UN, which for the first time<br />

explicitly fo-cuses on perhaps the most<br />

important driver of the history of the 21st<br />

century: technology.<br />

An important aspect of the SDG agenda<br />

is that the problems cannot be treated <strong>in</strong><br />

isolation, but must be viewed <strong>in</strong> conjunction.<br />

Meanwhile there are decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

tools that help to underst<strong>and</strong>, model <strong>and</strong><br />

visualize the <strong>in</strong>ter-relationships between<br />

the SDGs. Because it is not a list of separate<br />

problems, the situation is complex <strong>and</strong> so<br />

are <strong>in</strong>terventions <strong>and</strong> policy measures.<br />

Another aspect associated with these<br />

mutual relationships is the fact that the<br />

complexity with which we are con-fronted<br />

requires a new multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary science<br />

that allows us to underst<strong>and</strong> connections<br />

<strong>and</strong> to deal with these problems on a global<br />

scale.<br />

To ga<strong>in</strong> a better underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of complex<br />

adaptive systems, multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

centres for complexity science have been<br />

set up <strong>in</strong> numerous places. In these centres,<br />

scientists from different discipl<strong>in</strong>es work<br />

together on models <strong>and</strong> simulations to improve<br />

our underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g complex systems<br />

<strong>in</strong> order to better predict their behaviour.<br />

On the basis of these models, policy makers<br />

arrive at more adequate <strong>and</strong> responsible<br />

<strong>in</strong>terventions that result <strong>in</strong> improved policies.<br />

The outcomes of this type of research<br />

are often counter<strong>in</strong>tuitive for policy makers<br />

<strong>and</strong> politi-cians. Our <strong>in</strong>terventions <strong>in</strong> social,<br />

economic <strong>and</strong> ecological systems often<br />

have unexpected negative consequenc-es.<br />

We can, however, not afford such mistakes<br />

<strong>in</strong> combat<strong>in</strong>g climate change, humanitarian<br />

<strong>and</strong> economic crises, cyber war <strong>and</strong> terrorism.<br />

Such missteps can be prevented by<br />

us<strong>in</strong>g new approaches to science that leads<br />

to more <strong>in</strong>sight <strong>in</strong>to complex phenomena as<br />

a basis for policy.<br />

The new sciences, <strong>in</strong>novation <strong>and</strong> technology<br />

are necessary to create conditions for<br />

achiev<strong>in</strong>g the moral objec-tives that have<br />

been specified <strong>in</strong> the SDGs. The new science,<br />

knowledge <strong>and</strong> expertise are morally<br />

bl<strong>in</strong>d without normative frameworks, but<br />

normative pr<strong>in</strong>ciples without the ability to<br />

<strong>in</strong>tervene are impotent. The SDGs abso-lutely<br />

require responsible <strong>in</strong>novations:<br />

<strong>in</strong>novations that adequately realize the<br />

moral ideals of peace, justice <strong>and</strong> justice<br />

<strong>and</strong> other shared moral values.<br />

The traditional subjects of The Hague will<br />

therefore have to take a central place<br />

<strong>in</strong> the work on the SDG agenda: without<br />

International Law, peace build<strong>in</strong>g, diplomacy,<br />

humanitarian aid <strong>and</strong> development<br />

cooperation,<br />

protection of human rights, promotion of<br />

security, fight<strong>in</strong>g corruption, fraud, organized<br />

crime <strong>and</strong> terrorism, ap-plied science<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>novation will miss their desired<br />

effects.<br />

Better <strong>in</strong>sight <strong>in</strong>to human psychology has<br />

contributed significantly to the manipulation<br />

of consumers <strong>and</strong> voters <strong>in</strong> recent<br />

decades, <strong>and</strong> only to a limited extent to<br />

solv<strong>in</strong>g our Millennium Problems. The traditional<br />

discipl<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong> The Hague will therefore<br />

have to play a role <strong>in</strong> this new world<br />

<strong>and</strong> must connect with other new scientific<br />

knowledge <strong>and</strong> technology. Moreover, <strong>in</strong><br />

the com<strong>in</strong>g decades, the discipl<strong>in</strong>es of The<br />

Hague will also have to make use of new,<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly digital, technology for the development<br />

of their own <strong>in</strong>struments, methods<br />

<strong>and</strong> tech-niques. Professionals <strong>in</strong> the fields<br />

of law, diplomacy, policy, <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

relations will have to go digital or no-where.<br />

The Hague could provide expertise that<br />

prepares for this new role of <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

law <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>novations with<strong>in</strong> it.<br />

The Netherl<strong>and</strong>s has received <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

recognition for its approach to <strong>in</strong>novation. A<br />

“Dutch Approach” has become visible. This<br />

approach can be extended <strong>in</strong> different ways<br />

through good cooperation <strong>in</strong> The Hague<br />

through a range of triple helix mechanisms.<br />

Such an approach is desperately needed<br />

<strong>in</strong> the areas of cyber security, transport<br />

<strong>and</strong> logistics, robotics, energy transition,<br />

self-driv<strong>in</strong>g cars, <strong>in</strong>dustry 4.0, Internet<br />

of Th<strong>in</strong>gs, blockcha<strong>in</strong>, waste process<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

circular economy, urban plann<strong>in</strong>g, smart<br />

city development, f<strong>in</strong>tech <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ance, data<br />

science <strong>and</strong> humanitarian aid <strong>and</strong> development<br />

cooperation. In addition to its practical<br />

<strong>and</strong> efficient approach. The Hague has<br />

the most official offices of Dutch universities<br />

with<strong>in</strong> its city limits <strong>and</strong>, accord<strong>in</strong>g to a<br />

rank<strong>in</strong>g of the Times, it is one of the top academic<br />

cities <strong>in</strong> the world. The universities<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the proposed partnership can jo<strong>in</strong>tly<br />

perform applied <strong>and</strong> fundamental research<br />

that supports the plans for The Hague’s<br />

International Agenda, the SDG agenda <strong>and</strong><br />

the Digital International Legal Order that<br />

we will have to work on <strong>in</strong> the rema<strong>in</strong>der of<br />

this century.<br />

The city of The Hague <strong>and</strong> the Dutch government<br />

want The Hague to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> its<br />

position as UN city <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>terna-tional city<br />

of Peace <strong>and</strong> Justice <strong>in</strong> the 21st century.<br />

They also want the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s to cont<strong>in</strong>ue<br />

to play a mean<strong>in</strong>g-ful role on an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

dynamic <strong>and</strong> chaotic world stage. In<br />

order to perpetuate the special position <strong>in</strong><br />

the world, it is now no longer sufficient to<br />

build on the achievements of the past along<br />

paved roads. In short, <strong>in</strong> the com<strong>in</strong>g years<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>and</strong> around The Hague we need to give a<br />

21st century mean<strong>in</strong>g to the theme of Peace<br />

<strong>and</strong> Justice, partly through technological<br />

<strong>in</strong>novations <strong>and</strong> digitization.<br />

* The organisation of the symposium would<br />

like to thank to Haye Hazenberg, post-doctora<br />

researcher at the Faculty of Technology,<br />

Policy <strong>and</strong> Management of the TU Delft,<br />

for <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the symposium <strong>and</strong> the com <strong>in</strong><br />

this research project

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 21<br />

Peace Palace, The Hague, The<br />

Netherl<strong>and</strong>s<br />




JUNE 8, 2018.

22 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 23<br />


Ideas Competition<br />



We live <strong>in</strong> an urban world. Accord<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to the United Nations,<br />

the world’s population will grow<br />

40% by 2050, <strong>and</strong> the urban population will<br />

double <strong>in</strong> just 35 years. Urban growth is one<br />

of the most complex challenges of our time,<br />

especially if we consider that 95% of the<br />

fast grow<strong>in</strong>g cities of the world are found <strong>in</strong><br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g countries of the Global South.<br />

Many governments <strong>in</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g nations<br />

do not have the capacity or the will to plan<br />

for such explosive growth.<br />

As a result, approximately 3 billion people<br />

will live <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements by 2050.<br />

This means that planners <strong>and</strong> designers<br />

must urgently address problems such as<br />

the lack of urban services <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructure<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements; but they also<br />

need to address topics such as <strong>in</strong>security<br />

of tenure, poor accessibility to services <strong>and</strong><br />

jobs, scarcity of public spaces <strong>and</strong> above<br />

all, the issue of social <strong>in</strong>clusion. How to<br />

confront <strong>in</strong>formality, so that public goods<br />

can be delivered to the <strong>in</strong>habitants of these<br />

settlements? How to make the barriers that<br />

divide the ‘<strong>in</strong>formal’ city from the formal<br />

one more permeable, <strong>in</strong> order to achieve<br />

social susta<strong>in</strong>ability?<br />

There are no simple answers to these<br />

questions, <strong>and</strong> different solutions can be<br />

proposed for different communities <strong>in</strong><br />

different places. On September 25th 2015,<br />

countries adopted a set of goals to end<br />

poverty, protect the planet <strong>and</strong> ensure<br />

prosperity for all as part of a new susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development agenda. There are 17<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able development goals (SDGs), each<br />

with specific targets to be achieved over the<br />

next 15 years. TU Delft has <strong>in</strong>corporated the<br />

17 SDGs <strong>in</strong> its mission to deliver designers<br />

<strong>and</strong> eng<strong>in</strong>eers that will work for susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development everywhere.<br />

To be able to do that, TU Delft focuses<br />

on high quality research. The university<br />

believes that research can also be done<br />

by design. This is why we launched an<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational competition of ideas to<br />

address the topic of slum upgrad<strong>in</strong>g while<br />

preserv<strong>in</strong>g communities, open to students<br />

from any discipl<strong>in</strong>e. Innovative solutions,<br />

good practices <strong>and</strong> spatial strategies could<br />

therefore be developed <strong>and</strong> shared by<br />

young planners <strong>and</strong> social activists from all<br />

over the world.<br />

What are the challenges we<br />

want to address?<br />

There is much discussion about what<br />

“urban <strong>in</strong>formality” actually means. For<br />

this competition, we underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanisation as a set of unregulated, unplanned<br />

<strong>and</strong> often illegal ways of build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

cities that lead to both desirable <strong>and</strong> undesirable<br />

outcomes. <strong>Informal</strong> settlements<br />

usually face tenure issues, lack of access<br />

to water <strong>and</strong> sanitation, little provision of<br />

public space, bad hous<strong>in</strong>g conditions, weak<br />

connection to the transportation networks<br />

or long commut<strong>in</strong>g times, among others.<br />

Citizens are exposed to urban segregation,<br />

high vulnerability to natural disasters<br />

<strong>and</strong> climate change <strong>and</strong> socio-economic<br />

problems, such as violence <strong>and</strong> crime.On<br />

the other h<strong>and</strong>, <strong>in</strong>formal settlements are<br />

gateways to the city, they allow low-<strong>in</strong>come<br />

families to set foot <strong>in</strong> the city, build<br />

livelihoods <strong>and</strong> form strong networks of<br />

solidarity. They are the result of spontaneous<br />

bottom-up processes, <strong>in</strong> which<br />

dwellers negotiate, work <strong>and</strong> even fight to<br />

get a spot <strong>in</strong> the city. Access to services <strong>and</strong><br />

public goods, such as hous<strong>in</strong>g, commerce<br />

or <strong>in</strong>frastructure, is sometimes achieved<br />

<strong>and</strong> managed through citizens own work<br />

<strong>and</strong> effort. This is spatially translated <strong>in</strong>to<br />

vibrant areas with <strong>in</strong>tense public life, <strong>in</strong><br />

which many activities <strong>and</strong> uses coexist,<br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>terrelated social fabric <strong>and</strong> a<br />

strong sense of belong<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Slum-upgrad<strong>in</strong>g or urban renewal<br />

programs are developed <strong>in</strong> order to provide<br />

accessibility to better urban st<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>and</strong><br />

public goods. Nevertheless, plann<strong>in</strong>g often<br />

doesn’t manage to keep the diverse <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>tense public life of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements.<br />

Relocation of people liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> risk-prone<br />

or vulnerable sites may even generate displacement<br />

of citizens to other areas <strong>in</strong> the<br />

city, break<strong>in</strong>g their social <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g ties.<br />

Is it possible for these top-down plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

programs to <strong>in</strong>corporate bottom up<br />

processes, while empower<strong>in</strong>g communities?<br />

Is it possible to keep the flexibility <strong>and</strong> variety<br />

of <strong>in</strong>formal communities <strong>and</strong> provide<br />

access to public goods at the same time?<br />

How can relocation of citizens <strong>in</strong> vulnerable<br />

areas be tackled without displacement?<br />

These are the topics we wanted to address<br />

<strong>in</strong> the ideas competition, <strong>in</strong> order to<br />

raise awareness <strong>and</strong> promote debate.

24 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Who could participate?<br />

The competition was open to students<br />

from all over the world, up to 33 years of<br />

age. Even though the competition was<br />

organised by the Faculty of Architecture<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Built Environment of the TU Delft,<br />

we believe that the problem of <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

should be addressed <strong>in</strong> a multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

way. We encouraged teams to be composed<br />

by members from different backgrounds,<br />

<strong>and</strong> not only by architects or planners.<br />

Teams had be composed by a m<strong>in</strong>imum<br />

of two participants <strong>and</strong> maximum of five<br />

participants. Participants may be from different<br />

countries <strong>and</strong> from different schools.<br />

In total, 50 teams from all over the world<br />

sunmitted proposals. 20 f<strong>in</strong>alists were preselected<br />

by organisers <strong>and</strong> analysed by a<br />

team of experts.<br />

Rules of the game<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity 2018 is an IDEAS<br />

COMPETITION. All teams had to deliver a<br />

proposal to improve the liv<strong>in</strong>g environment<br />

of an actual <strong>in</strong>formal settlement <strong>in</strong> a city of<br />

the Global South. The proposals also po<strong>in</strong>ted<br />

out the specific positive characteristics<br />

of the area, expla<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g how those were<br />

preserved or enhanced.<br />

Proposals could be developed as a specific<br />

spatial project, or as an <strong>in</strong>novative l<strong>and</strong><br />

tenure or governance policy. In all cases,<br />

teams had to address <strong>and</strong> detail the impact<br />

of the proposal <strong>in</strong> the spatial conditions of<br />

the neighborhood. This was done through<br />

draw<strong>in</strong>gs, maps, pictures, collages or diagrams.<br />

The site for <strong>in</strong>tervention could be chosen<br />

by each team, but it had to fulfill the<br />

characteristics expla<strong>in</strong>ed before: “(…) we<br />

underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation as a set<br />

of unregulated, unplanned <strong>and</strong> often illegal<br />

ways of build<strong>in</strong>g cities that lead to both desirable<br />

<strong>and</strong> undesirable outcomes. <strong>Informal</strong><br />

settlements usually have very low urban<br />

st<strong>and</strong>ards: lack of access to water <strong>and</strong> sanitation,<br />

little provision of public space, bad<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g conditions, weak connection to the<br />

transportation networks or long commut<strong>in</strong>g<br />

times, among others. They are exposed to<br />

urban segregation, high vulnerability to<br />

natural disasters <strong>and</strong> climate change <strong>and</strong><br />

socio-economic problems, such as violence<br />

<strong>and</strong> crime.” Alternatively, participants could<br />

read this document by UN-Habitat: http://<br />

mirror.unhabitat.org/documents/media_<br />

centre/sowcr2006/SOWCR%205.pdf<br />

The scale of the settlement could vary<br />

accord<strong>in</strong>g to each team’s <strong>in</strong>terest. The<br />

methodology of the proposal had to be<br />

clearly expla<strong>in</strong>ed. Competitors were asked<br />

to consider their cities have policies <strong>and</strong><br />

projects already <strong>in</strong> place: it was highly desirable<br />

that teams “conversed” with those<br />

policies or projects, either criticiz<strong>in</strong>g or<br />

complement<strong>in</strong>g them. Teams were also encouraged<br />

to converse with real stakeholders:<br />

grassroots leaders, community leaders,<br />

politicians, developers, member of the<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g office of their cities <strong>and</strong> citizens.<br />

They were asked to somehow <strong>in</strong>corporate<br />

those stakeholders’ ideas <strong>in</strong> their proposals.<br />

We expla<strong>in</strong>ed that we were not look<strong>in</strong>g<br />

for good ideas only, we were look<strong>in</strong>g for<br />

ideas that were embedded <strong>in</strong> real governance<br />

structures <strong>and</strong> that took the wishes<br />

of real stakeholders <strong>in</strong>to account.<br />

Specific guidel<strong>in</strong>es or process diagrams<br />

could illustrate the methodology <strong>in</strong> each<br />

case. Each proposal had to <strong>in</strong>clude a<br />

description of the site before <strong>and</strong> after the<br />

implementation of the project or policy,<br />

show<strong>in</strong>g what was the expected impact on<br />

the liv<strong>in</strong>g environment.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 25<br />

Johannesburg, South Africa<br />


26 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 27<br />

Petare, Caracas, Venezuela<br />


28 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

[NUMBERS]<br />

Symposium <strong>in</strong> numbers<br />





50<br />


submissions<br />

from all over<br />

the world.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 29<br />

29 CITIES<br />







(2010). THAT’S AROUND 1/3<br />




$4000INPRIZES<br />




55<br />




71<br />

883<br />










30 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


Location of proposals<br />



Marseille<br />

Miami<br />

Ra<br />

Xalapa<br />

Tegucigalpa<br />

Caracas<br />

Manta<br />

Fortaleza<br />

Lima<br />

Salvador<br />

Rio de Janeiro<br />

Sao Paulo<br />

Valparaiso<br />

Buenos Aires

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 31<br />

Tirana<br />

sheed<br />

Cairo<br />

Beirut<br />

Lahore<br />

Ahmedabad<br />

Karachi<br />

Dhaka<br />

Mumbai Delhi<br />

Bangkok<br />

Addis Ababa<br />

Nairobi<br />

B<strong>and</strong>ung<br />


32 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


Universities <strong>in</strong>volved<br />



UC Berkeley<br />

TU Delft<br />

KU Leuven<br />

University of Tüb<strong>in</strong>gen<br />

University of Guelph<br />

Wentworth Institute of Technology<br />

UIC-Barcelona<br />

Amster<br />

IHS R<br />

Ro<br />

U<br />

Polit<br />

Florida International University<br />

Universidad Veracruzana<br />

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras<br />

Universidad Central de Venezuela<br />

Universidad Central del Ecuador<br />

PUC del Ecuador<br />

PUC del Peru<br />

Federal University of Ceara<br />

Federal University of Bahia<br />

PUC Rio<br />

University of Sao Paulo

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 33<br />

dam Academy of Architecture<br />

otterdam<br />

tterdam School of Management<br />

Dessau Institute of Architecture<br />

niversity of Stuttgart<br />

University of Munich<br />

Politecnico Milano<br />

ecnico Tor<strong>in</strong>o<br />

Cairo University<br />

CEPT University, Ahmedabad<br />

Wollo University<br />

EiABC<br />

University of Eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g & Technology of Lahore<br />

School of Plann<strong>in</strong>g & Architecture, New Delhi<br />

BRAC University<br />

Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute for Architecture<br />

College of Eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g Triv<strong>and</strong>rum<br />

K<strong>in</strong>g Mongkut's University of Technology<br />

MOI University<br />

University of Nairobi<br />

Jomo Kenyatta University<br />

Namibia University of Science <strong>and</strong> Technology<br />

University of Adelaide

34 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 35<br />

Valparaiso, Chile<br />


36 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 37<br />

Jury<br />

members<br />

THE SUBMISSIONS TO THE <strong>CONFRONTING</strong> <strong>INFORMALITY</strong><br />





38 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


Sukanya Krishnamurthy<br />


Sukanya is currently assistant professor at the Chair of<br />

Urbanism <strong>and</strong> Urban Architecture (Faculty of the Built<br />

Environment) at TU E<strong>in</strong>dhoven (Netherl<strong>and</strong>s). Tra<strong>in</strong>ed as an<br />

architect <strong>and</strong> urbanist <strong>in</strong> India <strong>and</strong> Germany, I received my Ph.D. <strong>in</strong><br />

Urban Studies <strong>and</strong> Architecture from Bauhaus University (Germany)<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2012. Prior to jo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the Chair of Urbanism <strong>and</strong> Urban Architecture<br />

at the Technical University of E<strong>in</strong>dhoven <strong>in</strong> October 2014 as an<br />

assistant professor <strong>in</strong> Urbanism <strong>and</strong> Urban Architecture, she spent<br />

the course of my graduate studies <strong>and</strong> professional life, work<strong>in</strong>g as<br />

an architect, designer, <strong>and</strong> lecturer, researcher <strong>in</strong> Bangalore (India,<br />

2006-07), Aachen, Dessau, Weimar (Germany, 2007-12) <strong>and</strong> Toronto<br />

(Canada, 2012-14).

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 39<br />

MSc Technology <strong>and</strong> Society, Technical University <strong>in</strong> E<strong>in</strong>dhoven 2003, <strong>and</strong> MSc <strong>in</strong><br />

Hous<strong>in</strong>g, WITS University Johannesburg, South Africa 2005. Ellen is a hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

specialist who has worked as consultant, lecturer, tra<strong>in</strong>er <strong>and</strong> researcher s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

2005. At IHS she lectures <strong>in</strong> the Urban Hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Livelihood specialization on f<strong>in</strong>ance,<br />

policy <strong>and</strong> public hous<strong>in</strong>g issues. She lectures <strong>in</strong> several short courses of IHS <strong>and</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>ates<br />

the short course “Develop<strong>in</strong>g Social Hous<strong>in</strong>g Projects” <strong>and</strong> the ‘ICHUD’. Ellen has been<br />

<strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> acquisition <strong>and</strong> management of project activities at IHS; she has developed<br />

many project proposals, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g composition of consortium teams, selection of experts,<br />

methodological development <strong>and</strong> budget<strong>in</strong>g. She is the project manager for a number of<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational urban management projects of <strong>in</strong>ternational clients.<br />


Ellen Geurts<br />



40 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


PhD c<strong>and</strong>idate at the University of Lausanne, Ex- Assistant Professor at the Sushant<br />

School of Art <strong>and</strong> Architecture (India) <strong>and</strong> Urban Designer at Micro Home Solutions.<br />

He has conducted studios <strong>and</strong> worked projects on In – Situ Slum Rehabilitation <strong>and</strong><br />

low-<strong>in</strong>come hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>formal sector. His core research lies <strong>in</strong> upgrad<strong>in</strong>g strategies for<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal settlements.<br />

Nipesh Narayanan<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 41<br />

Alonso Ayala Aleman<br />



Alonso Ayala is an architect <strong>and</strong><br />

spatial planner specialized on<br />

the fields of hous<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlement upgrad<strong>in</strong>g, human settlement<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> regional development<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> emerg<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> transitional<br />

economies. He holds an MSc <strong>in</strong> Regional<br />

Development Plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> a PhD from the<br />

Faculty of Spatial Plann<strong>in</strong>g of TU Dortmund<br />

University. With over twenty five years of<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g experience he has conducted field<br />

research on adequate hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Venezuela,<br />

Bangladesh, Ghana <strong>and</strong> the Philipp<strong>in</strong>es.<br />

His specific fields of expertise are management<br />

<strong>and</strong> design of hous<strong>in</strong>g projects; research,<br />

lectur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g on adequate<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g; susta<strong>in</strong>able human settlements,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g resilient hous<strong>in</strong>g; <strong>and</strong> consultancy<br />

work <strong>and</strong> capacity build<strong>in</strong>g of local<br />

governments <strong>in</strong> hous<strong>in</strong>g-related issues.<br />

He has delivered specific tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

short courses related to hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

climate change on the follow<strong>in</strong>g topics:<br />

affordable resilience hous<strong>in</strong>g for vulnerable<br />

groups, susta<strong>in</strong>able hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> times<br />

of climate change <strong>and</strong>, ma<strong>in</strong>stream<strong>in</strong>g<br />

affordable resilient hous<strong>in</strong>g strategies for<br />

vulnerable communities <strong>in</strong> city l<strong>and</strong> use<br />

<strong>and</strong> shelter plans.<br />

Other assignments done by Alonso Ayala<br />

<strong>in</strong> the past years are: Professional course<br />

on Develop<strong>in</strong>g Social Hous<strong>in</strong>g Projects<br />

(every year s<strong>in</strong>ce 2011); Tailor-made Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

Myanmar: Township Action Plann<strong>in</strong>g for<br />

Local Economic Development <strong>and</strong> Entrepreneurship,<br />

Livelihood Enhancement <strong>and</strong><br />

Flood Risk Management (Yangon 2016 <strong>and</strong><br />

M<strong>and</strong>alay 2017); Def<strong>in</strong>ition of the Social<br />

Hous<strong>in</strong>g Strategy for the Republic of Albania<br />

(2014-2015); Best Practices for Roma Integration<br />

<strong>in</strong> the Western Balkans: Legalization,<br />

Settlement Upgrad<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Social Hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

(2013-2014); Establishment of the Metropolitan<br />

Agency for Hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Urban Development<br />

<strong>in</strong> the Municipality of Guatemala<br />

(2012-2013); Hous<strong>in</strong>g Needs Assessment<br />

for the Municipality of Diyarbakir, Turkey<br />

(2010-2011).<br />

He has conducted tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> advisory<br />

work <strong>in</strong> Germany, The Netherl<strong>and</strong>s, Albania,<br />

Bosnia <strong>and</strong> Herzegov<strong>in</strong>a, Croatia, Kosovo,<br />

Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey,<br />

Brazil, Ecuador, Chile, Guatemala, Venezuela,<br />

Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar,<br />

Thail<strong>and</strong>, Philipp<strong>in</strong>es, Ghana, Nigeria <strong>and</strong><br />

South Africa.

42 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Orig<strong>in</strong>ally from Canada, she focuses on urban policy <strong>and</strong> plann<strong>in</strong>g. participation<br />

<strong>and</strong> urban politics <strong>in</strong> Brazilian cities. Recent projects have explored metropolitan<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g, social justice, urban social movements, <strong>and</strong> the right to the city <strong>in</strong><br />

Brazilian cities, <strong>and</strong> comparative research on l<strong>and</strong> value capture <strong>and</strong> city diplomacy <strong>in</strong> São<br />

Paulo <strong>and</strong> Toronto<br />


Abigail Friendly<br />




TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 43<br />

Ignacio Cardona<br />


Doctor of Design (DDes) c<strong>and</strong>idate<br />

at GSD, Harvard University. Architect<br />

(Universidad Simón Bolívar,<br />

Caracas, 1998) <strong>and</strong> urban designer (Cum<br />

Laude, UNIMET, Caracas, 2003), <strong>and</strong> a Doctor<br />

of Design c<strong>and</strong>idate at Harvard’s Graduate<br />

School of Design (Cambridge, 2018). S<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

2008 he has directed Arepa Architecture<br />

Ecology <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>scape (www.arepa.<strong>in</strong>fo),<br />

a workshop that has won several national<br />

(Venezuela) <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational competitions.<br />

Ignacio Cardona focuses his studies on<br />

creative methodologies of design research<br />

to weave together fragmented urban fabric<br />

<strong>in</strong> the cities of the Global South <strong>in</strong> order<br />

to promote social equity, particularly <strong>in</strong><br />

areas often characterized by be<strong>in</strong>g highly<br />

conflictive <strong>and</strong> violent. The work <strong>in</strong>tends to<br />

address issues of fragmentation, connectivity<br />

<strong>and</strong> social equity <strong>in</strong> urban environments<br />

that although very dense are nevertheless<br />

highly malleable <strong>and</strong> hold potential for<br />

effective <strong>in</strong>tervention.<br />

Ignacio is an Architect (Universidad<br />

Simón Bolívar/1998) <strong>and</strong> cum-laude Magister<br />

of Urban Design (Universidad Metropolitana/2003)<br />

<strong>and</strong> Founder of “AREPA:<br />


important Venezuelan th<strong>in</strong>k tank that has<br />

become a reference on urban phenomena<br />

<strong>in</strong> Lat<strong>in</strong>-America, that has developed several<br />

projects with the philosophy to articulate<br />

the technical knowledge of design with felt<br />

needs of communities.<br />

Before start<strong>in</strong>g the Doctor of Design at<br />

the Harvard GSD, he developed a career as<br />

professor <strong>in</strong> the Universidad Simón Bolívar<br />

(Caracas, Venezuela) for ten years In Studios<br />

about architecture <strong>and</strong> urban design,<br />

<strong>and</strong> as advisor of more than 50 thesis of<br />

undergraduate <strong>and</strong> graduate students.<br />

Ignacio also has been Visit<strong>in</strong>g Professor <strong>in</strong><br />

the Magister of Urban Design at Universidad<br />

Metropolitana (Caracas, Venezuela), <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

the Bachelor of Science <strong>in</strong> Architecture at<br />

Wentworth Institute of Technology (Boston,<br />


44 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 45<br />

Lima, Peru<br />


46 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />




Location, location, location<br />


The estimate of the world’s urban<br />

population of 2.5 billion people by<br />

2050 is our watershed moment. With<br />

90 per cent of this <strong>in</strong>crease slated to be<br />

concentrated with<strong>in</strong> regions of Asia <strong>and</strong><br />

Africa (UN 2014), the imperative to discuss<br />

concepts of urbanisation that divulges from<br />

past experiences is urgent. This poses a tremendous<br />

challenge for urban development<br />

where discussions need to move beyond<br />

mere improvement of exist<strong>in</strong>g urban areas,<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>stead look to bridge the correlations<br />

between development, spatial impacts,<br />

stakeholders <strong>and</strong> governance. This symposium<br />

aims to be one of the forum where<br />

this discussion happens, confront<strong>in</strong>g what<br />

there is, <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>novative mechanisms<br />

to cope with it.<br />

The vast body of literature from the last decades<br />

shows us that the reality <strong>in</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

cities is that access to property for new<br />

urban migrants is highly ambiguous <strong>and</strong><br />

contested, which is further compounded by<br />

the mismatch between supply <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong><br />

with<strong>in</strong> the hous<strong>in</strong>g market. ‘Location, location,<br />

location’ is a mantra followed by both<br />

the urban poor <strong>and</strong> commercial <strong>in</strong>vestors,<br />

lead<strong>in</strong>g to the ubiquitous picture of a dual<br />

city, the skyscrapers aga<strong>in</strong>st the slums<br />

<strong>and</strong> the ghettos (Brener 2001, Sengupta<br />

2008). This picture of duality between the<br />

formal <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>formal as b<strong>in</strong>ary opposites<br />

have been challenged by various authors,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g Benjam<strong>in</strong> (2008), Roy (2009, 2011),<br />

McFarlane (2012) <strong>in</strong> an effort to reverse urban<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality’s normative reference <strong>and</strong><br />

recognise the agency of the marg<strong>in</strong>alised<br />

urban poor. Along with these efforts, there<br />

have also been warn<strong>in</strong>gs over the danger of<br />

promot<strong>in</strong>g the idealization <strong>and</strong> aestheticisation<br />

of poverty (Roy 2004). By look<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal settlements for concepts such as<br />

of non-permanence <strong>and</strong> self-help solutions,<br />

we move away from the right to the city<br />

discussion that applies to the rest of the<br />

population that live <strong>in</strong> the formal city.<br />

Assert<strong>in</strong>g the right to the city is the access<br />

to shelter, the use of urban l<strong>and</strong>, a house, a<br />

hut or even a temporary space (Evers 1984).<br />

Access to l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> by default hous<strong>in</strong>g is<br />

one of the most visible struggles <strong>in</strong> urban<br />

areas. Most urban dwellers <strong>in</strong> the develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

world end up hav<strong>in</strong>g to rely on their own<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiatives <strong>and</strong> support systems to satisfy<br />

this basic need <strong>and</strong> revers<strong>in</strong>g the formal sequence<br />

of plann<strong>in</strong>g-servic<strong>in</strong>g-build<strong>in</strong>g-occupation.<br />

While many slums will be places<br />

of misery, despair <strong>and</strong> violence; others will<br />

be places of hope where residents <strong>in</strong>crementally<br />

aim to improve their situations<br />

(Brener 2016). This <strong>in</strong>cremental process<br />

however is dependent on exist<strong>in</strong>g capacities<br />

that need cont<strong>in</strong>uous support rather<br />

than time bound <strong>in</strong>terventions. As Cruz<br />

(2012) highlights:<br />

‘The <strong>in</strong>formal is not just an image of precariousness;<br />

it is a compendium of practices,<br />

a set of functional urban operations that<br />

counter <strong>and</strong> transgress imposed political<br />

boundaries <strong>and</strong> hierarchic economic<br />

models. The hidden urban operations of<br />

the most compell<strong>in</strong>g cases of <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanization … need to be translated <strong>in</strong>to<br />

a new political language with particular<br />

spatial consequences. This will lead to new<br />

<strong>in</strong>terpretations of hous<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>frastructure,<br />

property <strong>and</strong> citizenship, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>spire new<br />

modes of <strong>in</strong>tervention <strong>in</strong> the contemporary<br />

city’<br />

Urban challenges cannot be overcome by<br />

provid<strong>in</strong>g more of the same but by enabl<strong>in</strong>g<br />

diverse <strong>and</strong> different approaches, <strong>and</strong><br />

through the efforts of the participants <strong>in</strong><br />

this symposium we engage <strong>in</strong> this debate to<br />

push that envelope further.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 47<br />

Mumbai, India<br />


48 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 49<br />



[OPINION]<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity:<br />

<strong>Preserv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> communities <strong>and</strong><br />

creat<strong>in</strong>g public goods<br />



Upon cross<strong>in</strong>g the 50% threshold, the<br />

human population can now officially<br />

be called Urban. With United Nation’s<br />

predicted <strong>in</strong>crease of about 1.1 billion new<br />

urbanites by 2030, most cities will face an<br />

unprecedented developmental pressure <strong>in</strong><br />

addition to their current struggle to provide<br />

basic liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g st<strong>and</strong>ards to their<br />

citizens. “<strong>Informal</strong> urbanization is a form of<br />

city construction def<strong>in</strong>ed as the production<br />

of urbanization <strong>in</strong>dependent from formal<br />

frameworks <strong>and</strong> assistance.” (UN Habitat,<br />

2014) These forms of the cities are home to<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal economies <strong>and</strong> settlements which<br />

have a collective population of about 1.5<br />

billion people.<br />

The fast-grow<strong>in</strong>g economies of the Global<br />

South are at the forefront for this challenge<br />

<strong>and</strong> are yet to <strong>in</strong>clude these settlements<br />

<strong>in</strong> their plann<strong>in</strong>g framework. This generates<br />

a debate <strong>in</strong> the field of plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

design about the future of these self-built<br />

settlements, present<strong>in</strong>g an immense opportunity<br />

for discussion <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>novation <strong>in</strong> this<br />

area. Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity is an annual<br />

student-led event at TU Delft which aims to<br />

discuss tools to come up with susta<strong>in</strong>able,<br />

fair <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>novative solutions to improve<br />

quality of life <strong>and</strong>, at the same time, respect<br />

the livelihoods <strong>and</strong> values of the dwellers.<br />

In 2018, an Ideas competition was floated<br />

over two months which received 50 entries<br />

from 24 countries with participants from<br />

across discipl<strong>in</strong>es. The competition was<br />

followed by an exhibition <strong>and</strong> symposium<br />

with speakers with unique perspectives on<br />

the topic.<br />

Formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>Informal</strong><br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Nipesh Narayanan, one of the<br />

key note speakers, we should go beyond<br />

the dichotomy formal-<strong>in</strong>formal city, which<br />

puts <strong>in</strong>formality as an anomaly to the

50 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

urban. <strong>Informal</strong>ity goes beyond the slums,<br />

it is a practice often <strong>in</strong>dulged by public <strong>and</strong><br />

private sectors, by the rich <strong>and</strong> the poor.<br />

Rather, our professions as urbanists or<br />

designers should try to redef<strong>in</strong>e their role<br />

<strong>in</strong> order to adapt to the different situations<br />

that the dialectic formal-<strong>in</strong>formal offers.<br />

As Sukanya Krishnamurthy, moderator of<br />

the symposium, posed, <strong>in</strong> order to underst<strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> tackle <strong>in</strong>formality, we need new<br />

<strong>in</strong>terpretations of hous<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>frastructure,<br />

property <strong>and</strong> citizenship that would <strong>in</strong>spire<br />

new models of study<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong><br />

the contemporary city.<br />

Even though slums often present low-quality<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g st<strong>and</strong>ards, low accessibility to public<br />

goods or high exposure to vulnerability<br />

or violence, there are also exist<strong>in</strong>g capacities<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements to be preserved<br />

<strong>and</strong> learnt from. Social cohesion, sense of<br />

community or the entrepreneurial ability<br />

to negotiate <strong>and</strong> achieve their own goals<br />

collectively, are values that are missed <strong>and</strong><br />

strived for <strong>in</strong> cities nowadays <strong>and</strong> are often<br />

still present <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal areas. The question<br />

rema<strong>in</strong>s: how to preserve those qualities<br />

<strong>and</strong> at the same uplift the quality of life <strong>in</strong><br />

vulnerable <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal areas?<br />

Location, location, location<br />

In order to reflect upon this issue, participants<br />

of the competition were asked to<br />

analyze an <strong>in</strong>formal settlement of their<br />

choice <strong>and</strong> come up with solutions that<br />

would uplift the quality of life <strong>and</strong>, at the<br />

same time, preserve the core values of<br />

the settlement. The variety of the proposals<br />

showed that, even if the conditions of<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal settlements over the world could<br />

be seen as similar, the context determ<strong>in</strong>es<br />

many of the solutions, depend<strong>in</strong>g on the<br />

culture, geographical location, lifestyle <strong>and</strong><br />

political <strong>and</strong> economic framework. Location,<br />

location, location is one of the mantras that<br />

many experts repeated dur<strong>in</strong>g the symposium.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>troduction of local stakeholders<br />

as part of the solution dur<strong>in</strong>g the upgrade<br />

process is key to success, as well as cont<strong>in</strong>uous<br />

support, rather than time-bound<br />

<strong>in</strong>terventions.<br />

Nevertheless, there is still a big gap<br />

between underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g the problem <strong>and</strong><br />

f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g solutions to tackle it. Confront<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity aimed at contribut<strong>in</strong>g to this<br />

search, but there is still a long way ahead.<br />

Spark<strong>in</strong>g this global debate poses great opportunity<br />

for <strong>in</strong>novation <strong>and</strong> research <strong>in</strong>to<br />

this extremely relevant topic <strong>in</strong> universities,<br />

governments <strong>and</strong> practices alike.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 51<br />



[OPINION]<br />

Does the (<strong>in</strong>)formal city<br />

exist?<br />


There are many negative effects produced<br />

by the so-called <strong>in</strong>formal city,<br />

for example: unproductivity, vulnerability,<br />

<strong>and</strong> urban violence.<br />

At the same time, it implies many positive<br />

effects. On the one h<strong>and</strong>, the enormous<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g capacity of self-built settlers<br />

(Gouverneur, 2015) is frequently considered<br />

a solution for hous<strong>in</strong>g problems, even for<br />

unemployment (Garcia-Bolivar 2006). On<br />

the other h<strong>and</strong>, self-built processes presuppose<br />

an effective system of communication<br />

that enabled systems to act spontaneously<br />

<strong>and</strong> to self-organize <strong>in</strong> response to need<br />

(Capra, 2002; Hamdi, 2004), allow<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

construction of new dynamics of citizenship<br />

that come out through the profound<br />

engagement of residents with city-build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

(Holston, & Caldeira, 2008).<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g UN Habitat (2016a, 2016b) reports<br />

expla<strong>in</strong> that this positive <strong>and</strong> negative dynamics<br />

are <strong>in</strong> a cont<strong>in</strong>uous growth, both <strong>in</strong><br />

dimensions <strong>and</strong> levels of complexity. So, it<br />

is convenient to delam<strong>in</strong>ate processes that<br />

underp<strong>in</strong> both <strong>in</strong>formality <strong>and</strong> contemporary<br />

cities <strong>in</strong> order to reth<strong>in</strong>k policies <strong>and</strong><br />

design strategies to marshal the positive<br />

ga<strong>in</strong>s of <strong>in</strong>formality while m<strong>in</strong>imiz<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

negative ones.<br />

<strong>Informal</strong> networks arise through personal<br />

connections that constitute the essence of<br />

human exchange (Nee, 1998). The <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

relations that produce commitment to<br />

others is, strictly, the first urban phenomenon,<br />

because people live <strong>in</strong> cities <strong>in</strong> order<br />

to grow <strong>in</strong> mutual societies (Mumford,<br />

1937). For that reason, <strong>in</strong>formality could<br />

be def<strong>in</strong>ed simply as a process between<br />

the apparition <strong>and</strong> the exchange process,<br />

<strong>and</strong> its <strong>in</strong>corporation <strong>in</strong>to the regulatory<br />

frameworks agreed by the society (Portes,<br />

et.al., 1989).<br />

At the same time, <strong>in</strong>formal processes move<br />

fluidly between one territory <strong>and</strong> another<br />

(Hansen & Vaab 2004; Roy, & AlSayyad,<br />

2004). For <strong>in</strong>stance, <strong>in</strong> Lat<strong>in</strong> America, it is<br />

common to see <strong>in</strong> so-called designed cities<br />

occupancy processes that occur beyond the<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g regulatory framework, i.e. <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

constructions. <strong>Informal</strong>ity is not exclusively<br />

the realm of one territory, not even the selfbuilt<br />

cities by underprivileged citizens.<br />

Furthermore, nowadays it is difficult to underst<strong>and</strong><br />

urban processes only through the<br />

analyses of a spatial-bounded territory. In<br />

the contemporary hyper-connected urban<br />

world, a geographically isolated <strong>in</strong>digenous<br />

community that is hired <strong>in</strong>formally for the<br />

deforestation of a l<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> the middle of the<br />

Venezuelan Amazon is <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> a deeply

52 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

urban consumption patterns process. Then,<br />

some city-centric perspectives -such as<br />

UN-Habitat (2016a; 2016b) reports- that<br />

quantify the number of <strong>in</strong>habitants liv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> cities or even <strong>in</strong> so-called <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

cities- ignore a that much greater number<br />

of people, often not liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> places usually<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ed as cities, are directly or <strong>in</strong>directly<br />

<strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> the perpetuation of global<br />

urbanization processes (Brenner, & Schmid,<br />

2014; Kaika, & Swyngedouw, 2014)., <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>equality that underp<strong>in</strong>s the growth of<br />

self-built environments<br />

So, if both <strong>in</strong>formal relations <strong>and</strong> urban<br />

dynamics are processes that do not belong<br />

to a spatial-bounded territory, we can conclude<br />

that the <strong>in</strong>formal city does not exist;<br />

They are a series of fluid dynamics that<br />

transcend territories, where self-built -or<br />

perhaps self-configured- environments are<br />

just one of its spaces. So, the underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

of these dynamics <strong>in</strong> terms of processes will<br />

facilitate the development of policies <strong>and</strong><br />

design strategies for their urban <strong>in</strong>tervention.<br />

Cambridge, June 4, 2018.<br />

References<br />

Brenner, N., & Schmid, C. (2014). The ‘Urban<br />

Age’ <strong>in</strong> Question. International<br />

Journal of Urban <strong>and</strong> Regional<br />

Research, 38(3), 731–755. https://doi.<br />

org/10.1111/1468-2427.12115<br />

Capra, F. (2002). The hidden connections:<br />

<strong>in</strong>tegrat<strong>in</strong>g the biological, cognitive,<br />

<strong>and</strong> social dimensions of life <strong>in</strong>to<br />

a science of susta<strong>in</strong>ability (1st ed.).<br />

New York: Doubleday.<br />

Garcia-Bolivar, O. (2006). <strong>Informal</strong> Economy:<br />

Is It a Problem, a Solution or Both?<br />

The Perspective of the <strong>Informal</strong><br />

Bus<strong>in</strong>ess. Bepress Legal Series.<br />

Retrieved from http://law.bepress.<br />

com/expresso/eps/1065<br />

Gouverneur, D. (2015). Plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> design<br />

for future <strong>in</strong>formal settlements:<br />

shap<strong>in</strong>g the self-constructed city.<br />

Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.<br />

Hamdi, N. (2004). Small change : about the<br />

art of practice <strong>and</strong> the limits of<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> cities. London ; Sterl<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

VA.<br />

Hansen, K. T., & Vaa, M. (2004). Reconsider<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality: perspectives from<br />

urban Africa. Uppsala.<br />

Holston, J., & Caldeira, T. (2008). Urban<br />

peripheries <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>vention of citizenship.<br />

Harvard Design Magaz<strong>in</strong>e,<br />

(28), 18–23.<br />

Kaika, M., & Swyngedouw, E. (2014, May 14).<br />

Radical urban political-ecological<br />

imag<strong>in</strong>aries. Retrieved June 4, 2018,<br />

from https://www.euroz<strong>in</strong>e.com/<br />

radical-urban-political-ecological-imag<strong>in</strong>aries/<br />

Mumford, L. (1937). What is a city? Architectural<br />

Record, 82, 59–62.<br />

Nee, V. (1998). Norms <strong>and</strong> networks <strong>in</strong> economic<br />

<strong>and</strong> organizational performance.<br />

American Economic Review,<br />

88(2), 85–89.<br />

Portes, A., Castells, M., & Benton, L. A. (1989).<br />

The <strong>Informal</strong> economy : studies <strong>in</strong><br />

advanced <strong>and</strong> less developed countries.<br />

Baltimore, Md.<br />

Roy, A., & AlSayyad, N. (2004). Urban <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

: transnational perspectives<br />

from the Middle East, Lat<strong>in</strong> America,<br />

<strong>and</strong> South Asia. Lanham, Md. :<br />

Berkeley, Calif.: Lex<strong>in</strong>gton Books ;<br />

Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University<br />

of California at Berkeley.<br />

United Nations Human <strong>Settlements</strong><br />

Programme (UN–Habitat). (2016a).<br />

UN-Habitat Annual Progress Report.<br />

United Nations Human. Retrieved<br />

from https://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-launches-the-world-cities-report-2016/<br />

United Nations Human <strong>Settlements</strong><br />

Programme (UN–Habitat). (2016b).<br />

World Cities Report: Urbanization<br />

<strong>and</strong> Development: Emerg<strong>in</strong>g Futures.<br />

United Nations Human. Retrieved<br />

from https://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-launches-the-world-cities-report-2016/

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 53<br />



[OPINION]<br />

Position<strong>in</strong>g the architecture<br />

profession to confront<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality<br />


The world is fast urbaniz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> most<br />

of this fast-paced urbanization is<br />

happen<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> what we pithily refer<br />

to as ‘<strong>in</strong>formal settlements’. The symposium<br />

‘Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity’ does a much<br />

needed two-fold <strong>in</strong>tervention. First, to<br />

br<strong>in</strong>g together various actors to th<strong>in</strong>k about<br />

urban <strong>in</strong>formality; <strong>and</strong> second, by this <strong>in</strong>tervention,<br />

<strong>in</strong>stigate the students of architecture<br />

<strong>and</strong> urbanism to develop themselves<br />

to confront <strong>in</strong>formality. I strongly believe<br />

that on one h<strong>and</strong> this will develop a field of<br />

creative th<strong>in</strong>kers to develop solutions for<br />

contemporary grim urban realities, <strong>and</strong> on<br />

the other h<strong>and</strong>, question the role of architects<br />

<strong>and</strong> urbanists to <strong>in</strong>tervene <strong>in</strong> hitherto<br />

unexplored situations.<br />

Although, <strong>in</strong>formality has been a research<br />

subject s<strong>in</strong>ce the early 1970s, architects<br />

have had much lesser impact on the major<br />

global debates when compared to other<br />

social scientists. It was probably Rem<br />

Koolhaas’s studio on Lagos dur<strong>in</strong>g mid-<br />

1990s, that caught the imag<strong>in</strong>ation of the<br />

<strong>in</strong>terventionist architects <strong>and</strong> made the<br />

discussions on urban <strong>in</strong>formality a serious<br />

affair amongst architects. These discus-<br />

sions have evolved ever s<strong>in</strong>ce, but has<br />

led to a more nuanced question<strong>in</strong>g of the<br />

architecture profession. This has resulted<br />

<strong>in</strong> multiple conundrums, two of which I will<br />

touch upon. First, space be<strong>in</strong>g the ma<strong>in</strong> apparatus<br />

of an architect, got problematized<br />

by Lefebvre (especially after his 1974 book<br />

was translated to English titled ‘Production<br />

of Space’ dur<strong>in</strong>g the early 1990s.). Space or<br />

the production of space was conceptualized<br />

<strong>and</strong> thereafter strongly politicized as a tool<br />

of (global) capital to manifest itself. This<br />

popularized the war cry of ‘right to the city’<br />

(although more formalized <strong>in</strong> Lat<strong>in</strong> America)<br />

<strong>and</strong> pictured architects as an agent of the<br />

capital for this purpose. Second, <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

discussions, start<strong>in</strong>g from the late 1990s<br />

has moved beyond cluster<strong>in</strong>g of people or<br />

places. This moved the focus of scholarly<br />

debates from tangible <strong>in</strong>formal economy,<br />

slums, or hous<strong>in</strong>g, to <strong>in</strong>formality as an<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible governmentality. This could be<br />

summarized as the exploration of politics<br />

of <strong>in</strong>formality. Architects, the key agent of<br />

physical manifestations of global collective<br />

dreams (e.g. the Habitat III) are now<br />

grappl<strong>in</strong>g to redef<strong>in</strong>e their role, i.e., if <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

is no more a tangible subject, then<br />

how to we confront it? These debates have<br />

resurfaced more recently after Alej<strong>and</strong>ro Aravena<br />

won the Pritzker Prize <strong>and</strong> thereafter<br />

his critical curatorial practice at the Venice<br />

Biennale of Architecture <strong>in</strong> 2016.<br />

The fast-paced urbanization process of our<br />

times has <strong>in</strong>deed resulted <strong>in</strong> reduced provision<br />

of urban services <strong>and</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>alized<br />

a considerably large set of people across<br />

the globe. There are local issues of access<br />

to hous<strong>in</strong>g, water, <strong>and</strong> electricity to larger<br />

questions of citizenship rights. These issues<br />

may be pronounced more <strong>in</strong> the so-called<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal settlements, but are not a result of<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality alone. For example, only about<br />

half the urban poor <strong>in</strong> the city of Delhi, live<br />

<strong>in</strong> slums. Therefore, how can the problems<br />

of slums, be guid<strong>in</strong>g our strategies to confront<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality?<br />

Events such as this puts these critical<br />

questions <strong>in</strong>to enquiry from various<br />

discipl<strong>in</strong>ary positions with<strong>in</strong> architecture.<br />

Creativity b<strong>in</strong>ds our various positions; thus,<br />

we can surely devise creative methods to<br />

problematize our profession to confront<br />


54 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 55<br />

[OPINION]<br />

Reth<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formality?<br />

The role of plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal city<br />



<strong>Informal</strong>ity is a highly cont<strong>in</strong>gent term<br />

that requires th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g both about the<br />

context but also beh<strong>in</strong>d the mean<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of the term <strong>and</strong> what it br<strong>in</strong>gs for plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> cities of the Global South.<br />

While there are various ways of<br />

def<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formality, generally it connotes<br />

activities of urban development, trade <strong>and</strong><br />

exchange that fall outside formal rules <strong>and</strong><br />

regulations.<br />

Given the challeng<strong>in</strong>g nature of the<br />

term, there has been a great deal of critique,<br />

discussion <strong>and</strong> work – both academically<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> practice – around what the idea<br />

actually means. Reth<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g “<strong>in</strong>formality”<br />

helps us to reconsider the connotations<br />

with the use of <strong>in</strong>formality itself <strong>and</strong> requires<br />

us to refashion what are essentially<br />

deeply seated notions of the types of th<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

that are usually associated with <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

life. Most of these mean<strong>in</strong>gs are negative,<br />

for example underground work, few regulations,<br />

<strong>and</strong> precarious hous<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

At the same time, we should not be<br />

driven to th<strong>in</strong>k of <strong>in</strong>formality only <strong>in</strong> such<br />

black <strong>and</strong> while terms. In many places, for<br />

<strong>in</strong>stance, <strong>in</strong>formality could be associated<br />

with both low- <strong>and</strong> high-<strong>in</strong>come groups.<br />

However, whatever the connotation, it is<br />

clear that <strong>in</strong>formality is very much a large<br />

part of plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> urban development <strong>in</strong><br />

most parts of the Global South.<br />

What we also have to consider is that<br />

the <strong>in</strong>formal itself is highly connected to<br />

the formal, <strong>and</strong> such processes can’t be<br />

thought of as occurr<strong>in</strong>g separately from formal<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions. Such formal processes <strong>in</strong> a<br />

sense also create <strong>in</strong>formal processes, <strong>and</strong><br />

this means we need to th<strong>in</strong>k about both<br />

parts of this cont<strong>in</strong>uum when we reth<strong>in</strong>k<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality. If <strong>in</strong>formal urbanization is an<br />

“organiz<strong>in</strong>g logic” govern<strong>in</strong>g urban development<br />

<strong>and</strong> transformation follow<strong>in</strong>g Ananya<br />

Roy (2005), then th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g about cities <strong>and</strong><br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> much of the world cannot be<br />

separated from <strong>in</strong>formal urbanization. In<br />

that sense, <strong>in</strong>formality can be thought of<br />

– not only as a challenge that needs to be<br />

dealt with – but also as a challenge with<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g itself.<br />

My own work on Brazilian urban policy<br />

– <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g work on the Statute of the<br />

City – has grappled more with the policies<br />

surround<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formal urbanization, but also<br />

with the recognition that urban policy may<br />

create change by advanc<strong>in</strong>g a more just<br />

approach to city governance (Friendly &<br />

Stiphany, 2018).<br />

Such th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g also requires a recognition<br />

of the structural conditions produc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal urbanization, but also the relations<br />

of urban development that shape <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

ways of life. Draw<strong>in</strong>g on others (see<br />

for example, Kentor, 1981), Teresa Caldeira<br />

uses the term “peripheral urbanization,”<br />

a worldview that operates <strong>in</strong>side formal<br />

modes of plann<strong>in</strong>g, but <strong>in</strong> transversal ways<br />

through which people “make themselves<br />

<strong>in</strong>to citizens <strong>and</strong> political agents, become<br />

fluent <strong>in</strong> rights talk, <strong>and</strong> claim the cities as<br />

their own” (Caldeira, 2017: 3).<br />

While peripheral urbanization has<br />

resulted <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>novation, it also leads to<br />

highly unequal cities. Overall, it is the role<br />

of governments, <strong>in</strong>ternational <strong>in</strong>stitutions<br />

<strong>and</strong> planners themselves – together with<br />

communities – to both reth<strong>in</strong>k <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

<strong>and</strong> to place people at the centre of cities.<br />

References<br />

Caldeira, T. (2017). “Peripheral urbanization:<br />

Auto- construction, transversal logics,<br />

<strong>and</strong> politics <strong>in</strong> cities of the Global<br />

South.” Environment <strong>and</strong> Plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

D: Society <strong>and</strong> Space 35(1): 3-20.<br />

Friendly, A. & Stiphany, K. (2018). “Paradigm<br />

or paradox? The ‘cumbersome<br />

impasse’ of the participatory<br />

turn <strong>in</strong> Brazilian urban<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g.” Urban Studies DOI:<br />

10.1177/0042098018768748.<br />

Kentor, J. (1981). “Structural determ<strong>in</strong>ants of<br />

peripheral urbanization: The effects<br />

of <strong>in</strong>ternational dependence.”<br />

American Sociological Review 46(2):<br />

201-211.<br />

Roy, A. (2005). “Urban <strong>Informal</strong>ity: Toward an<br />

Epistemology of Plann<strong>in</strong>g.” Journal<br />

of the American Plann<strong>in</strong>g Association<br />

71(2): 147-158.

56 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 57<br />

[OPINION]<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formality<br />





The urbanization of poverty is a<br />

common phenomenon <strong>in</strong> urban<br />

areas of the global south. This<br />

urbanization is translated <strong>in</strong>to the formation<br />

<strong>and</strong> consolidation of urban <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements, most commonly referred to <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational development as slums.<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to UN Habitat (2006), one<br />

out of every three city dwellers – nearly one<br />

billion people- live <strong>in</strong> a slum. Slums have<br />

become the settlement pattern that widespreads<br />

across many cities <strong>in</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

countries for a number of reasons. Initially,<br />

high rates of rural urban migration was the<br />

ma<strong>in</strong> cause, when new arrivals to the city<br />

search<strong>in</strong>g for employment opportunities,<br />

could not found affordable accommodation<br />

<strong>in</strong> formal hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> markets.<br />

Nowadays, rural urban migration is not<br />

the only cause. There exist other migration<br />

patterns, such as urban urban migration,<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational migration from countries<br />

experienc<strong>in</strong>g political <strong>and</strong> economic downturn<br />

<strong>and</strong> conflict, <strong>and</strong> forced displacement<br />

for reasons such as ethnic cleans<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

climate change related events.<br />

The latest Word Bank statistics shows<br />

that urbanization cont<strong>in</strong>ues to <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>and</strong><br />

at current over 55% of the world’s population<br />

lives <strong>in</strong> urban areas (WB, 2018). The impact<br />

of slum upgrad<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> regularization<br />

programmes across the globe has led<br />

to a decrease <strong>in</strong> the proportion of people<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> slums, but their absolute numbers<br />

are still <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g due to urbanisation<br />

patterns (UN Habitat, 2011). In addition the<br />

complexity of the urban hous<strong>in</strong>g challenge<br />

is also characterized by the global affordability<br />

crisis (MGI 2014), which affects the<br />

whole population, but most importantly<br />

those whose <strong>in</strong>come levels <strong>and</strong> sources of<br />

livelihoods render them <strong>in</strong> poverty. Trapped<br />

<strong>in</strong> an illegal world, epitomized by slums,<br />

the urban poor struggle to achieve a better<br />

quality of life through access to resources<br />

<strong>and</strong> sources of livelihoods, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g<br />

shelter, which they can only f<strong>in</strong>d <strong>in</strong> slums.<br />

A whole <strong>in</strong>formal market dynamic, which<br />

overlapped with the formal one, exist <strong>in</strong><br />

cities. Most people f<strong>in</strong>d accommodation not<br />

<strong>in</strong> the formal market, but rather through<br />

self-construct<strong>in</strong>g their houses, usually <strong>in</strong><br />

an <strong>in</strong>cremental manner, or rent<strong>in</strong>g from<br />

(often exploitative) <strong>in</strong>formal l<strong>and</strong>lords <strong>and</strong><br />

l<strong>and</strong>ladies.<br />

<strong>Informal</strong> settlements can be seen as<br />

the self-help hous<strong>in</strong>g realization of the<br />

urban poor, <strong>and</strong> slums, although been paradoxically<br />

at the center of many urban development<br />

<strong>in</strong>terventions, keep on grow<strong>in</strong>g. Two<br />

extremes <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>tervention approaches still<br />

occur. From forced evictions <strong>and</strong> eradication<br />

to holistic approaches that <strong>in</strong>cludes<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructure upgrad<strong>in</strong>g, l<strong>and</strong> regularization<br />

<strong>and</strong> livelihood projects tackl<strong>in</strong>g social<br />

<strong>and</strong> economic issues. In many cases this

58 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

means an unclear urban development strategy<br />

of which the slum issue keeps on be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

treated <strong>in</strong> a purely adaptive way by react<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to the consequences, never address<strong>in</strong>g, at<br />

least <strong>in</strong> a mean<strong>in</strong>gful way, the root causes<br />

of the problem. Thous<strong>and</strong>s of well-<strong>in</strong>tended<br />

slum <strong>in</strong>terventions have been implemented<br />

across the global south, unfortunately<br />

these have not substantially reverse the<br />

situation <strong>and</strong> many of the <strong>in</strong>terventions<br />

rema<strong>in</strong> piece-meal projects with no long<br />

term impact.<br />

A reflection on these two extreme<br />

approaches <strong>and</strong> the role that plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

also plays on this, is also occurr<strong>in</strong>g. South<br />

Africa is an example of a country where<br />

the shift from the ‘eradication of slums’ to<br />

one of ‘establish<strong>in</strong>g national upgrad<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

slum programmes’ was made explicitly. The<br />

change <strong>in</strong> the public hous<strong>in</strong>g policy came<br />

<strong>in</strong>to effect with the <strong>in</strong>troduction <strong>in</strong> 2004 of<br />

the Break<strong>in</strong>g New Ground: A Comprehensive<br />

Plan for Hous<strong>in</strong>g Delivery policy. As these<br />

processes are lengthy <strong>and</strong> cumbersome, the<br />

impact of the <strong>in</strong>formal settlement upgrad<strong>in</strong>g<br />

programmes is only slowly tak<strong>in</strong>g up.<br />

But just like many places <strong>in</strong> the world, the<br />

implementation <strong>and</strong> the impact of these<br />

programmes rema<strong>in</strong>s also problematic as<br />

the approach taken to slum upgrad<strong>in</strong>g does<br />

not lead to the outcomes desired.<br />

A critique has emerged on the necessity<br />

to develop new or different perspectives<br />

on plann<strong>in</strong>g that can <strong>in</strong>form urban plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> theory much better. De Satge <strong>and</strong> Watson<br />

(2018) as well as the African Centre of<br />

the Cities have been call<strong>in</strong>g for a better underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

of Southern Plann<strong>in</strong>g Theories.<br />

A new dawn for plann<strong>in</strong>g approaches may<br />

be needed to better underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> fundamentally<br />

improve not only physical but also<br />

social conditions <strong>in</strong> the Global South.<br />

Aga<strong>in</strong>st this background, confront<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality seems to be a discussion<br />

from which we are far from f<strong>in</strong>ished. This<br />

discussion can become as philosophical<br />

or as practical as we want it to be. We can<br />

approach the discussion from a political,<br />

human rights-based or development-based<br />

perspective. The Urban Hous<strong>in</strong>g, Equity <strong>and</strong><br />

Social Justice team of the IHS is explor<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the concept of ‘hous<strong>in</strong>g justice’ <strong>in</strong> this<br />

regard. In our research workshop on Urban<br />

Hous<strong>in</strong>g Justice, we aim to ga<strong>in</strong> a better<br />

underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g on the challenge regard<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the conditions under which hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

policies, translated <strong>in</strong>to <strong>in</strong>terventions <strong>and</strong><br />

approaches, might lead to hous<strong>in</strong>g justice.<br />

This underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g should also contribute<br />

to a more grounded debate around the<br />

challenge on how to confront <strong>in</strong>formality.<br />

As members of the jury we want to<br />

express our gratitude to all the entries<br />

made <strong>and</strong> compliment the students with<br />

their work. It shows to us that there is<br />

clearly an <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>and</strong> an underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

of the complexities, challenges but also<br />

the urgency to contest<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formality for<br />

design students. We believe it is key that<br />

our future practitioners <strong>in</strong> hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

urbanism start to have a real underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

of the realities that many people <strong>in</strong> the<br />

world experience: liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the ‘<strong>in</strong>formal<br />

city’, <strong>in</strong> the slums. What we particularly<br />

want to applaud is that many entries clearly<br />

went beyond purely design <strong>in</strong>terventions by<br />

show<strong>in</strong>g a real grasp of the wide variety of<br />

stakeholders <strong>and</strong> beneficiaries that affect<br />

the <strong>in</strong>terventions proposed. In addition we<br />

were pleased to note that the susta<strong>in</strong>ability<br />

of the <strong>in</strong>terventions proposed was multi-dimensional<br />

mov<strong>in</strong>g between environmental,<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ancial <strong>and</strong> social susta<strong>in</strong>ability as<br />

exemplified by the strong underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of<br />

beneficiaries’ livelihoods.<br />

References<br />

De Satge, R. <strong>and</strong> Watson, V. 2018. Urban<br />

Plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the Global South.<br />

Conflict<strong>in</strong>g rationalities <strong>in</strong> contested<br />

space. Available at: https://doi.<br />

org/10.1007/978-3-319-69496-2<br />

McK<strong>in</strong>sey Global Institute (MGI), 2014. A<br />

Bluepr<strong>in</strong>t for Address<strong>in</strong>g the Global<br />

affordable Hous<strong>in</strong>g Challenge. Available<br />

at: www.mck<strong>in</strong>sey.com/mgi/<br />

publications/multimedia/<br />

UN Habitat, 2012. The State of the World<br />

Cities 2010/2011: Bridg<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

Urban Divide. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.<br />

Available at: https://unhabitat.org/<br />

books/state-of-the-worlds-cities-<br />

20102011-cities-for-all-bridg<strong>in</strong>g-theurban-divide/<br />

UN Habitat, 2006. The State of the World<br />

Cities 2006/7. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.<br />

Available at: https://unhabitat.org/<br />

books/state-of-the-worlds-cities-20062007/<br />

World Bank web site: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/urb<strong>and</strong>evelopment

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 59<br />



[OPINION]<br />

The view from a Mumbaikar<br />


Be<strong>in</strong>g a Mumbaikar (person from<br />

Mumbai) <strong>in</strong>formal settlements are not<br />

a distant topic for me. I realized after<br />

com<strong>in</strong>g to Delft that most of the western<br />

world has a different perception about<br />

slums <strong>in</strong> Mumbai, specially Dharavi. Most<br />

of the credit for creat<strong>in</strong>g that image goes<br />

to the motion picture Slumdog Millionaire,<br />

directed by Danny Boyle, which exaggerates<br />

the reality on the ground. Sadly, <strong>in</strong> most<br />

cases, <strong>in</strong>formality is just a topic of discussion<br />

<strong>in</strong> the western world at conferences <strong>in</strong><br />

five star hotels. Competitions like ‘Confront<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity’ create a necessary dialogue<br />

with the realiry on the ground, which is<br />

reflected <strong>in</strong> all the entries from all over<br />

the world. I believe that the research of all<br />

contestants, specially the ones focused on<br />

Mumbai, will correct wrong perceptions<br />

about slums. As part of the organis<strong>in</strong>g<br />

committee <strong>and</strong> one of the member <strong>in</strong><br />

the selection process, I noticed that <strong>in</strong> all<br />

the proposed ideas people are accept<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality <strong>and</strong> try<strong>in</strong>g to imoprove <strong>in</strong> all<br />

possible ways. It is important to make the<br />

step between discussion <strong>and</strong> action. This<br />

competition opens up the possibility of<br />

transform<strong>in</strong>g these neighbourhoods <strong>in</strong> our<br />

very own cities <strong>and</strong> not to bulldoze them<br />

As a proponent of democracy <strong>and</strong> human<br />

rights, this competition allowed students to<br />

do more than just underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formality.<br />

They were able to confront it.

60 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The rationale of the selection<br />


Why were these projects<br />

selected?<br />

We had 50 submissions from<br />

all over the world! All the<br />

projects were very <strong>in</strong>spir<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> they gave us <strong>in</strong>sight <strong>in</strong>to<br />

the different realities they<br />

address. And what amaz<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

different realities they are.<br />

But as different as those realities<br />

are, we all live <strong>in</strong> one s<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

world with f<strong>in</strong>ite resources,<br />

a world that is now fac<strong>in</strong>g very<br />

serious challenges: climate<br />

change, <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>equality,<br />

<strong>and</strong> now the serious threats<br />

to democracies all around<br />

the world. Rapid urbanisation<br />

<strong>in</strong> the Global South is one of<br />

those challenges, but it is also<br />

an opportunity for citizens to<br />

enter the realm of politics,<br />

to struggle for their legitimate<br />

rights <strong>and</strong> to strengthen<br />

democracy <strong>and</strong> participation.<br />

That’s why we want to talk<br />

about <strong>in</strong>formal urbanisation<br />

<strong>and</strong> the 50 submissions were<br />

part of that conversation. And<br />

their voices were heard loud<br />

<strong>and</strong> clear.<br />

I would like to <strong>in</strong>vite you to<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>ue this conversation<br />

<strong>and</strong> to really dem<strong>and</strong> that<br />

teachers, politicians <strong>and</strong> decision-makers<br />

discuss <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements <strong>and</strong> most importantly,<br />

dem<strong>and</strong> that they<br />

discuss how citizens can participate<br />

<strong>in</strong> order to make their<br />

own neighbourhoods safe,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clusive, healthy <strong>and</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able.<br />

The Right to the City is a<br />

goal we all should strive for.<br />

The w<strong>in</strong>ner is a project from<br />

Dhaka, Bangladesh. The team<br />

was composed by Rahfatun<br />

Nisa Nova, Nazila Sabr<strong>in</strong><br />

Zaman, Ayesha Labiba Khalil,<br />

Monjura Khatun Nisha <strong>and</strong> Md.<br />

Nazim Udd<strong>in</strong>, from BRAC University<br />

<strong>and</strong> other <strong>in</strong>stitutions.<br />

The second place was split<br />

between two teams, a team<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Rasheed (Rosetta),<br />

composed by Philipp W<strong>in</strong>ter,<br />

Florangela Chahuayo, Ahmad<br />

Mamdouh, Lara Vergas from<br />

Cairo University <strong>in</strong> Egypt <strong>and</strong><br />

a team work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Salvador,<br />

Bahia: Ana Clara Oliveira de<br />

Araújo, Mariana Ribeiro Pardo,<br />

Camila P<strong>in</strong>ho de Mello, from<br />

the Federal University of Bahia<br />

<strong>in</strong> Brazil.<br />

There were two honourable<br />

mentions: a team work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

Karachi, Pakistan, composed<br />

by Ferya Ilyas, Shizhe Ma <strong>and</strong><br />

Yil<strong>in</strong> Lai from the University<br />

of Stuttgart <strong>in</strong> Germany, <strong>and</strong><br />

a team work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Kamez,<br />

an area of Tirana <strong>in</strong> Albania:<br />

Am<strong>in</strong>a Chouari, Antonio Sposetti,<br />

Chiara Magli, Mariaelena<br />

Scaglia, from the venerable<br />

Politecnico di Milano <strong>in</strong> Italy.<br />

What did all these projects<br />

have <strong>in</strong> common?<br />

1. They addressed issues<br />

of social, economic <strong>and</strong> environmental<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>ability,<br />

2. They addressed community<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g, governance<br />

<strong>and</strong> participation,<br />

3. Many of them mentioned<br />

democracy <strong>and</strong> democracy<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

4. They understood the<br />

role of stakeholders <strong>and</strong> they<br />

had a discussion on the role<br />

of governments, sometimes of<br />

bus<strong>in</strong>ess <strong>and</strong> civil society,<br />

5. Participants questioned<br />

their own roles as designers,<br />

planners, <strong>and</strong> architects,<br />

6. They formulated <strong>in</strong>tegrated<br />

strategies that took<br />

space, society, economy,<br />

technology <strong>in</strong>to account. This<br />

was particularly strong <strong>in</strong> the<br />

group from Dhaka <strong>and</strong> warranted<br />

them the first place<br />

The role of design <strong>in</strong> this competition<br />

was central. But while<br />

design is powerful, it is not<br />

enough. Design must be <strong>in</strong>formed<br />

by good questions emanat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from society <strong>and</strong> from<br />

theory. The w<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g groups<br />

went beyond the simple design<br />

of the built environment:<br />

they addressed societal processes<br />

<strong>and</strong> proposed societal<br />

change, <strong>in</strong> conversation with<br />

the <strong>in</strong>habitants of the <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements they worked on.<br />

Another characteristic of the<br />

w<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g projects was that they<br />

all addressed the geography<br />

of the places they worked on,

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 61<br />

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 61<br />

<strong>and</strong> took water as a central element.<br />

While societal processes<br />

are central to slum upgrad<strong>in</strong>g<br />

strategies, they need to be<br />

understood <strong>in</strong> relation to the<br />

natural sett<strong>in</strong>g that susta<strong>in</strong>s<br />

them. Issues of health, nutrition,<br />

sanitation <strong>and</strong> others<br />

must be understood from the<br />

ability of the environment to<br />

susta<strong>in</strong> life.<br />

Some of the <strong>in</strong>sights we had<br />

by evaluat<strong>in</strong>g 50 entries relate<br />

to the importance of the<br />

context as a determ<strong>in</strong>ant for<br />

solutions. Mumbai is different<br />

from Chennai <strong>and</strong> there is no<br />

such a th<strong>in</strong>g as “one solution<br />

fits all”.<br />

Many designers, consciously or<br />

unconsciously, design for real<br />

estate pressure. It is daunt<strong>in</strong>g<br />

that our cities are the subject<br />

of real estate speculation, but<br />

what is really worry<strong>in</strong>g is the<br />

fact that designers <strong>and</strong> planners<br />

have <strong>in</strong>ternalised the<br />

logic of the market <strong>and</strong> are<br />

constantly cater<strong>in</strong>g for it. Societal<br />

issues go beyond market<br />

forces, <strong>and</strong> it seems clear to<br />

us that the market does not<br />

offer an answer for those who<br />

cannot enter it, because they<br />

earn so little. The question of<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g affordability is pivotal<br />

to underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g why <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanisation occurs <strong>in</strong> the first<br />

place.<br />

In general, architectural<br />

schools around the world are<br />

fail<strong>in</strong>g to address governance<br />

as a crucial framework for<br />

design. This has several undesirable<br />

consequences for<br />

the work of students: a lot of<br />

solutions seem shallow <strong>and</strong><br />

detached from reality, because<br />

the knowledge stemm<strong>in</strong>g from<br />

stakeholders is not recognised,<br />

nor used.<br />

The question of what is <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

rema<strong>in</strong>s. How can<br />

we underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

outside of the western-oriented<br />

conceptions of modernity<br />

<strong>and</strong> progress? We certa<strong>in</strong>ly<br />

need to underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

<strong>in</strong> context, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> relation<br />

to the political <strong>and</strong> societal<br />

forces operat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> different<br />

societies. <strong>Informal</strong>ity is often<br />

<strong>in</strong>tegrated <strong>in</strong> productive processes,<br />

<strong>and</strong> it’s clear we need<br />

to cater for livelihoods <strong>and</strong><br />

not only hous<strong>in</strong>g. Hous<strong>in</strong>g is<br />

only one element of the puzzle,<br />

one of many. Integrat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work seems<br />

desirable <strong>in</strong> many cases, <strong>and</strong><br />

the non-<strong>in</strong>tegration of hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> livelihoods seems to be<br />

the cause of failure for many<br />

a hous<strong>in</strong>g policy. Location,<br />

location, location, says Sukanya<br />

Krishnamurthy, <strong>and</strong> she is<br />

right <strong>in</strong>sofar <strong>in</strong>formal settlers<br />

will look for places where jobs<br />

<strong>and</strong> opportunities are readily<br />

available, or where connectivity<br />

allows for travel. Hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

solutions that evict the poor<br />

to distant peripheries seem to<br />

be particularly pernicious <strong>and</strong><br />

undesirable. They are dest<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

to fail.<br />

The notion of publicness is<br />

another crucial dimension <strong>in</strong><br />

slum upgrad<strong>in</strong>g strategies. This<br />

is reflected not only on the<br />

public space, but also <strong>in</strong> participation<br />

<strong>and</strong> democratic decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The role of the<br />

state is different everywhere,<br />

but there is always a need for<br />

strong state action, to promote<br />

<strong>in</strong>tegrated development <strong>and</strong><br />

scale-up solutions. The state<br />

seems the only agent capable<br />

of organis<strong>in</strong>g public goods on<br />

a gr<strong>and</strong> scale, simply because<br />

public goods are generally not<br />

profitable, as they must enjoyed<br />

by all for free.<br />

This notion of publicness,<br />

collective action <strong>and</strong> public<br />

participation is strong among<br />

Lat<strong>in</strong> American designers<br />

<strong>and</strong> planners, while Southern<br />

Asian designers seem to be<br />

more concerned with provid<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the basic necessities for<br />

life. Lat<strong>in</strong> American designers<br />

are also concerned about how<br />

to overcome the boundaries<br />

(or the walls) separat<strong>in</strong>g formal<br />

from <strong>in</strong>formal. Integration<br />

is the keyword for them, while<br />

Asian designers are more worried<br />

about liveability, probably<br />

because <strong>in</strong> the Indian or<br />

Bangladeshi city, poverty <strong>and</strong><br />

richness, formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

already coexist, while <strong>in</strong> Lat<strong>in</strong><br />

America <strong>in</strong>formality means<br />

spatial segregation.<br />

Good upgrad<strong>in</strong>g strategies<br />

addressed susta<strong>in</strong>ability <strong>in</strong> its<br />

three essential dimensions:<br />

social, economic <strong>and</strong> environmental,<br />

with the last one<br />

particularly urgent <strong>in</strong> view of<br />

climate change <strong>and</strong> the utter<br />

vulnerability of <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

dwellers to extreme climate<br />

events <strong>and</strong> “natural disasters”.<br />

F<strong>in</strong>ally, successful strategies<br />

were argumentative <strong>and</strong> asked<br />

the right questions.

62 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Honourable<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 63<br />

honourable<br />

mention<br />

Tirana, Albania<br />




Am<strong>in</strong>a Chouairi<br />

Chiara Magli<br />

Mariaelena Scaglia<br />

Antonio Sposetti<br />

Politecnico di Milano<br />


64 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Inforder<br />

AA11<br />

Dom<strong>in</strong>o<br />


An <strong>in</strong>novative <strong>and</strong> flexible range of proposals for<br />

Paskuqan District <strong>in</strong> the Kamez Municipality, Albania<br />

An <strong>in</strong>novative <strong>and</strong> flexible range of<br />

proposals for Paskuqan <strong>in</strong> Kamez<br />

Municipality, Tirana, Albania<br />






Inforder Dom<strong>in</strong>o arises as a plann<strong>in</strong>g reply <strong>in</strong> the northern peri-urban area of Tirana, <strong>in</strong> Paskuqan, Kamez Municipality.<br />

The project wants to meld the typical vocation of the place (<strong>in</strong>f-ormal) with the will<strong>in</strong>gness to deliver guidel<strong>in</strong>es (order),<br />

which, once established, could requalify the neighborhood through the dom<strong>in</strong>o effect.<br />

In order to clearly def<strong>in</strong>e the project’s ideas <strong>and</strong> goals, a deep analysis has been conducted <strong>in</strong> order to underst<strong>and</strong> the<br />

formation <strong>and</strong> the development of Albanian <strong>in</strong>formal settlements. The ma<strong>in</strong> cause of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements proliferation<br />

has to be related to <strong>in</strong>ternal <strong>and</strong> external migration <strong>and</strong> poor economic conditions occurred <strong>in</strong> Albania after the<br />

communist dictatorship. In fact, the majority part of the scattered built up <strong>in</strong>formal areas is located <strong>in</strong> the surround<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

of those cities - as Tirane or Durres - which suffered the most the arrival of migrants <strong>in</strong> the latest part of XX century.<br />

After hav<strong>in</strong>g studied the work <strong>and</strong> research processes onducted by ALUIZNI, the governmental Agency for Legalisation,<br />

Urbanisation <strong>and</strong> Integration of <strong>Informal</strong> Areas <strong>and</strong> Build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> took <strong>in</strong>to account various important laws related<br />

to the restitution of property rights of former owners launched <strong>in</strong> the past few years, the project’s goal is try<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

<strong>in</strong>clude this process while adopt<strong>in</strong>g a different approach methodology.<br />

In Albania, where the presence of the central government has always been a sore po<strong>in</strong>t of political <strong>and</strong> legislative<br />

activities, especially after the collapse of the Berl<strong>in</strong> Wall, the <strong>in</strong>tervention should be thought through the bottom-up<br />

approach <strong>in</strong> order to strive to a significant change, both socially <strong>and</strong> economically. Particularly <strong>in</strong> a former communist<br />

country, where the population has always been thaught to renounce <strong>and</strong> share everyth<strong>in</strong>g brutally <strong>and</strong> forcefully,<br />

there needs to re-educate each citizen groups what does it mean to live <strong>in</strong> an open community. Only thanks to the<br />

people co-operation <strong>and</strong> mutual participation, societies can aspire to shared common goods, universal respect for<br />

human dignity <strong>and</strong> basic human <strong>and</strong> civil rights, these days more <strong>and</strong> more forgotten.<br />

Sett<strong>in</strong>g the community welfare as the ma<strong>in</strong> goal to achieve, the project here proposed does not force any k<strong>in</strong>d of <strong>in</strong>tervention<br />

<strong>in</strong>to the Pasqukan district but wants to take advantage of the spirit of self-construction def<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the vocation<br />

of this place. The proposals work on the def<strong>in</strong>ition of a prototype never tested <strong>in</strong> Albania, <strong>in</strong> which every actor - from<br />

the farmer to the politician - is necessary to transform disorder <strong>in</strong>to order, dynamism <strong>in</strong>to opportunity.<br />

“If we observe the most marg<strong>in</strong>al areas of Tirana focus<strong>in</strong>g our attention on the lack of basic services or <strong>in</strong>frastructures,<br />

we could f<strong>in</strong>d out a dense layer of “structures” under-represented or not yet recognized (social relationships<br />

or self-made expressions) which express <strong>in</strong>stead, <strong>in</strong> a hidden way, a great potential of energy typical<br />

of the city. […] From the design po<strong>in</strong>t of view, the surveys along the borders of the city can be used as a laboratory<br />

for study<strong>in</strong>g the adaptability <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>novation of the urban space com<strong>in</strong>g from the <strong>in</strong>habitants themselves. “<br />

Chiara Nifosì

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 65<br />

The four <strong>in</strong>fographics represent the population behaviour <strong>in</strong> 2017. This quantitative data is important <strong>in</strong> order to underst<strong>and</strong> the proliferation, after<br />

the Berl<strong>in</strong> Wall fall, of Albanian <strong>in</strong>formal settlements. The human flow had a deep impact on Tirana, which became the majorly <strong>in</strong>formalized, together<br />

with the coastal city of Durres.

66 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

After a prolonged analysis, the team found a synthetic way to represent the ma<strong>in</strong> features of the <strong>in</strong>formal settlement of Paskuqan, underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g its<br />

structure <strong>and</strong> its urban protagonists.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 67<br />


The set area for the project’s development is Paskuqan, a small city <strong>in</strong> the Municipality of Kamez located along the<br />

northern boundaries of Tirana, Albania. This settlement is strongly characterized by the predom<strong>in</strong>ance of <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> constructions spread all over its surface measur<strong>in</strong>g 11.5 km². Alongside with this <strong>in</strong>formal vocation, a<br />

lake, Liqeni I Paskuqanit, a park, Parku I Paskuqanit, <strong>and</strong> a river are the natural resources of Paskuqan district. Unfortunately,<br />

dur<strong>in</strong>g the survey, they resulted to be very polluted, untreated <strong>and</strong> left aside.<br />

In Paskuqan, 58.7% of the constructions are <strong>in</strong>formal therefore there is no regulation or control to monitor the city<br />

rapid evolution. More <strong>in</strong> general, 14% of Albania l<strong>and</strong> does not have documented ownership <strong>and</strong> consequently, this<br />

lack of <strong>in</strong>formation makes the underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of urban changes almost unpredictable.<br />

The lack of the basic public services as public transportation, schools, health care centers <strong>and</strong> hospitals, urban growth<br />

plans <strong>and</strong> waste management makes liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> such environment more difficult <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>complete, arriv<strong>in</strong>g easily to def<strong>in</strong>e<br />

many of Paskuqan areas as dormitories. The <strong>in</strong>formal constructions have taken place without adequate water supply,<br />

sewer systems, access roads <strong>and</strong> other <strong>in</strong>frastructures. Unfortunately, the law on Legalization <strong>and</strong> Urban Plann<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

<strong>Informal</strong> Zones of October 2004 does not deal directly with the problems of <strong>in</strong>adequate <strong>in</strong>frastructure <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegration<br />

of these <strong>in</strong>formal zones <strong>in</strong>to the active <strong>and</strong> central urban system.<br />

The central government is here completely absent <strong>and</strong> if there is no state then there is no law. On the other h<strong>and</strong>,<br />

the livel<strong>in</strong>ess of certa<strong>in</strong> parts of the neighborhood tends to be comfort<strong>in</strong>g, testify<strong>in</strong>g the active commercial spirit <strong>and</strong><br />

entrepreneurship aris<strong>in</strong>g dur<strong>in</strong>g the last years. Self-established activities as game room <strong>and</strong> arcades, bars <strong>and</strong> meet<strong>in</strong>g<br />

places, car washes <strong>and</strong> bridal shops colonize the ma<strong>in</strong> road, Unaza e Madhe, transform<strong>in</strong>g it <strong>in</strong>to a sort of attractive<br />

strip.<br />

After hav<strong>in</strong>g observed that the pr<strong>in</strong>cipal commercial dynamics happen on the ma<strong>in</strong> road cross<strong>in</strong>g the whole district, simultaneously,<br />

no community spaces or public facilities - as parks, gardens, sidewalks or streetlights - have been found.<br />

In fact, the only actors <strong>in</strong> this environment are the so-called pixels, s<strong>in</strong>gle-family isolated <strong>and</strong> fenced villas, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

voids, parcels completely empty used sometimes as illegal garbage dumps, playgrounds for children or graz<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>and</strong>.<br />

The road, Unaza e Madhe, as stated before, testifies two different type of density along its course: one higher, more<br />

commercially devoted, active, alive <strong>and</strong> compact <strong>in</strong> its first stretch; another lower, where houses are more scattered,<br />

with slower velocities <strong>in</strong> its second stretch.<br />

“Today, Europe’s challenge is less about build<strong>in</strong>g new cities than about transform<strong>in</strong>g exist<strong>in</strong>g ones to create a<br />

more balanced <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>clusive society. In this context, architecture must rega<strong>in</strong> its capacity to shape not just the<br />

design of build<strong>in</strong>gs, but also the design of social solutions. By comb<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g these two capacities, architecture can<br />

help crystallize the pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of better hous<strong>in</strong>g.”<br />

Marco Ste<strong>in</strong>berg

68 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The n<strong>in</strong>e shared rules f<strong>in</strong>d here their correct representation. The masterplan shows briefly the desired impact on the Paskuqan district: a symbiotic<br />

precence of commercial vocation <strong>and</strong> public spaces availability.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 69<br />


Start<strong>in</strong>g from the previous analysis <strong>and</strong> observation, <strong>in</strong> order to improve social welfare <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>volve the citizenry <strong>in</strong>to<br />

this process, the project evolves towards the def<strong>in</strong>ition of n<strong>in</strong>e shared rules to be applied <strong>and</strong> adopted by the whole<br />

neighborhood. They refer ma<strong>in</strong>ly to the built environment <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>frastructure system <strong>in</strong> order to give them a major<br />

level of <strong>in</strong>tegrity <strong>and</strong> structure.<br />

These n<strong>in</strong>e suggestions - or guidel<strong>in</strong>es - are developed <strong>in</strong> order to walk along <strong>and</strong> pursue the UN-Habitat Goals for a<br />

Susta<strong>in</strong>able Future (SDGs), <strong>in</strong> the specific the Goal 11 “Make cities <strong>and</strong> human settlements <strong>in</strong>clusive, safe, resilient <strong>and</strong><br />

susta<strong>in</strong>able”. The best aspect of develop<strong>in</strong>g this program <strong>in</strong> an 11.5 km² area is the possibility to manage <strong>and</strong> control<br />

better spaces, human <strong>and</strong> societal <strong>in</strong>terrelations, urban challenges <strong>and</strong> environmental opportunities these actions can<br />

give a start to.<br />

The n<strong>in</strong>e shared rules should be taken as start<strong>in</strong>g po<strong>in</strong>ts for a better liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> welfare conditions <strong>in</strong> Paskuqan <strong>and</strong><br />

later on, s<strong>in</strong>ce they are thought not to be onerous economically speak<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong> similar <strong>in</strong>formal settlements <strong>in</strong> the rest of<br />

Albania. The general goal here is to enforce the societal sector, the trustfulness <strong>in</strong> the central government - which can<br />

become an active stakeholder to susta<strong>in</strong> the improvement of the neighborhood - <strong>and</strong> economic possibilities <strong>in</strong> Albania.<br />

It is not to be forgotten that Albania is a country that has still open the communist dictatorship wound, <strong>and</strong>, hopefully,<br />

with helps, supports <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dications could take one step further towards the concretization of the admission <strong>in</strong>to the<br />

European Union.<br />

The n<strong>in</strong>e shared rules are:<br />

#1 the maximum height for a build<strong>in</strong>g has to around six metres (2 floors), but if an additional level wants to<br />

be added by the owners the ground floor has to be commercial <strong>in</strong> order to promote economic livel<strong>in</strong>ess;<br />

#2 possibly, new build<strong>in</strong>gs along the ma<strong>in</strong> street, Unaza e Madhe, have to complete the l<strong>in</strong>ear visualization<br />

of the front;<br />

#3 fences are admitted but have to be visually permeable or mitigated by plants or shrubs;<br />

#4 voids amongst houses, ab<strong>and</strong>oned l<strong>and</strong>s or l<strong>and</strong>s without documented ownerships are freezed, 30%<br />

become shared farml<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> vegetable gardens open to the community, 20% is dest<strong>in</strong>ed to ecological <strong>in</strong>terventions<br />

<strong>and</strong> the remnant becomes public spaces <strong>and</strong> gardens for children;<br />

#5 at least one side of the parcel has to be shared;<br />

#6 unf<strong>in</strong>ished build<strong>in</strong>gs happen<strong>in</strong>g on the front of the ma<strong>in</strong> commercial road, if not completed <strong>in</strong> two years,<br />

are subject of agreement with the municipal adm<strong>in</strong>istration to conform rule 1;<br />

#7 new build<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>in</strong> two years, have to be equipped with the eco-susta<strong>in</strong>able basic kit;<br />

#8 well enlightened <strong>and</strong> appropriate sidewalks give back spaces, safety <strong>and</strong> visual order to pedestrians;<br />

#9 secondary streets are dest<strong>in</strong>ed exclusively to pedestrians <strong>and</strong> vehicles are admitted only by right of way<br />

<strong>and</strong>, more generally, are allowed to circulate on the ma<strong>in</strong> roads.<br />

Cont<strong>in</strong>uously, Inforder Dom<strong>in</strong>o tries to imag<strong>in</strong>e how the shape of Paskuqan city <strong>and</strong> its <strong>in</strong>habitants’ behaviors <strong>and</strong><br />

daily actions can modify themselves be<strong>in</strong>g related to these new n<strong>in</strong>e guidel<strong>in</strong>es. These ideas can become reality <strong>and</strong><br />

can function only at the precise moment <strong>and</strong> if they are accepted <strong>and</strong> shared by the community they are referr<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to. Alongside with the two different densities, two different answers are thought to be received <strong>and</strong> catalyzed by this<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal settlement: one <strong>in</strong> l<strong>in</strong>e with the commercial vocation <strong>in</strong> the first stretch of Unaza e Madhe <strong>and</strong> another one<br />

more related with the possibility of bigger community open spaces <strong>in</strong> the second stretch.<br />

Furthermore, the chronological development is of central <strong>in</strong>terest. Witness<strong>in</strong>g personally the crucial aspects of this<br />

neighborhood, the importance of conceiv<strong>in</strong>g a development by phases is pivotal. The ma<strong>in</strong> aspects to develop first<br />

are correlated with the idea of gently reconstitute a public behavior <strong>in</strong> Paskuqan. Later on to dislocate public spaces<br />

<strong>and</strong> make common goods easily available to improve the general welfare. In the end, the goal is to push <strong>and</strong> concur<br />

towards a social equity, stability <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>clusiveness.<br />

Cities have the capability of provid<strong>in</strong>g someth<strong>in</strong>g for everybody, only because, <strong>and</strong> only when, they are created<br />

by everybody.<br />

Jane Jacobs

70 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

How should the team represent the concretization of the payback for the Paskuqan district? The vision here offered is hypothetical but not so far<br />

from the reality hoped for these type of settlements spread all over Albania.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 71<br />


F<strong>in</strong>ally, sett<strong>in</strong>g a hypothetical conclusion date to the programmed processes <strong>in</strong> 2070, a synthesis image has been produced.<br />

Would it be possible to obta<strong>in</strong> a propositive behavior which meets <strong>and</strong> support the n<strong>in</strong>e shared rules previously<br />

proposed? The scenario is here displayed: a positive answer <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegration of the project guidel<strong>in</strong>es. The structure<br />

of the neighborhood has changed, <strong>in</strong> the voids spread <strong>and</strong> scattered all over, previously ab<strong>and</strong>oned, a new form of<br />

public aggregation has grown: vegetable gardens, playgrounds <strong>and</strong> green areas are now <strong>in</strong>tegral services of Paskuqan.<br />

Consequently, the <strong>in</strong>habitants’ lives of the district have changed. A different range of opportunities <strong>and</strong> possibilities<br />

have been opened up; new <strong>and</strong> differentiated workplaces have been imported; many solid rights <strong>and</strong> common goods<br />

have been achieved. Truthfully, it has been taken <strong>in</strong>to consideration that the anthropological <strong>and</strong> societal characters<br />

are the most difficult to change <strong>and</strong> once the process has started it requires a lot of time to happen completely.<br />

Through the storyboard, the goal is to underst<strong>and</strong> the possible reactions <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>terpretations acted by different population<br />

age groups. A fictional family, actually based on real people met dur<strong>in</strong>g the survey, have been portrayed here <strong>in</strong><br />

order to show how the different layers of the project can really <strong>in</strong>teract with Paskuqan <strong>in</strong>habitants. Antela, Evis, Esther,<br />

Afrim <strong>and</strong> Adan are the chosen characters testify<strong>in</strong>g through their actions the realization of the project.<br />

In conclusion, the physical model presented wants to be the synthesis of both the reason<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> the n<strong>in</strong>e shared rules<br />

proposed. Thought as a board game, eighteen different cards are present <strong>in</strong> the box: n<strong>in</strong>e cards display<strong>in</strong>g different<br />

environments <strong>in</strong> the Paskuqan district (the commercial front, the voids, the villas…) <strong>and</strong> n<strong>in</strong>e cards represent<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

expla<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> detail the shared rules of the project. Pick<strong>in</strong>g one card at time, after read<strong>in</strong>g its description, people have<br />

to place the red magnetic elements available <strong>in</strong> the box (commercial build<strong>in</strong>gs, private build<strong>in</strong>gs, s<strong>in</strong>gle floor <strong>and</strong> double<br />

floor porches, low <strong>and</strong> permeable fences, shared sites, agricultural field plate, recycl<strong>in</strong>g waste plate, pedestrian<br />

cross<strong>in</strong>g, street light, cars, trees plate) onto the white base represent<strong>in</strong>g a portion of the Paskuqan neighbourhood,<br />

obviously accord<strong>in</strong>g to the rules.

72 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 73

74 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 75

76 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 77

78 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 79<br />

honourable<br />

mention<br />

Karachi, Pakistan<br />




Ferya Ilyas<br />

Shizhe Ma<br />

Yil<strong>in</strong> Lai<br />

University of<br />

Stuttgart<br />


80 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Garbageistan*, the l<strong>and</strong> of<br />

Garbageistan* - the l<strong>and</strong> of ‘impure’<br />

the impure<br />

A sanitation solution for an <strong>in</strong>formal neighbourhood<br />

AA143.<br />

built on trash<br />

A sanitation solution for an <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

neighbourhood built on trash<br />






For the residents of Machar Colony, their congested, <strong>in</strong>formal neighbourhood is a place where people eat together,<br />

celebrate together <strong>and</strong> mourn together. Their cultural <strong>and</strong> religious beliefs tell them to be grateful for what they have<br />

- family, shelter <strong>and</strong> food, rather than compla<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g about what they don’t have - water supply, electricity <strong>and</strong> good<br />

education. But even as they ignore all that is miss<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> their neighbourhood <strong>and</strong> get on with their life, they can’t help<br />

but compla<strong>in</strong> about the tonnes of garbage that make up their urban l<strong>and</strong>scape.<br />

The waste management system is dysfunctional almost <strong>in</strong> the entire city but the situation is acute <strong>in</strong> Machar Colony<br />

which was built on l<strong>and</strong> encroached with the help of garbage. In early 80s, mafia-like l<strong>and</strong> grabbers began to dump<br />

heaps of trash near the sea to reclaim new l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> a creative way of encroachment, made needy families build<br />

temporary hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the area. Over the period of 35 years, shanties changed <strong>in</strong>to brick houses, streets started to take<br />

shape <strong>and</strong> refugees from Bangladesh, Myanmar <strong>and</strong> Afghanistan began to call this home. While the neighbourhood<br />

grew <strong>and</strong> changed dur<strong>in</strong>g this time, what rema<strong>in</strong>ed constant was the garbage. A storm dra<strong>in</strong> runs through the middle<br />

of the Colony but is today choked with plastic bags <strong>and</strong> shrimp shells; on top of this, human waste is improperly released<br />

<strong>in</strong>to it through rubber pipes. The streets <strong>and</strong> empty spaces are also littered with trash as residents conveniently<br />

dump their household waste wherever they want.<br />

In this ‘dirty’ sett<strong>in</strong>g, our project ‘Garbageistan’ seeks to address the issue of waste management by acknowledg<strong>in</strong>g<br />

people’s expressed desire to live <strong>in</strong> a cleaner environment <strong>and</strong> by mak<strong>in</strong>g use of the community bond that exists <strong>in</strong><br />

Machar Colony. The project has a multi-faceted approach: recycle household <strong>and</strong> fishery-related waste, build a sanitation<br />

network <strong>and</strong> revitalise the storm dra<strong>in</strong>. Start<strong>in</strong>g with a pilot project which will build one recycle centre, two digestion<br />

tanks <strong>and</strong> a network of sewer l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong> a small block, the goal is to replicate the pilot <strong>in</strong> the entire neighbourhood<br />

over a period of 10 years <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> three phases.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 81<br />

Image WELCOME title <strong>and</strong> TO Annotation KARACHI’S : Uctorum, MACHAR mor averis COLONY viderei WHERE et vilia 700,000 re im hiliam PEOPLE tus cae opte, LIVE cam WITHOUT te, dion BASIC sulati stat, SERVICES octo <strong>in</strong> Etrit SUCH , Loreta AS re ims.<br />


82 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Image title <strong>and</strong> Annotation : Uctorum, mor averis viderei et vilia re im hiliam tus cae opte, cam te, dion sulati stat, octo <strong>in</strong> Etrit , Loreta re ims.<br />



TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 83<br />


If you are new to Machar Colony, a walk through the narrow lanes of this <strong>in</strong>formal settlement can tickle many senses.<br />

Heaps of trash for as far as your eyes can see; stench of plastic bags <strong>and</strong> leftover food rott<strong>in</strong>g together <strong>and</strong> a b<strong>and</strong><br />

of mosquitos bit<strong>in</strong>g your sk<strong>in</strong> would welcome you to this neighbourhood. To an average person, liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> such a condition<br />

would be out of question but around 700,000 people belong<strong>in</strong>g to low-<strong>in</strong>come groups reside <strong>in</strong> this <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlement.<br />

Built on l<strong>and</strong> owned by the federal government as well as l<strong>and</strong> reclaimed from sea, Machar Colony is located right next<br />

to the most important port of the country but lacks basic <strong>in</strong>frastructure such as sewage <strong>and</strong> water supply system. The<br />

dra<strong>in</strong> that runs through the neighbourhood holds years of trash that is almost rock solid <strong>and</strong> makes a perfect breed<strong>in</strong>g<br />

ground for several diseases that haunt the neighbourhood.<br />

Sometimes dubbed as the biggest ‘refugee camp’ <strong>in</strong> South Asia because of its demographics, Machar Colony is home<br />

to poorly-paid fisherman <strong>and</strong> cheap manual labour. With s<strong>in</strong>gle families rang<strong>in</strong>g from eight to 10 people, both men<br />

<strong>and</strong> women work to earn a liv<strong>in</strong>g while children also make up a big part of the labour market.<br />

While the situation <strong>in</strong> Machar Colony may seem discourag<strong>in</strong>g at first glance, a closer look reveals a wide variety of<br />

opportunities that can be used to progressively improve the liv<strong>in</strong>g condition of the neighbourhood.<br />

Firstly, the Colony is located near one of the ma<strong>in</strong> wastewater treatment plants <strong>in</strong> the city which is currently work<strong>in</strong>g<br />

below its capacity. With the capacity to treat 245,000 cubic meters sewerage per day, the plant only processes<br />

159,000 m3/d. The residual capacity is technically enough to treat all the wastewater produced by the neighbourhood<br />

which is estimated to be 25 litres per person per day.<br />

Secondly, Machar Colony lies next to one of the major roads which connects the southern part of Karachi to the rest<br />

of the city, mak<strong>in</strong>g the neighbourhood an accessible area <strong>in</strong> terms of transportation. A tra<strong>in</strong> track also crawls by the<br />

periphery of the Colony which, though currently unused, is part of the <strong>in</strong>ter-city circular railway system whose revival<br />

is on the top of the public transportation agenda of the city.<br />

And f<strong>in</strong>ally, as the neighbourhood is located near Karachi port, any plan to exp<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> improve the port will have a<br />

direct impact on the Colony. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to a development plan, the port authorities want to reclaim l<strong>and</strong> from the sea<br />

<strong>and</strong> construct a cargo village <strong>in</strong> the area for transport<strong>in</strong>g goods to the rest of the city as well as the country. While on<br />

one h<strong>and</strong>, this could mean trouble for the <strong>in</strong>formal settlement which might be seen as a security threat or an eyesore,<br />

on the other h<strong>and</strong> this could act as a catalyst for the transformation of the area, offer<strong>in</strong>g new employment opportunities<br />

<strong>and</strong> br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> basic services to the Colony.<br />

With these challenges <strong>and</strong> opportunities <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d, we narrowed down our focus to two ma<strong>in</strong> types of waste: household<br />

waste <strong>and</strong> fishery-related trash. The household waste is ma<strong>in</strong>ly composed of plastic bags which are widely used across<br />

the city for carry<strong>in</strong>g everyth<strong>in</strong>g from vegetables, milk to clothes. The other major component of the household waste<br />

is dal chawwal (boiled rice with lentil curry) - a traditional <strong>and</strong> beloved Bengali meal eaten almost every day. S<strong>in</strong>ce the<br />

neighbourhood has no electricity, stor<strong>in</strong>g leftover food <strong>in</strong> a cool place is out of option. The fishery-related trash ma<strong>in</strong>ly<br />

conta<strong>in</strong>s shrimp shells. Everyday at 5am, men, women <strong>and</strong> children walk to the port to collect baskets full of shrimps<br />

which they peel dur<strong>in</strong>g the day <strong>in</strong> return of a meagre amount of money.

84 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Image title <strong>and</strong> Annotation : Uctorum, mor averis viderei et vilia re im hiliam tus cae opte, cam te, dion sulati stat, octo <strong>in</strong> Etrit , Loreta re ims.<br />



TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 85<br />


In the next ten years <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> three phases, Garbageistan seeks to develop an <strong>in</strong>tegrated waste management system <strong>in</strong><br />

Machar Colony. The goals are to:<br />

build a sewage network <strong>in</strong> the entire settlement, transport<strong>in</strong>g waste from toilets to process<strong>in</strong>g units <strong>and</strong> to city’s waste<br />

treatment plant located nearby<br />

process everyday household <strong>and</strong> commercial waste to elim<strong>in</strong>ate the accumulation of trash <strong>in</strong> streets <strong>and</strong> open spaces<br />

<strong>and</strong> produce electricity.<br />

revitalise the storm dra<strong>in</strong> by remov<strong>in</strong>g trash <strong>and</strong> us<strong>in</strong>g it as a channel to release treated wastewater <strong>in</strong>to the sea<br />

use Machar Colony as an example for waste management <strong>in</strong> the rest of the city<br />

Process<br />

In the first phase, we plan to build a waste management centre, two digestion tanks <strong>and</strong> sewage network <strong>in</strong> a small<br />

block as a pilot project. Build<strong>in</strong>g on the experiences <strong>and</strong> research done by another NGO called Concern for Children<br />

(CFC), we will locate the pilot project near the stormwater dra<strong>in</strong> which we underst<strong>and</strong> is the hotspot for the waste<br />

problem of the neighbourhood; also it will be visible to most of the residents who we want to engage <strong>and</strong> work with.<br />

For its own work purpose, CFC had divided Machar Colony <strong>in</strong>to five zones, three of which lie right next to the storm<br />

dra<strong>in</strong> while the other two are a little further. Garbageistan makes use of this spatial configuration for all its phases as<br />

it works well with our strategy. The waste management centre of the pilot project will collect <strong>and</strong> sort trash from the<br />

block it is located <strong>in</strong>; the plastic bags will be sold to the plastic recycl<strong>in</strong>g company called Green Earth Recycl<strong>in</strong>g which<br />

has been work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the city s<strong>in</strong>ce early 90s to recycle <strong>and</strong> reuse plastic. The biowaste will be sent to the digestion<br />

tanks which will process the waste <strong>and</strong> produce electricity. S<strong>in</strong>ce the energy produced will be of less amount <strong>and</strong> low<br />

power, the project proposes to use it for community kitchens to replace the need of cutt<strong>in</strong>g nearby mangrove forests<br />

for firewood. The digestion tanks will also treat wastewater from the sewage system. While these steps will prevent<br />

addition of new trash <strong>in</strong>to the storm dra<strong>in</strong>, the project plans to progressively remove exist<strong>in</strong>g garbage from the dra<strong>in</strong><br />

to restore the channel to its orig<strong>in</strong>al use. The goal here is to provide a recreational <strong>and</strong> aesthetically-pleas<strong>in</strong>g space to<br />

the residents as well as use the dra<strong>in</strong> to release treated water <strong>in</strong>to the sea.<br />

In the second phase, the pilot project will be replicated to other parts of the neighbourhood along the dra<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> other<br />

zones, <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g the number of waste management centres <strong>and</strong> digestion tanks as well as clean<strong>in</strong>g the dra<strong>in</strong> further<br />

<strong>and</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g more sewer l<strong>in</strong>es.<br />

In the third phase, the project targets to build the sewer system <strong>in</strong> the entire neighbourhood. Given the limited<br />

capacity of digestion tanks to treat waste, we only plan to <strong>in</strong>stall them along the dra<strong>in</strong> to release treated water <strong>in</strong>to<br />

the channel. For other parts of the neighbourhood, the project plans to connect the sewer l<strong>in</strong>es to the city’s waste<br />

treatment centre.

86 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 87

88 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Developement phase<br />

ZONE_04<br />

ZONE_04<br />

Government sewage l<strong>in</strong>e<br />

ZONE_04<br />

ZONE_05<br />

ZONE_05<br />

TP3 (Sewage Water<br />

Treatement Plant - 3)<br />

ZONE_05<br />

ZONE_01<br />

ZONE_01<br />

ZONE_01<br />

ZONE_02<br />

ZONE_02<br />

Mangroves<br />

forest<br />

Proposed sewage l<strong>in</strong>e<br />

ZONE_02<br />

ZONE_03<br />

ZONE_03<br />

ZONE_03<br />

Phase I 2 years Phase II 4 years Phase III 4 years<br />

Phase 1, Pilot Project, make used of the<br />

experiences <strong>and</strong> resources of CFC to<br />

start, the location will be actors <strong>and</strong> the<br />

problematic hotspot.<br />

Phase 2, develop<strong>in</strong>g the strategies along the<br />

open storm dra<strong>in</strong>, copy<strong>in</strong>g the pilot project to the<br />

blocks along the dra<strong>in</strong>.<br />

Phase 3, build up the whole sanitary system for the settlement.<br />

Dredg<strong>in</strong>g all the waste sediment <strong>in</strong> the open dra<strong>in</strong>age, clean<br />

up the accumulated trash dumps of the entire settlement, <strong>and</strong><br />

revitalized the coastal ecosystem.<br />

Government sewage l<strong>in</strong>e<br />

ZONE_04<br />

ZONE_05<br />

PILOT<br />


ZONE_01<br />

Proposed sewage l<strong>in</strong>e<br />

ZONE_02<br />

ZONE_03<br />

200 M<br />

Master plan

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 89<br />

VISON<br />

Design: Pilot prject

90 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Ferya Ilyas<br />

Yil<strong>in</strong> Lai<br />

Shizhe Ma<br />

A word from the group<br />


We are three students of University<br />

of Stuttgart from Pakistan<br />

(Ferya), Ch<strong>in</strong>a (Ma) <strong>and</strong> Taiwan<br />

(Yil<strong>in</strong>) Ferya is a journalist from Karachi;<br />

she has a bachelor’s degree <strong>in</strong> Mass<br />

Communication with specialisation <strong>in</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>t<br />

journalism. She worked for a newspaper<br />

for six years dur<strong>in</strong>g which she reported on<br />

urban issues prevalent <strong>in</strong> Karachi. Ma is an<br />

environmental eng<strong>in</strong>eer currently do<strong>in</strong>g<br />

his master’s <strong>in</strong> Infrastructure Plann<strong>in</strong>g. His<br />

academic <strong>in</strong>terests lie <strong>in</strong> how to implement<br />

blue-green <strong>in</strong>frastructures to address<br />

climate change <strong>in</strong> cities. Yil<strong>in</strong> is a l<strong>and</strong>scape<br />

architect, focus<strong>in</strong>g on plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> design<strong>in</strong>g<br />

green <strong>in</strong>frastructure. She has work experience<br />

<strong>in</strong> plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> construction fields<br />

<strong>and</strong> was <strong>in</strong>spired to study urbanism after<br />

travell<strong>in</strong>g to 11 brilliant cities <strong>in</strong> different<br />

parts of the world.<br />

For us, <strong>in</strong>formality is organic, <strong>in</strong>genious<br />

<strong>and</strong> complex. While at first we were<br />

<strong>in</strong>troduced to <strong>in</strong>formality as someth<strong>in</strong>g bad,<br />

over the years we have learnt that there’s<br />

more opportunity than threats <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanisation. Due to the severe lack of<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructure, uncontrolled growth <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>tense <strong>in</strong>equality, <strong>in</strong>formality is probably<br />

the most urgent task faced by planners<br />

for susta<strong>in</strong>able development. But it is also<br />

the most beautiful example of co-creation;<br />

how people come together to address their<br />

needs <strong>in</strong> a city which doesn’t care much for<br />

them. Given the magnitude of this phenomenon<br />

- dense population, limited resources<br />

<strong>and</strong> unofficial development, the topic deserves<br />

a closer <strong>in</strong>spection with the simple<br />

aim of mak<strong>in</strong>g people’s lives better.<br />

While tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g new planners <strong>in</strong> how to<br />

address <strong>in</strong>formality, the academia must<br />

take a multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary approach to underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality. <strong>Informal</strong> urbanisation<br />

is like a city with<strong>in</strong> a city, with its own<br />

political, social <strong>and</strong> economic dynamics<br />

<strong>and</strong> that’s is exactly why it needs to be seen<br />

holistically, rather than just as a spatial<br />

configuration. Most importantly, people’s<br />

wellbe<strong>in</strong>g should be at the centre of all discussions,<br />

<strong>in</strong>terventions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

for <strong>in</strong>formality <strong>and</strong> this just not means<br />

keep<strong>in</strong>g them <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d when plann<strong>in</strong>g for<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality but ask<strong>in</strong>g them for solutions.<br />

They are the experts of their habitat <strong>and</strong><br />

they should be the one guid<strong>in</strong>g the process<br />

of chang<strong>in</strong>g conditions for better.<br />

Go<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to the specifics, study<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

should deal with real-life cases, actual<br />

<strong>in</strong>terventions <strong>and</strong> long-term plann<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Each context is different <strong>and</strong> by provid<strong>in</strong>g<br />

students the opportunities to work directly<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formality, educational <strong>in</strong>stitutions can<br />

equip students with the right skills, knowledge<br />

<strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g needed to work<br />

<strong>in</strong> this ever grow<strong>in</strong>g field of urbanism. Also,<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce majority of the <strong>in</strong>formality is <strong>in</strong> the<br />

‘Global South’, it is important that students<br />

are not advised to apply plann<strong>in</strong>g practises<br />

of the ‘developed world’ to the ‘develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

countries’ because their realities are<br />

poles apart; s<strong>in</strong>ce there seems to be a gap<br />

<strong>in</strong> terms of research done on <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

<strong>in</strong> the ‘Global South’, students should be<br />

encouraged to dig deep <strong>in</strong> the topic <strong>and</strong><br />

develop new theories <strong>and</strong> frameworks<br />

that can help further research <strong>and</strong> future<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 91<br />

Diego, Pablo <strong>and</strong> Sule dur<strong>in</strong>g pre-selection of the 20 f<strong>in</strong>alists

92 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The second place was<br />

shared between two<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 93<br />

Salvador, Brazil<br />




2Ana Clara Oliveira de Araújo<br />

Camila P<strong>in</strong>ho de Mello<br />

Mariana Ribeiro Pardo<br />

Federal University of Bahia<br />


94 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Community articulation <strong>in</strong><br />

AA 135<br />


the neighbourhood<br />

A youth process <strong>in</strong> Subúrbio Ferroviário of Salvador, Brazil<br />

A youth process <strong>in</strong> Suburbio Ferroviario of<br />

Salvador, Brazil<br />





The project Community Articulation <strong>in</strong> the Neighbourhood (or CAN) proposes to th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>and</strong> produce the city <strong>in</strong> a collaborative<br />

perspective, through a process of formation <strong>and</strong> mobilization of young people, between 14 <strong>and</strong> 18 years old,<br />

that attend high school public <strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>and</strong> are part of the Community Schools <strong>in</strong> the Subúrbio Ferroviário area,<br />

which is a peripheral zone <strong>in</strong> north-western part of the city of Salvador, <strong>in</strong> Brazil. The proposal is configured as a plan<br />

of socio-educational actions, which discuss the thematic of Education <strong>and</strong> City from six axes: Environment, Culture,<br />

Health, Urban Mobility, Collective Spaces <strong>and</strong> Income Generation. These axes have been chosen <strong>in</strong> the field, with <strong>in</strong>habitants<br />

<strong>and</strong> others social agents <strong>in</strong> the locality of Escada, a neighbourhood <strong>in</strong> the Subúrbio Ferroviário.<br />

The contact with the Community School of Escada, by a project of the Federal University of Bahia, made the relationship<br />

with other educational <strong>in</strong>stitutions easier due the network action with four other Community Schools: (2) Nova<br />

Constitu<strong>in</strong>te, (3) São José Operário, (4) Nossa Senhora Medianeira <strong>and</strong> (5) V<strong>in</strong>te de Novembro. All these schools are<br />

<strong>in</strong>serted <strong>in</strong> the area of the Subúrbio Ferroviário of Salvador, <strong>and</strong> work with pedagogical actions with teenagers to contribute<br />

<strong>in</strong> the expression of the citizenship. These actions help <strong>in</strong> the development of active people <strong>and</strong> the awareness<br />

of their social responsibilities <strong>in</strong> the space where they <strong>in</strong>habit.<br />

To change urban spaces it is important to consider the participation <strong>and</strong> the autonomy of citizens <strong>in</strong> the decisions regard<br />

the city. Study<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> practic<strong>in</strong>g the urban plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the educational perspective helps the <strong>in</strong>strumentalization<br />

of people to the social action. The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal partners to this project are young people, who participate of activities <strong>in</strong><br />

the community schools, <strong>in</strong> dialogue with different social agents: <strong>in</strong>habitants of the neighbourhood, teachers, college<br />

students, cultural agents <strong>and</strong> others.<br />

The target audience have been chosen <strong>in</strong> reason of their potential for community mobilization, political organization<br />

of young people, network articulation <strong>in</strong> formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal fields <strong>and</strong> circulation of <strong>in</strong>formation. As partners <strong>in</strong> the<br />

organization <strong>and</strong> realization of the proposal, we have students of the Federal University of Bahia that fit <strong>in</strong> this context<br />

through a permanent <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary extension project with the community. The university extension allows to<br />

students a professional formation with social responsibility, with the possibility of partnerships with state bureaus to<br />

f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g the proposal.<br />

The project will be <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the school year <strong>in</strong> the community schools, s<strong>in</strong>ce March to November, consider<strong>in</strong>g<br />

holidays <strong>in</strong> July. The implementation can be <strong>in</strong> the next school year, which will starts <strong>in</strong> 2019, develop<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> weekly<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>gs between the high school students, college students, teachers <strong>and</strong> specific guests for each axe addressed.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 95<br />

Community Articulation <strong>in</strong> the Neighbourhood: Proposal of a collective <strong>and</strong> collaborative urban plann<strong>in</strong>g (Personal production).

96 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The axes <strong>in</strong> the territory: the themes were chosen <strong>in</strong> the work field <strong>and</strong> with the popular participation (Personal production).

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 97<br />


Demporem ulparibus, nonsequam ide es eium volendam sequae <strong>in</strong>cid mi, et opta dolupta nobitem aboraep erovit<br />

The proposal is situated <strong>in</strong> the locality of Escada, <strong>in</strong> the area of Subúrbio Ferroviário of Salvador, capital of Bahia, the<br />

am quatiisquam fugit aut ero <strong>in</strong>ctas ipit, num etustiatio escitis quundicium, volut <strong>in</strong>ullatent magnis ex et quatio. Itae<br />

biggest state <strong>in</strong> the northeast side of Brazil. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to the Brazilian Institute of Geographic <strong>and</strong> Statistics (IBGE),<br />

vollent quid ut et quas et expla volest, quas acculla boreiurio. Itae num fugit earcili bereseque simagnias es eicatet<br />

this area of the city, occupied s<strong>in</strong>ce the mid-n<strong>in</strong>eteenth century, has about 10% of the Salvador population, almost<br />

optas <strong>and</strong>unt quibeatem quis qui ius<strong>and</strong>i aut et aperchilla nis volut raturiatem arumend itibusa estrum excerum de<br />

290 thous<strong>and</strong> people, whose 78% declares themselves as black or brown sk<strong>in</strong> people. Among the socioeconomic <strong>in</strong>dicators<br />

about this zone, we have the average monthly <strong>in</strong>come per family, with 4 people, correspond<strong>in</strong>g to R$906,68<br />

debitatibus, sum ipicid quaturecest ent accatur molorroriati doluptas rem iume comnis con pa ducienimaio. Nam<br />

eium quuntur s<strong>in</strong>verc hillitibea dolorem ipsum volut et ducimet eumquat fuga. S<strong>in</strong>ia volor aut quis quatati as dolecab<br />

(US$242.45), lower than the national m<strong>in</strong>imum salary.<br />

orernam ius modit, s<strong>in</strong>ulparum faceriores et plis vendeli atempos dolupta pa pellatur? Quia que voluptaque ium eiciisit<br />

idernat us<strong>and</strong>is plabori aturessi ventionsed que rernat rempeditibus mi, <strong>in</strong>ctur sedionsent estiunt, torerum repudi<br />

In the field of education, Salvador, which is the fourth most populous city of Brazil, present worry<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formations.<br />

doluptium velia iliquiscid ut que sust, seque volorum, omnis evenda qui blam et faces magnat latur?<br />

Accord<strong>in</strong>g to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), <strong>in</strong> research developed <strong>in</strong> 2010, only 50,24% of<br />

young people between 14 <strong>and</strong> 18 years f<strong>in</strong>ished the elementary school. Besides, 78,91% of the population between<br />

Um velibus, ute net mos et, optat<strong>in</strong> ulparum et latus ea et libuste ssunt, sitia sitae cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, ommo <strong>in</strong>t laut dolor<br />

6 <strong>and</strong> 17 years, who attended regular basic education, had until 2 years of lag <strong>in</strong> the age-grade proportion. Also, only<br />

aut li<strong>and</strong>a doluptia sum ipiet am et voles eosa volorunt.At <strong>in</strong>t ad eost poris et ese con et dit quiscias et por asitiati<br />

17,6% of people between 18 <strong>and</strong> 24 years, <strong>in</strong> this period, was <strong>in</strong> college. These data shows the vulnerability condition<br />

optat eossitibus.Tibus magnihic te cum qui commod et ut et quassit, consectam re sunt libus mo quosto quibus mi,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the social <strong>in</strong>equality of this population.<br />

tem. Et quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus<br />

volupta se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio. Od maio blabor aut et alitatem ra dolupta voluptatur,<br />

In the Subúrbio Ferroviário of Salvador, we have 14 public schools that offer free high school to the population, spread<br />

etus ess<strong>in</strong>us aut molo cus.<br />

<strong>in</strong> seven of fifteen neighbourhoods of the area. Besides, there is a network of five community schools, which offers<br />

a socio-educational programme for teenagers. In approach with the Community School of Nossa Senhora de Escada,<br />

Uga. Ulparci ut lat aut ant, cus eicilitem ipit fugiatur ma pliquo evenihillaut officim odioribusci venet re volor accus<br />

<strong>and</strong> with the community where it is located, through the Faculty of Architecture, which started dur<strong>in</strong>g the year 2017,<br />

consequi te nonsequi<strong>and</strong>i <strong>and</strong>a poraest veliciis quae dolor ad modips<strong>and</strong>a de volectissim <strong>and</strong>ae eum re earitia vendae<br />

were discovered new possibilities <strong>in</strong> the city. Such possibilities propose a dialogue between education <strong>and</strong> urban plann<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

consider<strong>in</strong>g the participation <strong>and</strong> the autonomy of the citizens <strong>in</strong> decisions about the cities.<br />

none odit dolo ius et et, omnis deratusam essedi sum eatusa volupt<strong>in</strong>it omnisit, teturestrum aut des reictae resequis<br />

autatem re si bea sequaeri nihilitae id ex et mo maximag nienti que cone rem <strong>in</strong>ciistias et ut delia pelibeaquae nis<br />

reperum, sitium dolliqui aut optaepedi doluptiorum et vidis diss<strong>in</strong>cte veligen turitem ad ea corehenis que lacepresto<br />

The approach with the locality of Escada implied a process of study <strong>in</strong> the field – <strong>and</strong> with the field – from the speech<br />

to officiatio. Itatiis velenda arcid eiureped modit harum sit es rat et labo. Nem. Ut ipita dipsundae volorum iducius,<br />

of its residents , gett<strong>in</strong>g together different people to th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>and</strong> propose the city spaces. In opposite to the traditional<br />

nonseque quo derit liquae. Nam am fuga. Ut optatis quatquianis sa simus. Ut utem quas del expliti onectae nusdam<br />

political planes, which benefits the economic <strong>in</strong>terests of a small part of the population <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>crease pre-existent<br />

que re busam dolum s<strong>in</strong>um a quia num eostrum dolor aut quassit voloribus niscilit omnimillat.Ut utem quas del expliti<br />

social asymmetries, are proposed new methodologies of citizen participation. This popular action, through education,<br />

onectae nusdam que re busam dolum s<strong>in</strong>um a quia num eostrum dolor aut quassit voloribus niscilit omnimillat.<br />

br<strong>in</strong>gs new perspectives to the social transformation, mak<strong>in</strong>g possible the dialogue with different social agents: the<br />

Trem de Ferro Movement; the cultural space Acervo da Laje; associations of residents; <strong>and</strong> government representatives,<br />

like the Mário Leal Ferreira Foundation, which works with the urban plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Salvador.<br />

Um velibus, ute net mos et, optat<strong>in</strong> ulparum et latus ea et libuste ssunt, sitia sitae cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, ommo <strong>in</strong>t laut dolor aut<br />

li<strong>and</strong>a doluptia sum ipiet am et voles eosa volorunt.At <strong>in</strong>t ad eost poris et ese con et dit quiscias et por asitiati optat<br />

eossitibus.Tibus magnihic te cum qui commod et ut et quassit, consectam re sunt libus mo quosto quibus mi, tem. Et<br />

The <strong>in</strong>teraction with these different people helped the debate about the problematic <strong>and</strong> potentialities of the area,<br />

quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus volupta<br />

se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio. Et quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto<br />

def<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Escada six axes to work: environment, health, culture, urban mobility, collective spaces <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>come generation.<br />

From the work that has already been developed <strong>in</strong> the socio-educational project of the Community School<br />

officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus volupta se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio.<br />

of Escada, it is proposed a process of student formation <strong>and</strong> mobilization, through the horizontal construction of a<br />

citizen action.

98 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Methodology of the proposal: how the activies will take place <strong>in</strong> the school year (Personal production).

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 99<br />


This proposal presents itself as a possibility to amplify the debate about the city, by the construction of a citizen<br />

conscious <strong>and</strong> the young position <strong>in</strong> face to urban planes that implicate the space where they live. Start<strong>in</strong>g from a<br />

network of community schools <strong>in</strong> the Subúrbio Ferroviário of Salvador, we propose a process of community formation<br />

<strong>and</strong> mobilization to young people, between 14 <strong>and</strong> 18 years old, from high school <strong>in</strong>stitutions. The project looks for a<br />

dialogue between Education <strong>and</strong> City with six axes that have a relation with urban plann<strong>in</strong>g: environment, health, culture,<br />

urban mobility, collective spaces <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>come generation. The CAN project is an experience of collective actions<br />

that <strong>in</strong>clude popular participation, by the association between school, community <strong>and</strong> public university to th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>and</strong><br />

construct a different model of territorial ord<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong> management.<br />

We believe <strong>in</strong> the importance of discuss<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> creat<strong>in</strong>g alternatives for the urban plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>side schools, <strong>in</strong>volv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the students <strong>in</strong> the debate of the right to the city <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>strumentaliz<strong>in</strong>g them with tools that help <strong>in</strong> the claim to<br />

their rights while citizens. It is also important to underst<strong>and</strong> their own city as a space to learn, <strong>and</strong> where is possible<br />

to make social, affective, territorial <strong>and</strong> cultural relationships that symbolize the history <strong>and</strong> the quotidian context of<br />

local population. In this sense, it is fundamental to mobilize young people, who are <strong>in</strong> the process to start<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the<br />

electoral system (<strong>in</strong> Brazil, it is possible to vote s<strong>in</strong>ce 16 years old), to th<strong>in</strong>k, discuss <strong>and</strong> claim for the effectiveness of<br />

public politics to help <strong>in</strong> the construction of a more just <strong>and</strong> democratic city.<br />

The CAN proposal has the <strong>in</strong>tention <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g a process of collective formation <strong>and</strong> action that will happen weekly, <strong>in</strong><br />

the school year, <strong>in</strong>side the Community School of Escada. These activities will be performed <strong>in</strong> the opposite shift of<br />

the curricular m<strong>and</strong>atory agenda of high school public <strong>in</strong>stitutions. The Education State Bureau may regularize them<br />

as a complementary activity, mak<strong>in</strong>g official the project <strong>and</strong> help<strong>in</strong>g with f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> with certificate for the scholar<br />

record of the student. Other important vision of the project is the partnership with the Federal University of Bahia,<br />

underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g the social responsibility of a public university <strong>and</strong> putt<strong>in</strong>g together an <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary team of students<br />

<strong>and</strong> professors to help with the organization <strong>and</strong> effectiveness of the activities.<br />

It is also important to underst<strong>and</strong> that mak<strong>in</strong>g the project <strong>in</strong>stitutional doesn’t decrease the <strong>in</strong>fluence of local population,<br />

community school or university, whom will be responsible for the proposal management <strong>and</strong> effectiveness. The<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutionalization presents the importance of the government to provide adequate <strong>in</strong>vestments <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructure<br />

to the activities. To this project, it is possible to count with the support of the Urban Development Bureau, the Culture<br />

Bureau <strong>and</strong> the Education Bureau. It is proposed an effective partnership between the State, the community <strong>and</strong> the<br />

public university.<br />

The project will take place <strong>in</strong> three stages, which will be distributed over eight months: (1) Approach <strong>and</strong> axe’s design;<br />

(2) formative process <strong>and</strong> collective actions of the six axes; <strong>and</strong> (3) conclusion <strong>and</strong> process systematization.<br />

(1) The first stage, which will happen <strong>in</strong> the 1st month, will be a place to approach <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>teract with all the people<br />

<strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> the project, allow<strong>in</strong>g the development of a sensibility <strong>and</strong> contextualization with the territory. Also, it will<br />

be possible to design, to adjust or either to modify the axes that will be worked with.<br />

(2) The second stage will be developed <strong>in</strong> the month 2 to 7, which means one month per axe of work. Each axe, by its<br />

turn, will be split <strong>in</strong> two moments. In the first two weeks, with theoretical tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>strumentalization about rights<br />

<strong>and</strong> strategies to claim the axe <strong>in</strong> question. The last two weeks, with more practical view, when the young students<br />

will plan collective actions <strong>in</strong> the neighbourhood. These practical activities can be workshops, micro <strong>in</strong>terventions,<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> others.<br />

(3) The third <strong>and</strong> last stage will take place <strong>in</strong> the last month, the 8, <strong>in</strong> a moment of conclusion <strong>and</strong> process evaluation.<br />

Also, will be possible to th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>in</strong> ways to gather <strong>and</strong> systemize all content <strong>and</strong> experiences occurred <strong>in</strong> the year. The<br />

f<strong>in</strong>al production may be share <strong>and</strong> accessed by other people across onl<strong>in</strong>e platforms, exhibitions or others strategies<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ed by the participants.

100 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Urban <strong>and</strong> social perspectives: the proposal <strong>in</strong>tents to articulate young people from Subúrbio Ferroviário area (Personal production).

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 101<br />


The CAN proposal has a huge potential of transformation <strong>in</strong> the time-space where it will be placed. The strengthen<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of a citizen conscious, which may be horizontal constructed <strong>in</strong> idealized dialogues <strong>and</strong> activities, has the possibility of<br />

re<strong>in</strong>sertion of these <strong>in</strong>dividuals <strong>in</strong> the dispute field of the urban <strong>and</strong> regional plann<strong>in</strong>g, believ<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the importance of<br />

popular participation to build the city. In this sense, it has been def<strong>in</strong>ed the approach with the six axes designed <strong>in</strong> a<br />

process of <strong>in</strong>terlocution with the territory of Escada.<br />

By the moment when the Urban Development Bureau, the Culture Bureau <strong>and</strong> the Education Bureau are active, there<br />

is a new relationship between the population <strong>and</strong> the public services. This activation provides a new way to work, <strong>in</strong><br />

a local perspective <strong>and</strong> for the social agents, th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g the social rights <strong>in</strong> a horizontal model. Also, the participation of<br />

a public university helps <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>tegration between <strong>in</strong>stitutional tools <strong>and</strong> social dem<strong>and</strong>s, th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g about a collective<br />

knowledge construction, which implies a permanent renovation accord<strong>in</strong>g to the reality of the city.<br />

The young students, by their turn, will be actives agents <strong>in</strong> the space, strengthened by a network of <strong>in</strong>stitutional support<br />

to implement, create, <strong>and</strong> exp<strong>and</strong> the range of actions <strong>in</strong> the space they <strong>in</strong>habit. They also can support social<br />

movements that already exist <strong>in</strong> the territory, like cultural spaces, <strong>in</strong>habitant associations <strong>and</strong> others. The project aims<br />

are the expectation of multiplication of these actions, which should occur by circulation of <strong>in</strong>formation, articulation of<br />

formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal networks, community mobilization <strong>and</strong> young political organization. To th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>and</strong> to actively build<br />

the city implies a sense of belong<strong>in</strong>g to the space.<br />

After this first experience <strong>in</strong> the Community School of Escada, the project should be implemented <strong>in</strong> the others community<br />

schools <strong>in</strong> the area of Subúrbio Ferroviário of Salvador: (2) Nova Constitu<strong>in</strong>te, <strong>in</strong> the neighbourhood of Periperi;<br />

(3) São José Operário, <strong>in</strong> the locality of Coutos; (4) Nossa Senhora Medianeira <strong>and</strong> (5) V<strong>in</strong>te de Novembro, both <strong>in</strong><br />

the district of Paripe. Beside this, the participants <strong>in</strong> their own neighbourhoods can afford the proposal.<br />

Gather<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> groups <strong>and</strong> organiz<strong>in</strong>g ourselves politically is a fundamental <strong>and</strong> revolutionary action nowadays. S<strong>in</strong>ce the<br />

military dictatorship <strong>in</strong> the 80s, <strong>and</strong> recently with the presidential impeachment <strong>in</strong> 2016, the <strong>in</strong>security <strong>and</strong> disbelief <strong>in</strong><br />

the actual political system, <strong>in</strong> which have been denied collective actions <strong>and</strong> mobilizations, has grown. For this reason,<br />

it is very important to put the vote for the young people as a fundamental <strong>and</strong> democratic action.<br />

Also <strong>in</strong> 2016, the new federal government created the programme Médiotec with the provisional measure 746/2016.<br />

This programme implied a change of public high school education with a technical formation, which makes the poor<br />

students don’t see the university as their space. As a result of this situation the social <strong>in</strong>equality <strong>in</strong>creases, putt<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

poor students <strong>in</strong> technical courses <strong>and</strong> the rich young people <strong>in</strong> universities.<br />

The CAN project has the challenge of address<strong>in</strong>g democratic <strong>and</strong> horizontal ideas with the local population of the<br />

neighbourhood of Escada, th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g the city as a collaborative plan. The possibility of empower<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> articulat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the population of Subúrbio Ferroviário presents itself as a potential way to change the <strong>in</strong>equality system that<br />

is common <strong>in</strong> Global South cities. The social <strong>in</strong>equality <strong>in</strong> Salvador touches old economic <strong>and</strong> racial problems which<br />

affect the poor people. For this reason, it is fundamental to br<strong>in</strong>g the population together, see<strong>in</strong>g the young people as<br />

the way to concretize ideas <strong>and</strong> actions <strong>in</strong> the urban plann<strong>in</strong>g.

102 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />




BAHIA<br />

BAHIA<br />

BRASIL<br />

BRASIL<br />

GROUP<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 103<br />

CAN<br />


The Community Articulation <strong>in</strong> the Neighbourhood (CAN) is a urban plann<strong>in</strong>g project with the theme of Education <strong>and</strong> City<br />

that proposes a articulation process between high school students, community, public university <strong>and</strong> state bureaus to address<br />

better solutions to change the social condition <strong>in</strong> the Subúrbio Ferroviário, a peripheral area <strong>in</strong> the north-western <strong>in</strong> the city of<br />

Salvador, <strong>in</strong> Brazil. This proposal is located <strong>in</strong> the neighbourhood of Escada, which has the Community School of Escada that<br />

works <strong>in</strong> a network with four others community schools <strong>in</strong> pedagogical actions to contribute for the expression of the citizenship<br />

by teenagers. The proposal is configured as a plan of socio-educational actions, which discuss Education <strong>and</strong> City from<br />

six axes: Environment, Culture, Health, Urban Mobility, Collective Spaces <strong>and</strong> Income Generation.<br />



2,950,000 PEOPLE<br />



290,000 PEOPLE<br />



50.24%<br />

(4 PEOPLE)<br />



$242.45<br />



14 STATE<br />




17.6%<br />




The data about the Subúrbio Ferroviário reveals a large population <strong>in</strong> social <strong>and</strong> economic vulnerabitity conditions that are<br />

accentuated by political planes directed for economic <strong>in</strong>terests of a small part of people. The approach with the locality of<br />

Escada implied a process of study <strong>in</strong> the field – <strong>and</strong> with the field – from the speech of its residents, gett<strong>in</strong>g together different<br />

people to th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>and</strong> propose the city spaces. This popular action, through education, br<strong>in</strong>gs new perspectives to the social<br />

transformation, mak<strong>in</strong>g possible the dialogue with different social agents. In approach with the Community School of Escada,<br />

<strong>and</strong> with the community where it is located, through the Faculty of Architecture, which started dur<strong>in</strong>g the year 2017, were discovered<br />

new possibilities <strong>in</strong> the city. Such possibilities propose a dialogue between education <strong>and</strong> urban plann<strong>in</strong>g, consider<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the participation <strong>and</strong> the autonomy of the citizens <strong>in</strong> decisions about the cities.

104 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


This proposal presents itself as a possibility to amplify the debate about the city, by the construction<br />

of a citizen conscious <strong>and</strong> the young position <strong>in</strong> face to urban planes that implicate the space where<br />

they live. Start<strong>in</strong>g from a network of community schools <strong>in</strong> the Subúrbio Ferroviário of Salvador, we<br />

propose a process of community formation <strong>and</strong> mobilization to young people, between 14 <strong>and</strong> 18<br />

years old, from high school <strong>in</strong>stitutions. The project looks for a dialogue between Education <strong>and</strong> City<br />

with six axes that have a relation with urban plann<strong>in</strong>g: environment, health, culture, urban mobility,<br />

collective spaces <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>come generation. The CAN project is an experience of collective actions that<br />

<strong>in</strong>clude popular participation, by the association between school, community <strong>and</strong> public university<br />

to th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>and</strong> construct a different model of territorial ord<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong> management.<br />

Education <strong>and</strong> City<br />

collective actions + popular participation<br />

AXE 1 AXE 2 AXE 3 AXE 4 AXE 5<br />


HEALTH<br />


URBAN<br />



SPACES<br />

AXE 6<br />

INCOME<br />


T<br />

sc<br />

c<br />

T<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

activities<br />

actions<br />

workshops<br />

By the moment when the Urban Development Bureau, the Culture Bureau <strong>and</strong> the Education Bureau<br />

are active, there is a new relationship between the population <strong>and</strong> the public services. This activation<br />

provides a new way to work, <strong>in</strong> a local perspective <strong>and</strong> for the social agents, th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g the social rights<br />

<strong>in</strong> a horizontal model. Also, the participation of a public university helps <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>tegration between<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutional tools <strong>and</strong> social dem<strong>and</strong>s, th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g about a collective knowledge construction, which<br />

implies a permanent renovation accord<strong>in</strong>g to the reality of the city.<br />

community<br />

high school<br />

students<br />

public<br />

university<br />

government<br />

E<br />

te<br />

a<br />

governance participation partnership <strong>in</strong>vestment<br />

GROUP<br />

AA135<br />

CAN<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 105<br />

have an <strong>in</strong>fluence<br />

on decisions about<br />

the city!<br />

express op<strong>in</strong>ions!<br />

access<br />

rights !<br />

he CAN proposal has the <strong>in</strong>tention <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g a process of collective formation <strong>and</strong> action that will happen weekly, <strong>in</strong> the<br />

hool year, <strong>in</strong>side the Community School of Escada. These activities will be performed <strong>in</strong> the opposite shift of the curriular<br />

m<strong>and</strong>atory agenda of high school public <strong>in</strong>stitutions.<br />

he project will take place <strong>in</strong> three stages, which will be distributed over eight months:<br />

2<br />

1<br />

Approach <strong>and</strong><br />

axe’s design<br />

formative process <strong>and</strong><br />

collective actions of the six axes<br />


-<br />




URBAN<br />


3<br />

conclusion <strong>and</strong><br />

process systematization<br />



SPACES<br />

INCOME<br />



-<br />

ach axe will be split <strong>in</strong> two moments. In the first, with theoretical tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>strumentalization about rights <strong>and</strong> stragies<br />

to claim the axe <strong>in</strong> question. The second, with more practical view, when the young students will plan collective<br />

ctions <strong>in</strong> the neighbourhood. These practical activities can be workshops, micro <strong>in</strong>terventions, meet<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> others.<br />

axes<br />

1<br />

<strong>in</strong>strumentalization<br />

2<br />

collective actions<br />

activities<br />


106 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

THE 6 AXES<br />

territorialized <strong>in</strong> Escada<br />


Escada is a urban settlement that has<br />

relations with different physical <strong>and</strong><br />

natural aspects of the territory - the<br />

approach with the sea, the relief, the<br />

green spaces <strong>and</strong> native vegetation.<br />

However, these areas has been compromised<br />

with improper disposal of waste<br />

<strong>and</strong> sewage. In this sense, the population<br />

has mobilized community actions to promote<br />

awareness about the ma<strong>in</strong>tenement<br />

<strong>and</strong> care with the nature.<br />

2 HEALTH<br />

The brazilian population is assisted<br />

by a huge public health system<br />

(called SUS). In Escada, this system<br />

presents a precarious situation that<br />

had grown because the only public<br />

health center was closed <strong>in</strong> 2016.<br />

This event made <strong>in</strong>existent the<br />

public service <strong>in</strong> this part of the<br />

city.<br />

4<br />

The Subúrbio Ferr<br />

important railway<br />

the identity of the<br />

<strong>in</strong> the discussion<br />

urban mobility. Th<br />

nity to <strong>in</strong>crease<br />

transportation faci<br />

URB<br />

MOB<br />

5<br />


SPACES<br />

The neighbourhood of Escada has a limited collective<br />

spaces. They usually use the beach, the church or<br />

the streets as places to collective relations <strong>and</strong> social<br />

<strong>in</strong>teraction. This axe works <strong>in</strong> the sense of improve<br />

the existent spaces <strong>and</strong> to th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>in</strong> implementation<br />

<strong>and</strong> consolidation of news spaces.<br />




GROUP<br />

AA135<br />

6<br />

INCOME<br />


Accord<strong>in</strong>g to the data of the Economic <strong>and</strong> Social<br />

Studies of Bahia Super<strong>in</strong>tendence (SEI), 25.7% of the<br />

economical active population <strong>in</strong> Salvador <strong>and</strong> metropolitan<br />

area are unemployed. In an effort to<br />

reduce this situation, <strong>in</strong> this location we have popular<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiatives to generate <strong>in</strong>come to their families<br />

through groups of solidarity economy <strong>and</strong> local<br />

bus<strong>in</strong>ess.<br />



CESEP<br />






TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 107<br />

3<br />


AN<br />

ILITY<br />

oviário of Salvador has a<br />

system that it is part of<br />

population <strong>and</strong> is a po<strong>in</strong>t<br />

with the State about<br />

is debate is an opportuthe<br />

perspectives about<br />

lities <strong>in</strong> a large way.<br />



The local population has their own lifestyle<br />

<strong>and</strong> tradition that affect <strong>in</strong> the feel<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

belong<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> their area. So, we believe <strong>in</strong> the<br />

potencial of transmit <strong>and</strong> discussion the local<br />

culture of the students.<br />

LEGEND<br />

Proposal area<br />


Backyards<br />

Green area<br />

Pollution<br />

HEALTH<br />

<strong>Public</strong> health center<br />

Private hospital<br />


Church<br />






Cultural Center<br />

Library<br />

Craftsman<br />

Fisherman<br />



Bus stop<br />




Tra<strong>in</strong> stop<br />

Bicycle path<br />

Railway<br />


Meet<strong>in</strong>g places<br />

Beach<br />

Kids area<br />

Football Field<br />


12.28.2016<br />




Solidarity economy<br />

Local bus<strong>in</strong>ess<br />

NORTH<br />

0 m 25 m 50 m

LEGEN<br />

P<br />

108 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />



The CAN proposal has a huge potential of transformation <strong>in</strong> the time-<br />

-space where it will be placed. The strengthen<strong>in</strong>g of a citizen conscious,<br />

which may be horizontal constructed <strong>in</strong> idealized dialogues<br />

<strong>and</strong> activities, has the possibility of re<strong>in</strong>sertion of these <strong>in</strong>dividuals <strong>in</strong><br />

the dispute field of the urban <strong>and</strong> regional plann<strong>in</strong>g, believ<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the<br />

importance of popular participation to build the city. By the moment<br />

when the State Bureaus are active, there is a new relationship between<br />

the population <strong>and</strong> the public services. This activation provides a<br />

new way to work, <strong>in</strong> a local perspective <strong>and</strong> for the social agents,<br />

th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g the social rights <strong>in</strong> a horizontal model. Also, the participation<br />

of a public university helps <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>tegration between <strong>in</strong>stitutional<br />

tools <strong>and</strong> social dem<strong>and</strong>s, th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g about a collective knowledge<br />

construction, which implies a permanent renovation accord<strong>in</strong>g to the<br />

reality of the city.<br />

new<br />

possibilities<br />

In 2016, the new f<br />

with the provisio<br />

change of public<br />

which makes thes<br />

project pretends t<br />

real possibility.<br />

materialize<br />

ideas<br />

politic<br />

participa<br />

public<br />

university<br />

conscious<br />

vote<br />

communi<br />

articulati<br />

community<br />

government<br />

high school<br />

students<br />

The projec<br />

should occ<br />

networks, c<br />

<strong>and</strong> to acti<br />

this first ex<br />

implement<br />

viário of Sa<br />

São José O<br />

(5) V<strong>in</strong>te de<br />

pants <strong>in</strong> th<br />

GROUP<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 109<br />

SÃO TOMÉ<br />


PARIPE<br />

ederal government created the programme Médiotec<br />

nal measure 746/2016. This programme implied a<br />

high school education with a technical formation,<br />

e students don’t see the university as their space. This<br />

o amplify the student vision to see the university as a<br />






al<br />

tion<br />


COUTOS<br />

ty<br />

on<br />

Gather<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> groups <strong>and</strong> organiz<strong>in</strong>g ourselves politically is<br />

a fundamental <strong>and</strong> revolutionary action nowadays. S<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

the military dictatorship <strong>in</strong> the 80s, <strong>and</strong> recently with the<br />

presidential impeachment <strong>in</strong> 2016, the <strong>in</strong>security <strong>and</strong><br />

disbelief <strong>in</strong> the actual political system, <strong>in</strong> which have been<br />

denied collective actions <strong>and</strong> mobilizations, has grown.<br />

For this reason, it is very important to put the vote for the<br />

young people as a fundamental <strong>and</strong> democratic action.<br />



COUTOS<br />



t aims are the expectation of multiplication of these actions, which<br />

ur by circulation of <strong>in</strong>formation, articulation of formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

ommunity mobilization <strong>and</strong> young political organization. To th<strong>in</strong>k<br />

vely build the city implies a sense of belong<strong>in</strong>g to the space. After<br />

perience <strong>in</strong> the Community School of Escada, the project should be<br />

ed <strong>in</strong> the others community schools <strong>in</strong> the area of Subúrbio Ferrolvador:<br />

(2) Nova Constitu<strong>in</strong>te, <strong>in</strong> the neighbourhood of Periperi; (3)<br />

perário, <strong>in</strong> the locality of Coutos; (4) Nossa Senhora Medianeira <strong>and</strong><br />

Novembro, both <strong>in</strong> the district of Paripe. Beside this, the particieir<br />

own neighbourhoods can afford the proposal.<br />

D<br />

NEXT STEPS...<br />



PRAIA<br />

GRANDE<br />



ALTO DA<br />






ESCADA<br />

ILHA<br />



NORTE<br />

0 km 0,5 km 1 km

110 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


A word from the group<br />


Ana Clara Oliveira de Araújo is a<br />

5th year student of Architecture<br />

<strong>and</strong> Urbanism <strong>in</strong> the Federal<br />

University of Bahia (UFBA), hav<strong>in</strong>g attended<br />

an exchange year programme, between<br />

september 2015 <strong>and</strong><br />

august 2016, <strong>in</strong> the<br />

University of<br />

Seville (US),<br />

<strong>in</strong> Seville,<br />

Spa<strong>in</strong>, with a<br />

scholarship<br />

from CNPq/<br />

Brazil (National<br />

Council<br />

for Scientific<br />

<strong>and</strong> Technological<br />

Development). S<strong>in</strong>ce<br />


november 2013, she<br />

is part <strong>in</strong> Curiar<br />

- Model Office of Architecture <strong>and</strong> Urbanism<br />

of UFBA, where she works<br />

with horizontal <strong>and</strong> participative<br />

projects with communities <strong>and</strong><br />

social movements <strong>in</strong> the city of<br />

Salvador <strong>and</strong> the metropolitan<br />

area. She was born <strong>and</strong> raised <strong>in</strong><br />

this city, where she participated<br />

<strong>in</strong> social projects with themes of<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>ability <strong>and</strong> public education<br />

<strong>in</strong> the school age. Her study <strong>in</strong>terests<br />

<strong>in</strong>clude participatory methodologies CAMILA<br />

<strong>and</strong> projects, university extension, <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>arity,<br />

cartographic processes, as also<br />

spatial justice, the right to the city <strong>and</strong> the<br />

right to hous<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Camila P<strong>in</strong>ho de Mello is a 3th year student<br />

of Psychology <strong>in</strong> the Federal University<br />

of Bahia (UFBA), where she works with Community<br />

Social Psychology <strong>in</strong> an university<br />

extension project named Comucidade. She<br />

was born <strong>and</strong> raised <strong>in</strong> a high middle class<br />

family <strong>in</strong> Salvador, where the <strong>in</strong>equality of<br />

the city has always caught her attention.<br />

She worked for two years <strong>in</strong> the NGO TETO<br />

Brazil, with community projects to provide<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal assessments. She also<br />

participated <strong>in</strong> student movement, where<br />

she have been approached about themes<br />

such as violence, racism <strong>and</strong> sexism. In the<br />

work with university extension<br />

projects, she realised how<br />

architecture also plays<br />

a role <strong>in</strong> the processes<br />

of exclusion<br />

<strong>and</strong> restrictions<br />

of basic rights.<br />

Furthermore, she<br />

is also <strong>in</strong>terested<br />

<strong>in</strong> childhood studies,<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g with<br />

children <strong>in</strong> schools,<br />

recreations <strong>and</strong> the relation<br />

between child <strong>and</strong> na-<br />

ture. She is the<br />

co-founder<br />

of the<br />

project<br />

OCA -<br />

Holiday<br />

Activities,<br />

where<br />

she works<br />

<strong>in</strong> the field<br />

of childhood.<br />

Mariana Ribeiro<br />

Pardo is a 5th year MARIANA<br />

student of Architecture<br />

<strong>and</strong> Urbanism <strong>in</strong> the Federal University<br />

of Bahia (UFBA). She also attended an<br />

exchange year programme <strong>in</strong> the University<br />

of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), <strong>in</strong> the<br />

city of San Sebastian, <strong>in</strong> Spa<strong>in</strong>, between<br />

september 2015 <strong>and</strong> august 2016, with a<br />

scholarship from CNPq/Brazil. She was born<br />

<strong>and</strong> raised <strong>in</strong> Salvador <strong>and</strong> the metropolitan<br />

area, <strong>in</strong> a family context that has always<br />

encouraged the struggle for the collective.<br />

Her model is her mother, who always participated<br />

<strong>in</strong> actions <strong>and</strong> collective dem<strong>and</strong>s,<br />

<strong>and</strong> today works directly with public<br />

policies for women. In the course, she had<br />

the opportunity to work with collective<br />

processes <strong>in</strong> the Curiar, which has become<br />

a parallel formation space. In works with<br />

communities <strong>and</strong> social movements, chil-

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 111<br />

dren <strong>and</strong> adolescents have always crossed<br />

her paths <strong>and</strong> caught her attention. She believes<br />

<strong>in</strong> the power of the mobilization <strong>and</strong><br />

participation of children <strong>and</strong> teenagers to<br />

th<strong>in</strong>k <strong>and</strong> to build more just <strong>and</strong> democratic<br />

cities. Therefore, she is <strong>in</strong>terested <strong>in</strong> alternative<br />

pedagogies, participatory methodologies<br />

<strong>and</strong> projects, university extension <strong>and</strong><br />

the right to the city.<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formality with education<br />

Brazil, as well as all Lat<strong>in</strong> America, has<br />

been fac<strong>in</strong>g, s<strong>in</strong>ce the 1970s, a contemporary<br />

process of urban spectacularization<br />

that reveals a logic of social segregation,<br />

which implies the expansion of peripheries,<br />

s<strong>in</strong>ce the low-<strong>in</strong>come population is<br />

expelled from city centers. The peripheries<br />

are spaces of transition between the<br />

formal <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>formal city, with precarious<br />

urban <strong>in</strong>frastructure, few collective<br />

spaces, schools, health units <strong>and</strong> others<br />

equipments that should contemplate an<br />

<strong>in</strong>habited space. In this sense, the field of<br />

urban plann<strong>in</strong>g has an important role <strong>in</strong><br />

pay<strong>in</strong>g attention to these processes <strong>and</strong><br />

try<strong>in</strong>g to f<strong>in</strong>d solutions that improve the life<br />

<strong>in</strong> those areas. However, <strong>in</strong> the Architecture<br />

<strong>and</strong> Urbanism still have few spaces to<br />

discuss <strong>and</strong> to th<strong>in</strong>k about the social role of<br />

the profession <strong>and</strong> to debate issues related<br />

with urban reform, the right to the city <strong>and</strong><br />

the <strong>in</strong>visibility of some population strats.<br />

The universities have the potential to be<br />

a space of transgression, break<strong>in</strong>g the walls<br />

<strong>and</strong> tak<strong>in</strong>g place <strong>in</strong> visible <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>visible<br />

areas of the cities. It is necessary to <strong>in</strong>itiate<br />

debates on what thoughts are be<strong>in</strong>g built<br />

<strong>in</strong> university spaces, <strong>and</strong> also construct<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a relation with others discipl<strong>in</strong>es as<br />

psychology, sociology, geography <strong>and</strong> law.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>arity is an important way<br />

to face the contemporary urban challenges,<br />

by mak<strong>in</strong>g possible an <strong>in</strong>tegration between<br />

university <strong>and</strong> community. This relation, <strong>in</strong><br />

Brazil, has been occurred from university<br />

extension, which with teach<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> research<br />

processes completes the basic triad<br />

of public higher education. The university<br />

extension activities have ga<strong>in</strong>ed more <strong>and</strong><br />

more space with the underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of the<br />

importance of a commitment from the<br />

university with the social reality where it is<br />

<strong>in</strong>serted.<br />

In the same way, the basic education has<br />

the opportunity to promote an <strong>in</strong>tegration<br />

between the students <strong>and</strong> the community,<br />

with a pedagogical function that isn’t<br />

restricted to formal learn<strong>in</strong>g, but also to<br />

contribute <strong>in</strong> the expression of citizenship.<br />

The education is a common responsibility<br />

that implies the reunion of different actors<br />

of the city, as well as listen<strong>in</strong>g to the children<br />

<strong>in</strong> the process. The exercise of citizenship<br />

is someth<strong>in</strong>g that should be learned<br />

<strong>in</strong> school, <strong>and</strong> implies the struggle to our<br />

rights <strong>and</strong> the take on our duties. When the<br />

public space is built <strong>in</strong> partnership with <strong>in</strong>habitants,<br />

they are educated <strong>in</strong> the process,<br />

<strong>and</strong> become responsible for those places.<br />

Study<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> practic<strong>in</strong>g the urban plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> an educational perspective help <strong>in</strong> the<br />

association between university <strong>and</strong> community,<br />

<strong>and</strong> help to underst<strong>and</strong> education<br />

as a meet<strong>in</strong>g center of diverse people that<br />

can contribute to solve the challenges of<br />

the city. We believe that!<br />


112 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 113<br />

Burj Rasheed,<br />

Egypt<br />

PRODUCTIVE <strong>INFORMALITY</strong> -BURG RASHEED 2050<br />

2Florangela Chahuayo<br />

Ahmad Mamdouh<br />

Laura Vargas<br />

Philipp W<strong>in</strong>ter<br />

University of Cairo<br />


Productive <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Burj Rasheed 2050<br />

114 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Productive <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Burj Rasheed 2050<br />





Burj Rasheed (Rosetta) is an <strong>in</strong>formal coastal community located on the estuary of the river Nile <strong>in</strong> Northern Egypt.<br />

Today, it is an outpost of Rasheed proper <strong>and</strong> home to roughly 20.000 people who f<strong>in</strong>d a livelihood ma<strong>in</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> fish<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> agriculture.<br />

Its location on the low-ly<strong>in</strong>g alluvial floodpla<strong>in</strong>s of the Nile delta <strong>in</strong> direct proximity to the Mediterranean pose a great<br />

risk to the agricultural community <strong>in</strong> times of climate change <strong>and</strong> ris<strong>in</strong>g sea levels. Furthermore, a steady <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> soil<br />

sal<strong>in</strong>ity <strong>and</strong> an expected decrease of freshwater put the community under pressure. Due to the absence governmental<br />

services, Burj Rasheed has to deal with problems <strong>in</strong> waste management <strong>and</strong> water treatment. This, comb<strong>in</strong>ed with<br />

population pressure <strong>and</strong> an ever-<strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formal urbanization <strong>and</strong> soil seal<strong>in</strong>g, Burj Rasheed st<strong>and</strong>s as an example<br />

for many settlements <strong>in</strong> the peri-urban <strong>and</strong> rural regions of the Nile Delta.<br />

The vision is to facilitate Burj Rasheeds development to become a local community capable of provid<strong>in</strong>g a livelihood for<br />

it’s people <strong>in</strong> times of global change. Focuss<strong>in</strong>g on the two ma<strong>in</strong> corridors <strong>in</strong> the city, we comb<strong>in</strong>e susta<strong>in</strong>able development<br />

with enhanced productivity. The Waterfront corridor is, despite be<strong>in</strong>g a primary source of <strong>in</strong>come for the local<br />

fish<strong>in</strong>g community, a neglected open space that is be<strong>in</strong>g used for the disposal of waste <strong>and</strong> waste water. A careful reorganization<br />

of open spaces will <strong>in</strong>corporate the historic fortress <strong>in</strong>to the community <strong>and</strong> create new educational <strong>and</strong><br />

economic possibilities. The communal organization of waste management <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the up-cycl<strong>in</strong>g of the gathered raw<br />

materials improve not only the environmental conditions, but also the livelihood <strong>and</strong> overall wellbe<strong>in</strong>g of the people<br />

e.g. by <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g the quality <strong>and</strong> therefore value of fish be<strong>in</strong>g produced. The <strong>in</strong>troduction of susta<strong>in</strong>able fish farm<strong>in</strong>g<br />

techniques improve both the quality of water <strong>and</strong> of the produce.<br />

In the agricultural corridor we see similar problems of solid waste <strong>and</strong> waste water treatment, on top of an expected<br />

decrease of agricultural production. Here, the sprawl of the settlement <strong>in</strong>to the agricultural l<strong>and</strong> forms green pockets<br />

that reach far <strong>in</strong>to the settlement. This is be<strong>in</strong>g turned <strong>in</strong>to an advantage by turn<strong>in</strong>g these pockets from mere farm<strong>in</strong>g<br />

l<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>to productive agricultural hubs that work on a circular pattern of resource distribution. Indoor farm<strong>in</strong>g, aquaponics<br />

<strong>and</strong> constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>s form a system that <strong>in</strong>tegrate agricultural <strong>and</strong> domestic production <strong>and</strong> consumption.<br />

The two corridors will be connected by a set of public spaces with<strong>in</strong> the dense organic street network of Burj Rasheed<br />

that will be turned productive by means of urban agriculture, the harvest of solar power <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>tegration of social<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 115<br />

General vision <strong>and</strong> regional maps

116 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 117<br />



Demporem Historically, Burj ulparibus, Rasheeds nonsequam location ide on the es eium left bank volendam of the sequae Nile, 65km <strong>in</strong>cid East mi, of et Alex<strong>and</strong>ria opta dolupta <strong>and</strong> nobitem at the po<strong>in</strong>t aboraep where erovit the<br />

am Egypt’s quatiisquam lifel<strong>in</strong>e meets fugit the aut Mediterranean, ero <strong>in</strong>ctas ipit, num is the etustiatio basis of it’s escitis existence. quundicium, The 15th volut century <strong>in</strong>ullatent fortress magnis of Qaitbay ex et quatio. bears Itae witness<br />

to quid it’s orig<strong>in</strong>s ut et quas a military et expla outpost volest, guard<strong>in</strong>g quas acculla the mouth boreiurio. of the Itae Nile, num when fugit Rasheed earcili bereseque proper, today simagnias a city of es 70.000, eicatet<br />

vollent<br />

optas was Egypt’s <strong>and</strong>unt ma<strong>in</strong> quibeatem port. S<strong>in</strong>ce quis the qui late ius<strong>and</strong>i 19th aut century, et aperchilla both Rasheed nis volut as well raturiatem as Burj Rasheed arumend have itibusa seen estrum a strong excerum decrease<br />

debitatibus, <strong>in</strong> economic sum <strong>and</strong> military ipicid quaturecest significance. ent Today, accatur Rasheed molorroriati is a regional doluptas center rem for iume food, comnis textile con <strong>and</strong> tobacco pa ducienimaio. <strong>in</strong>dustry. Nam Burj<br />

eium Rasheed quuntur is a mostly s<strong>in</strong>verc agricultural hillitibea dolorem community ipsum of 20.000, volut et that ducimet is most eumquat well known fuga. as S<strong>in</strong>ia the volor place aut where quis the quatati famous as dolecab Rosetta<br />

orernam stone has ius been modit, discovered. s<strong>in</strong>ulparum It is grow<strong>in</strong>g faceriores parallel et plis to vendeli the Nile atempos an <strong>in</strong>formal dolupta urbanization pa pellatur? processes Quia que are voluptaque form<strong>in</strong>g a populated ium eiciisit<br />

corridor idernat connect<strong>in</strong>g us<strong>and</strong>is plabori it to Rasheed aturessi that ventionsed lies 5km que to the rernat South-East. rempeditibus mi, <strong>in</strong>ctur sedionsent estiunt, torerum repudi<br />

doluptium Burj Rasheed velia economy iliquiscid is based ut que ma<strong>in</strong>ly sust, seque on agri- volorum, <strong>and</strong> aquaculture omnis evenda that form qui blam the major et faces sources magnat of latur? <strong>in</strong>come. Aquaculture is<br />

comprised of fish<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the Mediterranean as well as fish farms <strong>in</strong> the Nile <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> ponds on l<strong>and</strong> provide, while the agricultural<br />

velibus, sector ute provides net mos a variety et, optat<strong>in</strong> of cereals, ulparum vegetables, et latus ea legumes, et libuste <strong>and</strong> ssunt, fruits,. sitia agriculture sitae cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, is dependent ommo on irrigation <strong>in</strong>t laut dolor with<br />

Um<br />

aut water li<strong>and</strong>a taken doluptia from the sum Nile ipiet some am 25km et voles upstream. eosa volorunt.At Due to a series <strong>in</strong>t of ad barrages eost poris <strong>and</strong> et dams ese con no natural et dit quiscias flow of freshwater et por asitiati arrives<br />

<strong>in</strong> eossitibus.Tibus Burj Rasheed anymore, magnihic result<strong>in</strong>g te cum qui <strong>in</strong> the commod <strong>in</strong>trusion et of ut saltwater, et quassit, an consectam <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> re riverbed sunt libus siltation mo quosto <strong>and</strong> the quibus accumu-<br />

mi,<br />

optat<br />

tem. lation Et of quam agricultural aligeni <strong>and</strong> maximporunde domestic waste nobis water ius recae <strong>in</strong> the volorrunto now stagnant officium river. Not explant, only does aut que this re pose dolorer a major rorepello health quibus risk to<br />

volupta the community, se nisquaest the river pedias has ium also et changed plab ium from idem be<strong>in</strong>g et voluptio. a vital part Od of maio the community’s blabor aut et identity alitatem to ra a neglected dolupta voluptatur, backdrop<br />

etus used ess<strong>in</strong>us for waste aut disposal, molo cus. despite its significance for aquaculture <strong>and</strong> the fact that children swim <strong>and</strong> play <strong>in</strong> it <strong>in</strong> summer.<br />

While Burj Rasheed itself is ma<strong>in</strong>ly located on a higher ly<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>and</strong> its agricultural areas ma<strong>in</strong>ly lay on floodpla<strong>in</strong>s, result<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> Ulparci the expected ut lat aut flood<strong>in</strong>g ant, cus of ca. eicilitem 50% the ipit this fugiatur area by ma 2050. pliquo This evenihillaut poses a major officim risk for odioribusci the communities venet re that volor heavily accus<br />

Uga.<br />

consequi rely it as te a nonsequi<strong>and</strong>i source of <strong>in</strong>come. <strong>and</strong>a poraest veliciis quae dolor ad modips<strong>and</strong>a de volectissim <strong>and</strong>ae eum re earitia vendae<br />

none A lack odit of educational dolo ius et et, possibilities omnis deratusam comb<strong>in</strong>ed essedi with sum production eatusa volupt<strong>in</strong>it methods that omnisit, create teturestrum little added-value aut des reictae to the products resequis<br />

autatem results <strong>in</strong> re low si bea <strong>in</strong>comes sequaeri <strong>and</strong> a nihilitae partial id reliance ex et mo on remittances maximag nienti from que family cone members rem <strong>in</strong>ciistias abroad. et ut Especially delia pelibeaquae women suffer nis<br />

reperum, from a lack sitium of educational dolliqui aut possibilities, optaepedi which doluptiorum oftentimes et vidis prevents diss<strong>in</strong>cte them veligen from provid<strong>in</strong>g turitem ad for ea the corehenis livelihood que of lacepresto the family.<br />

to Despite officiatio. these Itatiis issues velenda <strong>and</strong> the arcid <strong>in</strong>formal eiureped character modit of harum the settlement, sit es rat et the labo. hous<strong>in</strong>g Nem. stock Ut ipita <strong>and</strong> dipsundae general liv<strong>in</strong>g volorum conditions iducius, <strong>in</strong><br />

nonseque Burj Rasheed quo are derit comparably liquae. Nam good am <strong>in</strong> fuga. an <strong>in</strong>ternational Ut optatis quatquianis perspective sa <strong>and</strong> simus. are on Ut utem par with quas other del <strong>in</strong>formal expliti onectae settlements nusdam or<br />

que ‘Ashwa’yyat’ re busam <strong>in</strong> dolum Egypt. s<strong>in</strong>um Solid, a multi quia story num eostrum apartment dolor houses aut quassit made of voloribus cement, niscilit brick <strong>and</strong> omnimillat.Ut mortar form utem the majority quas del expliti of the<br />

onectae local hous<strong>in</strong>g nusdam stock. que An re <strong>in</strong>creased busam dolum build<strong>in</strong>g s<strong>in</strong>um activity a quia as a num form eostrum of <strong>in</strong>vestment dolor aut has quassit resulted voloribus <strong>in</strong> an unregulated niscilit omnimillat. growth that is<br />

<strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly seal<strong>in</strong>g the agricultural l<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>and</strong> around Burj Rasheed. Due to the absence of urban plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> an high<br />

Um rate velibus, of private ute l<strong>and</strong>ownership, net mos et, optat<strong>in</strong> a fragmentation ulparum et latus of settled ea areas libuste occurs ssunt, that sitia results sitae cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, agricultural ommo pockets <strong>in</strong>t laut surrounded dolor aut<br />

li<strong>and</strong>a by peri-urban doluptia fabric sum <strong>and</strong> ipiet vice am versa. et voles This eosa puts volorunt.At major stress <strong>in</strong>t on ad the eost agricultural poris et ese l<strong>and</strong> con through et dit waste quiscias disposal et por which asitiati <strong>in</strong> optat turn<br />

eossitibus.Tibus has negative effects magnihic on the te quality cum qui of agricultural commod et goods ut et quassit, be<strong>in</strong>g produced. consectam re sunt libus mo quosto quibus mi, tem. Et<br />

quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus volupta<br />

se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio. Et quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto<br />

officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus volupta se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio.

118 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Corridors of Rasheed; Challanges, Strategies <strong>and</strong> Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development Goals

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 119<br />


In the light of the challenges that Burj Rasheed faces now <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> the future, the aim is to create a local community capable<br />

of provid<strong>in</strong>g a livelihood for its population <strong>in</strong> times of global change. Our proposal seeks to <strong>in</strong>tegrate susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development with <strong>in</strong>creased productivity <strong>and</strong> enhanced education <strong>in</strong> order to put Rasheeds population <strong>in</strong> a position<br />

to ensure satisfactory liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions <strong>and</strong> resilience to environmental risks by themselves.<br />

Through data analysis <strong>and</strong> site visits we found two major corridors that def<strong>in</strong>e the urban layout as well as social <strong>and</strong><br />

economic activities: The waterfront corridor <strong>and</strong> the agricultural corridor. Our proposal focuses on these two corridors,<br />

as well as a dense network of smaller <strong>in</strong>ner-urban streets <strong>and</strong> public spaces that connect the two called urban<br />

pockets.<br />

The corridors share a set of twelve specific objectives deal<strong>in</strong>g with certa<strong>in</strong> challenges <strong>and</strong> opportunities.<br />

Perhaps the most far-reach<strong>in</strong>g efforts will be taken <strong>in</strong> the agricultural corridor. Organized <strong>in</strong> 4 phases, the aim is to<br />

use the exist<strong>in</strong>g green pockets <strong>and</strong> turn them <strong>in</strong>to ecological <strong>and</strong> agricultural hubs that are <strong>in</strong> a close relation to the<br />

houses surround<strong>in</strong>g them. The residents appropriate these spaces, develop <strong>and</strong> care for them themselves. Aquaponic<br />

systems on rooftops mean the efficient use of space <strong>and</strong> water. Domestic wastewater that is nowadays collected <strong>in</strong><br />

underground tanks <strong>and</strong> disposed of <strong>in</strong> empty plots outside Burj Rasheed is collected <strong>and</strong> treated <strong>in</strong>side the green<br />

pockets <strong>in</strong> a r<strong>in</strong>g of constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>s. The Water is then used to irrigate crops grown <strong>in</strong> a polycultural system or<br />

with<strong>in</strong> greenhouses. This results <strong>in</strong> an <strong>in</strong>creased efficiency of soil use <strong>and</strong> raises agricultural yields. As a positive side<br />

effects, the <strong>in</strong>creased productivity <strong>and</strong> significance <strong>in</strong> terms of water treatment means ris<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>and</strong> values protect these<br />

spaces from urbanization <strong>and</strong> their eventual seal<strong>in</strong>g. Circular fish farm<strong>in</strong>g methods mentioned above also serve as a<br />

l<strong>in</strong>k between agricultural <strong>and</strong> waterfront zones s<strong>in</strong>ce they are buffer between l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> sea, sow down coastal erosion<br />

<strong>and</strong> thus help protect valuable agricultural l<strong>and</strong>.<br />

To qualify the waterfront, the neglected historic fortress <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g its immediate surround<strong>in</strong>g will be <strong>in</strong>tegrated <strong>in</strong>to<br />

the city by creat<strong>in</strong>g a community <strong>and</strong> educational center with<strong>in</strong>, <strong>and</strong> by open<strong>in</strong>g it to economic <strong>and</strong> cultural activities.<br />

This way we make use of a significant structure <strong>and</strong> give Burj Rasheed back its historic centerpiece. The second specific<br />

objective is to upgrade <strong>and</strong> strengthen the waterfront by <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g its productivity. To achieve this the production of<br />

fish is the most important asset. By <strong>in</strong>troduc<strong>in</strong>g circular production methods <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g algae <strong>and</strong> mussels, not only the<br />

quality of water <strong>and</strong> fish will be <strong>in</strong>creased, the additional products can be used as (fish)food as well. Flexible spaces<br />

along the waterfront will open up more possibilities for economic activities, <strong>and</strong> an up-cycl<strong>in</strong>g facility for waste not<br />

only helps to clean up the open spaces, it also provides jobs <strong>and</strong> possible raw materials for crafts <strong>and</strong> construction.<br />

The dense organic street network with<strong>in</strong> the settlement will be improved by creat<strong>in</strong>g shad<strong>in</strong>g out of local materials,<br />

while the <strong>in</strong>troduction of green <strong>in</strong>frastructure on empty plots <strong>and</strong> open spaces further reduces temperatures <strong>in</strong> times<br />

of climate change. It doubles as a possibility for the production of food. Thus the walkability of Burj Rasheed will be<br />

improved. A network of these spaces used for economic activity, social spaces, educational or cultural venues means a<br />

heightened experience <strong>and</strong> improved atmosphere. The production of biofules on the other h<strong>and</strong> means that agricultural<br />

wastes <strong>and</strong> reed grown <strong>in</strong> the newly <strong>in</strong>troduced wetl<strong>and</strong>s can be used as resources to vitalize the local economy<br />

while at the same time economically enhanc<strong>in</strong>g the susta<strong>in</strong>ability of local transport systems.<br />

To further improve the liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g spaces, a new recycl<strong>in</strong>g process for domestic waste <strong>and</strong> garbage found on<br />

the streets will be <strong>in</strong>troduced. Organized <strong>in</strong> a cooperative by local people, these materials can then be used as resources<br />

for local crafts while educational measures help spread awareness about health risks <strong>and</strong> recycl<strong>in</strong>g possibilities.

120 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Example: Agricultural Corridor

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 121<br />


122 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 123

124 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 125

126 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 127

128 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Fishmarkeng<br />

Tradions<br />



Economic<br />

prosperity<br />

SAFEW<br />

Health<br />

Susta<strong>in</strong>ability<br />

Family<br />




TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 129<br />


Culture<br />

Rehabilitaon<br />


Reuse<br />

Climate change<br />



ATER<br />

PILOT<br />




Natural resourse<br />

Food quality

130 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

A word from the group<br />


Corridors of Rasheed; Challanges, Strategies <strong>and</strong> Susta<strong>in</strong>able Development Goals

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 131<br />

Hello from Cairo! We are Flor,<br />

Ahmad, Philipp <strong>and</strong><br />

Laura.<br />

Together we are develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the project ‘Productive<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity’ <strong>in</strong> Burg<br />

Rasheed (Rosetta), Egypt.<br />

Burg Rasheed is a fish<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> farm<strong>in</strong>g community of<br />

20.000 at the mouth of the<br />

Nile. It occupies a strategic<br />

location <strong>and</strong> its fortress <strong>and</strong><br />

the Rosetta stone that was PHILIPP<br />

found there are of historic<br />

significance. There, we use<br />

local materials, techniques <strong>and</strong><br />

knowledge to <strong>in</strong>tegrate urban <strong>and</strong> rural. The<br />

goal is to <strong>in</strong>crease resilience <strong>and</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>ability,<br />

economic prosperity <strong>and</strong> social<br />

<strong>in</strong>tegration. We do so by mak<strong>in</strong>g use of the<br />

urban fr<strong>in</strong>ges <strong>and</strong> the riverfront as both<br />

ecologically <strong>and</strong> economically significant.<br />

Our group consists of:<br />

Florangela Chahuayo<br />

from Cuzco, Peru.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce Florangela<br />

graduated as an<br />

architect <strong>in</strong> 2014, she<br />

has worked <strong>in</strong> several<br />

projects <strong>in</strong> the historic<br />

centre of Cuzco. This<br />

<strong>in</strong>cludes work on the<br />

urban cadastre, development<br />

of hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> hotels<br />

for private <strong>in</strong>vestors <strong>and</strong> work FLORANGELA<br />

as a coord<strong>in</strong>ator of new urban<br />

settlements. Now, she is pursu<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a master of Urban Design focused on<br />

the revitalization of historic districts. She<br />

believes that the <strong>in</strong>clusion of communities<br />

as well as universities<br />

is crucial to raise<br />

awareness <strong>and</strong><br />

address <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urbanization,<br />

not only<br />

<strong>in</strong> plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

but also for<br />

its implementation.<br />

Ahmad Mamdouh<br />

from Cairo,<br />

AHMAD<br />

Egypt<br />

Ahmad is an<br />

architect by profession<br />

<strong>and</strong> he is now study<strong>in</strong>g Urban Design<br />

at Cairo University. His conviction is to help<br />

the people of his country to improve their<br />

quality of liv<strong>in</strong>g. He wants to<br />

use resources <strong>in</strong> an efficient<br />

way <strong>in</strong> order to help people<br />

build a susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

future.<br />

Philipp W<strong>in</strong>ter<br />

from Berl<strong>in</strong>, Germany<br />

Philipp studied<br />

Geography with a focus<br />

on urban development<br />

<strong>and</strong> sociology at Humboldt<br />

University <strong>in</strong> Berl<strong>in</strong>. He worked <strong>in</strong><br />

(sub)cultural urban development<br />

<strong>and</strong> a network of <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

urban bottom-up <strong>in</strong>itiatives <strong>in</strong><br />

Berl<strong>in</strong>, as well as <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegrated, participatory<br />

urban development <strong>in</strong> Hamburg. Now he<br />

is pursu<strong>in</strong>g his masters <strong>in</strong> urban design <strong>in</strong><br />

Germany <strong>and</strong> Egypt with a focus on historic<br />

urban districts.<br />

Laura Vargas from Bogota, Colombia.<br />

She graduated as an Architect<br />

from Javeriana University <strong>in</strong><br />

Bogota <strong>in</strong> 2014. She has s<strong>in</strong>ce<br />

worked <strong>in</strong> different enterprises<br />

as project manager.<br />

She is now pursu<strong>in</strong>g a masters<br />

degree <strong>in</strong> Urban Design<br />

with a firm conviction that<br />

the development of the city<br />

should take <strong>in</strong>to account the<br />

values of tangible as well as<br />

<strong>in</strong>tangible heritage <strong>and</strong> that it<br />

should serve as a guid<strong>in</strong>g axis for<br />

future development.<br />

The four of us study the <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

Masters programe Urban Design – Revitalization<br />

of Historic City Districts, which<br />

is a cooperation between Cottbus<br />

University <strong>in</strong> Germany<br />

<strong>and</strong> Cairo <strong>and</strong> Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

Universities <strong>in</strong> Egypt. It<br />

aims at tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g students<br />

<strong>in</strong> the careful rehabilitation<br />

of old city<br />

cores <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> urban <strong>and</strong><br />

architectural design that<br />

takes <strong>in</strong>to consideration<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g physical <strong>and</strong> social<br />

structures. The project on Burg<br />

Rasheed is this semesters ma<strong>in</strong> LAURA<br />

course <strong>and</strong> is at time of writ<strong>in</strong>g<br />

still be<strong>in</strong>g further elaborated.<br />

It allows us to get <strong>in</strong>-depth experience on<br />

the current developments <strong>and</strong> issues <strong>in</strong><br />

Egyptian cities <strong>and</strong> rural areas. Thanks to<br />

our teacher, Dr. Nabil ElHady, we were able<br />

to explore the topics from different angles.<br />

His approach focus<strong>in</strong>g on exploration<br />

<strong>and</strong> research of solutions meant we were<br />

able to th<strong>in</strong>k outside of the box <strong>and</strong> come<br />

up with creative <strong>and</strong> wholistic ideas. We<br />

wholeheartedly thank him for what he has<br />

enabled us to do.<br />

Liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> study<strong>in</strong>g Urban Design <strong>in</strong><br />

Cairo, Egypt, it is impossible not to talk<br />

about <strong>in</strong>formality. Somewhere between 60<br />

<strong>and</strong> 70% of Cairenes live <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal areas,<br />

<strong>and</strong> developments <strong>in</strong> other Egyptian cities<br />

<strong>and</strong> rural areas do not look much different.<br />

While <strong>in</strong> our masters program this issue<br />

is addressed <strong>in</strong> a creative <strong>and</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

way, other programs deal with it <strong>in</strong> a<br />

different manner. Slum clearance is still<br />

an option <strong>in</strong> Egypt, <strong>and</strong> only weeks ago an<br />

entire historic <strong>and</strong> derelict neighborhood <strong>in</strong><br />

central Cairo was demolished <strong>in</strong> favour of<br />

sh<strong>in</strong>y glass towers. The results are displacement,<br />

social <strong>and</strong> economic structures be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

broken asunder <strong>and</strong> the loss of a part of<br />

Cairos identity <strong>and</strong> character.<br />

To us, <strong>in</strong>formality is not the problem, but<br />

part of the solution. Work<strong>in</strong>g with rather<br />

than aga<strong>in</strong>st it allows to carefully make use<br />

of local potentials such social <strong>and</strong> economic<br />

structures. S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>in</strong>formal urban development<br />

is a press<strong>in</strong>g issue of our time,<br />

we th<strong>in</strong>k it is important for students from<br />

various discipl<strong>in</strong>es to be exposed to the<br />

specific characteristics of <strong>in</strong>formality <strong>and</strong><br />

learn how to work with them. It is important<br />

that the students develop a h<strong>and</strong>s-on<br />

approach <strong>and</strong> work closely together with<br />

the community. The fact that our project is<br />

theoretical <strong>and</strong> will not be realized gives us<br />

wider freedom <strong>in</strong> the creative process <strong>and</strong><br />

lets us develop greater visions. But we also<br />

believe that the cont<strong>in</strong>ued ‘reality-check’<br />

of an actual project that is be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

realized poses valuable lessons<br />

to everybody who is <strong>in</strong>volved.<br />

What has helped us is the<br />

variety <strong>in</strong> our backgrounds,<br />

both professionally as well<br />

concern<strong>in</strong>g our countries<br />

of orig<strong>in</strong>. Be<strong>in</strong>g able to<br />

view one topic from different<br />

angles by us<strong>in</strong>g transdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

approaches <strong>in</strong> an <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

environment enabled<br />

us to <strong>in</strong>corporate local expertise<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational experiences.<br />

To encourage collaborations like<br />

this while keep<strong>in</strong>g the “feet on the ground”<br />

seems a good solution to ate <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><br />

young professionals <strong>in</strong> the field of <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

urban development.

132 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

First place

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 133<br />

Dakha, Bangladesh<br />



1Rahfatun Nisa Nova<br />

Nazila Sabr<strong>in</strong> Zaman<br />

Ayesha Labiba Khalil<br />

Md. Nazim Udd<strong>in</strong><br />

Monjura Khatun Nisha<br />

BRAC University<br />


134 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Towards Equilibrium<br />

A vision for Korail as an urban gateway<br />





TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 135<br />

A city where the rich <strong>and</strong> the poor lives side by side is not a common phenomenon.<br />

A city where the rich <strong>and</strong> the poor lives side by side is not a common<br />

The <strong>in</strong>teraction phenomenon. between The the <strong>in</strong>teraction formal <strong>and</strong> between <strong>in</strong>formal the formal creates <strong>and</strong> an <strong>in</strong>formal ecosystem cre-wherates the an rich ecosystem with <strong>and</strong> the other. where poor Dhaka one lives lives side is transform<strong>in</strong>g by harmony side is with not <strong>in</strong>to the a gated common other. communities, Dhaka phenomenon. thus<br />

one<br />

A lives city <strong>in</strong> where harmony<br />

The challeng<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>teraction is transform<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the between ecosystem<br />

<strong>in</strong>to the of<br />

gated formal the<br />

communities,<br />

city. <strong>and</strong> <strong>Informal</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal thus<br />

settlements creates challeng<strong>in</strong>g an ecosystem are<br />

the<br />

vibrant<br />

ecosystem<br />

of the city. <strong>Informal</strong> settlements are vibrant areas with <strong>in</strong>tense<br />

where areas one with<br />

lives <strong>in</strong>tense harmony public public life, with<br />

life, they<br />

the other.<br />

are the Dhaka<br />

gateways is transform<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to to the the city, city, allow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>to allow<strong>in</strong>g gated<br />

poor poor communities,<br />

families families to thus set<br />

challeng<strong>in</strong>g foot the to the city set ecosystem <strong>and</strong> foot build <strong>in</strong> the livelihoods. of city the <strong>and</strong> city. build However, <strong>Informal</strong> livelihoods. the settlements problem However, arises are the vibrant problem when areas the balance with<br />

<strong>in</strong>tense between public the<br />

arises<br />

formal life, when they <strong>and</strong><br />

the are <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

balance the gateways between<br />

is lost. Equilibrium to the the formal city, <strong>and</strong> allow<strong>in</strong>g power,<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal poor economy<br />

is families lost.<br />

<strong>and</strong> to sociospatial<br />

<strong>in</strong> the aspect achieved<br />

set<br />

Equilibrium <strong>in</strong> power, economy <strong>and</strong> socio-spatial aspect needs to be<br />

foot city <strong>and</strong> needs to<br />

build<br />

allow to be livelihoods.<br />

them achieved to susta<strong>in</strong><br />

However, to allow <strong>in</strong> the them city.<br />

problem to Therefore, susta<strong>in</strong> arises <strong>in</strong> this the when<br />

project city. the Therefore, balance<br />

between this project the aims formal aims to br<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> to the <strong>in</strong>formal br<strong>in</strong>g equilibrium the is lost. equilibrium <strong>in</strong>to Equilibrium action through <strong>in</strong>to <strong>in</strong> power, action community economy through partici-anpation needs <strong>and</strong><br />

community sociospatial<br />

participation aspect <strong>and</strong><br />

allow to allow be the<br />

the achieved <strong>in</strong>formal to communities allow them to to become susta<strong>in</strong> become<br />

self <strong>in</strong> self the susta<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

susta<strong>in</strong>ed city. Therefore, to hold<br />

to hold position <strong>in</strong> the society. It focuses on the empowerment of<br />

this position project <strong>in</strong> community-based the aims society. to br<strong>in</strong>g It organisations focuses the equilibrium on as the a media empowerment <strong>in</strong>to for action development through of community-based<br />

<strong>in</strong><br />

participation organisations Korail, <strong>and</strong> as one a allow media of Dhaka’s the for <strong>in</strong>formal development largest communities slums. <strong>in</strong> Korail, to one become of Dhaka’s self susta<strong>in</strong>ed largest slums. to hold<br />

position <strong>in</strong> the society. It focuses on the empowerment of community-based<br />

organisations as a media for development <strong>in</strong> Korail, one of Dhaka’s largest slums.

136 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 137<br />

Pitch Your Idea<br />

A city where the rich <strong>and</strong> the poor live side-by-side <strong>and</strong> serve each other is<br />

not a common phenomenon. This mix of people from different socio-economic<br />

background has become the culture of the city <strong>and</strong> has transformed<br />

Dhaka <strong>in</strong>to a cosmopolitan. The <strong>in</strong>teraction between the formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

segments of the city makes it an ecosystem where one lives <strong>in</strong> harmony with<br />

the other <strong>and</strong> a disruption <strong>in</strong> the system may lead to dramatic effects. Recent<br />

urban development drives of gett<strong>in</strong>g rid of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements however, are<br />

sub-divid<strong>in</strong>g the city <strong>in</strong>to gated communities. Thus, challeng<strong>in</strong>g the ecosystem<br />

of the city.<br />

<strong>Informal</strong> settlements are gateways to the city, they allow poor families to<br />

set foot <strong>in</strong> the city, build livelihoods <strong>and</strong> form strong networks of solidarity.<br />

Dwellers negotiate, work <strong>and</strong> even fight to get a spot <strong>in</strong> the city. This is<br />

spatially translated <strong>in</strong>to vibrant areas with <strong>in</strong>tense public life, <strong>in</strong> which many<br />

activities <strong>and</strong> uses coexist, creat<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>terrelated social fabric <strong>and</strong> a strong<br />

sense of belong<strong>in</strong>g. However, the problem arises when the balance between<br />

the formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal is lost.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>formal settlements are chronically neglected <strong>in</strong> government policy,<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>and</strong> practice. This neglect is mostly due to the rural bias where the<br />

government focuses on rural poverty eradication rather than on the urban<br />

poor, as they are considered “illegal”. The evictions are mostly due the l<strong>and</strong><br />

value of the area where the settlements are located. A great imbalance can<br />

be easily observed <strong>in</strong> terms of socio-economic aspects. Even though the people<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements are actively <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> jobs <strong>and</strong> activities, they<br />

are still victims of social exclusion when it comes to their liv<strong>in</strong>g environment.<br />

Slum dwellers experience different types of problems associated with their<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions that manifest as a result of different forms of deprivation<br />

from the economic, physical, social, <strong>and</strong> political aspect. They live <strong>in</strong> overcrowded,<br />

poorly constructed structures, often with <strong>in</strong>secure l<strong>and</strong> tenure. The<br />

lack of basic needs, forces the dwellers to turn to unfair means to achieve<br />

them, thus, giv<strong>in</strong>g them the tag of be<strong>in</strong>g “illegal”. With the lack of government’s<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiatives, the only source of help that they get is from NGOs. The<br />

NGOs have contributed to a great amount to enhance liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions <strong>in</strong> the<br />

communities; however, their work is yet limited provid<strong>in</strong>g services rather than<br />

empower<strong>in</strong>g the entire community.<br />

The l<strong>and</strong> of the <strong>in</strong>formal settlements is considered major opportunities for<br />

profit mak<strong>in</strong>g. But what if they were viewed as opportunities for humanitarian<br />

development? Is it possible to reduce the major imbalance between<br />

the formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal? Through merg<strong>in</strong>g top- down policy structures with<br />

bottom up community level participation these <strong>in</strong>itiatives may actually start<br />

to function. Equilibrium <strong>in</strong> terms of power, economy <strong>and</strong> socio-spatial aspect<br />

needs to be achieved <strong>in</strong> order to allow them to susta<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> the city. They are<br />

human be<strong>in</strong>gs who have the right to work <strong>and</strong> susta<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> urban areas <strong>and</strong><br />

allow<strong>in</strong>g the equilibrium will encourage social <strong>in</strong>clusion <strong>and</strong> thus lead to a<br />

balanced urban life.

138 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Figure: Contextual Analysis

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 139<br />

Context <strong>and</strong> Process<br />

One of the best places to witness the <strong>in</strong>teraction between the formal <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

is Korail. Located along Gulshan Lake; Korail is one of Dhaka’s largest<br />

slums cover<strong>in</strong>g almost 170 acres of l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> is home to approximately 148,891<br />

people. The <strong>in</strong>habitants work <strong>in</strong> garment factories, as rickshaw pullers <strong>and</strong><br />

housemaids <strong>in</strong> the surround<strong>in</strong>g upper-class neighbourhood. Many of the<br />

families have been liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the area for more than 15 years <strong>and</strong> made Korail a<br />

vibrant urban neighbourhood. Be<strong>in</strong>g ravaged by fire almost every year, Korail<br />

still st<strong>and</strong>s amidst the heart of the city, almost mimick<strong>in</strong>g a jelly-fish that can<br />

regenerate its own body parts.<br />

Sudden eviction drives <strong>and</strong> lack of l<strong>and</strong> tenure security are amongst the<br />

major problems that dom<strong>in</strong>ate the area. Moreover, the lack of official demarcation<br />

of the area leads to l<strong>and</strong> encroachment thus caus<strong>in</strong>g to the lake be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

filled up to meet the grow<strong>in</strong>g populations’ spatial dem<strong>and</strong>s. This causes<br />

deterioration of the water body thus affect<strong>in</strong>g the surround<strong>in</strong>g areas. Like<br />

other <strong>in</strong>formal settlements, lack of access to the basic utility needs is forc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the <strong>in</strong>habitants to consider unfair ways of avail<strong>in</strong>g the services. Due to the<br />

lack of monitor<strong>in</strong>g, the rent is unregulated <strong>and</strong> is extremely high compared to<br />

the rent per square feet <strong>in</strong> formal settlements. Due to the lack of transparency,<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ancial transactions go<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>in</strong> the area is caus<strong>in</strong>g a huge dra<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> the<br />

economy.<br />

A number of NGOs are work<strong>in</strong>g to develop the liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions <strong>in</strong> Korail.<br />

These <strong>in</strong>itiatives are mostly <strong>in</strong> service based where they are given direct<br />

access to health, sanitation, education <strong>and</strong> microcredit programs. However,<br />

these NGO <strong>in</strong>itiatives are not participatory <strong>in</strong> terms of community engagement<br />

<strong>and</strong> thus do not contribute to capacity build<strong>in</strong>g. As a result, the communities<br />

are dependent on them.<br />

An activity that has susta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>and</strong> transformed <strong>in</strong>to a community led <strong>in</strong>itiative<br />

was the formation of a community-based organization (CBO). This CBO,<br />

formed <strong>in</strong> 2005 monitored by a local NGO, DSK, collected bills from the dwellers<br />

<strong>and</strong> paid the government <strong>in</strong> return of water supply. This <strong>in</strong>itiative was fully<br />

run by the locals <strong>and</strong> was highly accepted by the dwellers. Over the years<br />

they succeeded to function properly <strong>and</strong> eventually transformed <strong>in</strong>to their<br />

own entity now known as Central Community Based Organization (CCBO).<br />

Keep<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d the resources available <strong>and</strong> the social acceptability of the<br />

people to such <strong>in</strong>itiatives, this project aims to focus on bottom up community<br />

lead development merged with top-down policy <strong>in</strong>itiatives. It focuses on capacity<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g of the community to ga<strong>in</strong> confidence of the government to run<br />

as a legal urban settlement. It aims to transform Korail <strong>in</strong>to a self-susta<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

community that has the capacity to function on its own as an <strong>in</strong>cubator for<br />

the urban poor.

140 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Figure: Design vision <strong>and</strong> strategies

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 141<br />

Design Vision <strong>and</strong> Strategies<br />

Consider<strong>in</strong>g the exist<strong>in</strong>g condition of Korail, there are three th<strong>in</strong>gs that need immediate<br />

attention <strong>in</strong> order to reach equilibrium. These are, l<strong>and</strong> tenure security, access to basic<br />

utility <strong>and</strong> services <strong>and</strong> capacity build<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>in</strong>habitants for community empowerment.<br />

Keep<strong>in</strong>g this <strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d, the project considers two aspects, policy <strong>and</strong> strategy development<br />

<strong>and</strong> spatial development to complement the development activities.<br />

In rural areas, a common practice for community development is through formation of<br />

community based organisations (CBO), this <strong>in</strong>volves a participatory bottom up approach<br />

<strong>in</strong> community development <strong>and</strong> often is seen to have positive outcomes. This<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiative however, is not widely seen <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements <strong>in</strong> urban areas. “A small<br />

tree could not grow if it is underneath the shadow of another, larger tree.” Keep<strong>in</strong>g this<br />

<strong>in</strong> m<strong>in</strong>d, this project proposes the exist<strong>in</strong>g CCBO to be enhanced <strong>and</strong> used a media for<br />

communication <strong>and</strong> development for the community. The responsibility of the CCBO<br />

will be to develop policies <strong>and</strong> strategies with collaboration with the government <strong>and</strong><br />

NGOs <strong>and</strong> also manage the community.<br />

Currently, the CCBO has 15 core members <strong>and</strong> 45 general members with 200 to 800<br />

households be<strong>in</strong>g monitored per member. Work<strong>in</strong>g with collect<strong>in</strong>g bills for water<br />

supply, CCBO’s success <strong>and</strong> its social acceptance, can allow a similar <strong>in</strong>itiative for other<br />

services to take place as well. Therefore, the first segment of the project <strong>in</strong>volves the<br />

formation of a more comprehensive CCBO.<br />

The proposed organogram of the organization has a team consist<strong>in</strong>g of the president,<br />

vice-president <strong>and</strong> correspond<strong>in</strong>g office staff that will be <strong>in</strong> the headquarters <strong>and</strong> will<br />

be <strong>in</strong>-charge communicat<strong>in</strong>g with NGOs <strong>and</strong> government authorities to ensure the<br />

policy management, monitor the community as well as arrange capacity build<strong>in</strong>g programs.<br />

The committee members are divided <strong>in</strong>to two parts, core members <strong>and</strong> general<br />

members. The general members will be responsible for monitor<strong>in</strong>g clusters with<strong>in</strong> the<br />

area, which now will consist of around 200 to 250 households.<br />

Now, how will the CCBO function? The mission of the CCBO is to be a comprehensive<br />

media for development to build a self-susta<strong>in</strong>ed community; hence it will be divided<br />

<strong>in</strong>to eight w<strong>in</strong>gs, namely: bill collection, construction <strong>and</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>tenance, rectification<br />

<strong>and</strong> rent collection, security <strong>and</strong> public rights, sanitation <strong>and</strong> waste management,<br />

health <strong>and</strong> education. Each of these w<strong>in</strong>gs will have a set of goals <strong>and</strong> objectives that<br />

need to be achieved over time. The Headquarter will be responsible for the collect<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>itial funds <strong>and</strong> required support for these activities.<br />

With the expansion of the CCBO, a lot more members are needed. Currently, the CCBO<br />

has a lack of participation from women members therefore the newly proposed organization<br />

seeks to encourage female participation. In order to make women the leaders<br />

of the CBOs women empowerment through provid<strong>in</strong>g education <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g is highly<br />

needed. Therefore this project proposes to use the UPPR Social model to enhance their<br />

participation. This model works with women <strong>and</strong> girls to overcome their disadvantaged<br />

social position by encourag<strong>in</strong>g them to take on leadership roles with<strong>in</strong> their communities.<br />

The CCBO is expected to be a fully community-run organization where community<br />

participation will be highlighted. This approach is expected to allow the government<br />

to ga<strong>in</strong> confidence over the community’s capacity <strong>and</strong> encourage the government to<br />

promote poverty eradication drives for the urban poor. Through be<strong>in</strong>g with the government,<br />

can legalize access to utility services, allow<strong>in</strong>g a more transparent f<strong>in</strong>ancial<br />

transaction, which has been miss<strong>in</strong>g from the system over the years. This way the government<br />

can benefit through collect<strong>in</strong>g the revenue for provid<strong>in</strong>g the service <strong>and</strong> the<br />

dwellers benefit through a more regulated bill<strong>in</strong>g system <strong>and</strong> access to proper electricity,<br />

water <strong>and</strong> gas supply.

142 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Despite proposals of the government, resettlement <strong>in</strong> an outside location will ultimately<br />

not benefit Korail <strong>in</strong>habitants, because their livelihoods are based <strong>in</strong> the area <strong>and</strong><br />

its surround<strong>in</strong>gs. Also the shar<strong>in</strong>g of the l<strong>and</strong> with private or public developers cannot<br />

be considered a solution. Therefore it has become essential for the government to<br />

reconsider its l<strong>and</strong> distribution activities <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>clude the option to lease out l<strong>and</strong> to<br />

the urban poor. Consider<strong>in</strong>g the l<strong>and</strong> tenure problem, the government can provide l<strong>and</strong><br />

tenure to the <strong>in</strong>habitants <strong>and</strong> also impose certa<strong>in</strong> policies that can be applied <strong>in</strong> order<br />

to receive <strong>and</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> l<strong>and</strong> tenure security. All associated stakeholders are taken <strong>in</strong>to<br />

consideration <strong>and</strong> the project proposes a policy for tenure legalization through which<br />

tenure security may function. This policy will allow the government to monitor <strong>and</strong><br />

control the population of the area <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> addition, reduce l<strong>and</strong> encroachment.<br />

The policy <strong>in</strong>volves a set of criteria that need to be met <strong>in</strong> order to achieve tenure <strong>in</strong><br />

the area. This policy will consider the <strong>in</strong>come generation of a household based on<br />

two aspects, time bound <strong>and</strong> asset bound. The expected scenario of the policy is as<br />

follows:<br />

The exist<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>habitants of Korail will undergo an <strong>in</strong>itial asset calculation that will be<br />

conducted by the CCBO. Households that are found to have an accumulative asset that<br />

goes beyond the ultra-poor or poor <strong>in</strong>come level will be entitled to pay community<br />

welfare funds on a monthly basis <strong>in</strong> order to achieve <strong>and</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> the tenure or will<br />

be offered a space <strong>in</strong> the government resettlement community. The households that<br />

are at the poor <strong>and</strong> ultra poor level will be given a tenure for a period of time as an<br />

opportunity to earn a liv<strong>in</strong>g by stay<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> this area. At regular <strong>in</strong>tervals this process will<br />

be repeated. In the next round of asset monitor<strong>in</strong>g, the households will be expected<br />

to generate a certa<strong>in</strong> amount of <strong>in</strong>come. If a household fails to generate the expected<br />

amount of <strong>in</strong>come over the given time, they will be entitled to shift the government<br />

proposed resettlement communities. On the contrary, if a household reaches the<br />

low-<strong>in</strong>come level they will be entitled to pay the community development fund <strong>in</strong>order<br />

to cont<strong>in</strong>ue their tenure.<br />

The core idea is to convert Korail <strong>in</strong>to an <strong>in</strong>cubator. A space where urban poor will be<br />

given an opportunity to flourish <strong>in</strong> the urban area. Dur<strong>in</strong>g the tenure, the families will<br />

have an opportunity to ga<strong>in</strong> h<strong>and</strong>s on tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> various skills. Vocational tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

organized by the CCBO <strong>in</strong> collaboration with NGOs offered will enable them to get jobs<br />

<strong>in</strong> the formal sector. The poverty reduction <strong>in</strong>itiative <strong>and</strong> community empowerment<br />

objective can also be achieved to an extent through this proposal.<br />

Spatial development is essential to allow these activities to take place. Capacity<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g activities will require space, which at this moment is almost non-existent <strong>in</strong><br />

the area. Some roads need to be reconstructed; this can be conducted by the CCBO<br />

through the fund that will be generated by the community welfare fund collected from<br />

the dwellers themselves. Interactive activity spaces will be located on important <strong>in</strong>teractions<br />

of road networks, this will allow the activities to be more visible <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>crease<br />

social acceptance <strong>and</strong> also attract more people to be a part of it. In addition to this,<br />

some platforms for community recreation as well as multipurpose activities are be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

proposed on the water edge, thus allow<strong>in</strong>g the water edge to be preserved.<br />

Korail is an excellent place to create a developmental model that exhibits sensitivity<br />

to residents <strong>and</strong> allows their participation <strong>in</strong> an equitable redevelopment of their<br />

neighbourhood. Reach<strong>in</strong>g an equilibrium is essential, through this proposed model,<br />

an equilibrium can be reached <strong>in</strong> term social acceptance of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements <strong>and</strong><br />

allow economic balance with<strong>in</strong> the community as well as the formal environment. It<br />

will allow the people of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements ga<strong>in</strong> equal opportunity to be a part of the<br />

urban society rather than a burden on it.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 143

144 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 145

146 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 147

148 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 149

150 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

A word from the group<br />


Figure: Idea for CCBO

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 151<br />

Towards Equilibrium is the bra<strong>in</strong>child of<br />

a five-member group compris<strong>in</strong>g of Architects,<br />

a community-mobilizer <strong>and</strong> a public<br />

health specialist.<br />

Rahfatun Nisa<br />

Nova is an architect,<br />

with a special<br />

<strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong><br />

built environment<br />

<strong>and</strong><br />

development.<br />

After graduat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from BRAC<br />

University, Dhaka<br />

<strong>in</strong> 2013, she worked<br />

under the supervision<br />

of Ar. Mar<strong>in</strong>a<br />

Tabassum(<br />

Award recipient of Aga Khan Development<br />

Network, 2014-2016 cycle) for four years.<br />

Besides this, she also worked<br />

as research assistant <strong>and</strong><br />

participated <strong>in</strong> various<br />

development projects<br />

<strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g funded<br />

by the World Bank<br />

<strong>and</strong> other organizations.<br />

Rahfatun Nisa Nova<br />

Monjura Khatun<br />

Nisha is a current<br />

PhD c<strong>and</strong>idate from the<br />

Sydney School of <strong>Public</strong><br />

Health at the University of<br />

Sydney. She has worked<br />

with ICDDR,B as a research<br />

<strong>in</strong>vestigator for two years.<br />

Monjura Khatun Nisha<br />

Md. Nazim Udd<strong>in</strong> is community mobilizer<br />

work<strong>in</strong>g with Dustha Shasthya Kendra<br />

(DSK ngo) s<strong>in</strong>ce 2012. Over this time he has<br />

worked on various projects based <strong>in</strong> Korail<br />

such as PEHUP (Promot<strong>in</strong>g Environmental<br />

Help for the Urban Poor,<br />

2012-2016). Currently<br />

he is work<strong>in</strong>g<br />

under the project<br />

WASH for<br />

Urban Poor<br />

(Improv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

environmental<br />

health &<br />

resilience of<br />

WASH amongst<br />

Urban) (2016-till<br />

now) <strong>in</strong><br />

Korail.<br />

Through<br />

these<br />

Nazim Udd<strong>in</strong><br />

work Mr. Udd<strong>in</strong> has ga<strong>in</strong>ed first-h<strong>and</strong><br />

experience of work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Korail,<br />

which has been a huge<br />

contribution <strong>in</strong> this project.<br />

His underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of the<br />

people <strong>and</strong> their issues<br />

has enabled the team to<br />

ga<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> depth knowledge<br />

about how this area<br />

runs.<br />

Nazila Sabr<strong>in</strong> Zaman is a<br />

recent graduate from<br />

the Department of<br />

Architecture at BRAC<br />

University. She has a<br />

small onl<strong>in</strong>e based bus<strong>in</strong>ess, through which<br />

she is pursu<strong>in</strong>g her <strong>in</strong>terest on mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

small crafts.<br />

Nazila Sabr<strong>in</strong> Zaman<br />

Ayesha Labiba Khalil is an architect <strong>and</strong><br />

an aspir<strong>in</strong>g academic. Upon graduat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from BRAC University <strong>in</strong> 2016, she is<br />

currently work<strong>in</strong>g as a teach<strong>in</strong>g assistant<br />

<strong>and</strong> also pursu<strong>in</strong>g a masters<br />

<strong>in</strong> Disaster Management at<br />

department of Architecture at<br />

BRAC University. She has a keen<br />

<strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> work<strong>in</strong>g with urban<br />

development issues <strong>in</strong><br />

the global south.<br />

Be<strong>in</strong>g an architect<br />

<strong>in</strong> a<br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

country is<br />

no simple<br />

task. Besides underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

the aesthetics <strong>and</strong> functionality<br />

of a build<strong>in</strong>g, a lot of<br />

attention needs to be put on the<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal sector as it<br />

plays a huge role <strong>in</strong> the<br />

urban form. As a part of<br />

our formal architectural education, we were<br />

always encouraged to work with social issues<br />

<strong>and</strong> low-<strong>in</strong>come communities. This has<br />

played a vital role <strong>in</strong> shap<strong>in</strong>g the way we<br />

perceive <strong>in</strong>formality. <strong>Informal</strong> sector plays a<br />

huge role <strong>in</strong> the process of urbanization of<br />

a city. It is not just a doma<strong>in</strong> for the urban<br />

poor but the formal sector also benefits<br />

from the activities that take place <strong>in</strong> the<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal sector. We feel it is important to<br />

address the <strong>in</strong>formality with<strong>in</strong> the city <strong>and</strong><br />

its confrontation must be done through a<br />

bottom up <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ter-discipl<strong>in</strong>ary approach.<br />

We believe it is important to underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formality<br />

<strong>and</strong> discuss <strong>in</strong>formal urbanization<br />

<strong>in</strong> both undergraduate <strong>and</strong> graduate level<br />

Ayesha Labiba Khalil<br />

as it allows the student to broaden their<br />

perspective of the world.<br />

Urban development for<br />

many countries might not<br />

be a necessity for many cities,<br />

but it is surely an important<br />

issue for the global<br />

south. However, we believe<br />

it should not just be limited<br />

to the global south. The<br />

curriculum should promote a<br />

more sensitive approach where<br />

<strong>in</strong>clusivity should be embedded.<br />

It is important for students from<br />

all parts of the world to underst<strong>and</strong><br />

the issues go<strong>in</strong>g on around the world.<br />

Urban design taught around the world is<br />

often seem to be <strong>in</strong>applicable <strong>in</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

countries like Bangladesh. This is where the<br />

conflict between theory <strong>and</strong> practice arises<br />

<strong>and</strong> therefore we feel, it is important that a<br />

more responsive approach is practiced <strong>and</strong><br />

taught so that theory <strong>and</strong> practice can complement<br />

each other rather than conflict.<br />

Correspond<strong>in</strong>gly, when the Global South<br />

is be<strong>in</strong>g addressed, it is quite important<br />

to identify the differences among Africa,<br />

Lat<strong>in</strong> America <strong>and</strong> South Asia <strong>in</strong><br />

terms of geography, culture,<br />

<strong>and</strong> every other aspect. To<br />

acknowledge the <strong>in</strong> depth<br />

contextual challenges, it<br />

is really important that<br />

we have region-focused<br />

curriculums. Moreover<br />

the particular faculty,<br />

field trips <strong>and</strong> action-oriented<br />

studios should have<br />

the reflection of such <strong>in</strong>tegrity.<br />

In addition to that, shar<strong>in</strong>g<br />

perspectives, op<strong>in</strong>ions <strong>and</strong> expressions<br />

is an <strong>in</strong>tegral part of the learn<strong>in</strong>g<br />

process, therefore we believe, mak<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

student body more diversified by enroll<strong>in</strong>g<br />

student from cross-cultural backgrounds<br />

is essential. With students from developed<br />

countries <strong>and</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g countries<br />

learn<strong>in</strong>g together, we believe the <strong>in</strong>tellectual<br />

products that will result will surely be<br />

comprehensive <strong>and</strong> have a vital role to play<br />

<strong>in</strong> the field of development.

152 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />



TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 153

154<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The 15 f<strong>in</strong>alists

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 155<br />




156 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The Walkable City<br />

The case of Sector 4, Dharavi<br />




AA14<br />

The Walkable City<br />

Case of sector IV, Dharavi<br />

The project is an exploration to address the complex issue of affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g through the case of sector 4<br />

Dharavi, mumbai. Dharavi is one of the largest <strong>in</strong>formal settlements, cover<strong>in</strong>g an area of 200 hectares <strong>in</strong> the city of<br />

Mumbai. It houses approximately 1million with a density of 600-1000 people per hectare. The <strong>in</strong>tent of the project<br />

is to look at Dharavi Redevelopment plan <strong>and</strong> build a critical response to it by test<strong>in</strong>g it to a certa<strong>in</strong> capacity <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong> do<strong>in</strong>g so, look <strong>in</strong>to the details of policies <strong>and</strong> regulations while suggest<strong>in</strong>g alternative methods to counter the<br />

pre-exist<strong>in</strong>g notions of build<strong>in</strong>g construction.<br />

Why do we need to address the issue of <strong>in</strong>formality?<br />

The projec<br />

dharavi, m<br />

Mumbai. It<br />

Why do we<br />

The issue o<br />

ents severa<br />

The curren<br />

<strong>in</strong> such hig<br />

an extensi<br />

migrant po<br />

How does<br />

The study<br />

to look at t<br />

nance, am<br />

understan<br />

Dharavi is<br />

various tra<br />

public tran<br />

percentag<br />

Slum Reha<br />

commodit<br />

at<strong>in</strong>g profi<br />


ture, publi<br />

with care,<br />

The <strong>in</strong>tent<br />

to a certa<strong>in</strong><br />

methods t<br />

The issue of <strong>in</strong>formality <strong>in</strong> urban sett<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>and</strong> how to approach it has been an important issue for decades. It<br />

presents several challenges rang<strong>in</strong>g from the imagery that it provides along with liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructural<br />

concerns.<br />

The current liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions <strong>in</strong> Dharavi is always under scrut<strong>in</strong>y, due to several issues like lack of security of tenure<br />

<strong>in</strong> such high densities, lack of open spaces even accord<strong>in</strong>g to Mumbai st<strong>and</strong>ards, narrow alleys which are almost<br />

an extension of people’s houses, <strong>in</strong>sufficient health <strong>and</strong> sanitation, no security of jobs with a constant <strong>in</strong>take of<br />

migrant population, amongst several others.<br />

There have been several attempts undergone by multiple government <strong>and</strong> private organisations to address the<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions at Dharavi. However, these are <strong>in</strong>terested <strong>in</strong> the large chunk of real estate value that this piece of<br />

l<strong>and</strong> has to offer rather than address<strong>in</strong>g the liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions.<br />

The project on the contrary attempts to approach this issue with the idea of build<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>clusive community, by<br />

not only improv<strong>in</strong>g their way of life <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructure but try<strong>in</strong>g to reta<strong>in</strong> their sense of place <strong>and</strong> their exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

social structure.<br />

The study <strong>in</strong>volves mapp<strong>in</strong>g various aspects of the settlement through a set of parameters that were used as<br />

lens to look at the fabric. These parameters address<strong>in</strong>g the issues of density, topography, typology, communities<br />

<strong>and</strong> governance, amenities, <strong>and</strong> psycho-geography, urban morphology, economic basis, <strong>and</strong> ownership patterns<br />

allow us to underst<strong>and</strong> the livelihoods <strong>and</strong> economy so as to challenge exist<strong>in</strong>g notions of redevelopment.<br />

The project attempts to develop unique liv<strong>in</strong>g typologies for the work-live population of Dharavi. It is an<br />

opportunity to look at its redevelopment to form communities <strong>and</strong> homes for those while adher<strong>in</strong>g to their<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g social structure of rentals <strong>and</strong> owners. Be<strong>in</strong>g one of the most densely populated areas on earth, along<br />

with its issues of ownership, lack of <strong>in</strong>frastructure, the issue of Dharavi <strong>and</strong> its complexity desperately dem<strong>and</strong>s<br />

affordable <strong>and</strong> appropriate solutions for liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> a new way to tackle <strong>in</strong>formality.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 157<br />

Analys<strong>in</strong>g proposed masterplans for Sector IV<br />

Critically analys<strong>in</strong>g Dharavi redevelopment plan.

158 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The new imag<strong>in</strong>ation for Dharavi: Proposed Masterplan

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 159<br />

CONTEXT AND PROCESS ( 300 - 500 WORDS)<br />

Demporem ulparibus, nonsequam ide es eium volendam sequae <strong>in</strong>cid mi, et opta dolupta nobitem aboraep erovit<br />

am quatiisquam fugit aut ero <strong>in</strong>ctas ipit, num etustiatio escitis quundicium, volut <strong>in</strong>ullatent magnis ex et quatio. Itae<br />

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debitatibus, sum ipicid quaturecest ent accatur molorroriati doluptas rem iume comnis con pa ducienimaio. Nam<br />

eium Dharavi quuntur is situated s<strong>in</strong>verc right hillitibea <strong>in</strong> the dolorem geographic ipsum centre volut of et the ducimet city, next eumquat to the fuga. Mithi S<strong>in</strong>ia river volor <strong>and</strong> is aut <strong>in</strong> quis close quatati proximity as dolecab to<br />

orernam various transport ius modit, systems. s<strong>in</strong>ulparum 50 % faceriores of its population et plis vendeli walks atempos to their dest<strong>in</strong>ation, dolupta pa pellatur? while majority Quia que of the voluptaque rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g ium uses eiciisit<br />

public idernat transportation. us<strong>and</strong>is plabori Only aturessi upto 2% ventionsed of the population que rernat uses rempeditibus private vehicles. mi, <strong>in</strong>ctur The sedionsent total area of estiunt, sector torerum 4, (34 hectare) repudi<br />

doluptium<br />

is split between<br />

velia<br />

the<br />

iliquiscid<br />

state +<br />

ut<br />

the<br />

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leased<br />

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to<br />

blam<br />

Tenants.<br />

et faces<br />

The<br />

magnat<br />

koliwadas<br />

latur?<br />

situated next to<br />

the mangroves have existed s<strong>in</strong>ce the beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of the settlement <strong>and</strong> are the owners of their l<strong>and</strong>, <strong>and</strong> are less<br />

dense as compared to the rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g l<strong>and</strong>. The densest portion of the l<strong>and</strong> has about 1200 tenements per hectare.<br />

Um velibus, ute net mos et, optat<strong>in</strong> ulparum et latus ea et libuste ssunt, sitia sitae cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, ommo <strong>in</strong>t laut dolor<br />

aut The li<strong>and</strong>a SRA, i.e, doluptia Slum Rehabilitation sum ipiet am Authority, et voles eosa assigned volorunt.At with the <strong>in</strong>t task ad eost to develop poris et the ese slums con et <strong>in</strong> dit Mumbai quiscias has et looked por asitiati at<br />

optat the redevelopment eossitibus.Tibus model magnihic through te cum the qui lens commod of treat<strong>in</strong>g et ut l<strong>and</strong> et quassit, a commodity, consectam thereby sunt splitt<strong>in</strong>g libus mo the quosto build quibus able area mi,<br />

between the rehab components <strong>and</strong> sale components, generat<strong>in</strong>g profit. Shirish Patel, an urban planner from<br />

tem. Et quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus<br />

Mumbai rightly po<strong>in</strong>ts out that dur<strong>in</strong>g redevelopment, we must acknowledge that there is a dem<strong>and</strong> for a rise <strong>in</strong><br />

volupta<br />

the PGA,<br />

se<br />

to<br />

nisquaest<br />

meet basic<br />

pedias<br />

st<strong>and</strong>ards.<br />

ium et<br />

An<br />

plab<br />

<strong>in</strong>crease<br />

ium idem<br />

<strong>in</strong> FSI<br />

et voluptio.<br />

<strong>in</strong> such neighbourhoods,<br />

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would<br />

et alitatem<br />

result <strong>in</strong><br />

ra<br />

severe<br />

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pressure<br />

voluptatur,<br />

on<br />

etus the <strong>in</strong>frastructure, ess<strong>in</strong>us aut molo public cus. amenities, open ground spaces, roads <strong>and</strong> footpaths. Hence, one needs to approach an<br />

<strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> FSI with care, while attempt<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>in</strong>crease the PGA, so as to not make the area dysfunctional.<br />

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The <strong>in</strong>tent of the project is to look at Dharavi Redevelopment plan <strong>and</strong> build a critical response to it by test<strong>in</strong>g it<br />

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to a certa<strong>in</strong> capacity <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> do<strong>in</strong>g so, look <strong>in</strong>to the details of policies <strong>and</strong> regulations while suggest<strong>in</strong>g alternative<br />

none<br />

methods<br />

odit<br />

to<br />

dolo<br />

counter<br />

ius et et,<br />

the<br />

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pre-exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

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sum eatusa<br />

construction.<br />

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Several surveys,<br />

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<strong>in</strong>terviews<br />

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of<br />

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local<br />

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population.<br />

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The way the DRP <strong>and</strong> SRA measures the population to be rehabilitated has a huge discrepancy. The number of<br />

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tenements that are rehabilitated is based on the number of footpr<strong>in</strong>ts that exist on a certa<strong>in</strong> plot of l<strong>and</strong> i.e one<br />

que<br />

house<br />

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population<br />

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that is<br />

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around<br />

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48%<br />

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The project looks at the idea of cooperative between the owners <strong>and</strong> the rentals, who live together creat<strong>in</strong>g a certa<strong>in</strong><br />

velibus, social structure ute net mos <strong>in</strong> Dharavi et, optat<strong>in</strong> today. ulparum The idea et latus is to ea look et libuste at an economically ssunt, sitia sitae self cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, sufficient system ommo for <strong>in</strong>t the laut tenants, dolor aut<br />

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build<strong>in</strong>g a sense of collective belong<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> still provid<strong>in</strong>g them with a better quality of life.<br />

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The cooperative is formed by the owners <strong>and</strong> the rentals. The owners will own their own houses, whereas the cooperative<br />

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volupta<br />

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reimbursed through the rents paid by the rental population <strong>in</strong> a certa<strong>in</strong> time period.

160 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Section through Scheme A <strong>and</strong> B<br />

Ground floor plan through both schemes

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 161<br />

Can we plan for <strong>in</strong>formality?<br />

The exist<strong>in</strong>g roads are strengthened on the basis of exist<strong>in</strong>g roads <strong>and</strong> cluster boundaries with access to major<br />

transport services, <strong>and</strong> widen<strong>in</strong>g the exist<strong>in</strong>g primary <strong>and</strong> secondary roads. The settlements <strong>in</strong> Dharavi have developed<br />

around religious structures/schools/amenities. These structures are important to the people, but also<br />

the open spaces around them. The DRP fails to identify these open spaces <strong>and</strong> is treat<strong>in</strong>g the built space of these<br />

structures <strong>in</strong> isolation. The project looks to reta<strong>in</strong> exist<strong>in</strong>g social amenities <strong>and</strong> the SRA’s <strong>and</strong> strengthens the exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

open spaces around them through add<strong>in</strong>g new amenities <strong>in</strong> proximity. The pedestrian network connects all<br />

of these amenities creat<strong>in</strong>g a thoroughfare, with a m<strong>in</strong>imum of 15% of open spaces, thereby <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g the PGA.<br />

The commercial is aligned along exist<strong>in</strong>g major commercial streets <strong>and</strong> open spaces.<br />

The later part of the project <strong>in</strong>volves test<strong>in</strong>g a part of the masterplan through built form.<br />

SCHEME A<br />

The lower floor is a tubular unit consist<strong>in</strong>g of a live + work unit with multiple courtyards determ<strong>in</strong>ed by their work<br />

type; with the commercial units on the streetfront <strong>and</strong> the studios spill<strong>in</strong>g out on the central open space.The thoroughfare<br />

cutt<strong>in</strong>g across the central open space connects the two major commercial streets <strong>and</strong> subsequently the<br />

adjacent open space.<br />

The Pedestrian thoroughfare cutt<strong>in</strong>g across the site has been developed around the exist<strong>in</strong>g religious amenities;<br />

new social <strong>and</strong> educational <strong>in</strong>frastructure like the balwadi, vocational centres <strong>and</strong> others has been built around<br />

these to strengthen the open spaces created.The social or communal spaces happen at multiple levels, start<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from the ground which is an extension of the live work units, <strong>and</strong> an important part of the urban life, the <strong>in</strong>termediate<br />

floor, creat<strong>in</strong>g a semi public space for people to gather <strong>and</strong> communicate, terraces at multiple levels offer<strong>in</strong>g<br />

views of the outside, <strong>and</strong> pockets adjo<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g circulation cores offer<strong>in</strong>g opportunities of engagement dur<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

journey from the street to the house.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>termediate floor becomes a parallel ground area, allow<strong>in</strong>g for various communal activities seperat<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

very public <strong>and</strong> private areas whereas the upper floors are s<strong>in</strong>gly loaded structures overlook<strong>in</strong>g the courtyard or<br />

the street, allow<strong>in</strong>g for smaller terraces <strong>and</strong> gather<strong>in</strong>g spaces, connected by corridors <strong>and</strong> staircases.<br />

SCHEME B<br />

This scheme tests two different types of hous<strong>in</strong>g. one is tower type, which l<strong>in</strong>es the external edge of the cluster<br />

<strong>and</strong> is a s<strong>in</strong>gly loaded typology. The other is the mat type, which covers the ground plane with 3-4 storey low<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>tenance structures.<br />

Multiple unit layouts have been worked out, to l<strong>in</strong>e the s<strong>in</strong>gly loaded corridor, to provide maximum community<br />

<strong>in</strong>teraction. Different sizes of the units have been provided, each hav<strong>in</strong>g a smaller liv<strong>in</strong>g room <strong>in</strong>side, provid<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

larger comb<strong>in</strong>ed “Otla” outside the unit, which is l<strong>in</strong>ked to the corridor. The Different unit layouts allow variations<br />

<strong>in</strong> the volume of the “Otla”s. Build<strong>in</strong>gs are placed parallel to the w<strong>in</strong>d direction on site, <strong>and</strong> have niches (that<br />

double up as refuge or amenity) to allow maximum w<strong>in</strong>d permeability. Courtyards are oriented <strong>in</strong> a way to allow<br />

cross ventilation. The terraced roof top is imag<strong>in</strong>ed to be densely vegetated. These roofs along with bioswales are<br />

connected to water retention areas placed near the open spaces to control storm water flood<strong>in</strong>g, which is common<br />

<strong>in</strong> the area.

162 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 163<br />


164 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Settlement <strong>in</strong> a fragile soil:<br />

A case study <strong>in</strong> Favela Rio das Pedras<br />





In the context of the neo-liberal ideology of globalization that valued urban l<strong>and</strong> as a highly contested commodity, <strong>in</strong><br />

the large <strong>and</strong> medium-sized cities of the Global South, while cities grow with a high degree of socio-spatial segregation,<br />

the dem<strong>and</strong> for hous<strong>in</strong>g for the poor is be<strong>in</strong>g supplied by the <strong>in</strong>formal market of urban l<strong>and</strong>. The <strong>in</strong>formal real<br />

state market occurs <strong>in</strong> favelas <strong>and</strong> cl<strong>and</strong>est<strong>in</strong>e settlements that occupy low value l<strong>and</strong> sites oftentimesenvironmentally<br />

vulnerable like occupations of slopes subject to l<strong>and</strong>slides, riverbanks or flat areas subject to flood<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> occupations<br />

of improper soils like soft clay. The occupation of human settlements <strong>in</strong> areas of improper soil is a common issue of<br />

different cities of the Global South <strong>and</strong> will be the focus of this work for“TU DELFT <strong>CONFRONTING</strong> <strong>INFORMALITY</strong>”.<br />

As a case study, we chose Rio das Pedras, a favela with almost 100.000 residentslocated <strong>in</strong> the region of greater urban<br />

expansion of the city of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil between the neighborhoods of Jacarépaguá <strong>and</strong> Barra da Tijuca. These<br />

neighborhoodsregistered the largest number of real estate launches <strong>in</strong> the city between 2000 <strong>and</strong> 2010, represented<br />

mostly by closed condom<strong>in</strong>iums for upper middle class, consider<strong>in</strong>g population growth <strong>in</strong> the order of 28% <strong>in</strong> the<br />

period. Despite the warm<strong>in</strong>g of the construction <strong>in</strong>dustry had generated thous<strong>and</strong>s of employment opportunities,<br />

neither the State nor the Market created new hous<strong>in</strong>g opportunities for lower <strong>in</strong>come populationthat migrated to<br />

the region <strong>in</strong> search of employment. The result was the excessive <strong>and</strong> accelerated grow of the pre-existent <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements <strong>in</strong> the order of 53% growth <strong>in</strong> the period, that not accompanied by improvements <strong>in</strong> urban <strong>in</strong>frastructure<br />

<strong>and</strong> services, created situations of urban congestion that <strong>in</strong> the case of Rio das Pedras favelas, because of the fragility<br />

of the soil, became dramatic.<br />

Recently the municipality of Rio de Janeiro launched the idea of a <strong>Public</strong>-Private Partnership for the replacement of<br />

the favela by a new vertical residential condom<strong>in</strong>ium, which units would be f<strong>in</strong>anced to favela residents. The proposal<br />

revolted residents who protested strongly aga<strong>in</strong>st it, because : First, residents had not been consulted, second the<br />

proposed model does not meet the needs of the local because of higher ma<strong>in</strong>tenance costs, <strong>in</strong>flexibility of the units<br />

for commercial or production uses, <strong>and</strong> ext<strong>in</strong>ction of the street as the ma<strong>in</strong> element for social activities <strong>and</strong> leisure.<br />

Will the solution to the serious problems of <strong>in</strong>frastructure of Rio das Pedras necessarily pass through the removal or<br />

tabula rasa solutions? Would not it be possible to reth<strong>in</strong>k the construction of the urban blocks <strong>in</strong> order to preserve the<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g urban fabric, economic <strong>and</strong> social structures?<br />

These questions guided the development of this work.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 165<br />

Photo 1- Aerial view of Rio das Pedras <strong>and</strong> Barra da Tijuca neighborhood <strong>in</strong> the background. Source: Herick Ribeiro, 2018.<br />

Photo 2- Commercial street. Source: Tayná Santiago, 2018. Photo 3- New build<strong>in</strong>gs along the river. Source: Tayná Santiago, 2018.<br />

Photo 4- The new condom<strong>in</strong>ium proposed by Municipality. Source: nabarra.tv<br />

Photo 5- Protest aga<strong>in</strong>st Municipality project. Source: Gaby Rocha.

166 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Fragile soil area<br />

City Hall`s empty l<strong>and</strong><br />

Areal<br />

Darcy Ribeiro Square (The only square <strong>in</strong> Areal)<br />

Hydrography<br />

Jacarepaguá Road<br />

Eng. Sousa Filho Avenue<br />

Tijuca<br />

Lagoon<br />

250m<br />

500m<br />

The settlement of Rio das Pedras <strong>in</strong> yellow areas of more fragile soil (soft clay). Below: photo of one sunken house.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 167<br />


1990 2000 2005 2010 2018<br />

Scheme that illustrates the problem of s<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g houses with huge losses to resident households.<br />


Demporem Although the ulparibus, beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g nonsequam of the occupation ide es eium of Rio volendam das Pedras sequae took <strong>in</strong>cid place mi, <strong>in</strong> et 1951, opta dolupta it was from nobitem the year aboraep 2000 erovit that<br />

am occurred quatiisquam the great fugit explosion aut ero of <strong>in</strong>ctas growth. ipit, Affected num etustiatio by hous<strong>in</strong>g escitis crisis quundicium, <strong>in</strong> the region, volut the <strong>in</strong>ullatent residents magnis organized ex et quatio. through Itae an<br />

vollent Association quid of ut Residents et quas et required expla volest, from quas the government acculla boreiurio. the expropriation Itae num fugit of earcili a large bereseque private l<strong>and</strong>, simagnias claim es that eicatet was<br />

optas attended <strong>and</strong>unt <strong>in</strong> the quibeatem late 1980swith quis qui the ius<strong>and</strong>i agreement aut et that aperchilla it would nis be volut the Association raturiatem of arumend Residents itibusa who would estrum plot excerum the area de<br />

debitatibus, <strong>and</strong> distribute sum the ipicid l<strong>and</strong>. The quaturecest result was ent a regular accatur fabric molorroriati with lots doluptas of 50 m2 rem (5m iume x 10m) comnis of very con high pa density ducienimaio. <strong>in</strong> a soft Nam clay<br />

eium soil. As quuntur <strong>in</strong>itially s<strong>in</strong>verc the occupation hillitibea dolorem of the lots ipsum was done volut et by ducimet tents or eumquat wooden shacks fuga. S<strong>in</strong>ia (light volor constructions), aut quis quatati the situation as dolecab of<br />

orernam repression ius was modit, practically s<strong>in</strong>ulparum imperceptible, faceriores but et plis when vendeli the constructions atempos dolupta began pa to pellatur? be reformed Quia <strong>and</strong> que exp<strong>and</strong>ed voluptaque with ium more eiciisit<br />

durable idernat materials: us<strong>and</strong>is structures plabori aturessi <strong>in</strong> concrete ventionsed <strong>and</strong> walls que <strong>in</strong> rernat masonry rempeditibus of brick, the mi, build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong>ctur sedionsent literally began estiunt, to torerum s<strong>in</strong>k. repudi<br />

doluptium velia iliquiscid ut que sust, seque volorum, omnis evenda qui blam et faces magnat latur?<br />

The repression process comes to bizarre situations <strong>in</strong> areas of more fragile soil where a dwell<strong>in</strong>gunit of 2 stages<br />

Um s<strong>in</strong>ks velibus, up to one ute meter net mos every et, optat<strong>in</strong> 3 years, ulparum which means et latus that ea <strong>in</strong> et less libuste than ssunt, 10 years sitia a sitae whole cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, floor stay ommo below <strong>in</strong>t street laut dolor level,<br />

aut what li<strong>and</strong>a generates doluptia humid sum <strong>and</strong> ipiet floodable am et voles spaces eosa , mak<strong>in</strong>g volorunt.At the ground <strong>in</strong>t ad level eost <strong>in</strong>adequate poris et ese for con liv<strong>in</strong>g. et dit The quiscias problem et por had asitiati be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

optat corrected eossitibus.Tibus by families through magnihic new te cum l<strong>and</strong>fills qui <strong>and</strong> commod reposition<strong>in</strong>g et ut et quassit, the slabs consectam to fit the right re sunt foot, libus which mo means quosto a quibus complete mi,<br />

tem. renovation Et quam of the aligeni house maximporunde every 10 years, nobis what ius consumes recae volorrunto all the families’ officium sav<strong>in</strong>gs, explant, an aut untenable que re dolorer situation. rorepello quibus<br />

volupta se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio. Od maio blabor aut et alitatem ra dolupta voluptatur,<br />

etus ess<strong>in</strong>us aut molo cus.<br />


Uga. Ulparci ut lat aut ant, cus eicilitem ipit fugiatur ma pliquo evenihillaut officim odioribusci venet re volor accus<br />

GROUPS<br />

consequi te nonsequi<strong>and</strong>i <strong>and</strong>a poraest veliciis quae dolor ad modips<strong>and</strong>a de volectissim <strong>and</strong>ae eum re earitia vendae<br />

none odit dolo ius et et, omnis deratusam essedi sum eatusa volupt<strong>in</strong>it omnisit, teturestrum aut des reictae resequis<br />

In the context of state retraction <strong>in</strong> Lat<strong>in</strong> America, <strong>in</strong>formal settlements are <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>fluenced by networks<br />

autatem re si bea sequaeri nihilitae id ex et mo maximag nienti que cone rem <strong>in</strong>ciistias et ut delia pelibeaquae nis<br />

of paramilitaries groups that exploits these territories by sell<strong>in</strong>g private security services, alternative transportation,<br />

reperum, sitium dolliqui aut optaepedi doluptiorum et vidis diss<strong>in</strong>cte veligen turitem ad ea corehenis que lacepresto<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternet <strong>and</strong> cable TV services, monopoliz<strong>in</strong>g the sale of some essential products like gas, dr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g water <strong>and</strong><br />

to officiatio. Itatiis velenda arcid eiureped modit harum sit es rat et labo. Nem. Ut ipita dipsundae volorum iducius,<br />

eventually also act<strong>in</strong>g with illegal products such as drugs or stolen goods. As powerful groups that act with connivance<br />

nonseque quo derit liquae. Nam am fuga. Ut optatis quatquianis sa simus. Ut utem quas del expliti onectae nusdam<br />

of the State <strong>and</strong> politicians , they exert power through oppression expell<strong>in</strong>g families who refuse to follow the rules of<br />

que re busam dolum s<strong>in</strong>um a quia num eostrum dolor aut quassit voloribus niscilit omnimillat.Ut utem quas del expliti<br />

monopoly. This social context affects families economically <strong>and</strong> consequently is generat<strong>in</strong>g negative implications to<br />

onectae nusdam que re busam dolum s<strong>in</strong>um a quia num eostrum dolor aut quassit voloribus niscilit omnimillat.<br />

the environment.<br />

Um velibus, ute net mos et, optat<strong>in</strong> ulparum et latus ea et libuste ssunt, sitia sitae cuptat<strong>in</strong>us, ommo <strong>in</strong>t laut dolor aut<br />

The high cost of liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Rio das Pedras caused by the exploitation by doma<strong>in</strong> groups <strong>and</strong> soil fragility has generated a<br />

li<strong>and</strong>a doluptia sum ipiet am et voles eosa volorunt.At <strong>in</strong>t ad eost poris et ese con et dit quiscias et por asitiati optat<br />

vicious cycle of exploitation that replicates at many levels. Residents who are owners are exp<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g or reform<strong>in</strong>g their<br />

eossitibus.Tibus magnihic te cum qui commod et ut et quassit, consectam re sunt libus mo quosto quibus mi, tem. Et<br />

homes to exploit new alternative sources of <strong>in</strong>come open<strong>in</strong>g stores on ground level or attach<strong>in</strong>g t<strong>in</strong>y apartments for<br />

quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus volupta<br />

se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio. Et quam aligeni maximporunde nobis ius recae volorrunto<br />

location on the roof slabs, but this expansion has aggravated the problem of constructive repression, mak<strong>in</strong>g clear<br />

that to facethe problem of s<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g we have to consider physical-structural solution but also social <strong>and</strong> economic issues.<br />

officium explant, aut que re dolorer rorepello quibus volupta se nisquaest pedias ium et plab ium idem et voluptio.

168 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Image 1: Proposal of blocks. Image 2: Reaction diagram. Image 3: Ferry block.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 169<br />

As Rio das Pedras is located on the banks of a river <strong>and</strong> a lagoon with soft clay soil; blocks are occupied by s<strong>in</strong>gle-family<br />

residences with conventional foundation of re<strong>in</strong>forced concrete that are seriously affectedby repression, it is impossible<br />

to preserve the exist<strong>in</strong>g constructions, we considered the possibility of relocation <strong>and</strong> reconstruction of each block<br />

<strong>in</strong> the same place they are<strong>in</strong> order to promote a gradual <strong>in</strong>tervention <strong>in</strong> the exist<strong>in</strong>g fabric, block by block, avoid<strong>in</strong>g<br />

great impact on the daily life of the resident population.The first challenge was about what k<strong>in</strong>d of construction <strong>and</strong><br />

foundation could, preserv<strong>in</strong>g high densities, present stability on that type of soil . The first option, discarded by the<br />

costs, would be deep foundations with stakes of 10 to 15 meters depth. The second one, which was adopted, was the<br />

solution of a radier foundation larger than the projection of the supported cargothat should be well distributed <strong>in</strong> the<br />

most balanced way possible, we called FerryBlock Concept.<br />


The concept of the ferry block is that of a large structural surface that occupies the whole block <strong>and</strong> supports loads<br />

very well distributed as if it were a ferry float<strong>in</strong>g on a very soft soil.The very rationalized type of construction <strong>in</strong> terms<br />

of loads brought the idea of replac<strong>in</strong>g the set of s<strong>in</strong>gle-family units with multi-family residential units, which, <strong>in</strong> a way,<br />

contradicts the hous<strong>in</strong>g pattern found there.<br />


Although not a very common typology <strong>in</strong> the favela, the multifamily residential complex presents some <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g<br />

advantages for the case of Rio das Pedras. It is due to the aspect of be<strong>in</strong>g a collective construction that is planned allow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a greater rationality of the distribution of loads, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g good distribution of weight elements such as vertical<br />

circulation towers (stairs), water storage devices <strong>and</strong> lighter materials such as plaster panels <strong>and</strong> adoption of steel<br />

frame system <strong>in</strong> upper floors.<br />

One important aspectof the multifamily residential complex is the preservation of the relation between the new build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> the street, consider<strong>in</strong>g that if the morphology result<strong>in</strong>g from the complex is very close to the reality of the<br />

favela, it will be easier to adapt the resident families. In this way we proposed the ma<strong>in</strong>tenance of the same number<br />

of floors (ground floor + 3 floors) <strong>and</strong> the existence of commercial units on the ground floor.<br />

The new set makes it possible to solve various problems of <strong>in</strong>adequate hous<strong>in</strong>g as the example of poorly dimensioned<br />

ladders that become collective <strong>and</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ardized, for <strong>in</strong>stance <strong>and</strong> problems of natural ventilation <strong>and</strong> light<strong>in</strong>g caused<br />

by occupancy of the hole lot (build<strong>in</strong>gs conf<strong>in</strong>ed with doors <strong>and</strong> w<strong>in</strong>dows just fac<strong>in</strong>g the street). Consider<strong>in</strong>g that<br />

climate is very hot <strong>and</strong> humid, houses are very humid because they s<strong>in</strong>k, it is very important to guarantee natural<br />

ventilation <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>cidence of sun. This condition is important to avoid the spread of diseases such as yellow fever<br />

<strong>and</strong> tuberculosis, that even today are still recurrent <strong>in</strong> favelas.<br />

To <strong>in</strong>habit a multifamily build<strong>in</strong>g means to build relationships between neighbors that allow the collective management<br />

of a space, ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g common areas of use; tak<strong>in</strong>g care of the networks of build<strong>in</strong>g facilities;manag<strong>in</strong>g the garbage,<br />

mail, water reserve <strong>and</strong> distribution; control<strong>in</strong>g expansions; creat<strong>in</strong>gcondom<strong>in</strong>ial rules <strong>and</strong> car<strong>in</strong>g for security.<br />

We do not see this as a problem, on the contrary, it can be potential to re<strong>in</strong>force neighborhood relations, mutual help<br />

<strong>and</strong> solidarity, normally present <strong>in</strong> these communities. We consider the maximum number of 64 hous<strong>in</strong>g / commercial<br />

units (population of 250 residents) for the establishment of these neighborhood units, which we will call here “communal<br />

condom<strong>in</strong>iums”. As the proposal is focused on exist<strong>in</strong>g urban blocks, the proximity between families is already<br />

present, giv<strong>in</strong>g greater conditions for structur<strong>in</strong>g social networks of each communal condo.<br />

Believ<strong>in</strong>g that the urban form is a powerful <strong>in</strong>strument to dynamize the social relations, we proposed the <strong>in</strong>corporation<br />

of common spaces between two or more build<strong>in</strong>gs as semi-public spaces of permanence, configur<strong>in</strong>g a network<br />

of small public spaces that can help to promote vic<strong>in</strong>al networks. We believe that thiscan be a political <strong>in</strong>strument<br />

of resistance aga<strong>in</strong>st exploitation <strong>and</strong> oppression practiced by doma<strong>in</strong> groups. We believe that <strong>in</strong> order to assert the<br />

“Right to the City” (LeFebvre) it is very important to th<strong>in</strong>k beyond the power of the State <strong>and</strong> Justice (Top-down), empower<strong>in</strong>g<br />

citizens<strong>in</strong> their daily life of dwell<strong>in</strong>g (Bottom-up).

170 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Jacarepaguá Road<br />

Eng. Sousa Filho Avenue<br />

4<br />

7<br />

5<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

Tijuca<br />

Lagoon<br />

The Hous<strong>in</strong>g Program Over Time.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 171<br />


1.Urbanization of the City Hall`s empty l<strong>and</strong> with construction of new build<strong>in</strong>g for resettlement of the families occupy<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the banks of the river.<br />

2. Resettlement of the families from the river banks.<br />

3. Protection of river banks with a l<strong>in</strong>ear park. Construction of the ferry blocks <strong>in</strong> the l<strong>and</strong> of the dest<strong>in</strong>ation (showroom).<br />

4.Negotiation with families of a pilot block (<strong>in</strong> area of worst fragile soil).<br />

5. Temporary relocation of families from the pilot block to the ferry blocks <strong>in</strong> the City Hall’s l<strong>and</strong>.<br />

6. Works <strong>in</strong> the pilot block for rebuild<strong>in</strong>g accord<strong>in</strong>g to the ferry blocks model.<br />

7. one year later - families return to the home <strong>in</strong> a ferry blocks model.

172 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Reform<strong>in</strong>g Waste:<br />

AA22<br />



Pip<strong>in</strong>g Mansheyat Naser<br />

The Garbage City – Egypt’s Untouchables<br />

The Garbage City – Egypt’s Untouchables<br />





The Idea<br />

The relentless growth of cities urges for solutions that relate to the improvement of levels of comfort <strong>in</strong> conf<strong>in</strong>ed spaces<br />

<strong>and</strong> a right to public spaces for the well-be<strong>in</strong>g of the liv<strong>in</strong>g quality of a citizen. This is especially necessary for a change<br />

<strong>in</strong> the forgotten community at the base of Mokattan hill on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt - the world’s largest garbage<br />

village: the garbage city.<br />

When you step <strong>in</strong>to the slums of Mansheyat Nasser, the first unique impression that strikes you would be the piles of<br />

garbage <strong>in</strong> nylon bags stacked, fill<strong>in</strong>g the streets, <strong>and</strong> this is uniquely why this particular slum home to 60,000 people<br />

is also known as ‘the Garbage City’. Cairo’s city garbage is brought to the Garbage City <strong>in</strong> by this group of resid<strong>in</strong>g locals<br />

called the “Zabbaleen” (Arabic for garbage people), who then sort through the garbage to attempt to retrieve any<br />

potentially useful or recyclable items. The Zabaleen are born <strong>in</strong>to the trash trade <strong>and</strong> grow up <strong>in</strong> a ghetto but they’ve<br />

developed efficient way of sort<strong>in</strong>g. These garbage collectors comprise of almost 70% of the city’s population, thus the<br />

reason for its given name. They are <strong>in</strong>evitably one of the most efficient garbage sorters because they manage to sell of<br />

80% of the garbage they collect on a daily basis.<br />

Garbage here consist of the city’s thrown-out <strong>and</strong> leftover stories. The garbage’s are the basic energy of the city. There<br />

are leftover stories that garbage city absorbs to make a livelihood out of what they have. Consider<strong>in</strong>g the amount of<br />

garbage they have to collect <strong>and</strong> sort to earn a liv<strong>in</strong>g, the garbage they collect back to their homes are of an even larger<br />

amount. They would sort the garbage <strong>in</strong> their homes <strong>and</strong> then sell it after. With the lack of access to proper sanitation<br />

across the slum, it makes diseases easier to spread with<strong>in</strong> the city. At present there is little provision of public spaces<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the slum area <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>frastructures provided are fragmented, ab<strong>and</strong>oned <strong>and</strong> therefore impractical to improve<br />

the liv<strong>in</strong>g quality of the people. Heavily affected by the negative perception of the citizens <strong>in</strong> the city of Cairo towards<br />

the slum, Garbage city is one place not every local Egyptians would step <strong>in</strong>.<br />

This proposal are ideas that are h<strong>and</strong>s-on, <strong>in</strong> the form of small-scale <strong>in</strong>itiatives that uses the scraps <strong>and</strong> waste they have<br />

to convert them <strong>in</strong>to reusable energy <strong>and</strong> add<strong>in</strong>g value to an under-looked element as a shared space among neighborhood.<br />

It is our fundamental assumption that a healthy community should have a right to a clean liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions <strong>and</strong><br />

spaces for engagement <strong>and</strong> exchange among neighbors <strong>and</strong> where strong bonds can be ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed. Initiatives that are<br />

people-centered, empower<strong>in</strong>g all <strong>in</strong>dividuals <strong>and</strong> communities, while enabl<strong>in</strong>g their full <strong>and</strong> mean<strong>in</strong>gful participation<br />

<strong>in</strong> the process. While the <strong>in</strong>itiatives may be small, the idea of chang<strong>in</strong>g one street, one <strong>in</strong>itiatives at a time could be a<br />

big catalyst that could stir up a pride <strong>in</strong> the people of the city <strong>and</strong> improve their liv<strong>in</strong>g quality all <strong>in</strong> all while dim<strong>in</strong>ish<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the prejudice aga<strong>in</strong>st them <strong>in</strong> the process.

REFOR<br />

PIPING<br />

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 173<br />

AA22<br />

The Gar<br />

An overall graphic vision of the pip<strong>in</strong>g system attached on the ab<strong>and</strong>oned build<strong>in</strong>g with the strategy <strong>in</strong> place.

174 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Introduction of the site, its problems <strong>and</strong> the exisit<strong>in</strong>g conditions.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 175<br />

Simplified diagram expla<strong>in</strong>ation of strategies <strong>and</strong> approach.<br />

Context & Process<br />

Beh<strong>in</strong>d the mounta<strong>in</strong>s of rubbish one starts to see the order, discipl<strong>in</strong>e, diligence <strong>and</strong> the strong sense of pride the Zabaleen<br />

have <strong>in</strong> their work. Families work together <strong>and</strong> earn a liv<strong>in</strong>g; at dawn every morn<strong>in</strong>g, young Zabaleen members of the<br />

community start their daily journey to Cairo <strong>in</strong> horse-drawn carts <strong>and</strong> trucks <strong>in</strong> order to collect rubbish from the city’s apartments<br />

<strong>and</strong> bus<strong>in</strong>esses. By lunchtime all the rubbish collected has been brought back <strong>in</strong>to the slum settlement where every<br />

member of the family; children, parents <strong>and</strong> gr<strong>and</strong>parents set to sort<strong>in</strong>g it. This k<strong>in</strong>d of livelihood has been passed on for a<br />

few generations.<br />

We would start the first phase of this proposal by address<strong>in</strong>g the quality of liv<strong>in</strong>g for each of the families. We believe address<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>formality is not just about creat<strong>in</strong>g more build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> typologies, rather it’s about underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g the context <strong>and</strong><br />

its needs while com<strong>in</strong>g up with solutions that are affordable, practical <strong>and</strong> workable. Therefore, the proposal would first be<br />

look<strong>in</strong>g at the site <strong>in</strong> a macro scale <strong>and</strong> categoriz<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>gs on the site. A reuse of ab<strong>and</strong>oned build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong> the area would<br />

be dedicated to rubbish sort<strong>in</strong>g, so that the people would not or lessen the amount of garbage brought back home. Through<br />

this simple logic, it would already have decreased half or more of the amount of rubbish <strong>and</strong> diseases.<br />

In the second phase, the regeneration is on an architectural element of Mansheyat Nasser that has be<strong>in</strong>g left ab<strong>and</strong>oned – on<br />

the rooftops. These spaces will be regenerated based on the assumption all the rubbish on the rooftop would be cleared <strong>and</strong><br />

these spaces could then become shared spaces for the local community. The improvement of the highest layer of this city<br />

would be then a new layer for communal <strong>in</strong>teraction.<br />

In a third phase, smaller <strong>in</strong>itiatives <strong>and</strong> ideas would spread out across the fabric of the slum. The lessons learnt by the local<br />

population through their <strong>in</strong>volvement <strong>and</strong> participation <strong>in</strong> the construction of the build<strong>in</strong>gs could, <strong>and</strong> hopefully would, then<br />

move <strong>in</strong>to the construction of these structures <strong>in</strong> the vic<strong>in</strong>ity of their own dwell<strong>in</strong>gs. These <strong>in</strong>itiatives are a good example of<br />

low-tech susta<strong>in</strong>ability: f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g a new application for the production of normally unused waste follow<strong>in</strong>g the ideal that noth<strong>in</strong>g<br />

is left beh<strong>in</strong>d, but <strong>in</strong>stead everyth<strong>in</strong>g can f<strong>in</strong>d a new, previously not envisaged, use <strong>and</strong> purpose.

176 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Regenerat<strong>in</strong>g the rooftops as public spaces, shown <strong>in</strong> a perspective plan view.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 177<br />

Design Vision & Strategies<br />

“Every slum is unique <strong>and</strong> regeneration would be successful only if it responds to the genius loci<br />

by collaborat<strong>in</strong>g with the community that builds for themselves.”<br />

The ma<strong>in</strong> idea of our proposal epitomizes the quote. Tackl<strong>in</strong>g slum regeneration or upgrad<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the context of Mansheyat<br />

Nasser <strong>in</strong>cludes tak<strong>in</strong>g actions <strong>in</strong> both the <strong>in</strong>terior liv<strong>in</strong>g quality <strong>and</strong> the exterior public spaces of the site. The general strategy<br />

is to come up with m<strong>in</strong>or <strong>in</strong>terventions with respect to the physical structure us<strong>in</strong>g local upcycl<strong>in</strong>g resources. These local<br />

upcycl<strong>in</strong>g resources ma<strong>in</strong>ly <strong>in</strong>volve urban transformation, us<strong>in</strong>g raw materials such as wood from the garbage collected <strong>and</strong><br />

also good pieces from the local factory nearby.<br />

Our proposal is based on the assumption that the government would do its part on ensur<strong>in</strong>g the clean-up work on the streets<br />

<strong>and</strong> on the rooftops would be carried out. With that at h<strong>and</strong>, the first phase of the proposal is that a new system made from<br />

scraps, unwanted rubbish <strong>and</strong> perhaps some raw materials would then be implemented <strong>in</strong> the designated garbage sort<strong>in</strong>g<br />

build<strong>in</strong>gs. These mechanisms will have pip<strong>in</strong>g that will sort the rubbish <strong>in</strong>to different b<strong>in</strong>s based on the different k<strong>in</strong>ds of<br />

waste such as plastics, alum<strong>in</strong>um, paper, metal <strong>and</strong> glass. The sorters will dispose of the garbage <strong>in</strong>to different gravity pipes<br />

that would connect to different b<strong>in</strong>s, <strong>and</strong> based on the net weight, tokens that could be changed to cash would be then<br />

given. After a day’s of hard work, a designated lorry will drive to the b<strong>in</strong>s on the ground level <strong>and</strong> collect the rubbish every<br />

even<strong>in</strong>g. This system ensures recyclable rubbish are sent out to their factories every even<strong>in</strong>g. The categorization of build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

typologies would also be an encouragement for the people to br<strong>in</strong>g their garbage <strong>in</strong>to the designated build<strong>in</strong>gs, <strong>in</strong>stead of<br />

<strong>in</strong>to their homes where they live.<br />

Besides that, we would also focus on improv<strong>in</strong>g the conditions of the streets, by do<strong>in</strong>g proper clean<strong>in</strong>g up <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>sert<strong>in</strong>g<br />

small <strong>in</strong>itiatives with simple mechanisms. These mechanism are not complicated mach<strong>in</strong>eries but buildable structure with<br />

guidel<strong>in</strong>es to the community. Small projects such as a bio-waste trash b<strong>in</strong> that generates electricity, a balcony w<strong>in</strong>dmill that<br />

harness energy <strong>and</strong> even a plastic shredd<strong>in</strong>g mach<strong>in</strong>e as a children’s playground would further enhance the idea of the reuse<br />

of waste to create someth<strong>in</strong>g useful for the community. For example, our proposal of bio-waste converter b<strong>in</strong>s would allow<br />

the people to dispose their bio-waste <strong>in</strong>to the b<strong>in</strong>s <strong>in</strong> order to generate electricity to power up more parts of their homes.<br />

The w<strong>in</strong>dmill attached on the balconies <strong>and</strong> rooftops that are made from scratch also allows for the storage of energy from<br />

the w<strong>in</strong>dy <strong>and</strong> s<strong>and</strong>y climate. These harnessed energies can be transformed <strong>in</strong>to useful energy of electricity to generate<br />

heat dur<strong>in</strong>g the colder climatic seasons or whenever necessary. Lastly, a plastic shredd<strong>in</strong>g mach<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> the form of a children’s<br />

playground/play kit could not only encourage children to be a part of the recycl<strong>in</strong>g process but also aid the NGO that are<br />

produc<strong>in</strong>g local crafts from plastics shreds by the women <strong>in</strong> the city. By <strong>in</strong>sert<strong>in</strong>g new activities <strong>and</strong> services, <strong>and</strong> concentrat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

them along the road <strong>in</strong> designated focal po<strong>in</strong>ts we aimed to disperse the development throughout the settlement.<br />

The dense structure of the neighborhood requires specific <strong>in</strong>terventions that create a network of <strong>in</strong>frastructure <strong>and</strong> facilities<br />

based on the logic of micro-<strong>in</strong>tervention. From the central element of a new system to recycle rubbish to the other punctual<br />

components of our proposal, we aimed to work on a small scale but with an eventual much larger vision of <strong>in</strong>tervention.<br />

In the third phase of the proposal, the lessons learnt by the local population through their <strong>in</strong>volvement <strong>and</strong> participation<br />

<strong>in</strong> the construction of the build<strong>in</strong>gs could, <strong>and</strong> hopefully would, then move <strong>in</strong>to the clean<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> construction of the under-used<br />

rooftop elements to be public shared spaces with<strong>in</strong> the close knitted society. The lack<strong>in</strong>g gather<strong>in</strong>g spaces now can<br />

then be replaced by the rooftop spaces. The proposal was born from the desire to create spaces for the people who live <strong>in</strong><br />

the neighborhood <strong>and</strong> for the activities they perform every day. Imag<strong>in</strong>e if housewives could use the rooftop to dry their<br />

laundry, bird towers could be <strong>in</strong>corporated with plant<strong>in</strong>g boxes <strong>and</strong> children could use the bird towers as their playground<br />

<strong>and</strong> kite-fly<strong>in</strong>g grounds. The task we tried to follow was to preserve <strong>and</strong> enhance some aspects of their daily life, especially<br />

those common characters able to further strengthen the exist<strong>in</strong>g social network – such as the bird towers. Rooftops are also<br />

<strong>in</strong>terl<strong>in</strong>ked with each other through bridges or connect<strong>in</strong>g platforms.<br />

While we underst<strong>and</strong> the lure of a universal solution for slum upgrad<strong>in</strong>g, but we are conv<strong>in</strong>ced every slum is unique <strong>and</strong><br />

would be successful only if it responds to the genius loci. The reuse <strong>and</strong> simple regeneration project would use local materials,<br />

local technologies <strong>and</strong> local construction systems provid<strong>in</strong>g not only physical development but also an opportunity for<br />

that to act as a stimulus for the future susta<strong>in</strong>able growth of the neighborhood.

178 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Build<strong>in</strong>g section <strong>and</strong> the process of how the pip<strong>in</strong>g works on the ab<strong>and</strong>oned build<strong>in</strong>g, with step by step guidel<strong>in</strong>es.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 179<br />

Small scale <strong>in</strong>terventions to be proposed along the stretch of the road, enabl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> improv<strong>in</strong>g the qualit of the community.

180 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 181

182 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

AA23<br />

(PRE)Occupy<strong>in</strong>g Anchieta<br />

Build<strong>in</strong>g Urban Inclusion <strong>in</strong> Peripheral São Paulo<br />

(PRE) Occupy<strong>in</strong>g Anchieta<br />

Build<strong>in</strong>g Urban Inclusion <strong>in</strong> Peripheral São<br />

Paulo<br />







As many metropolis <strong>in</strong> the global south, peripheral neighbourhoods proliferate around São Paulo. These communities<br />

often suffer from marg<strong>in</strong>alization <strong>in</strong> physical, as much as <strong>in</strong> social terms. Grajaú, <strong>in</strong> the South of<br />

São Paulo, is such a peripheral self-build districts, developed over time by claims for rights to the city. In this<br />

context, the community of Anchieta emerged <strong>in</strong> 2013 from the occupation of a private <strong>and</strong> environmental<br />

protected l<strong>and</strong>. The owner of the l<strong>and</strong>, a social <strong>in</strong>stitution that fights for the improvement of the peripheral<br />

communities’ education is daily preoccupied with improv<strong>in</strong>g everyday liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions of the community.<br />

The large NGO aims to build towards a peripheral liv<strong>in</strong>g environment that respects the natural l<strong>and</strong>scape,<br />

improves socio-economic conditions <strong>and</strong> offers opportunities for develop<strong>in</strong>g professional skills <strong>and</strong> education.<br />

This project tries to learn from the Anchieta occupation its particular context how stigmatized peripheral dwell<strong>in</strong>g<br />

environments can be improved towards more <strong>in</strong>clusive urban sett<strong>in</strong>gs. The project is organized <strong>in</strong> three dist<strong>in</strong>ct lenses<br />

of the (pre)occupied site, analys<strong>in</strong>g the environmental context, the built fabric <strong>and</strong> the social environment. This<br />

way, the research <strong>and</strong> design project seeks to illustrate the complex problematic of coexistence <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>terdependence<br />

<strong>in</strong> the peripheral city <strong>in</strong> the mak<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>and</strong> allows for more <strong>in</strong>clusive future design scenarios to be imag<strong>in</strong>ed.<br />

These three lenses are tested out <strong>in</strong> three particular read<strong>in</strong>gs of the site, iterat<strong>in</strong>g between analysis <strong>and</strong> project.<br />

The first underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of the Anchieta occupation is realized ‘from above’, <strong>in</strong> a cartographic analysis.<br />

The second unfolds a look ‘from below’, develop<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>terpretative mapp<strong>in</strong>g that stems from specific<br />

trajectories on <strong>and</strong> through the site. Lastly, the third revisited the site through a design exploration.<br />

The project offers an alternative to a global problematic <strong>and</strong> yet constantly neglected: the coexistence between a<br />

precarious marg<strong>in</strong>alized population <strong>and</strong> disappear<strong>in</strong>g valuable natural resources. In Anchieta, the l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> its resources<br />

have been devastated with the same brutality that are neglected the vital needs of vulnerable populations.<br />

In parallel to that, the strange <strong>and</strong> fragile collaboration between the l<strong>and</strong>’s owners <strong>and</strong> the occupant population<br />

turns Anchieta an exceptional opportunity for experimentation. These two groups are work<strong>in</strong>g together to develop<br />

an adequate <strong>and</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able solution able to face the struggles <strong>and</strong> expectations of the various actors. This<br />

negotiation process for coexistence offers the opportunity to generate a pilot project tackl<strong>in</strong>g crucial challenges<br />

shared by contemporary <strong>in</strong>formal development. Ultimately, this exemplar collaboration has the potential to generate<br />

a shift <strong>in</strong> the local m<strong>in</strong>d-sets <strong>and</strong> hopefully <strong>in</strong>fluence legislative decisions <strong>in</strong> terms of socio-urban <strong>in</strong>clusions.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 183<br />

Aerial view of Anchieta’s Community, IAG.

184 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

ELEMENT 01 / SLOPE<br />

15<br />

Everyday’s life journey <strong>in</strong> Anchieta. Alice Larsimont

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 185<br />

Children of the Anchieta’s community, Lucas Lerchs.<br />


Anchieta’s occupation is a community that started from the <strong>in</strong>vasion of the IAG’s terra<strong>in</strong> - Instituto Anchieta Grajaú<br />

- <strong>in</strong> 2013. The occupants have devastated the hilly natural reserve by burn<strong>in</strong>g down the vegetation <strong>in</strong> the time<br />

of a weekend. Straight on the ashes, they constructed fragile wooden structures as their shelter’s base to survive.<br />

The owners of the l<strong>and</strong>, unprepared to face such a violent <strong>and</strong> total loss of control over their property, directly<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiate legal proceed<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong> order to evict the occupants. Wait<strong>in</strong>g for the trial, the tensions became high between<br />

the Instituto Anchieta Grajaú, which is responsible for provid<strong>in</strong>g education to the region’s children - <strong>and</strong><br />

the occupants, who have become more numerous <strong>and</strong> organized themselves as the Anchieta Grajaú movement.<br />

After changes of coord<strong>in</strong>ation on both sides, a dialogue is f<strong>in</strong>ally established between the two groups. Hence, from negotiations<br />

<strong>and</strong> collaboration an agreement was reached: the Institute allowed the population present on site to live on their while<br />

the community respect the rules set by the Institute <strong>in</strong> terms of environmental protection <strong>and</strong> necessary spatial changes.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>ce this agreement, both side have already proved their implication <strong>in</strong> the respect of their engagements. At the<br />

beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of 2017, the Institute formed a research group composed of various professionals <strong>in</strong> order to develop an<br />

<strong>in</strong>-depth analysis <strong>and</strong> a project proposal <strong>in</strong> collaboration with the community. On the other h<strong>and</strong>, the community has<br />

already moved dozens of houses to release the marg<strong>in</strong>s <strong>and</strong> protect the water source pass<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the centre of the l<strong>and</strong>.<br />

Nowadays, the community that lived s<strong>in</strong>ce the <strong>in</strong>vasion <strong>in</strong>to a conflict<strong>in</strong>g relationship with its natural environment<br />

is <strong>in</strong>itiat<strong>in</strong>g a phase of gradual transformation <strong>in</strong> order to reconsider its natural context as valuable resources<br />

for development. Realiz<strong>in</strong>g a considerable shift, from their ma<strong>in</strong> threat to a catalysator for their survival.<br />

Based on the present strength, the project research method is based on “learn<strong>in</strong>g” processes that <strong>in</strong>tervene <strong>in</strong><br />

all levels of the realized work. From the study method <strong>in</strong> the on-site observ<strong>in</strong>g process – learn<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>and</strong> with<br />

them – it quickly became evident that our shared local & external knowledge would become the solid base to<br />

develop the strategies <strong>and</strong> the goal of the proposed <strong>in</strong>terventions. This “learn<strong>in</strong>g” goal aims to support the complete<br />

community to be empowered by giv<strong>in</strong>g them access to proper spaces <strong>and</strong> external networks to develop their<br />

skills & knowledge capital. The local know-how is their greatest <strong>in</strong>strument for social mobility. Unfortunately nowadays<br />

it is hard for them to develop it, as they first have to deal everyday with their socio-economical struggles.<br />

At this stage, the proposal rema<strong>in</strong>s an open w<strong>in</strong>dow on the possibilities that the place has to offer <strong>and</strong> to give a<br />

chance to the most concerned actors to set the improvement mechanism off. Aware of the big probability of<br />

spontaneous <strong>and</strong> uncontrollable evolution, the project voluntary keeps a certa<strong>in</strong> degree of un-def<strong>in</strong>ition, to give<br />

the necessary liberty for both people <strong>and</strong> nature liv<strong>in</strong>g on site to appropriate it <strong>and</strong> make advantages out of it.

186 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Incremental occupation<br />

(pre) occupy<strong>in</strong>g the forest<br />

Settl<strong>in</strong>g with water<br />

Emergent dwell<strong>in</strong>g environments<br />

Carol<strong>in</strong>e Cust<strong>in</strong>e, Alice Larsimont, Lucas Lerchs

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 187<br />


The Grajaú district is truly marked by uneven topography, patterned by a dense network of micro valleys <strong>and</strong> streams.<br />

The no-man’s l<strong>and</strong>s where the precarious favelas settlements have to face a double geomorphological aspect: they<br />

are the <strong>in</strong>-betweeness of the city, where the residual territory comes from undef<strong>in</strong>ed spaces to <strong>in</strong>cremental consolidation<br />

development, <strong>and</strong> they are the steady terra<strong>in</strong>s, where extreme slopes <strong>and</strong> water flows have made the l<strong>and</strong>s<br />

undesirable for constructors.<br />

In Anchieta, the poor soil structure is even more weakened by the lack of proper dra<strong>in</strong>age network: the actual <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

streets of the community became open-air canals. Grooves appear all along the roads, carry<strong>in</strong>g the water from top to<br />

down to the m<strong>in</strong>e dug deeper when carry<strong>in</strong>g water, waste <strong>and</strong> expos<strong>in</strong>g the population to health issues.<br />

In the region, water is an uncerta<strong>in</strong> resource. Dur<strong>in</strong>g wet seasons, it can turn <strong>in</strong>to danger when it generates impressive<br />

floods, which sludge flows can be deadly. Dur<strong>in</strong>g dry seasons, it can become a commodity so rare that communities<br />

like Anchieta are sometimes deprived of it for several days mak<strong>in</strong>g extreme heat unbearable.<br />

DAILY WATER SYSTEM | First of all, long trenches will be dug follow<strong>in</strong>g the topography, form<strong>in</strong>g long trenches runn<strong>in</strong>g<br />

along the hillsides. These coils will be used to collect ra<strong>in</strong>water every day. Collect<strong>in</strong>g these waters <strong>and</strong> slow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

down their flow by mak<strong>in</strong>g them follow the topography, avoids soil erosion <strong>and</strong> allows the <strong>in</strong>habitants to make use of<br />

these waters by deviat<strong>in</strong>g the common channel to water their crops or to use the water to other household needs.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>habitants who built terraces there to <strong>in</strong>stall dwell<strong>in</strong>gs have transformed the l<strong>and</strong>’s morphology. Once former<br />

houses would be demolished, these man made terraces could be used as a support for the water harvest<strong>in</strong>g system<br />

or to help its canalization.<br />

EXCEPTIONAL WATER SYSTEM | At the end of its run, this daily water management network would pour <strong>in</strong>to a<br />

second type of <strong>in</strong>tervention, designed to receive more water: the exceptional water system. This exceptional water<br />

system consists <strong>in</strong> an important digg<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> re<strong>in</strong>forcement of the ground where the waters naturally meet. The<br />

purpose of this <strong>in</strong>tervention is to be able to create a corridor to direct the important waterfalls, more rare but more<br />

devastat<strong>in</strong>g. These exceptional water corridors make it possible to protect the area of greater risk of erosion as well as<br />

to collect these waters <strong>in</strong> bas<strong>in</strong>s situated at their end. These bas<strong>in</strong>s, which are also useful for filter<strong>in</strong>g the water from<br />

the waste it could have carried on, allow the <strong>in</strong>habitants to temporarily use this water stock as a precious resource. A<br />

surplus allows the water to over flow <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ishes its course <strong>in</strong> the bottom of the valley, <strong>in</strong> the creek that crosses the<br />

community.<br />

VEGETATION | This diversity of environment makes it possible to generate various vegetal systems whose <strong>in</strong>teraction<br />

improves simultaneously the quality of life of the <strong>in</strong>habitants <strong>and</strong> contribute to the rebirth of this precious flora. The<br />

first <strong>in</strong>tervention is to implement an “exceptional water system” with native vegetation whose root<strong>in</strong>g would help to<br />

solidify these soils. This <strong>in</strong>tervention would also help regenerate corridors of the Mata Atlantica – national protected<br />

vegetation – <strong>and</strong> locally regenerate this resource that needs to be re-established <strong>in</strong> the all region. In addition, these<br />

vegetation corridors would allow the regeneration of an absorbent <strong>and</strong> adapted green mass <strong>in</strong> order to take advantage<br />

of these large quantities of water that will be redirected <strong>in</strong> this corridor. These important <strong>in</strong>terventions also make<br />

possible to take advantage of these facilities to add pedestrian traffic to these steepest areas of the community <strong>and</strong><br />

that would create natural sub-divisions between future hous<strong>in</strong>g groups.<br />

The central zone of the community conta<strong>in</strong>s the native vegetation to conserve <strong>and</strong> to replant throughout the territory<br />

of this nature reserve. In order to protect this vegetal resource, a transition zone will be established on one the edges<br />

of the natural area. This entire surface, composed of many terraces formerly <strong>in</strong>habited, will accommodate food production<br />

areas as well as areas of reforestation of native vegetation. This production surface also allows ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g a<br />

distance between the implementation of human activities <strong>and</strong> construction, <strong>and</strong> the native vegetation reserve.

188 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Phas<strong>in</strong>g of development<br />

Learn<strong>in</strong>g & collective poles<br />




PHASE 1<br />

Collect<strong>in</strong>g & protect<strong>in</strong>g the flows<br />

1<br />

1<br />

2<br />

2<br />

3<br />




3<br />

PATH<br />

Slow<strong>in</strong>g down water<br />

PHASE 2<br />



PHASE 3<br />

A project from, with & for the community<br />


PHASE 4<br />

Carol<strong>in</strong>e Cust<strong>in</strong>e, Alice Larsimont, Lucas Lerchs<br />

co-liv<strong>in</strong>g with the flora

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 189<br />

In the case of Grajaú, we are deal<strong>in</strong>g with an area disputed by complex forces. The more visible are essentially socio-spatial<br />

features but there is also a layer of <strong>in</strong>fluence embedded <strong>in</strong> politics, policies <strong>and</strong> actor’s governance. Situated<br />

at the periphery of the periphery – <strong>in</strong> local perspective, where the city beg<strong>in</strong>s - this population is exposed to all<br />

lack of basic needs <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructures. Nevertheless, their adaptations to survive <strong>in</strong> these unclaimed territories made<br />

visible the consequences of unplanned urbanization. This key aspect of the situation can raise potential governmental<br />

funds <strong>and</strong> supports but it can also trigger conflict of <strong>in</strong>terests. The daily struggles from local population are <strong>in</strong> need of<br />

actors’ collaboration to answer urban contemporary challenges <strong>and</strong> should alarm plann<strong>in</strong>g authorities. For <strong>in</strong>stance,<br />

through the lack of formal systems of garbage collection <strong>and</strong> sewage network, the settlement simply can’t evacuate its<br />

daily waste. Black <strong>and</strong> grey waters, organic waste, non-biodegradable <strong>and</strong>, residual materials from build<strong>in</strong>g activities<br />

all end down <strong>in</strong> the creek. This generates health issues, pollution, <strong>in</strong>security, stigmatization <strong>and</strong> isolation population.<br />

In order to meet this essential dem<strong>and</strong>, the project develops three poles whose objective is to simultaneously physically<br />

<strong>and</strong> socially reconnect Anchieta with its close context while provid<strong>in</strong>g places of learn<strong>in</strong>g where the exchange<br />

of knowledge can take place. The development of its poles will serve as a motor for meet<strong>in</strong>g actors, for transmitt<strong>in</strong>g<br />

knowledge & skills <strong>and</strong> - f<strong>in</strong>ally for generat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>come for the community’s <strong>in</strong>habitants. These poles have the ambition<br />

to answer the urgent need of gather<strong>in</strong>g places has consequences on the whole community <strong>and</strong> sub-community life <strong>in</strong><br />

Anchieta. Lastly, the poles can become the <strong>in</strong>itiation of diverse complementary productive activities, micro-economies<br />

that emerged from the new skills or knowledge acquired.<br />

First a ‘productive pole’ redevelops plant resources <strong>in</strong> this natural reserve. This place is designed as a production<br />

center ma<strong>in</strong>ly of seeds <strong>and</strong> young shoots, which can then be, planted <strong>in</strong> the vegetal production & regeneration green<br />

areas of the whole community.<br />

Secondly, a ‘cultural pole’ meets a critical need for activities for young people. The culture, used as a form of creative<br />

resistance <strong>in</strong> the whole region, is strongly absent <strong>in</strong> the community. The <strong>in</strong>genuities to develop it are however already<br />

present but are lack<strong>in</strong>g of basic f<strong>in</strong>ancial support <strong>and</strong> adapted <strong>in</strong>frastructure. The objective of this pole is to also be an<br />

open place to the public outside the community to establish a two-ways <strong>in</strong>clusion: the people from the community are<br />

more <strong>in</strong> contact with their surround<strong>in</strong>gs but also to welcome the people of the surround<strong>in</strong>gs to come <strong>and</strong> participate<br />

<strong>in</strong> the development of the project.<br />

F<strong>in</strong>ally the ‘educational pole’ is located at another boundary of the community. This location is strategically located at<br />

most socially precarious part of the community. This pole consists of two build<strong>in</strong>gs: the first one be<strong>in</strong>g a workshop <strong>and</strong><br />

classroom build<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>and</strong> the second one consist<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a waste recycl<strong>in</strong>g station <strong>and</strong> sales premises for the recycled materials.<br />

Inspired by small-scale local <strong>in</strong>itiatives, these functions could become part of wider network already gradually<br />

regenerat<strong>in</strong>g socio-economic conditions <strong>in</strong> the region.<br />

HOUSING | Sao Paulo has become a city of two faces. Separated between the city center, where most advantaged<br />

populations live <strong>and</strong> the surround<strong>in</strong>gs of it, where vulnerable populations keep on establish<strong>in</strong>g themselves. The last<br />

challenge of the project is provid<strong>in</strong>g an appropriate hous<strong>in</strong>g that could contribute towards social <strong>in</strong>clusion. Consider<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the city <strong>in</strong> its current state, <strong>in</strong> its larger scale <strong>and</strong> with all the potential it has to offer, this <strong>in</strong>clusion will not occur<br />

only by <strong>in</strong>tegrat<strong>in</strong>g the peripheries <strong>in</strong>to the formal system but by consider<strong>in</strong>g these surround<strong>in</strong>g communities as part<br />

of a whole. Anchieta then cannot be just seen as another peripheral community that needs to be regularized <strong>and</strong><br />

consolidated <strong>in</strong> order to become one day likewise the centre, but as another part of the city to take <strong>in</strong>to account while<br />

imag<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the evolution of Sao Paulo.<br />

The project proposes to only provide the essential solid wood structure be<strong>in</strong>g thought as a basis for a development<br />

<strong>and</strong> a more personalized subdivision for each family. Dwell<strong>in</strong>gs with a built area of 54.5m2 can be enlarged <strong>and</strong> developed<br />

up to 84m2. The <strong>in</strong>habitants are themselves responsible for the ma<strong>in</strong>tenance <strong>and</strong> development of their own<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g. They own the elements they add but the ownership of the soil as well as the construction rema<strong>in</strong>s to the<br />

Instituto Anchieta Grajaú, the legal owners of the l<strong>and</strong>. The implementation of hous<strong>in</strong>g clusters make possible to<br />

generate collective micro-spaces that exist<strong>in</strong>g sub-communities can easily take over while provid<strong>in</strong>g more resilience<br />

to the entire community.<br />

Nowadays the official status of the area still under “ecological protected area”. The government while negat<strong>in</strong>g the human<br />

occupation generates a fragile protection concern<strong>in</strong>g eviction but also doesn’t enable the population to benefit<br />

from all social support. Nevertheless, by us<strong>in</strong>g creatively this hybrid status, the project has the potential to negotiate<br />

alternative structures towards social <strong>in</strong>clusion.

190 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

City <strong>in</strong> the Mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

AA24<br />

Platforms CITY IN THE to MAKING an endur<strong>in</strong>g Resilient<br />

Platforms to an endur<strong>in</strong>g resilient development<br />

Development<br />





São Paulo is subject <strong>and</strong> the endlessly provisional product of a plethora of occupations carried out by a multitude of<br />

miscellaneous movements. By squatt<strong>in</strong>g open <strong>in</strong>terstitial <strong>and</strong> residual spaces <strong>in</strong> the rapidly dispers<strong>in</strong>g metropolitan area,<br />

these movements provide shelter for those excluded from formal hous<strong>in</strong>g. By mobiliz<strong>in</strong>g, organiz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> support<strong>in</strong>g<br />

settlements on the one h<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> by <strong>in</strong>itiat<strong>in</strong>g waves of occupations on the other, these movements enforce peculiar<br />

urbanization processes. One neglected terra<strong>in</strong> after another is seized <strong>and</strong> remodelled for accommodat<strong>in</strong>g sem-tetos.<br />

In its first stages, the young occupation rema<strong>in</strong>s prudent towards its surround<strong>in</strong>gs, fear<strong>in</strong>g eviction <strong>and</strong> rival groups<br />

compet<strong>in</strong>g over the l<strong>and</strong>. The provisional campsite, generally walled off from its surround<strong>in</strong>gs, is strategically located<br />

at the edges of the city, often resid<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> between high-rise condom<strong>in</strong>iums, non-residential build<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> alongside<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructures or waterbodies. Only slowly, the occupation opens up towards the urban tissue, feed<strong>in</strong>g on its<br />

commerce, services <strong>and</strong> jobs <strong>and</strong> look<strong>in</strong>g to lure <strong>in</strong> commercial potential.<br />

Meanwhile, the movements proudly display their banners, openly criticiz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> revers<strong>in</strong>g the lamentable quantity<br />

<strong>and</strong> quality of social hous<strong>in</strong>g. The occupations are made visible, as strongholds to fight aga<strong>in</strong>st hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>equality,<br />

marg<strong>in</strong>alization <strong>and</strong> eviction, at the vanguard combat<strong>in</strong>g for a susta<strong>in</strong>able development, such as amongst others<br />

stated by the UN’s susta<strong>in</strong>able development agenda.<br />

Marked by <strong>in</strong>security of stay<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> uncerta<strong>in</strong>ty of long-last<strong>in</strong>g legal frameworks, the dwell<strong>in</strong>g environment takes<br />

the form of an ever chang<strong>in</strong>g, perpetually reconstructed build<strong>in</strong>g site. The nomadic-like lifestyle of the squatters<br />

propagates an architecture of constellations that is perpetually under (re)construction. The nomadic architecture is a<br />

bricolage of easily demountable materials like timbre <strong>and</strong> wooden or corrugated fibre plates, piecemeal consolidat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> more durable materials. Almost simultaneous to the sprawl of units, access to services <strong>and</strong> public goods is laid out.<br />

While <strong>in</strong>dividuals <strong>and</strong> families come <strong>and</strong> go, the volatile settlement consolidates <strong>in</strong>to an urbanity-<strong>in</strong>-the-mak<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

In short...<br />

Like a liv<strong>in</strong>g organism, the occupations react to their surround<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>ner-fluxes <strong>in</strong> the most flexible way, balanc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

temporality <strong>and</strong> permanence, <strong>in</strong>clusiveness <strong>and</strong> exclusiveness, forecast<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> stag<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>visibility <strong>and</strong> exposure,<br />

marg<strong>in</strong>ality <strong>and</strong> centrality. Their resilience is their ma<strong>in</strong> strength. If one gets evicted, ten others will appear. However,<br />

despite an evident social agenda <strong>and</strong> autonomous self-organisation, these occupied spaces rema<strong>in</strong> subject to<br />

precarious <strong>and</strong> often hazardous liv<strong>in</strong>g circumstances, social <strong>and</strong> economic segregation, limited spatial plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

destruction of green space.<br />

This proposal will illustrate how urban design can offer the framework to offer a more susta<strong>in</strong>able development, while<br />

safeguard<strong>in</strong>g its <strong>in</strong>dispensable resilient character. The l<strong>and</strong>scape will act as a platform conciliat<strong>in</strong>g urbanity-<strong>in</strong>-themak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

with nature <strong>and</strong> different stakeholders <strong>in</strong>volved. Do<strong>in</strong>g so, this proposal offers an alternative <strong>and</strong> critique to<br />

the common approaches of expulsion, common tabula rasa, or laissez-faire politics.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 191<br />

FOMMAESP -- Forum de de Moradia Moradia e e<br />

Meio Ambiente do Estado Estado de São de Paulo São<br />

Paulo<br />

Rua Ana Aslan, Capão Redondo,<br />

Rua Zona Ana Sul Aslan, Capão Redondo,<br />

Zona 700 familias Sul<br />

700 Families<br />

44 530 m²<br />

44 530m²<br />

Campo Belo<br />




ls<br />

e<br />





BA<br />

HS<br />

BZ<br />

FU<br />

PL<br />

OI<br />

SM<br />

BAR<br />


BAZAR<br />


PLANTS<br />

OLD IRON<br />


GR<br />

BS<br />

HD<br />

SCH<br />

CH<br />

UBS<br />




SCHOOL<br />

CHURCH<br />


Fiche Olga Bernário: a dense occupation on the verge to become part of the city.<br />

RES<br />

SB<br />

CL<br />

CM<br />

FF<br />

GS<br />







192 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

% of population growth/<br />

decrease <strong>in</strong> 1991-2000 % of empty dwell<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>in</strong> 2000<br />

-5%- -2%<br />

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 193<br />

Picture: the dwell<strong>in</strong>gs excavate themselves <strong>in</strong> the steep hillside along the Engenho creek<br />


The occupation Olga Bernário, sitt<strong>in</strong>g on a hillside along the Engenho creek, stretches over a vast site of 45.000 sq.<br />

meters <strong>in</strong> the Southern district of São Paulo. The terra<strong>in</strong> got occupied by a h<strong>and</strong>ful of families <strong>in</strong> April 2014, under the<br />

banner of FLM, Frontl<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> the Fight for Hous<strong>in</strong>g. The terra<strong>in</strong> got drastically repurposed once aga<strong>in</strong> after serv<strong>in</strong>g at<br />

best as a large dump for outlived automobiles, a bus st<strong>and</strong>, even host<strong>in</strong>g an occupation settlement five years before -<br />

from the same movement admittedly. The occupation evolved rapidly to a dense settlement, hous<strong>in</strong>g more than 700<br />

families only three years later.<br />

The provisional campsite is at its turn<strong>in</strong>g po<strong>in</strong>t to become a more permanent built environment. However, fear from<br />

eviction still prevails <strong>and</strong> the nomadic architecture lasts, thus suffer<strong>in</strong>g putrefaction, mould <strong>and</strong> st<strong>in</strong>k due to moist,<br />

water <strong>in</strong>filtration <strong>and</strong> little ventilation, lack of direct sunlight or artificial light<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>and</strong> as good as no acoustic or thermal<br />

<strong>in</strong>sulation. The <strong>in</strong>adequate liv<strong>in</strong>g circumstances attract verm<strong>in</strong> like mice, rats <strong>and</strong> cockroaches <strong>and</strong> are cause to little<br />

hygienic comfort <strong>and</strong> numerous diseases.<br />

Meanwhile, even though the occupation rema<strong>in</strong>s distant from the formal market, it has become a breed<strong>in</strong>g ground<br />

for small <strong>in</strong>itiatives, <strong>in</strong>dispensable for many households to ga<strong>in</strong> a small <strong>in</strong>come. Initiatives sprout vastly but volatile.<br />

Moreover, the occupation is <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly dependent on the surround<strong>in</strong>gs for its job market, social <strong>in</strong>frastructures,<br />

commerce et cetera, despite poor accessibility to formal services <strong>and</strong> jobs. Likewise, the accumulated budget <strong>and</strong><br />

workforce generate opportunities for the surround<strong>in</strong>gs as well.<br />

The temporal character at the <strong>in</strong>itial phases of the occupation has resulted <strong>in</strong> little spatial structure such as open<br />

space, let alone qualitative public spaces. Newly built dwell<strong>in</strong>gs cont<strong>in</strong>uously plug <strong>in</strong> on the exist<strong>in</strong>g tissue, further<br />

narrow<strong>in</strong>g alleys <strong>and</strong> open spaces. Rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g green spaces are further deforested <strong>and</strong> surfaces are <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

hardened, result<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> accumulated water speed <strong>and</strong> erosion, critical overloads of the creek, <strong>and</strong> flood<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> -<strong>in</strong><br />

exceptional cases- wash<strong>in</strong>g away of dwell<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

In short…<br />

The movement, although committed to ecology <strong>and</strong> social engagement, has difficulties <strong>in</strong> comb<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the residential<br />

with the non-residential <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> safeguard<strong>in</strong>g nature. Instead of provid<strong>in</strong>g open spaces <strong>and</strong> facilities, ecological <strong>and</strong><br />

social well be<strong>in</strong>g are ignored <strong>and</strong> even opposed. This was illustrated dur<strong>in</strong>g a biannual occupation wave <strong>in</strong> 2016, where<br />

the occupation exp<strong>and</strong>ed towards the neighbour<strong>in</strong>g terra<strong>in</strong>s. The exp<strong>and</strong>ed occupation was evicted aga<strong>in</strong> only few<br />

months later, but the green hillsides suffered huge damage from cutted trees <strong>and</strong> dug platforms for dwell<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

At its turn<strong>in</strong>g po<strong>in</strong>t to consolidate, it is clear the occupation offers refuge to the poor, who have no other option than<br />

to claim their own piece of l<strong>and</strong>. Meanwhile, it also necessitates a strong framework to guide its further development.<br />

Design, we believe, can offer such a framework, work<strong>in</strong>g together with the movement’s agenda for susta<strong>in</strong>able<br />

development <strong>and</strong> facilitat<strong>in</strong>g security of tenure.

194 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />


As the dwell<strong>in</strong>gs excavate themselves <strong>in</strong>to the slop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

l<strong>and</strong>scape, a mosaic of micro-cracks <strong>and</strong> related hardened<br />

platforms disturb the natural water flow.<br />

Little absorption of water <strong>and</strong> no<br />

restriction <strong>in</strong> its flow lead to erosion,<br />

flood<strong>in</strong>g of dwell<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> critical<br />

overloads of the creek.<br />

Deforestation<br />

of steep hills<br />

enhances erosion.<br />

The forest on the western<br />

hillside got heavily scarred<br />

<strong>in</strong> the aftermath of Outubro<br />

Vermelho.<br />


Stabiliz<strong>in</strong>g the cracks by retention walls to dra<strong>in</strong> the<br />

dwell<strong>in</strong>gs form the pretext to temper the waterflows.<br />

Where considered necessary, dwell<strong>in</strong>gs are relocated to<br />

underscore a cont<strong>in</strong>uous retention wall.<br />

forest<strong>in</strong>g hillsides <strong>in</strong>creases water<br />

absorption <strong>and</strong> stabilization of the<br />

soil.<br />

the lower valley keeps<br />

its straight flow. this<br />

area rema<strong>in</strong>s unbuilt.<br />

A maze of reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls bends<br />

the water flows. The reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls<br />

plug <strong>in</strong> on the exist<strong>in</strong>g micro cracks,<br />

dra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the dwell<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

a small watershed collects<br />

the water run<strong>in</strong>g down rua<br />

ana aslan before it enters<br />

the creek<br />

Stabiliz<strong>in</strong>g the cracks by retention walls.<br />

Cracks left untouched<br />


Reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls stabiliz<strong>in</strong>g the microcracks both consolidate the exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

dwell<strong>in</strong>gs as offer the substrate to implement new hous<strong>in</strong>g or social<br />

facilities. At the same time, they shape the composition of squares of<br />

dist<strong>in</strong>ct sizes.<br />

Eucalyptus trees <strong>and</strong> mosquito<br />

oust<strong>in</strong>g trees <strong>in</strong> general counteract<br />

deceases like malaria, zika <strong>and</strong><br />

dengue.<br />

The higher reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls allow for<br />

the construction of dwell<strong>in</strong>gs, be it<br />

self-constructed or a social hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

project. They compensate for the<br />

removed units <strong>in</strong> risk areas.<br />

Reedbeds filter the sewage from<br />

the occupation <strong>in</strong> awaitance to<br />

connection to the formal network.<br />

Reforestation of hillsides<br />

<strong>in</strong>creases water absorption<br />

<strong>and</strong> stabalization of the soil.<br />

The open spaces are kept<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ly soft to keep water<br />

<strong>in</strong>filtration as high as possible.<br />

Stop stones compliment the<br />

concrete plteaus.<br />

Trenches reta<strong>in</strong> water for<br />

agroforestry.<br />

A small watershed collects<br />

the water runn<strong>in</strong>g down rua<br />

Ana Aslan before it enters the<br />

creek.<br />

An open, polyvalent<br />

box provides space for<br />

manufactur<strong>in</strong>g, markets,<br />

garbage collection, sports et<br />

cetera.<br />

A community centre provides<br />

classrooms for the schools,<br />

collective space for assemblies<br />

of both the occupation <strong>and</strong> the<br />

neighbourhood.<br />

Multipurposed platforms: 3 steps towards improv<strong>in</strong>g hous<strong>in</strong>g conditions while safeguard<strong>in</strong>g the occupation’s resilient character.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 195<br />


As the squatters construct their liv<strong>in</strong>g environment, each dwell<strong>in</strong>g excavates itself <strong>in</strong> the gently slop<strong>in</strong>g l<strong>and</strong>scape. As<br />

such a patchwork of micro-reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls <strong>and</strong> hardened horizontal platforms comes about along with the occupation’s<br />

gradual densification. Alter<strong>in</strong>g this topographical patchwork can steer further urbanization processes <strong>and</strong> provide<br />

an underlayer for a more susta<strong>in</strong>able development. The l<strong>and</strong>scape serves as a common ground on which both the<br />

environmental as the urban get conciliated.<br />

Firstly, stabiliz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> consolidat<strong>in</strong>g the reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls <strong>and</strong> horizontal platforms redeem the dwell<strong>in</strong>gs from rot <strong>and</strong><br />

flood<strong>in</strong>g, thus restra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g verm<strong>in</strong> <strong>and</strong> disease. The platforms literally form the footpr<strong>in</strong>t for dwell<strong>in</strong>gs to be constructed<br />

or to be consolidated. Strategically (re)position<strong>in</strong>g the reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls forms the pretext to structure the consolidat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

tissue; relocat<strong>in</strong>g dwell<strong>in</strong>gs from risk areas along the stream, densify<strong>in</strong>g where deemed favourable <strong>and</strong> vacat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to create more open space <strong>and</strong> wider alleys. They both p<strong>in</strong> down the exist<strong>in</strong>g dwell<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> offer the substrate to<br />

implement new hous<strong>in</strong>g, be it self-constructed or a social hous<strong>in</strong>g project. As such, by remov<strong>in</strong>g on the one h<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

densify<strong>in</strong>g on the other, houses <strong>in</strong> unfavourable locations can f<strong>in</strong>d new ground somewhere else with<strong>in</strong> the occupation.<br />

Secondly, alter<strong>in</strong>g topography <strong>and</strong> waterflow can serve as the ma<strong>in</strong> design <strong>in</strong>struments for a conciliation between<br />

the ecological <strong>and</strong> the urban. These alterations are comb<strong>in</strong>ed with reforestation of the ambient hillsides, creat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

new grounds for opportunity of use <strong>and</strong> worthy open space. A maze of the reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls bends the water flows<br />

<strong>and</strong> slows it down on its way to the creek. They offer the composition of pathways <strong>and</strong> squares of dist<strong>in</strong>ct sizes,<br />

serv<strong>in</strong>g from small communities to the entire occupation. The open spaces <strong>in</strong> the occupation are ma<strong>in</strong>ly of soft <strong>in</strong>fill to<br />

allow for water <strong>in</strong>filtration, embedded with step stones to complement the concrete platforms of the hous<strong>in</strong>g units.<br />

Reforested <strong>and</strong> soft surfaces mitigate erosion <strong>and</strong> enhance <strong>in</strong>filtration. The trees are strategically chosen accord<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

soil type, their ability to provide shadow to open squares, <strong>and</strong> other attributes. Mosquito oust<strong>in</strong>g trees are applied to<br />

counteract diseases like malaria, zika <strong>and</strong> dengue.<br />

F<strong>in</strong>ally, the platforms <strong>and</strong> reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls of dist<strong>in</strong>ct sizes could serve multifunctional purposes depend<strong>in</strong>g on the<br />

current needs, but crucial to combat poverty <strong>and</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>alisation. The terraces could be used for commercial activities,<br />

green<strong>in</strong>g or leisure – why not a basketball area or a podium for dance <strong>and</strong> theatre? Along the creek, terraces mitigate<br />

the steepness <strong>and</strong> give place to reedbeds filter<strong>in</strong>g the occupation’s grey water - a provisionary solution until it can be<br />

locked to the formal sewerage system.<br />

In the forests surround<strong>in</strong>g the occupation, macro-platforms <strong>and</strong> -reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls embed social facilities. The urban<br />

facilities with a broader scope than the occupation safeguard the green by provid<strong>in</strong>g a cont<strong>in</strong>uous use to the forest.<br />

Where natural topographical cracks used to be areas of impeded accessibility, the new social facilities become<br />

places of <strong>in</strong>terchange between the settlement <strong>and</strong> the forests <strong>and</strong> with the entire neighbourhood. Aga<strong>in</strong>, similar<br />

to the approach with<strong>in</strong> the settlement, the platforms allow for low-cost light structures to host programs that can<br />

easily adapt to the current need. Programs can <strong>in</strong>clude a community centre, a market connected to the productive<br />

hillside, garbage collection <strong>and</strong> car- manufactur<strong>in</strong>g workshops. All can be partially used by the adjacent school, by the<br />

movement, by neighbour<strong>in</strong>g committees or <strong>in</strong>dividuals. The transformation from vacated terra<strong>in</strong>s to a park structure<br />

host<strong>in</strong>g social facilities contributes easily to the government’s masterplan of green<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> socializ<strong>in</strong>g the Engenho<br />

creek. The design scenario gives an answer to the ma<strong>in</strong> ambitions of this masterplan: dem<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g for public equipment<br />

<strong>and</strong> qualitative open public space, improv<strong>in</strong>g water management <strong>and</strong> address<strong>in</strong>g the poor hous<strong>in</strong>g conditions.<br />

To ensure the project’s feasibility, actors from as well the public, private <strong>and</strong> popular doma<strong>in</strong> will have to be addressed.<br />

Rather than one all-compris<strong>in</strong>g undertak<strong>in</strong>g, a variety of complementary policies, programs <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g will support<br />

a phased urban transformation process.<br />

By apply<strong>in</strong>g likewise strategies over the Engenho valley, the occupation gets <strong>in</strong>scribed with<strong>in</strong> a bigger, longitud<strong>in</strong>al<br />

entity along the valley. By creat<strong>in</strong>g a l<strong>and</strong>scape that gathers different stakeholders <strong>and</strong> that comb<strong>in</strong>es urban renewal<br />

with ecological restoration, the design proposal <strong>in</strong>tegrates the occupation <strong>in</strong> the city <strong>and</strong> gradually prepares it for<br />

regularisation of tenure.

196 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

By apply<strong>in</strong>g likewise strategies over the Engenho valley, the occupation gets <strong>in</strong>scribed with<strong>in</strong> a bigger, longitud<strong>in</strong>al entity along the valley.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 197<br />

The federal law of Compensação<br />

Ambiental or Environmental<br />

Compensation obliges developers<br />

to replant every tree they chop<br />

elsewhere. Usually this happens<br />

<strong>in</strong> unfortunate ways without<br />

concerns for ecological systems<br />

<strong>and</strong> public space. Aract<strong>in</strong>g<br />

developers to plant trees on the<br />

site makes the creation of<br />

well-designed urban green<br />

feasible.<br />

Federal<br />

Government<br />

M<strong>in</strong>ha Casa M<strong>in</strong>ha Vida<br />

The implementation of new<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g that compensates<br />

for the replacement of<br />

vulnerable units can be<br />

either spontaneous<br />

self-construction or social<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g. In the laer case,<br />

the federal social hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

programme M<strong>in</strong>ha Casa<br />

M<strong>in</strong>ha Vida can be<br />

addressed.<br />

Private<br />

developper<br />

Infrastructures as reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g walls <strong>and</strong><br />

sewage systems can be f<strong>in</strong>anced<br />

through private micro-f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>itiatives. This model already existis<br />

for the refurbishments of s<strong>in</strong>gle<br />

units. Developers sell affordable<br />

packages of services, oen paid<br />

spread over time <strong>and</strong> with beer<br />

conditions than <strong>in</strong> regular banks. The<br />

movement can collect the needed<br />

money amongst the occupation’s<br />

<strong>in</strong>habitants.<br />

The Cota de Solidariedade or<br />

Solidarity Quote stimulates<br />

private developers to construct<br />

social hous<strong>in</strong>g on ZEIS-area,<br />

reward<strong>in</strong>g them with more<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g rights <strong>in</strong> other projects.<br />

For this, the project site could be<br />

a potential target for developers.<br />

environmental compensation<br />

micro-credit <strong>in</strong>itiatives<br />

Cota de Solidariedade<br />

Municipality of<br />

São Paulo<br />

Regularization of tenure<br />

IPTU-progressivo<br />

ZEIS-2*<br />

Mutirão<br />

Terra<strong>in</strong> owner<br />

Assesória<br />

Técnica<br />

Social movement<br />

FLM<br />

The social facilities can be<br />

conceived as very light <strong>and</strong><br />

simple structures, as such<br />

they can be built by the<br />

occupants through a system<br />

of collective self-construction,<br />

commonly known as<br />

mutirão. Such mutirões<br />

usually get supported by<br />

technical assistance offices<br />

or assessorias técnicas.<br />


Plano Diretor, further specified <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Plano Regional de Campo Limpo<br />

The regional masterplan of the<br />

subprefecture def<strong>in</strong>es an action<br />

perimeter based on the area’s water<br />

body. As such, the occupied terra<strong>in</strong> is<br />

<strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the zone marked along the<br />

Engenho creek. In this masterplan, the<br />

site <strong>and</strong> the ambient terra<strong>in</strong>s are<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ed as Special Zones of Social<br />

Interest (ZEIS), def<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g their social<br />

function to be pursued as social<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g - be it realized by the<br />

government or the private market.<br />

If a property is not fulfill<strong>in</strong>g its<br />

social function - <strong>in</strong> this case<br />

hous<strong>in</strong>g, s<strong>in</strong>ce the terra<strong>in</strong> is<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ed as ZEIS - the<br />

IPTU-progressivo procedure can<br />

be started. If the owner does<br />

not make sure the terra<strong>in</strong><br />

complies to its social function<br />

with<strong>in</strong> two years, taxes on the<br />

terra<strong>in</strong> will gradually be<br />

<strong>in</strong>creased over the next five<br />

years, f<strong>in</strong>ally lead<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

disappropriation. The terra<strong>in</strong><br />

then becomes public property<br />

<strong>and</strong> the city authorities can do<br />

a project.<br />

Policy or program<br />

Stakeholder<br />

Conciliat<strong>in</strong>g the deadlock: Br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g together stakeholders, policies <strong>and</strong> programs

198 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Matthias Lamberts<br />

Ken Vervaet<br />

Luiza Cirillo<br />

Jeroen Stevens (mentor)<br />


AA24<br />


FOMMAESP - Forum de Moradia e Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo<br />

Rua Ana Aslan, Capão Redondo, Zona Sul<br />

700 familias<br />

44 530 m²<br />

Campo Belo<br />

Olga Bernario, aka ‘Ocupação Engenho’, is located <strong>in</strong> defence, but the military’s tear gas bombs <strong>and</strong> batons<br />

São Paulo’s Southern district of Capão Redondo, along <br />

the Rua Ana Aslan. The vast site of 45.000 square meters <br />

underwent a remarkably turbulent history. The large After the violent st<strong>and</strong>off, 570 families are brought back<br />

terra<strong>in</strong>, sitt<strong>in</strong>g on a hillside along the Engenho creek, is to square one, homeless, <strong>and</strong> as a last resort they squat<br />

dest<strong>in</strong>ed for receiv<strong>in</strong>g a social hous<strong>in</strong>g project already the street <strong>in</strong> front with impromptu plastic cover<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

<strong>in</strong> 1987, approved <strong>and</strong> all by the Federal Economic Bank for the follow<strong>in</strong>g weeks. The complete occupation<br />

<strong>in</strong> Brasilia. The transport company Campo Belo that is meanwhile eradicated, <strong>and</strong> soon turns aga<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> a<br />

owns the terra<strong>in</strong> however reta<strong>in</strong>s from sell<strong>in</strong>g the site, dumpsite.<br />

despite vast debts with the World Bank. The terra<strong>in</strong> In April 2014, FOMMAESP reoccupies the terra<strong>in</strong>,<br />

rema<strong>in</strong>s ab<strong>and</strong>oned, serv<strong>in</strong>g at best as a large dump partly with families that were expelled from the place 5<br />

for outlived automobiles. But on the 26th of August, years before. Two years later, the terra<strong>in</strong> is completely<br />

2007, some 30 families of FOMMAESP (Forum de occupied aga<strong>in</strong>, with more than 700 families <strong>in</strong>habit<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Moradia e Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo), the site. The dense dwell<strong>in</strong>g environment becomes<br />

one of the found<strong>in</strong>g members of the Frente de Luta a breed<strong>in</strong>g ground for small <strong>in</strong>itiatives, <strong>and</strong> local<br />

por Moradia, occupy the terra<strong>in</strong>. A communal barrack bus<strong>in</strong>esses allow more <strong>and</strong> more households to ga<strong>in</strong><br />

is constructed out of wooden beams <strong>and</strong> plastic sheets, a small <strong>in</strong>come, while tenure rema<strong>in</strong>s highly <strong>in</strong>secure.<br />

<strong>and</strong> the large junkyard is cleaned out. In October 2008, Dur<strong>in</strong>g Outobro Vermelho <strong>in</strong> 2016, the occupation<br />

Campo Belo dem<strong>and</strong>s an eviction. At that time, already exp<strong>and</strong>s towards the neighbour<strong>in</strong>g terra<strong>in</strong>, where the<br />

400 households have established themselves a liv<strong>in</strong>g on state’s social hous<strong>in</strong>g company has been promis<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

Olga Bernario. The movement manages to withhold hous<strong>in</strong>g project. Movement members start to clear the<br />

<br />

a wall along the Rua Ana Aslan for shield<strong>in</strong>g off the <strong>in</strong> June 2017, the hous<strong>in</strong>g company evicts the families.<br />

occupation. Still, on the 26th of August, 2009, at 4:30 The major occupation aside rema<strong>in</strong>s untouched, <strong>and</strong><br />

am, the street is barricaded by military shock troops. <strong>in</strong>habitants await cautiously for negotiations to br<strong>in</strong>g<br />

The occupants throw up their own barricades for self-<br />

hope for more permanent hous<strong>in</strong>g options.<br />





SINCE 1987<br />

OCCUPY!<br />





FOR ALL!<br />

570 FAMILIES<br />



TO ROAD<br />


SCRATCH!<br />



EXPAND!<br />

1987 2007 2009 2014 2016<br />

2017<br />




TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 199<br />


The non-residential is <strong>in</strong>separably connected to the develop<strong>in</strong>g dwell<strong>in</strong>g environment. Initiatives,<br />

both by the squatters as through collaboration between the movement <strong>and</strong> cooperatives, sprout<br />

vastly but volatile. On the ‘waste areas’ that host the occupations, an <strong>in</strong>formal, ‘self-made’ urbanity<br />

is formed. Although these activities are mostly <strong>in</strong>trovert, the <strong>in</strong>habitants stay dependent on the rest<br />

of the city, among others for the formal job market, commerce <strong>and</strong> services, thus tighten<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the ties with the city.

200 AA25<br />

Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

REFLECTING <strong>INFORMALITY</strong> ON RE-<br />



Reflect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity on<br />

Renewal Strategy<br />

Us<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g exist<strong>in</strong>g knowledge<br />



EIABC<br />

REFLECTING <strong>INFORMALITY</strong><br />

The issue of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements <strong>in</strong>volves a wide range of subjects <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g social, economic, spatial, legal <strong>and</strong><br />

political aspects. These aspects <strong>in</strong> relation to a given context create phenomena that are very complex. The unique<br />

social context also provides a wide range of possibilities <strong>in</strong> the def<strong>in</strong>ition of urban life, mak<strong>in</strong>g it a real challenge for<br />

architects to take positions. Sett<strong>in</strong>g the boundary of a research project of a complex subject with little locally based<br />

background material is challeng<strong>in</strong>g. It is, however, necessary to def<strong>in</strong>e a boundary <strong>in</strong> order to cope with the limited<br />

time available.<br />

The overall objectives of our project are to assess the opportunities <strong>and</strong> challenges of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements <strong>and</strong> identify<strong>in</strong>g<br />

a new approach to tackle the challenges.<br />

The majority of the <strong>in</strong>ner-city dwellers are tenants. Further <strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>ner-city due to the attractiveness <strong>and</strong> importance<br />

of space there is relatively greater “friction of space”. Based on this contextual rationale the ma<strong>in</strong> question is raised:<br />

How to improve the liv<strong>in</strong>g condition of slum dwellers <strong>in</strong> a way that respect<strong>in</strong>g the tradition <strong>and</strong> identity of slum dwellers’<br />

normal day, work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> social life <strong>and</strong> enhance the essential parts of the exist<strong>in</strong>g slum hous<strong>in</strong>g?<br />

Shouldn’t we be try<strong>in</strong>g to accept slums as permanent (not the quality of their physical states, but their location <strong>and</strong><br />

their strong socio-economic pattern)? Don’t the slums need more fixed solutions that can help them improve their<br />

chances of permanence rather than accommodat<strong>in</strong>g the transitory nature of slum clearance policies?<br />

The purpose of this project is to give a proposal of how an <strong>in</strong>formal settlement can be improved with respect for local<br />

traditions <strong>and</strong> culture that will strengthen the community. But this proposal has to be adaptable <strong>in</strong> order to fit to<br />

the new redevelopment program. This project is a reth<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g of the current approach <strong>and</strong> aims at br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g people’s<br />

attention to the importance of respect<strong>in</strong>g exist<strong>in</strong>g settlement <strong>and</strong> on-go<strong>in</strong>g activities of local residents <strong>and</strong> offers an<br />

alternative approach that improv<strong>in</strong>g liv<strong>in</strong>g condition of urban poor without disrupt<strong>in</strong>g their daily rhythms.<br />

Fac<strong>in</strong>g the grow<strong>in</strong>g problem of slum formation <strong>and</strong> deterioration, many develop<strong>in</strong>g countries choose to take strong<br />

top down strategy which usually <strong>in</strong>volves clearance of <strong>in</strong>formal settlement <strong>and</strong> relocation of slum dwellers.<br />

The objective for our project be<strong>in</strong>g identify<strong>in</strong>g the essential parts of exist<strong>in</strong>g slum hous<strong>in</strong>g that are <strong>in</strong>separable from<br />

life of the urban poor, spott<strong>in</strong>g multi-discipl<strong>in</strong>ary approaches <strong>in</strong> slum improvement process <strong>and</strong> giv<strong>in</strong>g a proposal of<br />

how to improve the slums with respect for local traditions <strong>and</strong> culture.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 201<br />

New Hous<strong>in</strong>g : The newly designed hous<strong>in</strong>g us<strong>in</strong>g the new Iddir system that <strong>in</strong>tegrates extension <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegration dem<strong>and</strong>.

202 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Mola Maru Context : Top- activities on site, Middle- open space on the site that h<strong>and</strong>dles the all activities <strong>and</strong> Bottom- condom<strong>in</strong>ium system

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 203<br />


Ethiopia is now suffer<strong>in</strong>g from press<strong>in</strong>g hous<strong>in</strong>g issues resulted from the urban sprawl <strong>and</strong> rural-urban migration<br />

trend, which offers a great example to study the balance between density <strong>and</strong> quality <strong>in</strong> social dwell<strong>in</strong>g. Currently, it<br />

is estimated that 80% of the population of Addis Ababa is liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> “slums”.<br />

One of the most crucial problems <strong>in</strong> Addis is the unmet dem<strong>and</strong>s for affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g. An up-to-95% humanity<br />

<strong>in</strong>crease led to the rapid urbanization or even over-urbanization, which br<strong>in</strong>g the city to poverty <strong>and</strong> unemployment.<br />

Meanwhile, due to the rare supply of hous<strong>in</strong>g by the government, the hous<strong>in</strong>g shortage directly resulted <strong>in</strong> the selfbuilt<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal settlements – slums.<br />

In Mola Maru area, which is located at Merkato, the total number of houses (along households that live <strong>in</strong> the houses)<br />

discovered is 726. The majority of these households are headed by male (357 or 65 %), which followed by Female<br />

(192 or 35 %). The houses are owned by private (148 or 20.4 %), kebele (507 or 70 %), governmental or municipal (11<br />

or 1.5 %) <strong>and</strong> 60 houses (8.3 %) have unknown hous<strong>in</strong>g ownership status. After analyz<strong>in</strong>g this case area the follow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

ideas were concluded.<br />

Courtyard is an essential space which derives from the local way of liv<strong>in</strong>g. But <strong>in</strong> many cases, the space of the courtyard<br />

is not enough to carry the activities it supposed to.<br />

The streets carry almost all the public activities <strong>and</strong> even some private activities, caus<strong>in</strong>g a great deal of stress to the<br />

space <strong>and</strong> sanitation of street.<br />

Instead of relocation <strong>and</strong> site-clear<strong>in</strong>g, there should be an alternative approach that allows people rema<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> place <strong>and</strong><br />

upgrad<strong>in</strong>g the slum area <strong>in</strong>crementally.<br />

The prom<strong>in</strong>ent current approach adopted by Ethiopian government to deal with the sub-st<strong>and</strong>ard slum hous<strong>in</strong>g is the<br />

Integrated Hous<strong>in</strong>g Development Program (IHDP). With<strong>in</strong> the IHDP, slum areas are cleared <strong>and</strong> residents are relocated<br />

<strong>and</strong> then new multi-story <strong>and</strong> high-rise condom<strong>in</strong>iums are built.<br />

The current governments’ solution has good approach on build<strong>in</strong>g a st<strong>and</strong>ard hous<strong>in</strong>g for less cost when compared<br />

to other similar build<strong>in</strong>g costs. But the system does not consider the affordability of the sav<strong>in</strong>g system. The system<br />

accepts a 10% or 20% or 40% (accord<strong>in</strong>g to their ability) typology cost as advanced first payment <strong>in</strong> order to be a part<br />

of the lottery system for the houses. Most people start the system but then, they withdraw from the system due to<br />

unable to pay the money.<br />

This large-scale top down approach <strong>in</strong>deed has had some success, however, there were also problems created.<br />

Firstly, <strong>in</strong> many cases, relocat<strong>in</strong>g to other area made people detached from their lives, no matter daily life, work<strong>in</strong>g<br />

life or social life.<br />

Secondly, people have to adapt to new high-rise lifestyle. They lost their close connection with ground, so many domestic<br />

<strong>and</strong> productive activities such as <strong>in</strong>come generation means are difficult to cont<strong>in</strong>ue.

204 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The New System : Top- Master Plan for gradual renewal of Mola Maru, Bottom- The new system of Iddir for affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 205<br />


The objective for our project be<strong>in</strong>g identify<strong>in</strong>g the essential parts of exist<strong>in</strong>g slum hous<strong>in</strong>g that are <strong>in</strong>separable from<br />

life of the urban poor, spott<strong>in</strong>g multi-discipl<strong>in</strong>ary approaches <strong>in</strong> slum improvement process <strong>and</strong> giv<strong>in</strong>g a proposal of<br />

how to improve the slums with respect for local traditions <strong>and</strong> culture.<br />

So, the strategy is Focus<strong>in</strong>g on the exist<strong>in</strong>g: us<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g exist<strong>in</strong>g knowledge. For susta<strong>in</strong>able development,<br />

<strong>in</strong>formal <strong>in</strong>stitutions, especially at local level, are important for mobiliz<strong>in</strong>g resources <strong>and</strong> regulat<strong>in</strong>g their use with a<br />

view <strong>in</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g a long-term base for productive activity.<br />

Emphasiz<strong>in</strong>g traditions <strong>and</strong> culture strengthens the identity <strong>and</strong> gives courage to value the qualities <strong>in</strong> the community.<br />

For example, the tradition of cooperatives, women groups <strong>and</strong> entrepreneurship, gives development projects local<br />

management <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ance possibility. So that the already exist<strong>in</strong>g networks <strong>in</strong> Mola Maru of different organizations <strong>and</strong><br />

groups could manage the process of projects <strong>and</strong> programs.<br />

The other idea is to facilitate opportunities for <strong>in</strong>formal activities. <strong>Informal</strong> bus<strong>in</strong>esses are where most people <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

settlements work, <strong>and</strong> where they get their service <strong>and</strong> commodities. The <strong>in</strong>formal economy is adapted to the<br />

liv<strong>in</strong>g patterns <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal settlements.<br />

As deeply analyz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> study<strong>in</strong>g the situation, we fetched one of Ethiopia’s famous <strong>in</strong>formal f<strong>in</strong>ancial <strong>in</strong>stitution “Iddir”<br />

as an answer for those problems, a traditional sav<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> credit <strong>in</strong>stitution with a rotat<strong>in</strong>g fund. System of sav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

where by people form groups <strong>and</strong> pay periodically a fixed amount of money, which will be collected <strong>in</strong> a common pool,<br />

so that, <strong>in</strong> rotation, each member of the group can receive one large sum, the sum of money paid by all <strong>in</strong> one period.<br />

In practice “Iddir” is sort of <strong>in</strong>surance program run by a community or a group to meet emergencies.<br />

This way of bus<strong>in</strong>ess oriented strategy can achieve affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> economic development. Mak<strong>in</strong>g some<br />

adjustments to the system like <strong>in</strong>stead of sav<strong>in</strong>g only money we <strong>in</strong>cluded build<strong>in</strong>g material <strong>and</strong> their skill <strong>in</strong>to the<br />

sav<strong>in</strong>g system, so that they can gradually save little amount of build<strong>in</strong>g material <strong>and</strong> get one large sum enough for<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g a house, also exchange their skill with employment money. This system also works for public build<strong>in</strong>gs like<br />

school <strong>and</strong> cl<strong>in</strong>ics by just add<strong>in</strong>g the members <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>stead of one person as a member; it will be group of peoples as<br />

a one member.<br />

The new system <strong>in</strong>tegrates the current governments’ condom<strong>in</strong>ium system (10/90 %, 20/80% or 40/60%). But <strong>in</strong>stead<br />

of pay<strong>in</strong>g the first advanced payment (10% or 20% or 40% of the total typology cost), which is very unaffordable to<br />

many of the peoples, the new system offers a monthly homemade mudbrick sav<strong>in</strong>g (which covers more than half of<br />

the entire build<strong>in</strong>g cost) along with their monthly Iddir fee under the management of community Iddir with the local<br />

authorities. The local authority (wereda) adds the rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>g cost <strong>and</strong> constructs the houses on the exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

site phase by phase. After be<strong>in</strong>g a home owner the <strong>in</strong>habitants starts to pay the rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g cost to the local authority<br />

from the upper floor rent <strong>in</strong>come.

206 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Community service center : Top- Arial view of proposed master plan, Bottom- View of the courtyard from the community service center

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 207<br />


The master plan is designed by preserv<strong>in</strong>g the most important spaces of the exist<strong>in</strong>g fabric such as the streets, paths,<br />

courtyards, open spaces, junction plazas <strong>and</strong> social services. These spaces are where the strong social ties <strong>and</strong> activities<br />

are happened <strong>and</strong> the new master plan acknowledges this. The design <strong>in</strong>cludes a middle-rise <strong>and</strong> high-rise hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

with the low rise hous<strong>in</strong>g units. The community service center, that has “Iddir” service program <strong>in</strong> it, is located at<br />

the heart of the site along with central pedestrian Commercial Street.<br />

The design proposes a central pedestrian street (by upgrad<strong>in</strong>g the exist<strong>in</strong>g road) that creates an opportunity for commercial<br />

<strong>and</strong> production activities like street vend<strong>in</strong>g, shoe sh<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> production of artifacts. The proposed hous<strong>in</strong>gs<br />

that will be implemented through the new “Iddir” hous<strong>in</strong>g system will be constructed along on the edge of this proposed<br />

pedestrian street. On the periphery of the site, which is adjacent to the ma<strong>in</strong> streets are high-rise build<strong>in</strong>gs for<br />

private commercial development. The master plan is go<strong>in</strong>g to be implemented phase by phase.<br />

The first phase will be: Upgrad<strong>in</strong>g the central pedestrian streets <strong>and</strong> strengthens the social services by <strong>in</strong>tegrat<strong>in</strong>g with<br />

local authorities (wereda) <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>itiates the new “Iddir” hous<strong>in</strong>g system. The next phase is to: construct the temporary<br />

houses at the tribune field to settle the first displaced on the site. On the new space, the houses are constructed <strong>and</strong><br />

resettle with additional occupants from nearby areas. After this, the third phase: on the spaces ga<strong>in</strong>ed, construction<br />

of houses cont<strong>in</strong>ues until all the houses are done for the members <strong>and</strong> others. The f<strong>in</strong>al phase: f<strong>in</strong>ally the private<br />

development build<strong>in</strong>gs will be constructed.<br />

The hous<strong>in</strong>g block is specially designed for Mola-Maru residents <strong>in</strong> which it can h<strong>and</strong>le <strong>and</strong> adapt their unique <strong>in</strong>tegrated<br />

(production + liv<strong>in</strong>g) k<strong>in</strong>d of liv<strong>in</strong>g condition. By creat<strong>in</strong>g a flexible <strong>and</strong> most stable modular unit that can<br />

achieve the high dem<strong>and</strong> for extension <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegration k<strong>in</strong>d of spatial arrangement, their way of liv<strong>in</strong>g can be improved.<br />

This <strong>in</strong>tegrated hous<strong>in</strong>g block can be constructed by the community itself with local construction skill <strong>and</strong><br />

materials. The ground floor is framed with precast concrete column <strong>and</strong> beam, which is supplied by local authority<br />

(wereda) which is go<strong>in</strong>g to be manufactured by the community’s women <strong>and</strong> youths manufactur<strong>in</strong>g company. The<br />

upper floor for extension is constructed with simple A-frame eucalyptus or bamboo trusses <strong>and</strong> the owner can f<strong>in</strong>ish<br />

it by his choice of available <strong>and</strong> appropriate material. This precast system of the design makes the house construction<br />

time <strong>and</strong> money consum<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The new hous<strong>in</strong>g design considers all the <strong>in</strong>come generation means by provid<strong>in</strong>g a flexible <strong>and</strong> exp<strong>and</strong>able structural<br />

system that allows additional space for street vend<strong>in</strong>g. It is a flexible plan that allows for dwell<strong>in</strong>g production <strong>and</strong><br />

bus<strong>in</strong>ess with a commercial w<strong>in</strong>dow <strong>and</strong> a storage at the roof structure.<br />

This “Iddir system is not only limited for affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g system. It has a strong potential for connect<strong>in</strong>g communities<br />

which has a major significant role on social <strong>in</strong>clusion. S<strong>in</strong>ce “Iddir” is practiced by all k<strong>in</strong>d of people <strong>and</strong> communities<br />

<strong>in</strong> Addis Ababa (regardless of <strong>in</strong>come, gender, religion…), it will create a good opportunity for connect<strong>in</strong>g people<br />

<strong>and</strong> communities under one system with a mutual benefit. For example, this “Iddir” system could be used for connect<strong>in</strong>g<br />

low <strong>in</strong>come <strong>in</strong>formal communities with their high <strong>in</strong>come formal neighbor communities by simply exchang<strong>in</strong>g social<br />

services from low <strong>in</strong>come communities with service payment from high <strong>in</strong>come communities through this system.

AA29<br />


Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Empower<strong>in</strong>g the community to self-build affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural urban l<strong>and</strong>scapes <strong>in</strong> the shanty town of ‘Villa 31’<br />

A framework for<br />

empowerment<br />

Empower<strong>in</strong>g the community to self-build<br />

affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> cultural urban<br />

l<strong>and</strong>scapes <strong>in</strong> the shanty town of ‘Villa 31’<br />





The Site Context<br />

La Villa 31 is a shanty town located <strong>in</strong> the City of Buenos Aires, more precisely <strong>in</strong> the neighborhood of Retiro. The<br />

settlement emerged <strong>in</strong> 1932 with the name “Villa Idleness” <strong>and</strong> generally grew to a significant size of 40,000 <strong>in</strong>habitants.<br />

Today, Villa 31 is a bustl<strong>in</strong>g immigrant settlement with an undocumented immigrant population of 51%, hail<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from the neighbor<strong>in</strong>g countries of Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay <strong>and</strong> Peru. While it is not the largest <strong>in</strong>formal settlement<br />

of Buenos Aires, it is emblematic because of its strategic location <strong>in</strong> the heart of the city. The Villa 31 is the only type<br />

of settlement affordable <strong>and</strong> accessible to the poor <strong>in</strong> the urban core of Buenos Aires, where competition for l<strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> profits is <strong>in</strong>tense. The settlement consist of small houses or shacks made of t<strong>in</strong>, wood <strong>and</strong> other scrap material<br />

<strong>and</strong> they lack basic service <strong>in</strong>frastructure. The immigrant settlement has resisted several ‘eradication drives’ for over<br />

seven decades <strong>and</strong> the public adm<strong>in</strong>istrations have negotiated to augment <strong>and</strong> urbanize the settlement from 2009.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>itiative is called “Tre<strong>in</strong>ta y Todos” <strong>and</strong> makes reference to the adm<strong>in</strong>istration’s <strong>in</strong>tention to provide the villa’s<br />

residents with access to the same public services as the rest of the city’s population. On the other h<strong>and</strong>, the Villas of<br />

Buenos Aires are particularly known for their considerable population of the “Cartoneros” (urban scavengers), who<br />

comb through city’s 4500 tons of garbage every night. The Cartoneros liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> the villas recycle plastic, glass, wood,<br />

cardboard, metal, debris etc. <strong>and</strong> help <strong>in</strong> reduc<strong>in</strong>g the city’s energy expenditure on waste management considerably.<br />

The Project Statement<br />

The project, “A Framework for Empowerment” not only works <strong>in</strong> parallel with public adm<strong>in</strong>istration’s urbanization<br />

vision but also strives to augment the vision to create self-susta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g communities. Further, the design project critically<br />

<strong>in</strong>vestigates the ‘Top Down’ urban design schemes generated through the urbanization plan <strong>and</strong> tangentially proposes<br />

an ‘Urban Repair’ framework that is poised between the city driven ‘Top-Down’ <strong>and</strong> community driven ‘Bottom-Up’<br />

design approaches. Consequently, the framework empowers the <strong>in</strong>habitants to self-build their hous<strong>in</strong>g; their cultural<br />

urban l<strong>and</strong>scapes; their workspaces <strong>and</strong> markets.<br />

The proposed design framework also aims at capitaliz<strong>in</strong>g the ‘Urban scaveng<strong>in</strong>g’ <strong>and</strong> recycl<strong>in</strong>g practice of the ‘Cartoneros’<br />

as an impetus to drive the revitalization of the settlement. This would <strong>in</strong>clude the production of build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

materials from wastes for construction of hous<strong>in</strong>g, urban l<strong>and</strong>scapes <strong>and</strong> community <strong>in</strong>frastructures. The proposal<br />

will formalize <strong>and</strong> upscale the waste recycl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustry as an economic generator to aid <strong>in</strong> the social development of<br />

the people <strong>in</strong> the settlement.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 209<br />

Top: Illustration of a typical Manzana (Urban Block) <strong>in</strong> Villa 31; Bottom: Site Location <strong>and</strong> Physicality

210 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

The proposed Framework has 3 major design goals - Rehabilitate, Re<strong>in</strong>force & Reconnect. The framework also upscales the practice of recycl<strong>in</strong>g by the Cartoneros’s as an impetus to drive the goals<br />

Top: Flow chart of the proposed Framework; Bottom: The proposed Cartonero Pattern book of recycled products <strong>and</strong> solutions

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 211<br />


Critical Evaluation of the ‘Top-Down’ urbanization plan “Barrio 31” Draft<br />

The ‘Barrio 31’ draft is a conscious urban design proposal that responds to the imperative dem<strong>and</strong>s for revitalization of<br />

Villa 31. The urbanization <strong>in</strong>itiative ‘Tre<strong>in</strong>ta y Todos 2009’ to be carried out by the ‘Secretaría de Integración Social y Urbana’<br />

has imbibed most part of the ‘Barrio 31’ draft. Although, the draft has been formulated with scrupulous attention<br />

to issues at micro <strong>and</strong> macro levels, the draft is still a top down notion of how people should live. It is also legitimate that<br />

the ‘Barrio 31’ draft has overlooked the latest <strong>in</strong>itiation by the government to re-route the Illia highway.<br />

The Improvised/Proposed Framework - ‘Top-Down’+’Bottom-Up’<br />

Tak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to consideration, the shortcom<strong>in</strong>gs of the “Barrio 31” draft <strong>and</strong> all the prelim<strong>in</strong>ary research data, the urban<br />

design project undertaken proposes the framework, “A Framework for Empowerment”. The proposed urban design<br />

framework will not only work <strong>in</strong> parallel with the urbanization <strong>in</strong>itiative’s vision but also strives to augment the vision to<br />

create self-susta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g communities. The framework’s primary objective is to engender a collaborative platform which is<br />

a partnership between the city driven ‘Top-Down’ <strong>and</strong> the community driven ‘Bottom-Up’ approaches, <strong>in</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g up<br />

Villa 31 <strong>and</strong> thus empower<strong>in</strong>g the community. Empower<strong>in</strong>g the community gets them more <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>and</strong> motivated<br />

towards the build<strong>in</strong>g-up process by implant<strong>in</strong>g a sense of owness.<br />

Upscal<strong>in</strong>g of the Recycl<strong>in</strong>g Practice of Cartoneros<br />

The <strong>in</strong>formal practice of urban scaveng<strong>in</strong>g by Cartoneros save up-to 25% of city’s energy expenditure on waste management.<br />

The demographic data identifies 11% of the people <strong>in</strong> Villa 31 as Cartoneros along with 43% un employed <strong>in</strong><br />

Villa 31. There lies a compell<strong>in</strong>g opportunity to upscale the urban scaveng<strong>in</strong>g practice of Cartoneros <strong>in</strong> Villa 31 <strong>in</strong>to a<br />

formal recycl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustry that would directly benefit the <strong>in</strong>habitants of the settlement.<br />

The Cartonero Pattern Book<br />

The proposed recycl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustry will aid <strong>in</strong> community development <strong>and</strong> serve as an ‘economic eng<strong>in</strong>e’ by creat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

job opportunities. The framework through the <strong>in</strong>dustry will develop the ‘Cartonero Pattern Book’. The patterns <strong>in</strong> the<br />

book are a set of recycled products, recycled build<strong>in</strong>g materials, design solutions <strong>and</strong> construction techniques. The<br />

patterns will not only assist the <strong>in</strong>habitants <strong>in</strong> self-build<strong>in</strong>g of their settlement but also will ga<strong>in</strong> a dem<strong>and</strong> outside the<br />

villa by the sett<strong>in</strong>g up of markets. The patterns generated out of the wastes are climate responsive, energy efficient,<br />

fire/water resistant, user-friendly <strong>and</strong> easy to <strong>in</strong>stall. The pattern generation is an <strong>in</strong>f<strong>in</strong>ite process <strong>and</strong> the framework<br />

anticipates that more user-def<strong>in</strong>ed patterns would evolve over the years.

212 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Top: The proposed Row-house typology after habitation; Bottom: A scenario of a cultural space <strong>in</strong> the middle of the proposed blocks

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 213<br />


A. Rehabilitate: (self-build<strong>in</strong>g of affordable hous<strong>in</strong>g)<br />

The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal objective of this section is to provide the <strong>in</strong>habitants of the villa with access to st<strong>and</strong>ard hous<strong>in</strong>g; basic<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructures like water, sanitation, electricity, health <strong>and</strong> the fundamentals for community liv<strong>in</strong>g. A participatory<br />

framework is engendered to build the hous<strong>in</strong>g that is transient, modular, <strong>in</strong>cremental <strong>and</strong> flexible.<br />

1. Removal of sub-st<strong>and</strong>ard hous<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> rehabilitat<strong>in</strong>g those <strong>in</strong>habitants <strong>in</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ard low-cost hous<strong>in</strong>g proposed <strong>in</strong> the<br />

adjacent site.<br />

2. Design solutions that aid the <strong>in</strong>habitants to augment the quality of exist<strong>in</strong>g hous<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

3. Develop an Incremental hous<strong>in</strong>g strategy through self-build techniques.<br />

4. Harvest construction techniques from recycled materials that are economically viable <strong>and</strong> user friendly.<br />

5. Enhance the micro-climate by design<strong>in</strong>g environmental friendly solutions us<strong>in</strong>g waste.<br />

‘Top-Down’ + ‘Bottom-Up’ House Build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

A design paradigm which is a partnership between the city driven ‘Top-Down’ <strong>and</strong> the community driven ‘Bottom-Up’<br />

approaches is proposed for the development <strong>in</strong> Villa 31. Follow<strong>in</strong>g the negotiations, the Hous<strong>in</strong>g Authority builds the<br />

Structural (RCC) framework, service shafts, common staircases <strong>and</strong> delivers it to the families that have qualified for<br />

the allocation. The families on habitation would complete the rema<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g house by build<strong>in</strong>g the walls, doors, w<strong>in</strong>dows,<br />

shad<strong>in</strong>gs devices, cab<strong>in</strong>ets, wall partitions, balconies <strong>and</strong> furnitures. This process of co-operative build<strong>in</strong>g established<br />

by the partnership between the Authority <strong>and</strong> the User enables for flexibility <strong>in</strong> design <strong>and</strong> usage. This process allows<br />

the owners to control their own social, family <strong>and</strong> cultural needs mak<strong>in</strong>g them more <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>and</strong> motivated towards<br />

the project. As expla<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> the design framework, the recycled build<strong>in</strong>g materials <strong>and</strong> products from the proposed<br />

recycl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustry would be made available to the users at subsidized costs. To add to that, the design <strong>and</strong> construction<br />

techniques from the ‘Cartonero Pattern Book’ would aid the users for easy <strong>and</strong> climate-responsive construction.<br />

B. Re<strong>in</strong>force: (self-build<strong>in</strong>g of cultural urban l<strong>and</strong>scapes)<br />

The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal objective of this section is to rejuvenate the public realm of the settlement <strong>and</strong> thus engender robust<br />

spaces for community <strong>in</strong>teraction, congregation, celebration <strong>and</strong> leisure.<br />

1. Enhance the social <strong>and</strong> community life.<br />

2. Design<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> re-imag<strong>in</strong>g the public <strong>in</strong>frastructures.<br />

3. Refurbish<strong>in</strong>g the community spaces for <strong>in</strong>tegration, awareness, education <strong>and</strong> celebrations.<br />

4. Explor<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>terventions of tactical urbanism to deal with transiency of spaces.<br />

Villa 31 is multi-ethnic <strong>in</strong> nature <strong>and</strong> most communities with<strong>in</strong> the villa do not <strong>in</strong>term<strong>in</strong>gle with the other communities<br />

or nationalities. These closed communities embrace their own cultural, social <strong>and</strong> religious congregations. The urban<br />

design framework <strong>in</strong>troduces semipublic spaces (open spaces <strong>in</strong> the center of the proposed blocks) that are conducive<br />

for cultural <strong>and</strong> social activities; spaces that are physically <strong>and</strong> visually safe for the children <strong>and</strong> senior citizens of the<br />

blocks. The design <strong>and</strong> the types of activity to go <strong>in</strong>to the space is collectively decided by the residents of the block<br />

through community unions. Thus, the framework empowers the community to design their own space <strong>and</strong> the design<br />

solutions, techniques <strong>and</strong> recycled build<strong>in</strong>g materials are made available to the users through the proposed ‘Cartonero<br />

Pattern Book’. The program of the semipublic space could be temporary <strong>and</strong> the space can be transformed aga<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

a few years or months, depend<strong>in</strong>g on the aspirations <strong>and</strong> the needs of the residents.

214 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Top: User-def<strong>in</strong>ed scenario of cultural space; Middle: Recycl<strong>in</strong>g the freeway structure for community amenities; Bottom: Pop-up scrap markets

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 215<br />


C. Reconnect: (self-build<strong>in</strong>g of markets)<br />

The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal objective of this section is to <strong>in</strong>tegrate Villa 31 back to the formal city of Buenos Aires. The exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

physical disconnect is caused by the <strong>in</strong>frastructural barriers that <strong>in</strong>clude railway l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>and</strong> the Illia highway. There also<br />

exists a social disconnect <strong>in</strong>duced by vast economic disparity. The framework not only strives to establish physical<br />

connections but also aims to nurture social <strong>and</strong> economic connections with the formal city.<br />

1. Removal of <strong>in</strong>frastructural barriers.<br />

2. Spatial connections through the proposed transformation of the freeway bridge <strong>in</strong>to a a l<strong>in</strong>ear pedestrian park.<br />

3. Social connection to the formal economy of the city through the proposed recycl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustry.<br />

4. Economic connections through proposed self-build ‘pop-up’ markets for recycled products.<br />

4.0 Conclusion<br />

The proposed approach not only bolsters the ‘Top-Down’ framework’s foot hold over the slum’s revitalization, but also<br />

empowers its <strong>in</strong>habitants by <strong>in</strong>duc<strong>in</strong>g user participation. The rehabilitated <strong>in</strong>habitants would add their cultural layer<br />

to the proposed built environment. The street scape will cont<strong>in</strong>ue to be a reflection of the community itself, its aspirations<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural exuberance. Empower<strong>in</strong>g the community gets them more <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>and</strong> motivated towards the<br />

build<strong>in</strong>g-up process by implant<strong>in</strong>g a sense of owness. Thus, the framework illustrates how <strong>in</strong>volv<strong>in</strong>g the community<br />

<strong>in</strong> the revitalization process can pave way for a holistic, <strong>in</strong>digenous development. The proposed recycl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dustry <strong>in</strong><br />

the villa would amplify the urban scaveng<strong>in</strong>g practice of the Cartoneros. Villa 31 will become an ‘Urban S<strong>in</strong>k’, where the<br />

trash generated by the formal city would be converted <strong>in</strong>to treasure. The large scale recycl<strong>in</strong>g of Villa 31 would drastically<br />

help the city cut down its expenditure on waste management. Hence, there is more so a press<strong>in</strong>g need for them<br />

to exist <strong>in</strong> the urban core of the city .<br />

Hawk<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> other economic opportunities along the proposed tourism sp<strong>in</strong>e through the settlement

216 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

AA36<br />

FORM(U/A)LIZING THE <strong>INFORMALITY</strong><br />

Straggle to Stack<br />

Form (U/A)liz<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

<strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

Straggle to Stack<br />






<strong>Informal</strong> settlements are an adaptive response to the constra<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>and</strong> opportunities <strong>in</strong> the city with m<strong>in</strong>imal<br />

resources be<strong>in</strong>g deployed <strong>in</strong>crementally by their residents. Often such settlements are native villages turn<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to<br />

urban villages or settlements are located <strong>in</strong> unoccupied <strong>in</strong>terstices <strong>and</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>al l<strong>and</strong>s of the city seek<strong>in</strong>g a proximity to<br />

the place of employment <strong>and</strong> urban <strong>in</strong>frastructure to support their livelihoods. In the absence of collective <strong>in</strong>stitutions<br />

to manage their growth, the constra<strong>in</strong>ts of available l<strong>and</strong>, the uncerta<strong>in</strong>ty of ownership, comb<strong>in</strong>ed with poor access<br />

to the city utilities <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructure their liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions. Hence, community-level organisations, ownership <strong>and</strong><br />

affordability are ma<strong>in</strong> factors that govern their prospects for improvement of liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions of <strong>in</strong>formal settlements.<br />

In the Indian context, development of villages <strong>in</strong> Navi Mumbai started with a transformation <strong>in</strong> the l<strong>and</strong>use<br />

of villages from agriculture which was the primary source of livelihood for natives to several other urban l<strong>and</strong><br />

uses. The agricultural l<strong>and</strong> was either sold or acquired by the government for urban expansion. Extensive <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

developments mushroomed <strong>in</strong> the peripheral areas of villages due to hous<strong>in</strong>g needs of the native <strong>and</strong> migrant<br />

population. The <strong>in</strong>formal growth of villages evolved spatially to provide more dwell<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> vary functionally to make<br />

available space for chang<strong>in</strong>g dem<strong>and</strong>. This reflects the multiple needs <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong>s of folks that live <strong>and</strong> work there,<br />

<strong>and</strong> this created the formal urban context around villages. As a result, villages evolved predom<strong>in</strong>antly due to their<br />

disparate urban contexts, <strong>and</strong> this formed a heterogeneous expansion. The shift of urban fabric by the formal <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>formal peripheral growth also changed agricultural production to room rent<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> other socio-economic activities.<br />

The Bottom l<strong>in</strong>e, these villages not only get severed from their basic source of sustenance but also get surrounded with<br />

<strong>and</strong> engulfed by complex urban forces <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>fluences which resulted <strong>in</strong>to <strong>in</strong>formality <strong>and</strong> them <strong>in</strong>to urban villages.<br />

“Home” is just not simply a dwell<strong>in</strong>g unit. The idea of home is much larger than four walls, a roof,<br />

a bath, a kitchen, a television which public hous<strong>in</strong>g tries to address. It is an <strong>in</strong>stitution full of aspirations<br />

provid<strong>in</strong>g an opportunity to work, liberty to shape surround<strong>in</strong>g, possibility to <strong>in</strong>crement <strong>and</strong> improvement.<br />

The hous<strong>in</strong>g policies that are implemented by the government simply cluster settlements from horizontal<br />

confusion <strong>in</strong>to l<strong>in</strong>ear symmetry by remov<strong>in</strong>g dynamic nature of the space <strong>in</strong>to stacked cramped units.<br />

The study shows one approach of plann<strong>in</strong>g for already exist<strong>in</strong>g high density low <strong>in</strong>come settlements with<br />

range of options quite different from exist<strong>in</strong>g models of redevelopment schemes by state authority on one side <strong>and</strong> on<br />

other side the conservative surgery method to carry out bottom to up development by <strong>in</strong>troduc<strong>in</strong>g small <strong>in</strong>terventions<br />

of provid<strong>in</strong>g basic amenities with range of approaches of up-gradation, stage-wise improvement <strong>and</strong> readjustments.<br />

The approach is <strong>in</strong>spired by pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of development of Patrick Geddes (Scottish biologist, sociologist,<br />

geographer, philanthropist <strong>and</strong> pioneer<strong>in</strong>g town planner) works as well as urban patterns def<strong>in</strong>ed by of Christopher<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>er. Geddes worked <strong>in</strong> India <strong>in</strong> a period when urban improvement trusts were staffed by military eng<strong>in</strong>eers,<br />

who were obsessed with slum clearances, sanitation, <strong>and</strong> racial segregation. Battl<strong>in</strong>g the eng<strong>in</strong>eers <strong>and</strong> their<br />

ideas, he developed the concept of “conservative surgery,” the approach that beg<strong>in</strong>s with the underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of<br />

th<strong>in</strong>gs as they exist on the ground, recognis<strong>in</strong>g the potentials, the work<strong>in</strong>g order <strong>and</strong> life <strong>in</strong> the exist<strong>in</strong>g spaces.

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 217<br />

The great streets support the content around them. In the settlement like urban villages, streets are where people congregate, celebrate & <strong>in</strong>teract.

218 Confront<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Informal</strong>ity<br />

L<strong>and</strong> acquisition for New City<br />

Site Section <strong>and</strong> context<br />

Free Layout typlogy process

TU Delft, 7 Jun 2018 219<br />


Context :<br />

Urban villages are the historic settlements <strong>and</strong> liv<strong>in</strong>g heritage with<strong>in</strong> the city, have been seen as a blob <strong>in</strong> the process<br />

of development plans on other h<strong>and</strong>s they are they are the large chunk of <strong>in</strong>digenous communities with<strong>in</strong> the city.<br />

This study majorly focuses on the situation of the urban villages of Navi Mumbai. Urban villages have evolved <strong>and</strong><br />

transformed over the period of time <strong>and</strong> still has <strong>in</strong>tact culture <strong>and</strong> tradition <strong>in</strong> the race of urbanization. The hous<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> these urban villages of Navi Mumbai is attract<strong>in</strong>g majority classes of people to f<strong>in</strong>d an accommodation <strong>in</strong> the<br />

city. They are hubs newly migrated, work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> labour class. Urban villages play the very important role <strong>in</strong> the<br />

function<strong>in</strong>g of the city by provid<strong>in</strong>g the accommodation to the people of Navi Mumbai. The density of urban villages is<br />

much higher than <strong>in</strong> other colonies <strong>and</strong> gradually <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g. The study is strides the attempt to reclaim <strong>and</strong> plan the<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>equality <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formality <strong>in</strong> cities <strong>and</strong> claim centrality of people’s participation <strong>in</strong> the mak<strong>in</strong>g of such plans. To<br />

demonstrate the possible options the study focuses on only one urban village which is located <strong>in</strong> near Kopar Khairane<br />

node called Bonkode <strong>and</strong> geographical co ord<strong>in</strong>ates are 19° 5’49.52”N 73° 0’42.31”E.<br />

Process :<br />

The “Free Layout” Typology:To achieve higher settlement densities for a low rise fabric, it is ensured by keep<strong>in</strong>g build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

plots free of enclosures, one of the methods to carry out. Private developments often result <strong>in</strong> gated communities that<br />

require areas for circulation, park<strong>in</strong>g, amenities <strong>and</strong> other service areas for <strong>in</strong>dividual apartments or structures, <strong>and</strong><br />

these turn out to be negative spaces <strong>and</strong> quite wasteful when replicated for